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Statistics and Data Analysis,

Probability
Week 01 Lecture 01
EEE 25: Probability and Statistics
for Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

Today
Errors in Measurement
Descriptive Statistics
Frequency Distribution
Stochastic Experiments
Events
Probabilities
Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability
EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

Population vs. Sample


Population
Collection of all possible data

Sample
Subset of the population
Characteristics of the sample will vary depending on the
values and number of samples taken

Example
Battery lifetime in hours
Individuals who received a BS in engineering in the
previous academic year

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

Significant Figures
All the digits that are certain plus one digit which
contains some uncertainty are said to be significant
figures.

Examples:

1.00

0.25

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

0.05

Rounding Off
Rule 1: If the remainder beyond the last digit to be
reported is less than 5, drop the last digit.
Rule 2: If the remainder beyond the last digit is
greater than 5, increase the last digit by 1.
Rule 3: If the remainder is exactly 5, round off to the
closest even number.

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

Kinds of Errors
Determinate
can be attributed to definite causes
methodic, operative or instrumental
Example: weighing with uncalibrated weights

Indeterminate
cannot be attributed to any known cause

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

Accuracy and Precision


Accuracy is how closely a result agrees with the
true result
The smaller the error, the greater the accuracy

Precision refers to the agreement among a group of


experimental results.

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

* Image from http://googleimage.xyz/


accuracy-and-precision

Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics
the analysis of data that helps describe, show or summarize
data in a meaningful way
a way of describing the characteristics of a large
collection of data by using a subset of it

Numerical summary values


Measure of central tendency
Measure of variability

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

Measures of Central Tendency


The mean of a set of data is their arithmetic
average.
Two flavors:
Population mean,
Sample mean

1 n
x = xi
n i =1
x =sample mean
n=number of observations in the sample
xi =the i - th observation in the sample
Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability
EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

Measures of Central Tendency


The median of a sample is the value of the middle
item when the items are arranged in increasing
order.

%
x(n+1) 2 ,
if n is odd
'
x! = & 1
' !" xn 2 + x(n 2)+1 #$, if n is even
( 2

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Measures of Central Tendency


The mode is the most common value in the sample.
If all values occur equally frequently, then there is
no mode.

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Example
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Mean

Median

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

Mode

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Example
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Mean

52.40

Median

60

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

Mode

60

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Example

Mean

Median

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

Mode

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Example
VALUE

FREQUENCY

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

2
7
4
4
1
7
9
7
4
7

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


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Example
VALUE

FREQUENCY

VALUE FREQ

LAST POSITION

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

2
7
4
4
1
7
9
7
4
7
52

2
14
12
16
5
42
63
56
36
70
316

2
9
13
17
18
25
34
41
45
52

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


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Example

Mean

6.08

Median

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

Mode

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Measures of Variability
The measure of center reveals only partial
information about a data set
Example: same mean/median, different spread

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

* Image taken from Devore

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Measures of Variability
The range of a sample is the difference between the
highest and the lowest values of data
Sensitive to outliers

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Measures of Variability
Population variance, 2
N

( x )

2 =

i=1

Sample variance, s2
n

( x x )

s2 =

i=1

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Sample Spaces and Events


An experiment is any activity or process whose
outcome is subject to uncertainty.
Examples
Selecting a card from a deck
Weighing a loaf of bread
Obtaining blood types from a group of people

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EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Sample Spaces and Events


The sample space of an experiment is the set of all
possible outcomes of that experiment.
Discrete: elements are countable
Continuous: elements are uncountable

An event is any collection (subset) of outcomes


contained in the sample space.
We can use elementary set theory to study events.

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Set Definitions
a is an element of set A, a A
a is not an element of A, a A
B is a subset of A, BA
B is a proper subset of A, BA
is a null set

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Set Definitions
A = {x|0 x 1}
uncountable and infinite

B = {0,1}
countable and finite

N = {0,1,2,...}
countably infinite

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Venn Diagram

S is the universal set


D is disjoint from the
other sets
BA
A C = shaded
region (intersection)

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Set Operations
If A B and B A, then A = B (equal)
A B contains all elements in A that are not in B
(difference)
~A (or A) is the set of all elements not in A
(complement)

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Set Operations
Commutative law

AB = B A
AB = B A
Distributive law

A ( B C ) = ( A B) ( A C )
A ( B C ) = ( A B) ( A C )
Associative law

A ( B C ) = ( A B) C
A ( B C ) = ( A B) C
Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability
EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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DeMorgans Law

( A B) = A B
( A B) = A B
Duality Principle: If, in an identity, one replaces
by , by , S by , by S, and the sets by their
complements, the identity is preserved.

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Events
Description
An event is certain to occur
An event that is impossible
Event A does not occur
Both events A and B occur
Either A or B or both occurs
If A occurs then B must also
occur
A and B are disjoint

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

Notation using sets


S

~A
AB
AB
AB
AB=

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Probability
Given an experiment and a sample space S, the
objective of probability is to assign to each event A
a number P(A), called the probability of the event
A, which will give a precise measure of the chance
that A will occur.

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Axioms of Probability
AXIOM 1: For any event A , 1 P(A) 0 .
AXIOM 2: P(S) = 1.
AXIOM 3: If A1, A2, A3, is an infinite collection of
disjoint events, then

P ( A1 A2 A3 !) = P ( A1 ) + P ( A2 ) + P ( A3 ) +!

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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More Probability Properties

( )

P E = 1 P ( E )

S
E
x
y

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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More Probability Properties

P (E F ) = P (E) + P (F ) P (E F )

S
F

E
x

y
z

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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More Probability Properties

P ( E1 E2 E3) = P ( E1) + P ( E2 ) + P ( E3) P ( E1 E2 )


P ( E2 E3) P ( E3 E1)
+P ( E1 E2 E3)
S

E2

E1

a
d

j
g

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

c
f
E3

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Example
A coin is tossed twice.
What is the sample space?
What is the probability that at least 1 head occurs?

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Example
What is the probability of getting a total of 7 or 11
when a pair of fair dice is tossed?
What is the sample space?
Let event A = total is 7. What is P(A)?
Let event B = total is 11. What is P(B)?
What is P(A or B)?

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Homework
A box contains three 9-V batteries and two 1.5-V
batteries. A second box contains three 1-k
resistors and seven 10-k resistors. The voltages
and resistances are exact.
A battery from the first box and a resistor from the
second box are picked at random. The two are
connected to form a working circuit.

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Homework
What is the probability that the battery chosen is
9V?
What is the probability that the resistor chosen is
10k?
What is the probability that the current is equal to
1.5 mA?
What is the probability that the current through the
circuit is less than 1 mA?

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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Statistics and Data Analysis,


Probability
Week 01 Lecture 01
EEE 25: Probability and Statistics
for Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Week 01 Lecture 01: Statistics & Data Analysis, Probability


EEE 25: Probability and Statistics for E&E Engineers

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