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September 2004

Structural

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation

Design Guide

In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has

been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major

industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these

technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and

engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While

this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users,

individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take

precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and

particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering

situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The

use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of

preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the

same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All

Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and

regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines

should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or

regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or

acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time by the responsible Function Team and

will be reviewed every 5 years. This Practice will be revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn.

Information on whether this Practice has been revised may be found at www.pip.org.

University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,

Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice

for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any

kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written

authorization of PIP.

PIP will not consider requests for interpretations (inquiries) for this Practice.

September 2004

Structural

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation

Design Guide

Table of Contents

1. Introduction .................................. 2

1.1 Purpose ............................................. 2

1.2 Scope................................................. 2

Octagon Bases ................................ 22

Example - Vertical Vessel Foundation

Design.............................................. 23

2. References ................................... 2

2.1 Process Industry Practices ................ 2

2.2 Industry Guides and Standards ......... 2

3. Definitions .................................... 2

4. Design Procedure ........................ 3

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

Design Considerations....................... 3

Vertical Loads .................................... 3

Horizontal Loads ................................ 4

Load Combinations............................ 4

Pedestal............................................. 5

Anchor Bolts ...................................... 6

Footing Design................................... 8

Example..................................... 13

Figure A - Potential Concrete Failure Areas

(AN) for Various Configurations........ 14

Figure B - Foundation Pressures for

Octagon Bases ................................ 16

Table 1 - Octagon Properties................... 17

Page 1 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

1.

September 2004

Introduction

1.1

Purpose

This Practice provides guidelines and recommended procedures for engineers

analyzing and designing vertical vessel foundations.

1.2

Scope

This Practice addresses isolated foundations supported directly on soil. Pilesupported footings are not included in this Practice.

2.

References

Applicable requirements of the latest edition of the following guides, standards, and

regulations in effect on the date of contract award should be considered an integral part of

this Practice, except as otherwise noted. Short titles are used herein where appropriate.

2.1

PIP STC01015 - Structural Design Criteria

PIP STE05121 - Anchor Bolt Design Guide

PIP STE03360 - Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design

Guide

PIP STF05121 - Fabrication and Installation of Anchor Bolts

2.2

American Concrete Institute (ACI)

ACI 318/318R-02 - Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and

Commentary

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)

SEI/ASCE 7-02 - Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

ASTM F1554 - Standard Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and

105-ksi Yield Strength

3.

Definitions

For the purposes of this Practice, the following definitions apply:

engineer: The engineer responsible for the structural engineering design

stability ratio: The ratio of the resisting moment to overturning moment about the edge of

rotation.

owner: The owner of the facility or the owners authorized agent

Page 2 of 32

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

4.

Design Procedure

4.1

4.2

Design Considerations

4.1.1

The engineer should review and verify project design as based on applicable

codes, corrosion allowances for anchor bolts, anchor bolt types, and any

special requirements dictated by the owner.

4.1.2

For very tall or heavy vessels, sufficient capacity cranes may not be

available for erection. The engineer should determine whether additional

loading may be imposed on the foundation during erection.

Vertical Loads

4.2.1

Dead Loads

4.2.1.1 The following nominal loads should be considered as dead loads

when applying load factors used in strength design.

a. Structure dead load (Ds) - Weight of the foundation and weight

of the soil above the foundation that are resisting uplift.

Pedestal dead load (Dp) is a part of Ds representing the weight

of the pedestal used in the calculation of tension in pedestal

dowels.

b. Erection dead load (Df) - Fabricated weight of the vessel

generally taken from the certified vessel drawing

c. Empty dead load (De) - Empty weight of the vessel, including

all attachments, trays, internals, insulation, fireproofing,

agitators, piping, ladders, platforms, etc.

d. Operating dead load (Do) - Empty dead load of the vessel plus

the maximum weight of contents (including packing/catalyst)

during normal operation

e. Test dead load (Dt) - Empty dead load of the vessel plus the

weight of test medium contained in the system. The test

medium should be as specified in the contract documents or as

specified by the owner. Unless otherwise specified, a minimum

specific gravity of 1.0 should be used for the test medium.

Cleaning load should be used for test dead load if cleaning fluid

is heavier than test medium. Whether to test or clean in the

field should be determined. Designing for test dead load is

generally desirable because unforeseen circumstances may

occur.

4.2.1.2 Eccentric vessel loads caused by large pipes or reboilers should be

considered for the applicable load cases.

Page 3 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

4.2.2

September 2004

4.2.2.1 Live loads should be calculated in accordance with PIP STC01015.

4.2.2.2 Load combinations that include live load as listed in Tables 3 and 4

of PIP STC01015 will typically not control any part of the

foundation design.

4.3

Horizontal Loads

4.3.1

4.3.1.1 Wind loads should be calculated in accordance with PIP STC01015.

4.3.1.2 The engineer is responsible for determining wind loads used for the

foundation design.

Comment: Loads from vendor or other engineering disciplines

without verification should not be accepted.

4.3.1.3 When calculating or checking wind loads, due consideration should

be given to factors that may significantly affect total wind loads,

such as the application of dynamic gust factors or the presence of

spoilers, platforms, ladders, piping, etc., on the vessel.

4.3.2

4.3.2.1 Earthquake loads should be calculated in accordance with

PIP STC01015.

4.3.2.2 The engineer is responsible for determining earthquake loads used

for the foundation design.

Comment: Loads from vendor or other engineering disciplines

should not be accepted without verification.

4.3.2.3 For skirt-supported vertical vessels classified as SUG III in

accordance with SEI/ASCE 7-02, Section 9, the critical earthquake

provisions and implied load combination of SEI/ASCE 7-02,

Section 9.14.7.3.10.5, should be followed.

4.3.3

Other Loading

4.3.3.1 Thrust forces caused by thermal expansion of piping should be

included in the calculations for operating load combinations, if

deemed advisable. The pipe stress engineer should be consulted for

any thermal loads that are to be considered.

4.3.3.2 Consideration should be given to process upset conditions that could

occur and could increase loading on the foundation.

4.4

Load Combinations

The vertical vessel foundation should be designed using load combinations in

accordance with PIP STC01015.

Page 4 of 32

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

4.5

Pedestal

4.5.1

available forms for the project. When form information is not available,

octagon pedestal dimensions should be sized with pedestal faces in 2-inch

increments to allow use of standard manufactured forms. The following

criteria should be used to determine the size and shape for the pedestal.

