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TRANSITIVE VERBS

A transitive verb has two characteristics. First, it is an action verb, expressing a doable
activity like kick, want, paint, write, eat, clean, etc. Second, it must have a direct object,
something or someone who receives the action of the verb.
Example
brin
g

Please bring me a glass of water.

buy

Do not buy hamburgers at that


restaurant.

cost

My coat cost a lot of money.

get

My children get good grades in


school.

giv
e

Our family gives gifts at


Christmas.

leave

I leave home at 8:00 in the


morning.

len
d

Could you please lend me five


dollars?

make

Did you make coffee this morning?

offe
r

My boss offered me a great new


job.

owe

I owe you ten dollars.

pas
s

All the students passed the test.

pay

Don't forget to pay the phone bill.

pla
y

Jennifer loves playing the piano.

promi
se

She promised me she would come


to the party.

rea
d

They read the newspaper every


day.

refuse

The customs officers refused to let


me enter the country.

sen
d

My girlfriend sends me an e-mail


message every day.

show

My neighbour showed me
her garden yesterday.

sing

Muriel sings songs at karaoke


every Sunday night.

take

Travellers take planes or trains to


their destinations.

tea
ch

Our parents teach us to be kind.

tell

The author tells a good story.

writ
e

Tommy writes short stories about


the South.

wish

Everyone wished us all the best for


the future.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
El uso del condicional significa que una accin depende de otra. Los condicionales se
utilizan para hablar sobre situaciones reales o irreales. En general, las frases condicionales
llevan la palabra if (si).
Ten en cuenta que no existe un tiempo verbal para el condicional en ingls como existe en
espaol. A la vez, se usa el verbo auxiliar would para formar el condicional en ingls.
Hay cuatro tipos de frases condicionales y el uso de uno u otro refleja la probabilidad de la
accin.
Conditional Types (Tipos de los condicionales)

Zero Conditional (Tipo 0)


Se usa este tipo de condicional cuando la condicin y el resultado siempre es verdad, como
por ejemplo los hechos cientficos.
IF

Condition
If

present simple

Result
present simple

Ejemplos:
If you heat water to 100 C, it boils. / Water boils if you heat it to 100 C. (Si calientas
agua a 100 C hierve.)
If I dont practice the piano everyday I play poorly. / I play the piano poorly if I dont
practiceeveryday. (Si no practico el piano cada da toco mal.)
Does your mom get mad if you dont call her? / If you dont call your
mom, does she getmad? (Si no llamas a tu madre, se enoja?)
Nota: Podemos cambiar el orden de las frases sin cambiar el significado. Tambin, en
general con este tipo de condicional, podemos sustituir if por when sin alterar el
significado.
First Conditional (Tipo 1)
Este tipo de condicional se utiliza para el futuro y en los casos en que es muy probable que
la condicin pasar.
IF

Condition
If

present simple

Result
future simple (will)

Ejemplos:
If Bill studies, he will pass the exam. / Bill will pass the exam if he studies. (Si Bill
estudia, aprobar el examen.)
If it doesnt rain, we will go to the beach. / We will go to the beach if it doesnt rain. (Si
no llueve, iremos a la playa.)
Will you take the train if you miss the bus? If you miss the bus, will you take the train?
(Cogers el tren si pierdes el bus?)
Nota: Se puede usar algunos verbos modales en vez de will para cambiar la probabilidad
o expresar una opinin. Para ms informacin, ver la leccin sobre losverbos modales.
Ejemplos:
If it doesnt rain, we may go to the beach. (Significado: Con el uso de may, el
significado de esta frase cambia. Ahora, el hablante reconoce que puede ir a la playa,
pero no est tan seguro de si ir.)
If it doesnt rain, we should go to the beach. (Significado: En este caso, el uso de
should expresa la opinin del hablante.)
If it doesnt rain, we can go to the beach. (Significado: Can significa que es posible ir
a la playa, pero no indica la probabilidad.)
Second Conditional (Tipo 2)
Se utiliza el tipo 2 para expresar una posibilidad irreal en el presente, como un deseo o un
sueo, o para una accin en el futuro no tan probable.
IF

