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CLB 10402 FUNDAMENTAL OF E & E

SAFE WORK PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES


Electrical Safety
1. Electrical Hazards
1.1. Power Loss
2. Electrical Shock
2.1. Electrical Shock from Laser power Supply
2.2. Electrical Shock from Electrophoresis
3. Preventing Electrical Hazards
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.

Insulation
Guarding
Grounding
Circuit Protection Devices
Motors

4. Reducing Electrical Hazards


5. Safe Work Practices
6. High Voltage or Current
7. Altering Building Wiring and Utilities
Electrically powered equipment, such as hot plates, stirrers, vacuum pumps,
electrophoresis apparatus, lasers, heating mantles, ultrasonicators, power supplies, and
microwave ovens are essential elements of many laboratories. These devices can pose a
significant hazard to laboratory workers, particularly when mishandled or not maintained.
Many laboratory electrical devices have high voltage or high power requirements,
carrying even more risk. Large capacitors found in many laser flash lamps and other
systems are capable of storing lethal amounts of electrical energy and pose a serious
danger even if the power source has been disconnected.
The typical laboratory requires a large quantity of electrical power. This
increases the likelihood of electrically-related problems and hazards. One must address
both the electrical shock hazard to the facility occupants and the fire hazard potential.
The following recommendations are basic to a sound electrical safety program in the
laboratory.
i.
ii.

iii.

All electrical equipment shall be properly grounded.


Sufficient room for work must be present in the area of breaker boxes. All the
circuit breakers and the fuses shall be labeled to indicate whether they are in the
"on" or "off" position, and what appliance or room area is served. Fuses must be
properly rated.
Equipment, appliance and extension cords shall be in good condition.
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CLB 10402 FUNDAMENTAL OF E & E

iv.
v.

vi.

vii.

1.

Extension cords shall not be used as a substitute for permanent wiring.


Electrical cords or other lines shall not be suspended unsupported across rooms or
passageways. Do not route cords over metal objects such as emergency showers,
overhead pipes or frames, metal racks, etc. Do not run cords through holes in
walls or ceilings or through doorways or windows. Do not place under carpet,
rugs, or heavy objects. Do not place cords on pathways or other areas where
repeated abuse can cause deterioration of insulation.
Multi-outlet plugs shall not be used unless they have a built-in circuit breaker.
This causes overloading on electrical wiring, which will cause damage and
possible overheating.
Most of the portable multiple outlets are rated at 13 amps. Employees shall check
when all connections are made to determine that the total input average will never
exceed 13 amps. (The amperage on electrical equipment is usually stamped on the
manufacturer's plate).

Electrical Hazards

The major hazards associated with electricity are electrical shock and fire.
Electrical shock occurs when the body becomes part of the electric circuit, either when an
individual comes in contact with both wires of an electrical circuit, one wire of an
energized circuit and the ground, or a metallic part that has become energized by contact
with an electrical conductor. The severity and effects of an electrical shock depend on a
number of factors, such as the pathway through the body, the amount of current, the
length of time of the exposure, and whether the skin is wet or dry. Water is a great
conductor of electricity, allowing current to flow more easily in wet conditions and
through wet skin. The effect of the shock may range from a slight tingle to severe burns
to cardiac arrest. The chart below shows the general relationship between the degree of
injury and amount of current for a 60-cycle hand-to-foot path of one second's duration of
shock. While reading this chart, keep in mind that most electrical circuits can provide,
under normal conditions, up to 20,000 milliamperes of current flow.
Current

Reaction

1 Milliampere

Perception level

5 Milliamperes

Slight shock felt; not painful but disturbing

6-30 Milliamperes

Painful shock; "let-go" range

50-150 Milliamperes

Extreme pain, respiratory arrest, severe


muscular contraction

1000-4,300 Milliamperes

Ventricular fibrillation

10,000+ Milliamperes

Cardiac arrest, severe burns and probable death

In addition to the electrical shock hazards, sparks from electrical equipment can serve as
an ignition source for flammable or explosive vapors or combustible materials.
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CLB 10402 FUNDAMENTAL OF E & E

1.1.

Power Loss

Loss of electrical power can create hazardous situations. Flammable or toxic


vapors may be released as a chemical warms when a refrigerator or freezer fails. Fume
hoods may cease to operate, allowing vapors to be released into the laboratory. If
magnetic or mechanical stirrers fail to operate, safe mixing of reagents may be
compromised.

2.

Electrical Shock

2.1.

Electrical Shock from Laser Power Supply

A laboratory worker noticed condensation on the high voltage power supply for a
high powered laser. With the power still on, he wiped the moisture with a tissue, making
contact with the exposed anode terminal at approximately 17,000 volts DC to ground. He
received a severe electrical shock and second degree burns to his right thumb and
abdomen. Witnesses stated that they heard a loud "snap" and then heard the laboratory
worker scream and stagger out to the hallway. He was immediately met by a secretary,
and told her "I got a shock" as he collapsed into her arms and onto the floor. He had no
pulse and was not breathing. Public Safety officers were nearby and immediately started
CPR. The ambulance crew arrived and was able to restore his heartbeat using a
defibrillator. Fortunately, the laboratory worker lived to tell his story. He said that he
knew that the power was on but was not aware that contact was possible at the high
voltage terminals. The interlocks had been defeated and guards removed with no alternate
guarding or precautions taken.
o
o
o

2.2.

Understand the operating characteristics of equipment before use.