4.5.1.1 Face-to-face pedestal size should be no less than the largest of the

following:

BC + 9 inches

(Equation 1a)

(Equation 1b)

(Equation 1c)

BC + SD + 9 inches - (BD)

(Equation 1d)

(Equation 1e)

where:

BC = bolt circle, inches

BD = bolt diameter, inches

SD = sleeve diameter, inches

4.5.1.2 Pedestals 6 ft and larger should be octagonal. Dimensions for

octagon pedestals are provided in Table 1. Octagons highlighted in

gray in Table 1 have faces in 2-inch increments.

4.5.1.3 Pedestals smaller than 6 ft should be square, or round if forms are

available.

4.5.2

contain the anchor bolts and to keep them out of the footing. Consideration

should be given to anchor bolt development and foundation depth

requirements. Pedestal size may need to be increased to provide adequate AN

for anchor bolts when additional reinforcement for anchor bolts is not used.

4.5.3

sufficient dowels around the pedestal perimeter to prevent separation of the

pedestal and footing. Development of reinforcing steel should be checked.

4.5.4

existing at the pedestal perimeter attributable to overturning moments.

Conservatively, the following formulas may be used. More exact tension

loads may be obtained by using ACI 318 strength design methodology.

Tension, Fu = 4(Muped)/[(Nd)(DC)] 0.9[(De or Do)+Dp]/Nd

(Equation 2)

(De or Do) = nominal empty or operating vessel weight. Use empty

weight for wind loads. Use empty or operating for

Page 5 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

calculate Muped.

As required = tension/design stress = Fu/(fy)

(Equation 3)

where:

Fu

calculated by using load factors in load combinations for uplift

cases in Table 4 (Loading Combinations and Load Factors Strength Design) of PIP STC01015

Nd

DC

Do+Dp = nominal operating weight of vessel and pedestal weight

4.5.5

fy

Octagons 6 ft - 0 inch to 8 ft - 6 inches:

16, #4 verticals with #3 ties at 15-inch maximum

Octagons larger than 8 ft - 6 inches to 12 ft - 0 inch:

24, #5 verticals with #4 ties at 15-inch maximum

Octagons larger than 12 ft - 0 inch:

#5 verticals at 18-inch maximum spacing with #4 ties at 15-inch

maximum

4.6

4.5.6

should be provided. Minimum steel should be #4 bars at 12-inch maximum

spacing across the flats in two directions only.

4.5.7

Anchor Bolts

See PIP STE05121 for anchor bolt design procedures. The nomenclature in the

following sections is from PIP STE05121.

4.6.1

Page 6 of 32

using the following formula. More exact tension loads may be obtained by

using ACI 318 strength design methodology.

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

(Equation 4)

where:

Nu = factored maximum tensile load on an anchor bolt

Mu = factored moment at the base of the vessel, calculated using load

factors in load combinations for uplift cases in Table 4 (Loading

Combinations and Load Factors - Strength Design) of

PIP STC01015

Nb = number of anchor bolts

BC = bolt circle diameter

(De or Do) = nominal empty or operating vessel weight. Use empty

weight for wind loads. Use empty or operating for

earthquake loads, depending on which condition is used to

calculate Mu.

4.6.2

For most cases, there is no shear on the anchor bolts because the load is

resisted by friction caused primarily by the overturning moment. If friction

cannot resist the load, the bolts should be designed to resist the entire shear

load, or other methods may be used to resist the shear load. The friction

resistance can be calculated using the following formulas:

Pu = Mu/LA + 0.9(De or Do)

(Equation 5)

Vf = Pu

(Equation 6)

where:

Pu = factored compression force at top of pedestal

LA = lever arm between centroid of tension loads on bolts and the centroid

of the compression load on the pedestal. This is a complicated

distance to determine exactly. A conservative approximation is to

use 2/3 of the bolt circle diameter as the lever arm.

=

the pedestal, = 0.55.

To have no shear load on the bolts: Vu Vf

(Equation 7)

where:

Vu = factored shear load at base of vessel, calculated using load factors in

load combinations for uplift cases in Table 4 (Loading

Combinations and Load Factors - Strength Design) of

PIP STC01015

=

4.6.3

Exact formulas for AN (the projected concrete failure area for an anchor or

group of anchors for calculation of concrete strength in tension) in an

octagon foundation are fairly complex. To determine this area, it may be

Page 7 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

equivalent circle, which is a circle with the same area as the octagon, may

help to approximate AN. The diameter of an equivalent circle is 1.027 D,

where D is the distance across the flats of the octagon. Figure A shows

potential ANs for various configurations. Note that alternate configurations

exist for the same general pattern. The engineer may also take advantage of

group action and use the average load on a group of bolts over a larger AN.

The engineer may use the configuration that provides the largest AN.

4.6.4

4.7

The Nu and the AN determined according to this section should be used along

with PIP STE05121 to design the anchor bolts. For design work, PIP

Member Companies may use the PIP Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet,

available in the Implementation Resource Center on the Member Area of the

PIP web site, under the tab TOOLS.

Footing Design

4.7.1

Sizing

Footings for vertical vessels may be octagonal or square and sized based on

standard available form sizes. When form information is not available,

footing dimensions should be sized with footing faces in 2-inch increments

to allow use of standard manufactured forms. (Octagons highlighted in gray

in Table 1 are those having faces in 2-inch increments.) If extended to the

recommended depth specified in the geotechnical report, the pedestal may be

adequate without a footing. Footings smaller than 7 ft - 0 inch in diameter

should be square.

Where a footing is required, the footing thickness should be a minimum of

12 inches. The footing thickness should be adequate to develop pedestal

reinforcement and to satisfy the shear requirements of ACI 318.

The footing thickness should also be checked for top tension without top

reinforcement in accordance with ACI 318. If the thickness is not adequate,

either a thicker footing or top reinforcing steel is required (see

Section 4.7.5). Note that increasing the footing thickness is typically more

cost effective for construction than adding a top mat of reinforcing steel

except where seismic effects create tensile stresses requiring top

reinforcement.

For the first trial, the diameter of an octagonal footing may be approximated

by the following formula:

Diameter = (2.6)(Mftg/SB)1/3

(Equation 8)

where:

Mftg = nominal overturning moment at base of footing, kip ft

SB

Page 8 of 32

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

4.7.2

4.7.2.1. Soil-bearing pressure should be checked for maximum allowable

pressure on the diagonal.

