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1.

Introduction

Todays engineers are familiar very well in operating and using user-friendly

commercial computer programs; keep and believe for granted that everything had been

solved perfectly and correctly from the printed computer outputs. Prof. Wilson (2004)

remarks specifically that do not use a structural analysis program unless you fully

understand the theory and approximations used within the program and do not create a

computer model until the loading, material properties and boundary conditions are clearly

defined. The author personal observation shows that most of engineers in structural

design offices have not enough back up knowledge and understanding in dynamic

analysis theory of structures.

3D dynamic analysis is becoming a routine structural analysis which is currently required

for buildings design subjected to earthquake loads in this era of modern existence of

inexpensive personal computers. Unfortunately not many textbooks and course

subjects are available to be taught in the university in emphasizing the background and

practical application of the theory into the reality of daily structural design office

practices.

It is interesting to note what Prof Powel (2010) felt that most of young engineers use

computer programs blindly, without understanding what they are doing, This is probably

true, and it is unfortunate. However, my experience tells me that young engineers are not

to blame. The paper is written for the purpose of filling the niche of many members of

engineering profession who used to work with the assistance of commercial structural

analysis and design computer programs but loss of confident about their doing.

Many design aspects to be mentioned for examples; present seismic code weakness

that it does not state specifically how to define the principal directions for a 3D-structure

of arbitrary geometric shape.

Unawareness by most engineers in predefining

earthquake directions may produce base shears that underestimate the appropriate

design values since it is not a unique design base shear that associated with the

fundamental modes of vibration in the major principal direction. In most of mix-used

development buildings project, it is not uncommon to have several building towers which

significant differences in building masses and number of stories then these to be united

and integrated into one large several lower stories for podiums or basement floors.

This particular 3D-structural frames may produce large lateral torsional moments

associated to the higher modes induced by larger masses contribution at lower stories of

podiums or basement floors movements.

A well designed structure should be capable of equally resisting earthquake motion from

all possible directions and also should have minimum amount of lateral torsional

moments in the mode shapes associated with the lower frequencies of the structure.

*Associate Professor Trisakti University & President Director Haerte Widya Consulting Engineers

2.

Fundamental Assumptions

analyzing the response of structures to ground motion caused by an earthquake. In

general, structural response is expressed in terms of the displacement of the structure,

through the solution of the dynamic force of equilibrium or equations of motion. Typical

standard

equations of motion due to three components of free field ground

displacements can be set in the form of Ns second order differential equations :

..

..

..

m u (t ) c u (t ) k u (t )

..

..

m x u xg (t ) m y u yg (t ) m z u zg (t )

..

m r u g ...(1)

The number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of lumped masses in the

system. In building type of structures, in which the floor system can have any number of

columns and beams connecting to it; at the floor level intersection end of each member,

six degrees of freedom exist for 3D structure and the masses are lumped at the nodes..

The in-plane deformations in the floor systems are small compared to the interstory

horizontal displacements, then, it has become common practice to assume the in plane

motion of all points on the floor diaphragm move as a rigid body. The in plane

displacements of each floor diaphragm can be expressed in terms of two lateral

displacements ux(m) , uy(m) , and a lateral rotation about the z- axis , uz(m).

For relatively small displacements of each structural member, the materials property

could be reasonably assumed as linearly elastic isotropic material where the stressstrain relationships of the materials is linear and its have equal properties in all

directions.

There are several different classical methods that can be used for the solution of Eq. (1).

The most common and effective approach for seismic analysis is the mode superposition

method. For the purpose of dynamic response analysis, it is often advantages to

express the displaced position u(t) in terms of the free-vibration mode shapes

=

(separation variables) ;

1 , 2 , 3 , ..... N

u (t )

Y (t ) .(2)

where

is an Nd x N matrix containing N spatial vectors that are not a function of

time, and Y (t ) is a vector containing N function of time. It was noted that vibration mode

amplitudes obtained from the eigen problem solution are arbitrary, in the analysis

process the amplitude (the first, actually) has been set to unity, and the other

displacements have been deterimined relative to this reference value (normalizing the

mode shapes with respect to the specified reference coordinate) :

T

n

1n

2n

3n

, ..........

