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Let G(s) denote the transfer function between an input, x, and an

output, y. Then, by definition

x (t )

X (s)

system

y (t )

Y (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

X (s)

where:

Y s L "# y t $%

X s L "# x t $%

()

()

()

()

input

output

forcing function

response

cause

effect

holdup and flow rates:

V C

dT

= wC (Ti T ) + Q

dt

(1)

T ( 0 ) = T , Ti ( 0 ) = Ti , Q ( 0 ) = Q

(2)

conditions:

0 = wC (Ti T ) + Q

(3)

Figure 2.3 Stirred-tank heating process with constant holdup, V.

V C

dT

= wC "%(Ti Ti ) (T T )#& + (Q Q )

dt

(4)

But,

Evaluate T ! ( t = 0 ).

dT d (T T )

=

because T is a constant

dt

dt

(5)

T ! (0) = T (0) T

V C

dT "

= wC (Ti" T " ) + Q"

dt

(6)

also called perturbation variables:

T ! ! T T , Ti! ! Ti Ti , Q! ! Q Q

(7)

(9)

But since our assumed initial condition was that the process

was initially at steady state, i.e., T ( 0 ) = T it follows from (9)

that T ! ( 0 ) = 0.

Note: The advantage of using deviation variables is that the

initial condition term becomes zero. This simplifies the later

analysis.

Rearrange (8) to solve for T ! ( s ) :

Take L of (6):

" K # $

" 1 # $

T $(s ) = %

&Q (s) + %

& Ti ( s )

' s +1 (

' s +1 (

K!

1

V

and !

wC

w

(11)

Q ( t ) = Q Q! ( t ) = 0 Q! ( s ) = 0

Thus, rearranging

(10) and rearrange to get the desired TF:

T "(s )

K

=

Q" ( s ) s + 1

(10)

(12)

T "(s )

1

=

"

Ti ( s ) s + 1

(13)

Comments:

1.The TFs in (12) and (13) show the individual effects of Q and

on T. What about simultaneous changes in both Q and Ti ?

Answer: See (10). The same TFs are valid for simultaneous

changes.

Note that (10) shows that the effects of changes in both Q

and Ti are additive. This always occurs for linear, dynamic

models (like TFs) because the Principle of Superposition is

valid.

any change in an input.

3. Use deviation variables to eliminate initial conditions for TF

models.

K = 0.05 = 2.0

Chapter 4

0.05

T! =

Q!

2s + 1

No change in Ti

500

Q! =

s

0.05 500

25

T! =

=

2s + 1 s

s(2s + 1)

What is T(t)?

T #(t ) = 25[1 et / ] %

% T ( s) =

T "(t ) = 25[1 et / 2 ]

25

s( s + 1)

1. Steady-State Gain

The steady-state of a TF can be used to calculate the steadystate change in an output due to a steady-state change in the

input. For example, suppose we know two steady states for an

input, u, and an output, y. Then we can calculate the steadystate gain, K, from:

K=

y2 y1

u2 u1

system, K will depend on the operating condition ( u , y ).

If a TF model has a steady-state gain, then:

K = lim G ( s )

2000 cal/sec

(4-38)

s 0

(14)

Theorem

Note: Some TF models do not have a steady-state gain (e.g.,

integrating process in Ch. 5)

Definition:

2. Order of a TF Model

Consider a general n-th order, linear ODE:

n

an

d y

dt

+ an1

bm1

dy

dt

n 1

n 1

m 1

dt

m 1

+ K a1

dy

d u

+ a0 y = bm m +

dt

dt

+ K + b1

du

+ b0u

dt

(4-39)

gives the TF:

m

G (s) =

Y (s)

U (s)

bi s

=

polynomial.

Note: The order of the TF is equal to the order of the ODE.

Physical Realizability:

For any physical system, n m in (4-38). Otherwise, the system

response to a step input will be an impulse. This cant happen.