4.7.2.2 Soil-bearing pressure used for footing design should be computed on

the flat.

4.7.2.3 Where the total octagonal footing area is in compression

(e/D < or = 0.122 on the diagonal and e/D < or = 0.132 on the flat),

the soil-bearing pressure should be computed using the following

formulas:

f = (P/A) (Mftg/S)

(Equation 9)

(Equation 10a)

(Equation 10b)

where:

D = distance between parallel sides, ft

f = toe pressure, ksf

P = nominal total vertical load including soil and foundation, kip

A = bearing area of octagonal footing (0.828D2), ft2

Mftg = nominal overturning moment at base of footing, -kip ft

S = section modulus, ft3

e = eccentricity (Mftg/P), ft

4.7.2.4 Where the total octagonal footing area is not in compression

(e/D > 0.122 on the diagonal and e/D > 0.132 on the flat), the soilbearing pressure should be computed using Figure B and the

following formula:

f = LP/A

(Equation 11)

4.7.2.5 The e/D ratios for octagon footings may go above the limits of the

chart in Figure B because of the load factors in strength design. L

and K values for these conditions are tabulated in Table 2 for lateral

loads perpendicular to a face. These values shall be used for

calculating moments and shears in the footing. They should not be

used to check soil-bearing pressures.

4.7.3

4.7.3.1 Where the total footing is in compression (e/b < or = 0.167), the soilbearing pressure should be computed using the following formula:

f = P/A (1 6e/b)

(Equation 12)

where:

Page 9 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

moment, ft

A = bearing area of square footing, ft2

4.7.3.2 Where the total footing is not in compression (e/b > 0.167), the soilbearing pressure should be computed using the following formula:

f = P/A [4b/(3b-6e)]

(Equation 13)

(Equation 14)

using the design aid for soil pressure for biaxial loaded footings as

shown in PIP STE03360.

4.7.4

Stability/Sliding

4.7.4.1 The minimum overturning stability ratio and the minimum factor

of safety against sliding for service loads other than earthquake

should be 1.5 in accordance with PIP STC01015.

4.7.4.2 The minimum overturning stability ratio and the minimum factor

of safety against sliding for earthquake service loads shall be 1.0 in

accordance with PIP STC01015. In addition, the minimum

overturning stability ratio for the anchorage and foundations of

skirt-supported vertical vessels classified as SUG III in accordance

with SEI/ASCE 7-02, Section 9, shall be 1.2 for the critical

earthquake loads specified in SEI/ASCE 7-02, Section 9.14.7.3.10.5.

4.7.4.3 The stability ratio should be computed using the following formula:

S.R. = b/2e

(Equation 15)

where:

b = dimension of footing in the direction of the overturning

moment, ft

e = overturning moment at the base of the footing divided by the

total vertical load, ft. The moment and loads should be

factored in accordance with load combinations for uplift cases

in PIP STC01015, Table 3 - Loading Combinations Allowable Stress Design (Service Loads).

4.7.5

Reinforcement

4.7.5.1 Standard Factored Strength Design

should be in accordance with ACI 318. The critical section for

moment and shear should be taken with respect to the face of a

square with an area equivalent to that of the pedestal.

Moment should be checked at the face of the equivalent square.

Shear, as a measure of diagonal tension, should be checked at the

critical section specified in ACI 318-02, Section 11.1.3.1 (at a

distance d from the face of the equivalent square). The moment and

Page 10 of 32

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

from the edge of the equivalent square. Punching shear may need to

be checked in some situations in accordance with ACI 318. The

resulting reinforcing steel should be placed continuously across the

entire footing in a grid pattern, the minimum bottom reinforcement

being #5 bars at 12 inches on-center, each way.

4.7.5.2 Top Reinforcement

reinforcement in the footing is not necessary if the factored tensile

stress at the upper face of the footing does not exceed the flexural

strength of structural plain concrete, as follows:

ft = 5(fc)1/2

(Equation 16)

where:

ft = flexural strength of structural plain concrete, psi

fc = compressive strength of concrete, psi

= strength reduction factor for structural plain concrete = 0.55

The effective thickness of the footing for tensile stress calculations

should be 2 inches less than the actual thickness for footings cast

against soil (ACI 318-02, Section R22.7.4). For footings cast against

a seal slab, the actual thickness of the footing may be used for the

effective thickness. If the factored tensile stress exceeds the flexural

strength of structural plain concrete, top reinforcement should be

used if an increase in the footing thickness is not feasible.

See the following formulas for footing thicknesses that do not

require top reinforcing steel:

For footings cast against soil:

treqd = teff + 2 inches

(Equation 17a)

treqd = teff

(Equation 17b)

teff = (6Mu/ft)1/2

(Equation 18)

where:

treqd

inches

teff

concrete acting on a 1-inch strip in the footing at the

face of the equivalent square pedestal, inch-pounds per

inch, calculated using a load factor of 1.4

Mu

Page 11 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

ft

Page 12 of 32

September 2004

Equation 18)

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

APPENDIX:

Figures, Tables, and Example

Page 13 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

Projected Concrete Failure Areas (AN) - Overlap:

EquivalentCircle

3 hef

AN

Duplicated Area

3 hef

Alternative:

EquivalentCircle

Duplicated Area

3 hef

AN

3 hef

Page 14 of 32

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

Figure A (Continued) - Potential Concrete Failure Areas (AN) for Various Configurations

Projected Concrete Failure Areas (AN) - Do Not Overlap:

EquivalentCircle

AN

AN

Alternate 1

Alternate 2

Page 15 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

P

MOMENT

AREA

f

f

I

FS AGAINST OVERTURNING

= DIRECT LOAD

=Pe

= A = 0.828 D 2

= LP / A

= TOE PRESSURE

= 0.0547 D 4

= D / 2e

Page 16 of 32

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

D

B

22.5 Deg.

E

B = C x Sin 45 = 0.2928932 D

C = Length of Side = 0.4142136 D

E = Length of Diameter = 1.0823922 D

3

Ze = Sec. Mod. Diameter = 0.1011422 D

Zd = Sec. Mod. Flat = ZeE/D

I = Moment of Inertia = ZeE/2

Page 17 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

(Table 1, continued)

