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Paper
Vertical Seismic Resolution
Methods

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Palembang, 10-13 September 2012

Lita Novitasari1, Reni Purnama Sari1, Wahyu Triyoso1. 1Institute of Technology Bandung

Abstract

The loss of high frequencies due to attenuation by the earth

leads to reduced vertical resolution in the seismic data.

Therefore, appropriate seismic data processing is required

to extend the bandwidth of seismic data. Application of the

Gabor filter in the signal decomposition process can

improve the vertical resolution of seismic data. Gabor filter

is a bandpass filter using Gaussian function in the

frequency domain.

that has been divided by different range of offset. Gabor

filter is applied by doing frequency decomposition in the

entire frequency range of seismic data, so that some

bandlimited data is produced.

Gabor filter method on the data with a closer offset range

can extend the bandwidth of the seismic data, so the

vertical resolution and continuity increased compared to the

result of conventional seismic data processing. In addition,

it can produce smoother amplitude spectrum of seismic

data and improve the signal to noise ratio.

Introduction

The Gabor filter was originally introduced by Dennis

Gabor (Gabor, 1946). The one-dimensional Gabor filter is

defined as the multiplication of a cosine/sine (even/odd)

wave with a Gaussian window.

Gaussian window (see Fig.1) and its Fourier transform are

defined mathematically:

f ( x)

F ( ) e

x2

2 2

2 2

2

(1)

(2)

g 0 ( x)

g 0 ( x)

1

2

1

2

of two Gaussians centred at 0:

G( ) e 2

2

2 2

( 0 ) 2

e 2

2 ( 0 ) 2

(5)

filter given by,

g ( x) g 0 ( x) ig 0 ( x)

cos(2 0 x)

(3)

sin(2 0 x)

(4)

in which the filter yields the greatest response) and the

spread of the Gaussian window.

located at 0 and the power spectrum of Gaussian is a

(non-normalized) Gaussian. Multiplication in the temporal

(spatial) domain is equivalent to convolution in the

frequency domain (Oppenheim, Willsky & S.H., 1997).

x2

(a)

(b)

Figure 2: One-dimensional Gabor filters. (a) Gabor cosine

(even), (b) Gabor sine (odd).

1

2

1

2

x2

2 2

cos(2 0 x) i sin(2 0 x

x2

2 2

e i ( 2 0 x )

(6)

the frequency domain.

37th HAGI Annual Convention & Exhibition

Palembang, 10-13 September 2012

Seismic data used in this study is 2-D marine synthetic

data. The workflow shown in Fig.3 depicts seismic data

processing using conventional method and Gabor filter.

Gabor Filter

Sf1(t), Sf2(t), Sf3(t), , Sfn(t)

Normalization

Sf1(t) + Sf2(t) + Sf3(t) + + Sfn(t) = Sf(t)

conventional method and Gabor Filter.

enhancement of seismic sections by using Gabor filter. The

flowchart of Gabor filtering is shown in Fig.4.

offset stack.

There are 4 types of common offset stack data used

according to the division of the offset range. After applied

NMO correction, seismic data is divided regularly into 3, 5,

10, and 30 common offset stacks. Example of offset range

distribution from gather data to make five common offset

stacks is shown in Fig.6.

that has been divided by different range of offset. Gabor

filter is applied by doing frequency decomposition in the

entire frequency range of data, so that some bandlimited

data is produced. Example of Gabor filter design at a

common offset stack is shown in Fig.5.

Each band limited data must be normalized to get the same

maximum absolute seismic amplitude value at different

centre frequencies of the data. Normalization is done by

dividing each value of the seismic amplitude in the seismic

data with a maximum absolute amplitude value. Then, all

bandlimited data were stacked to get a new common offset

stack data. After that, all new common offset stacks were

stacked to get a full offset stack, then migrated.

make five common offset stacks.

37th HAGI Annual Convention & Exhibition

Palembang, 10-13 September 2012

Gabor filter method are shown in Fig.7. It can be seen that

continuity and the signal-to-noise ratio are improved by

Gabor filter process, as shown in the red circled area.

Fig.7.e that Gabor filter is applied on common offset stack

data with closer offset range has the greatest continuity of

all.

(a)

(a)

(b)

(b)

(c)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(d)

Figure 8: Spectrum amplitude of migrated seismic data

resulted from conventional (a) and Gabor filter method

with 3 (b), 5 (c), 10 (d), 30 (e) divisions of offset range.

(e)

Figure 7: Migrated seismic sections resulted from

conventional (a) and Gabor filter method with 3 (b), 5 (c),

10 (d), 30 (e) divisions of offset range.

resulted from conventional and Gabor filter method is

shown in Fig.8. The frequency range of the conventional

seismic data at -12 dB is 6-40 Hz (see Fig.8.a). In the

Gabor filtered data with 3 divisions of offset range, the

frequency range at -12 dB is 6-51 Hz and there is much

noise at high frequencies shown in black circles (see

Fig.8.b). In the Gabor filtered data with 5 divisions of

offset range, the frequency range at -12 dB is 6-52 Hz and

37th HAGI Annual Convention & Exhibition

Palembang, 10-13 September 2012

circles (see Fig.8.c). In the Gabor filtered data with 10

divisions of offset range, the frequency range at -12 dB is

6-52 Hz and there is less noise at high frequencies than the

previous data (see Fig.8.d). Then, Gabor filtered data with

30 divisions of offset range has the least noise and the

frequency content increases to 6-54 Hz at -12 dB (see

Fig.8.e). It also has the smoothest amplitude spectrum of

all.

From Fig.8, it can be seen that the data with a closer offset

range after Gabor filter process have the widest frequency

content of all and it indicates that the seismic data has good

seismic vertical resolution. It also can be seen that there is a

smooth evolution of the amplitude spectrums. The closer

offset range of the common offset stack data used for

Gabor filter, the smoother amplitude spectrum of the

migrated seismic data. The noise generated also decreases

with increasing sampling offset the data. Then, the

amplitude spectrum become flatter with increasing

sampling offset the data.

Conclusions

Gabor filter method on the data with a closer offset range

can extend the bandwidth of the seismic data, so the

vertical resolution and continuity increase compared to the

result of conventional seismic data processing. In addition,

it can produce smoother amplitude spectrum of seismic

data and improve the signal to noise ratio. The Gabor filter

results must be proven if it is amplitude preserved or not.

References

Gabor, D, 1946, Journal of the Institute of Electrical

Engineers 93, 429457.

Suryoko, M.A, 2010, M.T. thesis, Institute of Technology

Bandung.

Walia, R. et al, 2004, CSEG National Convention, Canada.

Yilmaz, O, 2001, Seismic Data Analysis, 1, SEG.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to make a special acknowledgment

of the assistance received from assistants at A House PT.

LAPI ITB.

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