Example:

i =0

n

ai s

a0 y = b1

(4-40)

i

du

+ b0u and step change in u

dt

(4-41)

i =0

4. Multiplicative Property

3. Additive Property

Suppose that an output is influenced by two inputs and that

the transfer functions are known:

Y (s)

Y (s)

= G1 ( s ) and

= G2 ( s )

U1 ( s )

U2 (s)

Then the response to changes in both U1 and U 2can be written

as:

Y ( s ) = G1 ( s )U1 ( s ) + G2 ( s )U 2 ( s )

The graphical representation (or block diagram) is:

U1(s)

G2(s)

Y (s)

U2 (s)

= G2 ( s ) and

U2 (s)

U3 ( s )

= G3 ( s )

Then,

Y ( s ) = G2 ( s )U 2 ( s ) and U 2 ( s ) = G3 ( s )U 3 ( s )

Substitute,

Y ( s ) = G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )U 3 ( s )

Or,

Y (s)

G1(s)

Y(s)

U2(s)

Suppose that,

U3 ( s )

= G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )

U3 ( s )

G2 ( s )

G3 ( s )

Y (s )

Example 1:

tank (transport lag)

Distance L for plug flow,

Dead time

L

V

V = fluid velocity

Tank:

K

T(s)

G1 =

= 1

U(s) 1+ 1s

T (s) K e-s

Sensor: G 2 = s = 2

T(s) 1 + 2s

K 2 1,

2 is very small

(neglect)

transformed into TF models.

But most physical processes and physical models are nonlinear.

- But over a small range of operating conditions, the behavior

may be approximately linear.

- Conclude: Linear approximations can be useful, especially

for purpose of analysis.

Approximate linear models can be obtained analytically by a

method called linearization. It is based on a Taylor Series

Expansion of a nonlinear function about a specified operating

point.

Ts Ts T

K1 K 2 e s K1K 2 e s

= = G2 G1 =

U T U

1+ 1s 1+ 2 s

1+ 1s

variables, u and y:

dy

= f ( y, u )

dt

(4-60)

truncate after the first order terms,

f

f (u, y ) = f (u , y ) +

u

f

u" +

y

y

y"

terms are actually constants because they have been evaluated at

the nominal operating point, ( u , y ).

dy

f

= f (u , y ) +

dt

u

f

u" +

y

y

0 = f (u , y )

dy dy!

=

,

dt dt

dy! f

=

dt u

u! +

y

f

y

y!

(4-62)

Linearized

model

(4-61)

Mass balance:

Valve relation:

dh

= qi q (1)

dt

q = Cv h

(2)

A

A = area, Cv = constant

y"

y

A

Linearize

dh

= qi Cv h

dt

(3)

term,

dh

1 "

!

= qi Cv % h + h# &

dt

R

'

(

(6)

h h+

1

2 h

(h h )

0 = qi Cv h

(4)

Subtract (7) from (6) and let qi! ! qi qi , noting that dh = dh!

dt dt

gives the linearized model:

Or

h h+

1

h!

R

(5)

where:

dh!

1

= qi! h!

dt

R

R!2 h

h! ! h h

Summary:

In order to linearize a nonlinear, dynamic model:

Tank 1:

A1

Chapter 4

and truncate after the first-order terms.

2. Subtract the steady-state version of the equation.

(7)

dh1

= qi q1

dt

q1 =

1

h1

R

A1

dh1

1

= qi h1

dt

R

A1

dh '1

1

= q'i h '1

dt

R

H1' ( s )

R1

K1

=

=

Qi' ( s ) A1R1s + 1 1s + 1

q1' =

1 '

h1

R

Q1' ( s ) 1

1

=

=

H1' ( s ) R1 K1

(8)

The same procedure leads to the model for tank 2 and valve 2 as below:

H 2' ( s)