D

ft inch

6- 0-1/2

6- 2-7/8

6- 5-1/4

6- 7-5/8

6- 10-1/8

7- 0-1/2

7- 2-7/8

7- 5-3/8

7- 7-3/4

7- 10-1/8

8- 0-5/8

8- 3

8- 5-3/8

8- 7-7/8

8- 10-1/4

9- 0-5/8

9- 3

9- 5-1/2

9- 7-7/8

9- 10-3/8

10- 0-3/4

10- 3-1/8

10- 5-1/2

10- 8

10- 10-3/8

11- 0-3/4

11- 3-1/4

11- 5-5/8

11- 8

11- 10-3/8

12- 0-7/8

12- 3-1/4

12- 5-5/8

12- 8-1/8

12- 10-1/2

13- 0-7/8

13- 3-3/8

13- 5-3/4

13- 8-1/8

13- 10-5/8

14- 1

14- 3-3/8

14- 5-7/8

14- 8-1/4

14- 10-5/8

15- 1-1/8

Page 18 of 32

D

ft

6.036

6.237

6.438

6.639

6.840

7.042

7.243

7.444

7.645

7.846

8.047

8.249

8.450

8.651

8.852

9.053

9.250

9.456

9.657

9.858

10.059

10.260

10.462

10,663

10.864

11.065

11.266

11.468

11.666

11.870

12.071

12.272

12.474

12.675

12.876

13.077

13.278

13.479

13.681

13.882

14.083

14.284

14.485

14.686

14.888

15.088

C

ft inch

2- 6

2- 7

2- 8

2- 9

2- 10

2- 11

3- 0

3- 1

3- 2

3- 3

3- 4

3- 5

3- 6

3- 7

3- 8

3- 9

3- 10

3- 11

4- 0

4- 1

4- 2

4- 3

4- 4

4- 5

4- 6

4- 7

4- 8

4- 9

4- 10

4- 11

5- 0

5- 1

5- 2

5- 3

5- 4

5- 5

5- 6

5- 7

5- 8

5- 9

5- 10

5- 11

6- 0

6- 1

6- 2

6- 3

B

ft inch

1- 9-1/4

1- 9-15/16

1- 10-5/8

1- 11-5/8

2- 0-1/16

2- 0-3/4

2- 1-7/16

2- 2-3/16

2- 2-7/8

2- 3-9/16

2- 4-5/16

2- 5

2- 5-11/16

2- 6-7/16

2- 7-1/8

2- 7-13/16

2- 8-1/2

2- 9-1/4

2- 9-5/16

2- 10-11/16

2- 11-3/8

3- 0-1/16

3- 0-3/4

3- 1-1/2

3- 2-3/16

3- 2-7/8

3- 3-5/8

3- 4-15/16

3- 5

3- 5-11/16

3- 6-7/16

3- 7-1/8

3- 7-13/16

3- 8-9/16

3- 9-1/4

3- 9-15/16

3- 10-11/16

3- 11-3/8

4- 0-1/16

4- 0-13/16

4- 1-1/2

4- 2-3/16

4- 2-15/16

4- 3-5/8

4- 4-5/16

4- 5-1/16

A

2

ft

30.18

32.23

34.34

36.51

38.76

41.08

43.46

45.91

48.42

51.00

53.64

56.37

59.15

62.00

64.91

67.90

70.88

74.07

77.26

80.51

83.82

87.21

90.67

94.19

97.78

101.43

105.15

108.95

112.80

116.72

120.71

124.76

128.90

133.09

137.35

141.67

146.06

150.51

155.06

159.65

164.30

169.03

173.62

178.67

183.62

188.59

Ze

3

ft

22.24

24.54

26.99

29.60

32.37

35.32

38.43

41.72

45.19

48.85

52.70

56.77

61.02

65.48

70.15

75.04

80.05

85.52

91.09

96.89

102.94

109.24

115.82

122.62

129.69

137.02

144.62

152.54

160.71

169.15

177.89

186.93

196.31

205.96

215.91

226.18

236.77

247.69

258.99

270.58

282.50

294.77

307.39

320.36

333.77

347.40

E

ft

6.53

6.75

6.97

7.19

7.40

7.62

7.84

8.06

8.27

8.49

8.71

8.93

9.15

9.36

9.58

9.80

10.01

10.24

10.45

10.67

10.89

11.10

11.32

11.54

11.76

11.97

12.19

12.41

12.62

12.85

13.06

13.28

13.49

13.72

13.93

14.15

14.37

14.58

14.80

15.03

15.24

15.46

15.68

15.90

16.11

16.33

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

D

ft inch

15- 3-1/2

15- 5-7/8

15- 8-1/4

15- 10-3/4

16- 1-1/8

16- 3-5/8

16- 6

16- 8-3/8

16- 10-3/4

17- 1-1/4

17- 3-5/8

17- 6

17- 8-1/2

17- 10-7/8

18- 1-1/4

18- 3-3/4

18- 6-1/8

18- 8-1/2

18- 10-7/8

19- 1-3/8

19- 3-3/4

19- 6-1/8

19- 8-5/8

19- 11

20- 1-3/8

20- 3-7/8

20- 6-1/4

20- 8-3/4

20- 11-1/8

21- 1-1/2

21- 3-7/8

21- 6-1/4

21- 8-3/4

21- 11-1/4

22- 1-5/8

22- 4

22- 6-3/8

22- 8-7/8

22- 11-1/4

23- 1-5/8

23- 4

23- 6-1/2

23- 8-7/8

23- 11-3/8

24- 1-3/4

24- 4-1/8

24- 6-1/2

24- 9

D

ft

15.290

15.491

15.692

15.893

16.095

16.296

16.497

16.698

16.899

17.101

17.302

17.503

17.704

17.905

18.107

18.308

18.509

18.710

18.911

19.113

19.313

19.515

19.716

19.917

20.118

20.320

20.521

20.722

20.923

21.124

21.325

21.527

21.728

21.929

22.130

22.331

22.533

22.734

22.935

23.136

23.337

23.539

23.739

23.941

24.142

24.343

24.545

24.746

C

ft inch

6- 4

6- 5

6- 6

6- 7

6- 8

6- 9

6- 10

6- 11

7- 0

7- 1

7- 2

7- 3

7- 4

7- 5

7- 6

7- 7

7- 8

7- 9

7- 10

7- 11

8- 0

8- 1

8- 2

8- 3

8- 4

8- 5

8- 6

8- 7

8- 8

8- 9

8- 10

8- 11

9- 0

9- 1

9- 2

9- 3

9- 4

9- 5

9- 6

9- 7

9- 8

9- 9

9- 10

9- 11

10- 0

10- 1

10- 2

10- 3

B

ft inch

4- 5-3/4

4- 6-7/16

4- 7-1/8

4- 7-7/8

4- 8-9/16

4- 9-5/16

4- 10