Condition

Result

If

past simple

would + infinitivo

Ejemplos:
If I won the lottery, I would travel around the world. / I would travel around the world
if I wonthe lottery. (Si ganara la lotera, viajara alrededor del mundo.)
If Rachel had more time, she would learn to play the guitar. / Rachel would learn to
play the guitar if she had more time. (Si Rachel tuviera ms tiempo, aprendera a tocar
la guitarra.)
Would you be happy if you were to get married? / If you were to get
married, would you behappy? (Estaras feliz si te casaras?)
Nota: Como en el tipo 1, se pueden usar otros verbos modales en vez de would para
cambiar el significado y la posibilidad.
Third Conditional (Tipo 3)
A diferencia a los tipos 1 y 2, se utiliza el tercer tipo de condicional cuando hablamos de
una condicin en el pasado que no ha sucedido.
IF

Condition
If

past perfect

Result
would have + past participle

Ejemplos:
If I had known then what I know now, I would have done things differently. / I would
have done things differently if I had known then what I know now. (Si hubiera sabido en
el pasado lo que s ahora, hubiera hecho las cosas de manera diferente.)
Suzanne wouldnt have had the heart attack if she had gone on a diet as her doctor
recommended. / If Suzanne had gone on a diet as her doctor recommended
she wouldnt have had the heart attack. (Suzanne no hubiera tenido el infarto si
hubiera hecho dieta como su mdico le recomend.)
Would you have liked to go to university if you had been able to afford it? / If you had
beenable to afford it, would you have liked to go to university? (Te hubiera gustado ir
a la universidad si te lo hubieras permitido pagar?)
Nota: Como en los tipos 1 y 2, se pueden usar otros verbos modales en vez de would
para cambiar el significado y la probabilidad.
RELATIVE CLAUSES
We can use relative clauses to join two English sentences, or to give more information
about something.
I bought a new car. It is very fast.
I bought a new car that is very fast.
She lives in New York. She likes living in New York.
She lives in New York, which she likes.
Defining and Non-defining
A defining relative clause tells which noun we are talking about:
I like the woman who lives next door.
(If I don't say 'who lives next door', then we don't know which woman I mean).
A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about something. We don't
need this information to understand the sentence.
I live in London, which has some fantastic parks.
(Everybody knows where London is, so 'which has some fantastic parks' is extra
information).

Defining relative clauses:


1: The relative pronoun is the subject:
First, let's consider when the relative pronoun is the subject of a defining relative clause.
We can use 'who', 'which' or 'that'. We use 'who' for people and 'which' for things. We can
use 'that' for people or things.
The relative clause can come after the subject or the object of the sentence. We can't drop
the relative pronoun.
For example (clause after the object of the sentence):
I'm looking for a secretary who / that can use a computer well.
She has a son who / that is a doctor.
We bought a house which / that is 200 years old.
I sent a letter which / that arrived three weeks later.
More examples (clause after the subject of the sentence):
The people who / that live on the island are very friendly.
The man who / that phoned is my brother.
The camera which / that costs 100 is over there.
The house which / that belongs to Julie is in London.
2: The relative pronoun is the object:
Next, let's talk about when the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. In this case we
can drop the relative pronoun if we want to. Again, the clause can come after the subject or
the object of the sentence. Here are some examples:
(Clause after the object)
She loves the chocolate (which / that) I bought.
We went to the village (which / that) Lucy recommended.
John met a woman (who / that) I had been to school with.
The police arrested a man (who / that) Jill worked with.
(Clause after the subject)
The bike (which / that) I loved was stolen.
The university (which / that) she likes is famous.
The woman (who / that) my brother loves is from Mexico.
The doctor (who / that) my grandmother liked lives in New York.
Non-defining relative clauses:
We don't use 'that' in non-defining relative clauses, so we need to use 'which' if the pronoun
refers to a thing, and 'who' if it refers to a person. We can't drop the relative pronoun in this
kind of clause, even if the relative pronoun is the subject of the clause.
(Clause comes after the subject)
My boss, who is very nice, lives in Manchester.
My sister, who I live with, knows a lot about cars.
My bicycle, which I've had for more than ten years, is falling apart.
My mother's house, which I grew up in, is very small.
(Clause comes after the object)
Yesterday I called our friend Julie, who lives in New York.
The photographer called to the Queen, who looked annoyed.
Last week I bought a new computer, which I don't like now.
I really love the new Chinese restaurant, which we went to last night.
Prepositions and relative clauses
If the verb in the relative clause needs a preposition, we put it at the end of the clause:
For example:
listen to
The music is good. Julie listens to the music.
The music (which / that) Julie listens to is good.