Nn

1

1 , u 2 n , u 3n , .......... u Nn ..(3)

u kn

T

n

0,

T

n

0 , for m n , therefore,

I and

T

n

i.e.

0,

, where I

2

n

and n may or may not of free vibration frequency in radians per second. The use of

normal modes coordinates serve to transform the equations of motion, Eq. (1) from a set

mass , stiffness and damping matrices, to a set of N independent (uncoupled) normalcoordinate equations :

..

.

M n Yn (t ) C n Yn (t ) K nYn (t )

Pn (t ) ..(4)

where :

..

..

T

T

T

T

T

Pn (t )

Ln u g (t ) ,

Mn

n p (t )

n m r u g (t )

nc n ,

n m n , Kn

n k n , Cn

Ln is defined as modal participation factors or in this case earthquake excitation

factors., r is a vector of ones for the structure which represents the displacements

resulting from a unit ground displacement excitation either in x, y (both translations), or z

N

T

n

mi

2

in

i 1

shall

be

used

in

the

above

equations,

and

which

T

n

Io

T

n

Io

Ioi

2

in

1)

i 1

3.

engineer needs a much more precise characterization of the ground shaking of the

specific site under consideration. For this purpose, study and observation of the

response of a single oscillator freedom (SDOF) induced by ground motion has proved to

be invaluable. The graphs showing the absolute maximum values of the structural

response, S pa ( , ) , plotted as function of period (T

damping ratio,

spectral values and shapes , S pa for earthquake ground motions depend upon many

independent variables respectively such as as source mechanism (SM), epicentral

distance (ED), focal depth (FD), geological conditions (GC), Richter magnitude (RM), soil

condition (SC), damping ratio and period. Due to the lack of knowledge as to their

influences, in the modern design response spectrum curves when normalized and

averaged to a fixed intensity level , currently are specified in terms of only two

parameters SC and . Using the direct statistical approach as similarly developed by

Seeds (1976) the average pseudo-acceleration spectra for different types of site-soil

conditions and correlated to the numerous recorded past earthquakes expressed in

terms of g had been normalized with respect to peak ground accelerations as shown in

Fig 2, of the Indonesian seismic design code SNI 1726-2002 (2010 ?), the typical

design spectra for Jakarta was copied and shown in Fig.1.

(Tanah sedang)

0.20

0.20

0.05

(Tanah keras)

T

C

0.13

0.10

0.08

0.05

0.04

0.15

0.12

0.2

0.5 0.6

1.0

2.0

3.0

0 0.2

0.5 0.6

1.0

2.0

Wilayah Gempa 3

0.75

0.75

(Tanah lunak)

T

0.60

0.42

(Tanah sedang)

T

0.23

(Tanah keras)

T

0.45

0.85

(Tanah lunak)

T

0.70

0.33

(Tanah sedang)

T

0.55

Wilayah Gempa

0.85

C

0.30

0.30

(Tanah kera

T

0.34

0.28

0.23

0.24

0.18

0.2

0.5 0.6

1.0

2.0

3.0

0.2

0.5 0.6

1.0

2.0

0.90

Wilayah Gempa 5

0.95

0.83

Wilayah Gempa

0.90

The standard design procedures

for dynamic analysis

will be described

as follows :

0.90

0.83

T

analysis of a structural

model is the calculation of the 3D

0.50

0.70

C

(Tanah sedang)

T

mode shapes and natural frequencies of vibration (or natural periods), n or Tn .

C

0.35

(Tanah keras)

T

0.38

0.36

0.33

0.36

0.32

0.95

(Tanah lun ak)

T

0.54

(Tanah sedang

T

C

C

0.42

(Tanah kera

T

, Tn =

Cn , is found from the seismic design code which is usually expressed in units of

0.28

gravitational acceleration

g.

3. Calculate the modal mass participating factor or modal earthquake excitation factor.

By definition the modal participation

factor and 2.0

the generalized

mass M n

0 0.2 0.5 0.6

1.0

3.0

0 0.2

T

N

Ln =

T

n

mi

mr =

in =

i 1

1.0

1

g

Wi

in

(5)

i 1

L1 , L2 , L3 , ...... LN (6)

1 m

L2n

as effective modal mass.