4- 10-11/16

4- 11-3/8

5- 0-1/8

5- 0-13/16

5- 1-1/2

5- 2-1/4

5- 2-15/16

5- 3-5/8

5- 4-3/8

5- 5-1/16

5- 5-3/4

5- 6-7/16

5- 7-3/16

5- 7-7/8

5- 8-9/16

5- 9-5/16

5- 10

5- 10-11/16

5- 11-7/16

6- 0-1/8

6- 0-7/8

6- 1-9/16

6- 2-1/4

6- 2-15/16

6- 3-5/8

6- 4-3/8

6- 5-1/16

6- 5-13/16

6- 6-1/2

6- 7-3/16

6- 7-15/16

6- 8-5/8

6- 9-5/16

6- 10

6- 10-3/4

6- 11-7/16

7- 0-3/16

7- 0-7/8

7- 1-9/16

7- 2-1/4

7- 3

A

2

ft

193.67

195.80

203.99

209.25

214.60

220.00

225.46

230.98

236.58

242.27

248.00

253.79

259.66

265.58

271.61

277.67

283.81

290.00

296.27

302.63

309.00

315.49

322.03

328.63

335.30

342.06

348.86

355.72

362.66

369.66

376.73

383.90

391.10

398.37

405.70

413.17

420.62

428.16

435.76

443.44

451.17

459.02

466.85

474.83

482.84

490.91

499.09

507.30

Ze

3

ft

361.54

375.99

390.81

406.02

421.70

437.70

454.10

470.90

488.11

505.82

523.87

542.34

561.24

580.57

600.44

620.66

641.33

662.45

683.03

706.19

728.59

751.69

775.16

799.11

823.54

848.60

874.03

899.97

926.41

953.37

980.84

1008.98

1037.50

1067.57

1096.22

1126.31

1157.15

1188.39

1220.19

1252.56

1285.49

1319.16

1353.07

1387.90

1423.15

1459.00

1495.62

1532.67

E

ft

16.55

16.77

16.98

17.20

17.42

17.64

17.85

18.07

18.23

18.51

18.72

18.95

19.16

19.38

19.60

19.82

20.03

20.25

20.47

20.69

20.90

21.12

21.34

21.56

21.78

21.99

22.21

22.43

22.65

22.86

23.05

23.30

23.52

23.74

23.95

24.17

24.39

24.61

24.83

25.04

25.26

25.48

25.72

25.91

26.14

26.35

26.56

26.78

Page 19 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

D

ft inch

24- 11-3/8

25- 1-3/4

25- 4-1/4

25- 6-5/8

25- 9

25- 11-1/2

26- 1-7/8

26- 4-3/8

26- 6-5/8

26- 9-1/8

26- 11-1/2

27- 1-7/8

27- 4-3/8

27- 6-3/4

27- 9-1/8

27- 11-5/8

28- 2

28- 4-1/2

28- 6-3/4

28- 9-1/4

28- 11-5/8

29- 2-1/8

29- 4-1/2

29- 6-7/8

29- 9-1/4

29- 11-3/4

30- 2-1/8

30- 4-1/2

30- 7

30- 9-3/8

30- 11-3/4

31- 2-1/4

31- 4-5/8

31- 7

31- 9-1/2

31- 11-7/8

32- 2-1/4

32- 4-3/4

32- 7-1/8

32- 9-1/2

33- 0

33- 2-3/8

32- 4-3/4

33- 7-1/8

33- 9-5/8

34- 0

34- 2-1/2

34- 4-7/8

Page 20 of 32

D

ft

24.947

25.148

25.349

25.550

25.752

25.953

26.154

26.355

26.556

26.757

26.959

27.160

27.361

27.562

27.763

27.965

28.165

28.376

28.568

28.769

28.970

29.171

29.373

29.574

29.775

29.977

30.178

30.379

30.580

30.781

30.982

31.184

31.385

31.586

31.787

31.988

32.189

32.391

32.592

32.793

32.994

33.195

33.397

33.597

33.799

34.009

34.201

34.403

C

ft inch

10- 4

10- 5

10-6

10- 7

10- 8

10- 9

10- 10

10- 11

11- 0

11- 1

11- 2

11- 3

11- 4

11- 5

11- 6

11- 7

11- 8

11- 9

11- 10

11- 11

12- 0

12- 1

12- 2

12- 3

12- 4

12- 5

12- 6

12- 7

12- 8

12- 9

12- 10

12- 11

13- 0

13- 1

13- 2

13- 3

13- 4

13- 5

13- 6

13- 7

13- 8

13- 9

13- 10

13- 11

14- 0

14- 1

14- 2

14- 3

September 2004

B

ft inch

7- 3-11/16

7- 4-3/8

7- 5-1/8

7- 5-13/16

7- 6-1/2

7- 7-1/4

7- 7-15/16

7- 8-11/16

7- 9-5/16

7- 10-3/16

7- 10-3/4

7- 11-7/16

8- 0-3/16

8- 0-7/8

8- 1-9/16

8- 2-5/16

8- 3

8- 3-3/4

8- 4-3/8

8- 3-1/8

8- 5-13/16

8- 6-9/16

8- 7-1/4

8- 7-15/16

8- 8-5/8

8- 9-3/8

8- 10-1/16

8- 10-3/4

8- 11-1/2

9- 0-3/16

9- 0-7/8

9- 1-5/8

9- 2-5/16

9- 3

9- 3-3/4

9- 4-7/16

9- 5-1/8

9- 5-7/8

9- 6-9/16

9- 7-1/4

9- 8

9- 8-11/16

9- 9-3/8

9- 10-1/16

9-10-13/16

9- 11-1/2

10- 0-1/4

10- 0-15/16

A

2

ft

515.57

523.92

532.32

540.80

549.38

557.99

566.67

575.41

584.22

593.10

602.09

611.10

620.18

629.33

638.54

647.86

657.21

667.05

675.86

685.65

695.31

704.95

714.74

724.56

734.44

744.44

754.45

764.54

774.69

784.91

795.19

805.60

816.01

826.45

837.05

847.67

858.35

869.17

879.98

890.87

901.82

912.85

923.99

935.09

946.37

958.17

969.02

980.50

Ze

3

ft

1570.32

1608.58

1647.46

1686.90

1727.29

1768.05

1809.45

1851.49

1894.18

1937.51

1981.73

2026.38

2071.71

2117.70

2164.37

2217.96

2260.00

2310.93

2356.91

2408.29

2459.36

