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PROCEEDINGS PIT HAGI 2012

37th HAGI Annual Convention & Exhibition


Palembang, 10-13 September 2012

Vertical Seismic Resolution Enhancement Using Gabor Filter


Lita Novitasari1, Reni Purnama Sari1, Wahyu Triyoso1. 1Institute of Technology Bandung
Abstract
The loss of high frequencies due to attenuation by the earth
leads to reduced vertical resolution in the seismic data.
Therefore, appropriate seismic data processing is required
to extend the bandwidth of seismic data. Application of the
Gabor filter in the signal decomposition process can
improve the vertical resolution of seismic data. Gabor filter
is a bandpass filter using Gaussian function in the
frequency domain.

Figure 1: Gaussian window in time domain (Gabor, 1946).

Gabor filter method is applied to common offset stack data


that has been divided by different range of offset. Gabor
filter is applied by doing frequency decomposition in the
entire frequency range of seismic data, so that some
bandlimited data is produced.
Gabor filter method on the data with a closer offset range
can extend the bandwidth of the seismic data, so the
vertical resolution and continuity increased compared to the
result of conventional seismic data processing. In addition,
it can produce smoother amplitude spectrum of seismic
data and improve the signal to noise ratio.
Introduction
The Gabor filter was originally introduced by Dennis
Gabor (Gabor, 1946). The one-dimensional Gabor filter is
defined as the multiplication of a cosine/sine (even/odd)
wave with a Gaussian window.
Gaussian window (see Fig.1) and its Fourier transform are
defined mathematically:
f ( x)

F ( ) e

x2
2 2

2 2
2

(1)
(2)

So that, Gabor filter g(x) (see Fig.2) is defined as follows:


g 0 ( x)
g 0 ( x)

1
2
1
2

The power spectrum of the Gabor filter is given by the sum


of two Gaussians centred at 0:

G( ) e 2
2

2 2

( 0 ) 2

e 2

2 ( 0 ) 2

(5)

Gabor (Gabor, 1946) demonstrated that the complex Gabor


filter given by,
g ( x) g 0 ( x) ig 0 ( x)

cos(2 0 x)

(3)

sin(2 0 x)

(4)

where 0 defines the centre frequency (i.e., the frequency


in which the filter yields the greatest response) and the
spread of the Gaussian window.

The power spectrum of a sine wave are two impulses


located at 0 and the power spectrum of Gaussian is a
(non-normalized) Gaussian. Multiplication in the temporal
(spatial) domain is equivalent to convolution in the
frequency domain (Oppenheim, Willsky & S.H., 1997).

x2

(a)
(b)
Figure 2: One-dimensional Gabor filters. (a) Gabor cosine
(even), (b) Gabor sine (odd).

1
2
1
2

x2
2 2

cos(2 0 x) i sin(2 0 x

x2
2 2

e i ( 2 0 x )

(6)

Gabor filter is a bandpass filter using Gaussian function in


the frequency domain.

PROCEEDINGS PIT HAGI 2012


37th HAGI Annual Convention & Exhibition
Palembang, 10-13 September 2012

Data and Method


Seismic data used in this study is 2-D marine synthetic
data. The workflow shown in Fig.3 depicts seismic data
processing using conventional method and Gabor filter.

Common Offset Stack


Gabor Filter
Sf1(t), Sf2(t), Sf3(t), , Sfn(t)
Normalization
Sf1(t) + Sf2(t) + Sf3(t) + + Sfn(t) = Sf(t)

Figure 4: The flowchart of Gabor Filtering.

Figure 3: The flowchart of seismic data processing using


conventional method and Gabor Filter.

This study is focused on the vertical seismic resolution


enhancement of seismic sections by using Gabor filter. The
flowchart of Gabor filtering is shown in Fig.4.

Figure 5: Gabor filter design that applied to a common


offset stack.
There are 4 types of common offset stack data used
according to the division of the offset range. After applied
NMO correction, seismic data is divided regularly into 3, 5,
10, and 30 common offset stacks. Example of offset range
distribution from gather data to make five common offset
stacks is shown in Fig.6.