Mn

N

MT

0.5 0.6

1 m 1 =

L2n

Mn

L2n

);

1 M n

1 Io 1 =

n

building codes require that at least 90% of the effective modal participating mass

should be included in the calculation of response for each principal direction.

5. Calculate respectively the modal story shears ( f s ), base shears ( V ), overturning

(OTM) and lateral torsional moments (ts, torques) , displacements (u) or drifts :

f sin

Ln

S am , n

Mn

Ln

C n g (7)

Mn

2.0

L2n

S am , n

1 fs =

n 1 Mn

N

Vn

f si

i 1

L2n

C n g (8)

1 Mn

N

n

f sin hi ..(9)

OTM n

i 1

t sn

un

4.

Io

Ln

S am , n

Mn

Ln S am , n

2

Mn

n

Ln

C n g (10)

Mn

Ln C n g

..(11)

2

Mn

n

Practical Examples

A three story with regular plan

ETABS OUTPUT

Mode

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Period

Mode

0.521735

0.496507

0.488673

0.144574

0.138088

0.134828

0.071017

0.069642

0.063753

1

1

1

2

2

2

3

3

3

4

4

4

5

5

5

6

6

6

7

7

7

8

8

8

9

9

9

UX

UY

RZ

SumRX

SumRY

SumRZ

-0.0354

0

0

0 99.1767

0

-0.0296

0

0 98.8866 99.1767

0

-0.0195

0

0 98.8866 99.1767 93.6149

0 -0.0349

0 98.8866 99.9515 93.6149

0 -0.0297

0 99.9569 99.9515 93.6149

0 -0.0202

0 99.9569 99.9515 99.3592

0

0 0.00349 99.9569

100 99.3592

0

0 0.00285

100

100 99.3592

0

0

0.0018

100

100

100

-0.0321

0

0

0.0117

0

0

0.0361

0

0

0 -0.0324

0

0

0.0106

0

0

0.0363

0

0

0 -0.00309

0

0 0.00126

0

0 0.00345

-0.0177

0

0

0.038

0

0

-0.0264

0

0

0

0.0182

0

0 -0.0382

0

0

0.0257

0

0

0 -0.00168

0

0 0.00362

0

0 -0.00261

m

3

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

story 3

story 2

story 1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

384.9984

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 384.9984

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 40712.54

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 407.1168

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 407.1168

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 43836.77

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 419.5584

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 419.5584

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 45594.14

mode shapes

1

-0.0354

0

0

-0.0296

0

0

-0.0195

0

0

2

0

-0.0349

0

0

-0.0297

0

0

-0.0202

0

3

0

0

0.00349

0

0

0.00285

0

0

0.0018

4

-0.0321

0

0

0.0117

0

0

0.0361

0

0

5

0

-0.0324

0

0

0.0106

0

0

0.0363

0

6

0

0

-0.00309

0

0

0.00126

0

0

0.00345

7

-0.0177

0

0

0.038

0

0

-0.0264

0

0

8

0

0.0182

0

0

-0.0382

0

0

0.0257

0

9

0

0

-0.00168

0

0

0.00362

0

0

-0.00261

Lnx

Lny

Lnz

Lnx

Lny

Lnz

-33.861

0

0 1146.567

0

0

0 -34.0029

0

0 1156.197

0

0

0 349.0910266

0

0 121864.5

7.550876

0

0 57.01573

0

0

0 7.07146

0

0 50.00554

0

0

0 86.73236352

0

0 7522.503

-2.42038

0

0 5.858215

0

0

0 2.23776

0

0 5.00757

0

0

0 -28.7086896

0

0 824.1889

= 1209.441 1211.21 130211.2

2

total

99.82

fs1

Vby

fs2

2487.428

0

0

2199.374

0

0

1493.191

0

0

6179.994

fs1

99.96

fs3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

fs2

0

0

0 2462.572

0

0

0

0

0 2216.053

0

0

0

0

0 1553.275

0

0

0

6231.9

100.05

fs4

fs5

fs6

fs7

0 -210.337

0

0

0

0

0 81.06925

0

0

0

0

0 257.781

0

0

0

0

0 128.5135

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

S am

Vbx

630.6116 6179.994

0

0

0

0

13.11362 128.5135

0

0

0

0

1.34739 13.20442

0

0

0

0

accuracy (%)