2510.65

2563.16

2816.15

2669.85

2724.56

2779.73

2835.65

2892.30

2949.72

3007.88

3067.10

3126.79

3186.95

3248.45

3310.50

3373.30

3437.21

3501.59

3566.78

3632.74

3699.56

3767.51

3835.61

3905.21

3978.45

4046.21

4118.33

E

ft

27.00

27.22

27.44

27.66

27.87

28.09

28.31

28.53

28.74

28.96

29.18

29.40

29.62

29.83

30.05

30.27

30.49

30.71

30.92

31.14

31.36

31.57

31.79

32.01

32.23

32.45

32.66

32.88

33.10

33.32

33.53

33.75

33.99

34.19

34.41

34.62

34.84

35.06

35.28

35.49

35.71

35.93

36.15

36.37

36.58

36.81

37.02

37.24

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

D

ft inch

34- 7-1/4

34- 9-3/4

35- 0-1/8

35- 2-1/2

35- 5

35- 7-3/8

35- 9-3/4

36- 0-3/4

36- 2-5/8

36- 5

36- 7-1/2

36.9-7/8

37- 0-1/4

37- 2-3/4

37- 5-1/8

37- 7-1/2

37- 9-7/8

38- 0-3/8

38- 2-3/4

38- 5-1/8

38- 7-5/8

38- 10

39- 0-3/8

39- 2-7/8

39- 5-1/4

39- 7-5/8

39- 10-1/8

D

ft

34.603

34.805

35.006

35.207

35.409

35.610

35.811

36.012

36.213

36.414

36.616

36.817

37.018

37.219

37.420

37.621

37.822

38.024

38.225

38.426

38.627

38.829

39.030

39.231

39.432

39.633

39.835

C

ft inch

14- 4

14- 5

14- 6

14- 7

14- 8

14- 9

14- 10

14- 11

15- 0

15- 1

15- 2

15- 3

15- 4

15- 5

15- 6

15- 7

15- 8

15- 9

15- 10

15- 11

16- 0

16- 1

16- 2

16- 3

16- 4

16- 5

16- 6

B

ft inch

10- 1-5/8

10- 2-3/8

10- 3-1/16

10- 3-3/4

10- 4-1/2

10- 5-3/16

10- 5-7/8

10- 6-5/8

10- 7-5/16

10- 8

10- 8-3/4

10- 9-7/16

10- 10-1/8

10- 10-7/8

10- 11-9/16

11- 0-1/4

11- 0-15/16

11- 1-11/16

11- 2-3/8

11- 3-1/16

11- 3-13/16

11- 4-1/2

11- 5-3/16

11- 5-15/16

11- 6-5/8

11- 7-15/16

11- 8-1/16

A

2

ft

991.97

1003.55

1015.18

1026.86

1038.65

1050.51

1062.38

1074.36

1086.40

1098.48

1110.68

1122.93

1135.21

1147.58

1160.03

1172.51

1185.12

1197.76

1210.45

1223.22

1236.08

1249.01

1261.97

1275.01

1288.11

1301.27

1314.54

Ze

3

ft

4190.81

4264.39

4338.74

4413.89

4490.11

4567.18

4644.86

4723.61

4803.23

4883.57

4965.15

5047.51

5130.58

5214.67

5299.74

5385.47

5472.58

5560.40

5649.03

5738.63

5829.34

5921.08

6013.45

6106.90

6201.28

6296.56

6393.09

E

ft

37.45

37.67

37.89

38.11

38.33

38.54

38.76

38.98

39.20

39.41

39.63

39.85

40.07

40.29

40.50

40.72

40.94

41.16

41.37

41.59

41.81

42,03

42.25

42.46

42.68

42.90

43.12

Page 21 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

(Large Eccentricities - Load Perpendicular to Face)

e/D

0.300

0.305

0.310

0.315

0.320

0.325

0.330

0.335

0.340

0.345

0.350

0.355

0.360

0.365

K

0.4935

0.5065

0.5195

0.5323

0.5450

0.5577

0.5703

0.5828

0.5951

0.6074

0.6196

0.6317

0.6438

0.6557

L

4.503

4.656

4.819

4.991

5.174

5.369

5.576

5.797

6.032

6.284

6.553

6.842

7.152

7.485

e/D

0.370

0.375

0.380

0.385

0.390

0.395

0.400

0.405

0.410

0.415

0.420

0.425

0.430

0.435

K

0.6676

0.6794

0.6912

0.7030

0.7149

0.7267

0.7387

0.7507

0.7628

0.7749

0.7872

0.7995

0.8119

0.8244

L

7.844

8.233

8.654

9.113

9.615

10.167

10.775

11.450

12.203

13.046

13.998

15.080

16.320

17.754

e/D

0.440

0.445

0.450

0.455

0.460

0.465

0.470

0.475

0.480

0.485

0.490

0.495

0.500

> 0.500

K

0.8369

0.8496

0.8625

0.8754

0.8885

0.9017

0.9151

0.9287

0.9424

0.9564

0.9707

0.9852

See Note

See Note

L

19.432

21.421

23.812

26.742

30.411

35.138

41.452

50.304

63.601

85.785

130.192

263.487

See Note

See Note

Note: For e/D values greater or equal to 0.500, assume soil bearing as a line load with a length equal to the

face dimension of the octagon footing applied at a distance of e from the centerline of the footing.

Page 22 of 32

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

P =1ft-2 inches

L =4 ft-5 inches

on a 14 ft- 10-1/2 inch

dia.boltcircle

9 ft-0 inches

7 ft-4 inches

1inch grout

PLAN

#4's

#5's

2 ties perset

15 inch

spacing

4 inch

3 inch

#4 tie sets

# 4 @ 12 inches

each way

5

-#

e

(40 ach

re fac

qd e

.)