Gabor filter method is applied to common offset stack data


that has been divided by different range of offset. Gabor
filter is applied by doing frequency decomposition in the
entire frequency range of data, so that some bandlimited
data is produced. Example of Gabor filter design at a
common offset stack is shown in Fig.5.
Each band limited data must be normalized to get the same
maximum absolute seismic amplitude value at different
centre frequencies of the data. Normalization is done by
dividing each value of the seismic amplitude in the seismic
data with a maximum absolute amplitude value. Then, all
bandlimited data were stacked to get a new common offset
stack data. After that, all new common offset stacks were
stacked to get a full offset stack, then migrated.

Figure 6: Distribution of offset range from gather data to


make five common offset stacks.

PROCEEDINGS PIT HAGI 2012


37th HAGI Annual Convention & Exhibition
Palembang, 10-13 September 2012

Migrated seismic sections resulted from conventional and


Gabor filter method are shown in Fig.7. It can be seen that
continuity and the signal-to-noise ratio are improved by
Gabor filter process, as shown in the red circled area.
Fig.7.e that Gabor filter is applied on common offset stack
data with closer offset range has the greatest continuity of
all.

Result and Discussion

(a)

(a)
(b)

(b)

(c)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(d)
Figure 8: Spectrum amplitude of migrated seismic data
resulted from conventional (a) and Gabor filter method
with 3 (b), 5 (c), 10 (d), 30 (e) divisions of offset range.

(e)
Figure 7: Migrated seismic sections resulted from
conventional (a) and Gabor filter method with 3 (b), 5 (c),
10 (d), 30 (e) divisions of offset range.

The frequency content of all migrated cross sections


resulted from conventional and Gabor filter method is
shown in Fig.8. The frequency range of the conventional
seismic data at -12 dB is 6-40 Hz (see Fig.8.a). In the
Gabor filtered data with 3 divisions of offset range, the
frequency range at -12 dB is 6-51 Hz and there is much
noise at high frequencies shown in black circles (see
Fig.8.b). In the Gabor filtered data with 5 divisions of
offset range, the frequency range at -12 dB is 6-52 Hz and

PROCEEDINGS PIT HAGI 2012


37th HAGI Annual Convention & Exhibition
Palembang, 10-13 September 2012

there is some noise at high frequencies shown in black


circles (see Fig.8.c). In the Gabor filtered data with 10
divisions of offset range, the frequency range at -12 dB is
6-52 Hz and there is less noise at high frequencies than the
previous data (see Fig.8.d). Then, Gabor filtered data with
30 divisions of offset range has the least noise and the
frequency content increases to 6-54 Hz at -12 dB (see
Fig.8.e). It also has the smoothest amplitude spectrum of
all.
From Fig.8, it can be seen that the data with a closer offset
range after Gabor filter process have the widest frequency
content of all and it indicates that the seismic data has good
seismic vertical resolution. It also can be seen that there is a
smooth evolution of the amplitude spectrums. The closer
offset range of the common offset stack data used for
Gabor filter, the smoother amplitude spectrum of the
migrated seismic data. The noise generated also decreases
with increasing sampling offset the data. Then, the
amplitude spectrum become flatter with increasing
sampling offset the data.
Conclusions
Gabor filter method on the data with a closer offset range
can extend the bandwidth of the seismic data, so the
vertical resolution and continuity increase compared to the
result of conventional seismic data processing. In addition,
it can produce smoother amplitude spectrum of seismic
data and improve the signal to noise ratio. The Gabor filter
results must be proven if it is amplitude preserved or not.

References
Gabor, D, 1946, Journal of the Institute of Electrical
Engineers 93, 429457.
Suryoko, M.A, 2010, M.T. thesis, Institute of Technology
Bandung.
Walia, R. et al, 2004, CSEG National Convention, Canada.
Yilmaz, O, 2001, Seismic Data Analysis, 1, SEG.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to make a special acknowledgment
of the assistance received from assistants at A House PT.
LAPI ITB.