Do not defeat machine safety interlocks.
Do not work around energized exposed conductors.
Electrical Shock from Electrophoresis Unit

A laboratory worker received a potentially fatal electrical shock when he


accidentally touched a high voltage electrical connector on an electrophoresis device. The
contact points were on the right elbow and right knee. Had one of the contacts been on
the opposite side of the body, the shock could have been fatal. The primary cause of this
incident was the existence of an exposed high voltage conductor in the form of a
stackable banana plug at the device. When connected to the male plug on the device, the
male connector plug was left exposed with no insulation or guarding.
o

The accident could have been avoided by eliminating all exposed conductors in
connector cords and electrophoresis devices by either
 Fitting each electrophoresis with its own set of permanently attached
connector cords to eliminate jacks and plugs entirely at this point; or
 Eliminating cords with stackable plugs on both ends by replacing the
stackable plugs on one end with a female only jack (all electrophoresis
devices should be fitted with male only plugs).
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CLB 10402 FUNDAMENTAL OF E & E

3.

Preventing Electrical Hazards

There are various ways of protecting people from the hazards caused by
electricity, including insulation, guarding, grounding, electrical protective devices, and
type of motor used.
3.1.

Insulating

All electrical cords should have sufficient insulation to prevent direct contact with
wires. In a laboratory, it is particularly important to check all cords before each use, since
corrosive chemicals or solvents may erode the insulation. Damaged cords should be
repaired or taken out of service immediately, especially in wet environments such as cold
rooms and near water baths.
3.2.

Guarding

Live parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more (i.e., electrophoresis


devices) must be guarded against accidental contact. Plexiglas shields may be used to
protect against exposed live parts.
3.3.

Grounding

Only equipment with three-prong plugs should be used in the laboratory. The
third prong provides a path to ground for internal electrical short circuits, thereby
protecting the user from a potential electrical shock.
3.4.

Circuit Protection Devices

Circuit protection devices are designed to automatically limit or shut off the flow
of electricity in the event of a ground-fault, overload or short circuit in the wiring system.
Ground-fault circuit interrupters, circuit breakers and fuses are three well-known
examples of such devices. Fuses and circuit breakers prevent over-heating of wires and
components that might otherwise create fire hazards. They disconnect the circuit when it
becomes overloaded. This overload protection is very useful for equipment that is left on
for extended periods of time, such as stirrers, vacuum pumps, drying ovens, Variacs and
other electrical equipment. The ground-fault circuit interrupter, or GFCI, is designed to
shutoff electric power if a ground fault is detected, protecting the user from a potential
electrical shock. The GFCI is particularly useful near sinks and wet locations. Since
GFCIs can cause equipment to shutdown unexpectedly, they may not be appropriate for
certain apparatus. Portable GFCI adapters (available in most safety supply catalogs) may
be used with a non-GFCI outlet.
3.5.

Motors

In laboratories where volatile flammable materials are used, motor-driven


electrical equipment should be equipped with non-sparking induction motors or air
motors. Many stirrers, Variacs, outlet strips, ovens, heat tape, hot plates and heat guns do
not conform to these code requirements. Avoid series-wound motors, such as those
generally found in some vacuum pumps, rotary evaporators and stirrers. Series-wound
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CLB 10402 FUNDAMENTAL OF E & E

motors are also usually found in household appliances such as blenders, mixers, vacuum
cleaners and power drills. These appliances should not be used unless flammable vapors
are adequately controlled. Although some newer equipment has spark-free induction
motors, the on-off switches and speed controls may be able to produce a spark when they
are adjusted because they have exposed contacts. One solution is to remove any switches
located on the device and insert a switch on the cord near the plug end.

4.

Reducing Electrical Hazards

Laboratory workers can significantly reduce electrical hazards by following some


basic precautions:
i.
ii.
iii.

iv.

v.
vi.
vii.

5.

Inspect wiring of equipment before each use. Replace damaged or frayed


electrical cords immediately.
Use safe work practices every time electrical equipment is used.
Know the location and how to operate shut-off switches and/or circuit breaker
panels. Use these devices to shut off equipment in the event of a fire or
electrocution.
Limit the use of extension cords. Use only for temporary operations and then only
for short periods of time. In all other cases, request installation of a new electrical
outlet.
Multi-plug adapters must have circuit breakers or fuses.
Place exposed electrical conductors (such as those sometimes used with
electrophoresis devices) behind shields.
Minimize the potential for water or chemical spills on or near electrical
equipment.

Safe Work Practices

The following practices may reduce risk of injury or fire when working with
electrical equipment:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

v.

vi.
vii.

Avoid contact with energized electrical circuits.


Disconnect the power source before servicing or repairing electrical equipment.
When it is necessary to handle equipment that is plugged in, be sure hands are dry
and, when possible, wear nonconductive gloves and shoes with insulated soles.
If it is safe to do so, work with only one hand, keeping the other hand at your side
or in your pocket, away from all conductive material. This precaution reduces the
likelihood of accidents that result in current passing through the chest cavity.
Minimize the use of electrical equipment in cold rooms or other areas where
condensation is likely. If equipment must be used in such areas, mount the
equipment on a wall or vertical panel.
If water or a chemical is spilled onto equipment, shut off power at the main switch
or circuit breaker and unplug the equipment.
If an individual comes in contact with a live electrical conductor, do not touch the
equipment, cord or person. Disconnect the power source from the circuit breaker
or pull out the plug using a leather belt.
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CLB 10402 FUNDAMENTAL OF E & E

6.

Safe Work Practices (Repairs of high voltage or high current


equipment)

Repairs of high voltage or high current equipment should be performed only by


trained electricians. Laboratory workers who are experienced in such tasks and would
like to perform such work on their own laboratory equipment must first receive
specialized electrical safety related work practices training by competent staff.

7.

Safe Work Practices (Altering Building Wiring and Utilities)

Any modifications to existing electrical service in a laboratory or building must


be completed or approved by the building facility manager, an electrical engineer or
competent staff. All modifications must meet both safety design requirements.

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