# 4 ties

SECTION

Page 23 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

11/2 inch insulation

Platform # 3

(12 footdiam eter)

Platform # 2

(60 degrees )

49 ft

14 ftdiam eter

67 ft

14.42 ft

diam eter

Insulation

Platform # 1

(90 degrees )

1ft

23 ft

1.5 ft

4.5 ft

Grade elevation

100 feet

21ft-8 3/4 inches

DESIGN DATA

Wind Load

(V = 115 mph)

(Nominal loads)

V = 44.75 kip

M = 1,902 kip-ft (at top of grout)

Vessel Data

Oper. wt. (Do) = 345.2 kip

Test wt. (Dt) = 624.1 kip

Structural Data

= 110 pcf

f'c = 4,000 psi

y = 60,000 psi

Anchor Bolts

ASTM F1554, Grade 36, with a

4-inch x 15-inch-long sleeve

and 1-ft - 2-inch projection on a

14-ft - 10-1/2-inch bolt circle

(nonpretensioned)

Note: Wind/earthquake load calculations are not shown because they are beyond the

scope of this Practice.

Page 24 of 32

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

PEDESTAL DESIGN

Pedestal Dimensions and Weight

(Equation 1b, this Practice)

BC + SD + 9 inches - BD = 178.5 inches + 4 inches + 9 inches - 1.5 inches

= 190.0 inches

(Equation 1d, this Practice)

BC + SD + 7(BD) = 178.5 + 4 + 7(1.5 inches) = 193 inches ! Controls = 16.083 ft

(Equation 1e, this Practice)

Note: Pedestal diameter had to be increased to 17-ft - 8-1/2-inches to provide a

sufficiently large projected concrete failure area to resist the tensile load in the anchor

bolts. (See Projected Concrete Failure Area under Anchor Bolt Check, as

follows.) Alternatively, additional reinforcing steel may be used to transfer anchor

bolt forces to concrete.

Pedestal Reinforcement

Mped = O.T.M. at pedestal base = (1,902 kip-ft) + (4.5 ft)(44.75 kip) = 2,104 kip-ft

Muped = 1.6Mped = 1.6(2,104 kip-ft) = 3,366 kip-ft

(Load Factors should be in accordance with PIP STC01015, Table 4, Load

Comb. 4)

Nd = number of dowels = assume 40

DC = (17.71-ft pedestal) - (say 0.5 ft) = 17.21 ft

De + Dp = empty weight of vessel + pedestal weight = 170.3 kip + 175.3 kip

= 345.6 kip

Fu = 4(Muped)/[(Nd)(DC)] - 0.9(De + Dp)/Nd= 4(3,366 kip-ft)/[(40)(17.21 ft)] 0.9(345.6 kip)/40

= 11.78 kip

(Equation 2, this Practice)

Asreqd = Fu/fy = (11.78 kip)/(0.9)(60 ksi) = 0.22 inch

Use 40 #5 bars (As = 0.31 inch ) with #4 ties at 15 inches c/c (minimum

reinforcement controls)

Maximum Tension on Anchor Bolt:

Nu = 4Mu/[(Nb)(BC)] - 0.9(De)/Nb

Page 25 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

(Load factors should be in accordance with PIP STC01015, Table 4, Load

Comb. 4)

Maximum Shear on Anchor Bolt:

Check whether shear load can be taken by friction between base of vessel and top of

grout.

Pu = Mu/LA + 0.9(De)

Pu = 1.6(1902 kip-ft)/(9.92 ft) + 0.9(170.3 kips) = 307 kips + 153 kips = 460 kips

Projected Concrete Failure Area:

would not provide enough projected concrete failure area to resist the maximum

tensile load Nu = 27.7 kips, regardless of what embedment depth, hef, was used. To

save space, these trial calculations are not shown here. Reinforcing steel either should

be added to transfer the tensile load from the anchor bolts to the pedestal or the

pedestal diameter should be increased. This second alternative is shown here.

Try increasing D to 17 ft - 8-1/2 inches (17.704 ft),

hef = 18 inches = 1.50 ft

Equivalent circle diameter, DEQ = (1.027)(17.704 ft) = 18.18 ft

Page 26 of 32

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

Determine AN graphically:

EQUIVALENT

CIRCLE

54.0 inches

54.0 inches

CENTER POINT OF

EQUIVALENT CIRCLE

Using the PIP Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet (available to PIP Member Companies

only) or ACI 318-02 Appendix D, the following was determined:

Nn = 33.2 kips > Nu = 27.7 kips

O.K.

Bolt length required (L) = projection + hef + projection at bottom (P1) from Table 1 in

PIP STE05121:

L (min) = (1 ft - 2 inches) + (1 ft - 6 inches) + (2 inches) = 2 ft - 10 inches

Use standard length bolts in accordance with PIP STF05121. Determine whether ASL

or BSL bolts are required. (See PIP STF05121 for definition of ASL and BSL.)

For 1-1/2-inch-diameter bolts, ASL = 2 ft - 8 inches, BSL = 4 ft - 5 inches

Required bolt length is too long for ASL bolts, use BSL bolts. BSL bolt embedment

including the following:

P1 = (4 ft- 5 inches) - (1 ft - 2 inches) = 3 ft - 3 inches < pedestal depth

(4 ft - 6 inches)

Therefore, anchor bolts will not extend into the bottom mat.

O.K.

Page 27 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

FOOTING DESIGN

more economical; however an octagon-shaped foundation is shown here to illustrate

the procedure for this type of foundation.

Select a Trial Octagon Size:

= 2,171 kip-ft

SB = allowable gross soil bearing = (3.25 ksf) + (5 ft)(0.11 kcf) = 3.80 ksf

Trial diameter = (2.6)(Mftg/SB)1/3 = (2.6)[(2,171 kip-ft)/(3.80 ksf)]1/3 = 21.57 ft

(Equation 8, this Practice)

2

ldh = [(0.02fy)/

f 'c

](db)

= [(0.02)(1.0)(1.0)(60,000 psi)/

Treq'd = (3 inch clear) + (2 layers)(0.75 inch bar) + (0.71)(0.7)(11.9 inches)

= 10.4 inches

Tmin = 12 inches

Footing Weights

2

Net weight of pedestal = (259.7 ft )[(4.5 ft)(0.15 kcf) - (3.5 ft)(0.11 kcf)]

= 75.3 kip

2

Weight of footing + soil = (391.1 ft )[(1.5 ft)(0.15 kcf) + (3.5 ft)(0.11 kcf)]

= 238.6 kip

Total (Ds) = 75.3 kip + 238.6 kip = 313.9 kip

Pe = De + Ds = 170.3 kip + 313.9 kip = 484.2 kip

Po = Do + Ds = 345.2 kip + 313.9 kip = 659.1 kip

Pt = Dt + Ds = 624.1 kip + 313.9 kip = 938.0 kip

Check Soil Bearing and Stability

P = Pe = 484.2 kip

Mftg = 2,171kip-ft

Page 28 of 32

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

O.K.