Vbx

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

37.17652

0

0

-84.3994

0

0

60.42726

0

0

13.20442

fs8

Vby

0

0

635.9082

6231.9

0

0

0

0

11.50128 112.7125

0

0

0

0

1.151741 11.28706

0

0

fs9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

fs3

fs4

fs5

fs6

fs7

fs8

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 -198.823

0

0 35.34254

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 68.78407

0

0 -78.4422

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 242.7516

0

0 54.38673

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 112.7125

0

0 11.28706

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

fs9

Note : ETABS OUTPUT agrees very well with the theoritical results of backward-analysis

Single story irregular plan

ETABS OUTPUT

Mode

BACKWARD ANALYSIS

Period Mode UX

UY

SumRX SumRY SumRZ

1 0.277944

1 0.0915 0.0259

1.838 22.9208 76.0175

2 0.187345

2 -0.1654 0.0463

7.697 97.739 93.8501

3 0.170171

3 -0.0287 -0.1837

100

100

100

m

27.36

27.36

0 434.0511

0.0915

0.0259

-0.04163

-0.1654 -0.0287

0.0463 -0.1837

-0.0211 -0.01119

Lnx2

6.267212

20.47874

0.616589

27.36254

Lny2

0.502148

1.604701

25.261

27.36785

Lnz2

326.5085

83.87772

23.59076

433.977

Iox=Lnx

-45.236

41.44526

3.813897

0.023134

Ioy=Lny

-12.8045

-11.6017

24.4116

0.005415

Vbx

4.700409 46.06401

15.35905 150.5187

0.462442 4.531931

fs1

Vby

0.376611 3.690788

1.203526 11.79455

18.94575 185.6683

fs2

fs3

TORQUES

Tbx

-33.927 -332.485

31.08395 304.6227

2.860423 28.03214

Tbx

-9.60339 -94.1132

-8.70125 -85.2723

18.3087 179.4252

fs1

fs2

fs3

13.03888 -42.1343 29.00752

3.690788 11.79455 185.6683 Vby

13.03888 -42.1343 29.00752

-332.485 304.6227 28.03214 Tbx

NOTE : ETABS OUTPUT agrees very well with the theoritical results of backwardanalysis