R2

K2

=

=

Q1' ( s) A2 R2 s + 1 2 s + 1

Chapter 4

Q2' ( s ) 1

1

=

=

H 2' ( s ) R2 K 2

Q2' ( s ) Q2' ( s ) H 2' ( s ) Q1' ( s) H1' ( s)

=

Qi' ( s ) H 2' ( s ) Q1' ( s ) H1' ( s ) Qi' ( s )

Q2' ( s )

1 K 2 1 K1

1

=

=

Qi' ( s ) K 2 2 s + 1 K1 1s + 1 ( 1s + 1)( 2 s + 1)

Example(4.7((Nonlinear(Problem(

A horizontal cylindrical tank shown below is used to suppress the

surges in inlet flow. Develop a mathematical model for the process.

dh f

f

f

= f+

(h h) +

( qi qi ) + ( q q)

dt

h

qi

q

f

=

qi

f

=

q

Assume constant density, volumetric balance results in:

dV

= qi q

dt

dV

dh

= Wt L

dt

dt

dh

Wt L

= qi q

dt

Wt = 2 R2 ( R h)2 = 2 R2 ( R2 + h2 2Rh) = 2 2Rh h2 = 2 ( D h)h

dh

1

=

(q q )

dt L 2 ( D h)h i

L 2 ( D h) h

Qi(s)

G1(s)

1

_

H(s)

L 2 ( D h) h

1

(

&

Q(s)

%

#

&

L 2 ( D h )h #$

f

= '

h

h

G2(s)

( qi q ) = 0

dh '

=

dt

h=h

1

_

SH ' ( s) =

'

i

(q q ' )

L 2 ( D h) h

'

G1 =

1

_

L 2 ( D h) h

1

s

L 2 ( D h) h

G2 =

1

_

L 2 ( D h) h

1

s

where:

State-Space Models

x =

u =

Dynamic models derived from physical principles typically

consist of one or more ordinary differential equations (ODEs).

In this section, we consider a general class of ODE models

referred to as state-space models.

control variables)

d =

y =

boldface symbols to denote vector and matrices, and

plain text to represent scalars.)

x! = Ax + Bu + Ed

(4-90)

variables that are measured. In general, x, u, d, and y are

functions of time.

y = Cx

(4-91)

Example 4.9

Show that the linearized CSTR model of Example 4.8 can

be written in the state-space form of Eqs. 4-90 and 4-91.

Derive state-space models for two cases:

(a) Both cA and T are measured.

(b) Only T is measured.

Solution

The linearized CSTR model in Eqs. 4-84 and 4-85 can be written

in vector-matrix form:

$ dt % $ 11

$

%=$

$ dT ! % $ a

&$ dt '% & 21

% $ % + $ %T !

%$ % $ % s

a22 '% &$ T ! '% &$b2 '%

(4-92)

Let x1 ! c!A and x2 ! T,! and denote their time derivatives by x!1

and x!2 . Suppose that the steam temperature Ts can be

manipulated. For this situation, there is a scalar control variable,

u ! Ts! , and no modeled disturbance. Substituting these

definitions into (4-92) gives,

! x $ ! a

$

a $! x $ !

# 1 & = # 11 12 &# 1 & + # 0 & u

b2 &%

# x & # a

&#

&

" 2 % " 21 a22 %" x2 % #"

B

A

(4-93)

which is in the form of Eq. 4-90 with x = col [x1, x2]. (The symbol

col denotes a column vector.)

Eq. 4-91, where I denotes the 2x2 identity matrix. A and B are

defined in (4-93).

b) When only T is measured, output vector y is a scalar,

y = T ! and C is a row vector, C = [0,1].

Note that the state-space model for Example 4.9 has d = 0

because disturbance variables were not included in (4-92). By

contrast, suppose that the feed composition and feed temperature

are considered to be disturbance variables in the original

nonlinear CSTR model in Eqs. 2-60 and 2-64. Then the linearized

model would include two additional deviation variables, c!Ai

and Ti!.

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