(Equation 15, this Practice)

e/D = (4.48 ft)/(21.73 ft) = 0.206 > 0.122 Ldiag = 2.85

(Figure B, this Practice)

2

O.K.

P = Po = 659.1 kip

e/D = (3.29 ft)/(21.73 ft) = 0.152 > 0.122

Ldiag = 2.25

(Figure B, this Practice)

= 3.79 ksf < 3.80 ksf O.K. (controlling case)

P = Pt = 938.0 kip

Partial wind velocity = 68 mph

Mftg = (68 mph/115 mph)2(2,171 ft-kip) = 759.1 ft-kip

e = Mftg/P = (759.1 ft-kip)/(938.0 kip) = 0.81 ft

e/D = (0.81 ft)/(21.73 ft) = 0.037 < 0.122

f = P/A [1 + (8.19)(e/D)]

O.K.

Bottom Reinforcement

Check operating + wind (in this instance, PIP STC01015, Table 4, Load Comb. 3,

[1.2(Ds + Do) + 1.6W] controls):

soil + concrete

3.82

0.91

4.55

5.46

0.73

2.81 ft.

16.84 ft.

4.89 ft.

Page 29 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

Mu = 1.6(2,171 kip-ft) = 3,474 kip-ft

e = Mu /Pu = (3,474 kip-ft)/(790.9 kip) = 4.39 ft

e/D = (4.39 ft)/(21.73 ft) = 0.202 > 0.132 (flat)

L = 2.70 (flat)

K = 0.225 (flat)

SB = LP/A = (2.70)(790.9 kip)/(391.1 ft2) = 5.46 ksf

Find equivalent square for pedestal:

side2 = 259.7 ft2 side = 16.12-ft projection = (21.73 ft - 16.12 ft)/2 = 2.81 ft

SB at face of equivalent square:

= 5.46 ksf(16.84 ft - 2.81 ft)/(16.84 ft) = 4.55 ksf

Soil + concrete = 1.2(238.6 kip)/(391.1 ft2) = 0.73 ksf

Mu = (4.55 ksf - 0.73 ksf)(2.81 ft)2/2 + (5.46 ksf - 4.55 ksf )(2.81 ft)2/3 = 17.48 kip-ft

Check empty + wind (in this instance, PIP STC01015, Table 4, Load Comb. 4,

[0.9(De + Ds) + 1.6W] controls)

4.72

soil + concrete

3.23

8.50

5.27

0.55

2.81 ft.

7.39 ft.

14.34 ft.

Mu = 1.6(2,171 kip-ft) = 3,474 kip-ft

e = Mu/Pu = (3,474 kip-ft)/(435.8 kip) = 7.97 ft

e/D = (7.97 ft)/(21.73 ft) = 0.367 > 0.132 (flat)

L = 7.63 (flat)

K = 0.660 (flat)

Page 30 of 32

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

Find equivalent square for pedestal:

side2 = 259.7 ft2

side = 16.12-ft

projection = (21.73 ft - 16.12 ft)/2 = 2.81 ft

SB at face of equivalent square:

= (8.50 ksf)(7.39 ft - 2.81 ft)/(7.39 ft) = 5.27 ksf

Soil + concrete = 0.9(238.6 kip)/(391.1 ft2) = 0.55 ksf

Mu = (5.27 ksf - 0.55 ksf)(2.81 ft)2/2 + (8.50 ksf - 5.27 ksf)(2.81 ft)2/3

= 27.14 kip-ft ! Controls

d = 18 inches - 3 inches - 1.125 inches = 13.875 inches = 1.16 ft

F = bd2/12,000 = (12 inches)(13.875 inches )2/12,000 = 0.193

Ku = Mu/F = (27.14 kip-ft)/(0.193) = 140.6

au = 4.390

As min = (0.0033)(12 inches)(13.875 inches) = 0.55 inch2/ft ! Controls

4/3 As = (4/3)(0.45 inch2/ft) = 0.60 inch2/ft

Use #6 at 9 inches E.W. (bottom); As = 0.59 inch2/ft.

Shear Check

Beam Shear Empty + Wind Case:

= (8.50 ksf)(7.39 ft - 2.81 ft + 1.16 ft)/(7.39 ft) = 6.60 ksf

Vu (at distance d from face):

= (6.60 ksf - 0.55 ksf)(2.81ft - 1.16 ft) + (8.50 ksf - 6.60 ksf)(2.81 ft - 1.16 ft)/2

= 9.98 kip/ft + 1.57 kip/ft

= 11.55 kip/ft

vu = (11.55 kip/ft)(1,000 lb/kip)/[(12 inches/ft)(13.875 inches)]

= 69.4 psi < 2 f ' c = 94.9 psi

O.K.

2

= [3.36 ksf - (1.4/1.2)(0.73 ksf)][391.1 ft2 - (16.12 ft + 1.16 ft)2]

= (2.51 ksf)(92.5 ft2)

= 232 kip

bo = 4(16.12 ft + 1.16 ft) = 69.1 ft

vu = Vu/(dbo) = (232 kip)(1,000 lb/kip) /[(13.875 inches)(69.1 ft)(12 inches/ft)] = 20 psi

vc (allowable) = the smaller of ACI 318-02, Equation 11-34 or 11-35

Page 31 of 32

FOR

PIP STE03350

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

September 2004

= 0.75[(40)(1.16 ft)/(69.1 ft) + 2](4,000 psi)1/2

= 127 psi > 20 psi

O.K.

(ACI 318-02, Equation 11-34)

vc (allowable) = (4)(fc)1/2

= 0.75(4)(4,000 psi)1/2

= 190 psi > 20 psi

O.K.

Top Reinforcement

Check to see if concrete can take weight of concrete plus soil above footing without top

reinforcement. Use load factor of 1.4.

Mu = (1.4/1.2)(0.73 ksf)(2.81 ft)2/2 = 3.36 kip-ft = 3,360 inch-lb/inch

ft = 5(fc)1/2 = 5(0.55)(4,000 psi)1/2 = 173.9 psi

= (6Mu/ ft)1/2 + 2 inches

= [6(3,360 inch-lb/inch)/(173.9 psi)]1/2 + 2 inches

= 12.8 inches < 18 inches

(Equations 17a and 18, this Practice)

Wind loads (rather than earthquake) govern footing design. Therefore, no top

reinforcement is required.

Page 32 of 32

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