Second Story irregular plan

ETABS OUTPUT

Mode

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

BACKWARD ANALYSIS

UX

UY

RZ

-0.0897 -0.0062 0.03659

-0.0415 -0.0073 0.01792

0.1491 -0.0051

0.0224

0.0652 -0.0052 0.01052

0

0.1687 0.00363

0.0029

0.0863 -0.00091

0.0364

0.0269 -0.01883

-0.0749 -0.0294 0.03637

0.0632 -0.0471

0.0063

-0.1362

0.0861 -0.01192

0.0309

0.0712 0.00747

-0.0676 -0.1375 -0.01716

Mode

1

2

3

4

5

6

Period

SumUX

SumUY

SumRZ

0.511953 23.7206

0.2562 65.7177

0.367243 86.8642

0.4052 88.5947

0.319362 86.8769 90.2398 88.8441

0.163567 89.2762 90.2624 96.7824

0.107548 97.8402 92.7827

97.726

0.100288

100

100

100

STORY

m

2

27.36

0

0

0

0

0

0

27.36

0

0

0

0

0

0

434.0511

0

0

0

0

0

0

28.8

0

0

0

0

0

0

28.8

0

Lxn

Lyn

Lzn

13.31806 0.144303 578.6564

Iox n

Ioy n

-87.7871 -9.13793

86.5032 -4.20085

0.006976

1.348423

4.811039

1.213205

56.18517

50.42522

0.012262

1.418538

4.048015

56.13203

1.346883

70.81639

7.30196

21.01625

889.9955

0.096929

-9.77192

5.927058

5.049458

0.017588

8.241168

-0.93187

-3.2184

9.223563

-0.02432

0

0

0

0

0

456.102

Lxn 2

13.31806

35.48747

0.006976

1.348423

4.811039

1.213205

56.18517

Cumm

13.31806

48.80553

48.81251

50.16093

54.97197

56.18517

2x

2y

2z

1x

1y

1z

1

-0.0897

-0.0062

0.03659

-0.0415

-0.0073

0.01792

% Cumm

23.70387

86.8655

86.87791

89.27788

97.8407

100

2

0.1491

-0.0051

0.0224

0.0652

-0.0052

0.01052

Lyn 2

0.144303

0.083692

50.42522

0.012262

1.418538

4.048015

56.13203

Cumm

0.144303

0.227995

50.65322

50.66548

52.08402

56.13203

3

0

0.1687

0.00363

0.0029

0.0863

-0.00091

% Cumm

0.257077

0.406176

90.23941

90.26126

92.7884

100

4

0.0364

0.0269

-0.01883

-0.0749

-0.0294

0.03637

5

0.0632

-0.0471

0.0063

-0.1362

0.0861

-0.01192

Lzn 2

578.6564

210.8576

1.346883

70.81639

7.30196

21.01625

889.9955

6

0.0309

0.0712

0.00747

-0.0676

-0.1375

-0.01716

Cumm

578.6564

789.514

790.8609

861.6773

868.9792

889.9955

% Cumm

65.0179

88.70989

88.86122

96.81816

97.63861

100

BASE SHEARS V

7.324934

19.51811

0.003837

0.310137

1.106539

0.279037

Vbx

71.78435402

191.2774596

0.037598432

3.039344537

10.84408113

2.734564791

0.079367

0.046031

27.73387

0.00282

0.326264

0.931044

Vby

0.777792

0.451101

271.792

0.02764

3.197385

9.124226

BASE TORQUES

Tbx

-48.28293 -473.1726716

47.57676 466.2522513

0.053311 0.522449246

-2.247542 -22.02590784

1.363223 13.35958785

1.161375 11.38147895

-5.02586

-2.310467

4.532642

-0.21433

-0.740232

2.121419

TbY

-49.25342

-22.64258

44.4199

-2.100437

-7.254277

20.78991

NOTE : ETABS OUTPUT agrees very well with the theoritical results of backwardanalysis

5.

Conclusions

Theoretical 3D-dynamic analyses had been briefly elaborated and clearly applied

through practical design examples by the assistance of ETABS computer program. It has

been shown that for simple regular plans through irregular structural plans with only one

type of rigid diaphragm, ETABS output agrees very well with the theoretical results of

backward analysis.

Particular cases for the irregular structural plans with multi masses and multi rigid

diaphragms as commonly found in the case of mixed use building analytical model will

be separately written for the next publication.

6.

References

SNI 03-1726-2002, 64 pp.

RSNI 03-1726-xxxx, (2010), Draft of The Indonesian Earthquake Resistance Standard

Design Requirements for Structural and Non- Structural Buildings, 106 pp.

Clough, R., Penzien, J. (2003) , Dynamic of Structures, 2nd Edition (revised), Computer

and Structure Inc., 739 pp.

Paz, M, (1991), Structural Dynamics, Theory and Computation, 3rd Edition, Van

Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 626 pp.

Chopra, A.K. (1995), Dynamics of Structures, Theory and Applications to Earthquake

Engineering, Prentice Hall , New Jersey, 729 pp.

Wilson, E. L. (2004), Static & Dynamic Analysis of Structures, A Physical Approach With

Emphasis on Earthquake Engineering, 4th Edition, Computer and Structure Inc., 390 pp.

Seed, H.B., Ugas, C., and Lysmer, L. (1976), Site Dependent Spectra for Earthquake

Resistant Design, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 66, No.1,

February.

Powell, G., H. (2010), Modeling for Structural Analysis, Behavior and Basics, Computer

and Structure Inc., 365 pp.

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