work with
My brother met a woman. I used to work with the woman.
My brother met a woman (who / that) I used to work with.
go to
The country is very hot. He went to the country.
The country (which / that) he went to is very hot.
come from
I visited the city. John comes from the city.
I visited the city (that / which) John comes from.
apply for
The job is well paid. She applied for the job.
The job (which / that) she applied for is well paid.
Whose
'Whose' is always the subject of the relative clause and can't be left out. It replaces a
possessive. It can be used for people and things.
The dog is over there. The dog's / its owner lives next door.
The dog whose owner lives next door is over there.
The little girl is sad. The little girl's / her doll was lost.
The little girl whose doll was lost is sad.
The woman is coming tonight. Her car is a BMW.
The woman whose car is a BMW is coming tonight.
The house belongs to me. Its roof is very old.
The house whose roof is old belongs to me.
Where / when / why
We can sometimes use these question words instead of relative pronouns and prepositions.
I live in a city. I study in the city.
I live in the city where I study.
I live in the city that / which I study in.
I live in the city in which I study.
The bar in Barcelona is still there. I met my wife in that bar.
The bar in Barcelona where I met my wife is still there.
The bar in Barcelona that / which I met my wife in is still there.
The bar in Barcelona in which I met my wife is still there.
The summer was long and hot. I graduated from university in the summer.
The summer when I graduated from university was long and hot.
The summer that / which I graduated from university in was long and hot.
The summer in which I graduated was long and hot
CAUSATIVE
Let / Make / Have / Get
The following is a mini-tutorial on the use of the causative verbs "let," "make," "have," and
"get." After you have studied the tutorial, complete the associated exercises.
Let
FORM
[let + person + verb]
USE
This construction means "to allow someone to do something."
Examples:
John let me drive his new car.
Will your parents let you go to the party?

I don't know if my boss will let me take the day off.


Make
FORM
[make + person + verb]
USE
This construction means "to force someone to do something."
Examples:
My teacher made me apologize for what I had said.
Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat?
She made her children do their homework.
Have
FORM
[have + person + verb]
USE
This construction means "to give someone the responsibility to do something."
Examples:
Dr. Smith had his nurse take the patient's temperature.
Please have your secretary fax me the information.
I had the mechanic check the brakes.
Get
FORM
[get + person + to + verb]
USE
This construction usually means "to convince to do something" or "to trick someone into
doing something."
Examples:
Susie got her son to take the medicine even though it tasted terrible.
How can parents get their children to read more?
The government TV commercials are trying to get people to stop smoking.
Get vs. Have
Sometimes "get someone to do something" is interchangeable with "have someone do
something," but these expressions do not mean exactly the same thing.
Examples:
I got the mechanic to check my brakes.
AT FIRST THE MECHANIC DIDN'T THINK IT WAS NECESSARY, BUT I CONVINCED HIM TO CHECK THE BRAKES.
I had the mechanic check my brakes.
I ASKED THE MECHANIC TO CHECK THE BRAKES.

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