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Chapter 3: Transfer Functions

Convenient representation of a linear, dynamic model.

Definition of the transfer function:


Let G(s) denote the transfer function between an input, x, and an
output, y. Then, by definition

A transfer function (TF) relates one input and one output:

x (t )
X (s)

system

y (t )
Y (s)

G (s)

Y (s)
X (s)

where:
Y s L "# y t $%
X s L "# x t $%

()
()

The following terminology is used:

()
()

input

output

Development of Transfer Functions

forcing function

response

Example: Stirred Tank Heating System

cause

effect

Recall the previous dynamic model, assuming constant liquid


holdup and flow rates:

V C

dT
= wC (Ti T ) + Q
dt

(1)

Suppose the process is initially at steady state:

T ( 0 ) = T , Ti ( 0 ) = Ti , Q ( 0 ) = Q

(2)

where T @steady-state value of T, etc. For steady-state


conditions:

0 = wC (Ti T ) + Q

(3)

Subtract (3) from (1):


Figure 2.3 Stirred-tank heating process with constant holdup, V.

V C

dT
= wC "%(Ti Ti ) (T T )#& + (Q Q )
dt

(4)

But,

Evaluate T ! ( t = 0 ).

dT d (T T )
=
because T is a constant
dt
dt

(5)

By definition, T ! ! T T . Thus at time, t = 0,

T ! (0) = T (0) T

Thus we can substitute into (4-2) to get,

V C

dT "
= wC (Ti" T " ) + Q"
dt

(6)

where we have introduced the following deviation variables,


also called perturbation variables:
T ! ! T T , Ti! ! Ti Ti , Q! ! Q Q

(7)

(9)

But since our assumed initial condition was that the process
was initially at steady state, i.e., T ( 0 ) = T it follows from (9)
that T ! ( 0 ) = 0.
Note: The advantage of using deviation variables is that the
initial condition term becomes zero. This simplifies the later
analysis.
Rearrange (8) to solve for T ! ( s ) :

Take L of (6):

" K # $
" 1 # $
T $(s ) = %
&Q (s) + %
& Ti ( s )
' s +1 (
' s +1 (

V C #& sT " ( s ) T " (t = 0 )$' = wC #&Ti"( s ) T " ( s )$' Q" ( s ) (8)

where two new symbols are defined:


K!

1
V
and !
wC
w

Transfer Function Between T !and Ti! :

(11)

Suppose that Q is constant at its steady-state value:

Q ( t ) = Q Q! ( t ) = 0 Q! ( s ) = 0

Transfer Function Between Q! and T !

Thus, rearranging

Suppose Ti is constant at the steady-state value. Then,

Ti ( t ) = Ti Ti!(t ) = 0 Ti!( s ) = 0. Then we can substitute into


(10) and rearrange to get the desired TF:
T "(s )
K
=
Q" ( s ) s + 1

(10)

(12)

T "(s )
1
=
"
Ti ( s ) s + 1

(13)

Comments:
1.The TFs in (12) and (13) show the individual effects of Q and
on T. What about simultaneous changes in both Q and Ti ?

Answer: See (10). The same TFs are valid for simultaneous
changes.
Note that (10) shows that the effects of changes in both Q
and Ti are additive. This always occurs for linear, dynamic
models (like TFs) because the Principle of Superposition is
valid.

2. The TF model enables us to determine the output response to


any change in an input.
3. Use deviation variables to eliminate initial conditions for TF
models.

Example: Stirred Tank Heater (not in text book)


K = 0.05 = 2.0

Chapter 4

0.05
T! =
Q!
2s + 1

No change in Ti

Step change in Q(t): 1500 cal/sec


500
Q! =
s
0.05 500
25
T! =
=
2s + 1 s
s(2s + 1)
What is T(t)?

T #(t ) = 25[1 et / ] %
% T ( s) =

T "(t ) = 25[1 et / 2 ]

25
s( s + 1)

Properties of Transfer Function Models


1. Steady-State Gain
The steady-state of a TF can be used to calculate the steadystate change in an output due to a steady-state change in the
input. For example, suppose we know two steady states for an
input, u, and an output, y. Then we can calculate the steadystate gain, K, from:

K=

y2 y1
u2 u1

For a linear system, K is a constant. But for a nonlinear


system, K will depend on the operating condition ( u , y ).

Calculation of K from the TF Model:


If a TF model has a steady-state gain, then:

K = lim G ( s )
2000 cal/sec

(4-38)

s 0

(14)

This important result is a consequence of the Final Value


Theorem
Note: Some TF models do not have a steady-state gain (e.g.,
integrating process in Ch. 5)

Definition:

2. Order of a TF Model
Consider a general n-th order, linear ODE:
n

an

d y
dt

+ an1
bm1

dy
dt

n 1

n 1

m 1

dt

m 1

+ K a1

dy
d u
+ a0 y = bm m +
dt
dt

+ K + b1

du
+ b0u
dt

(4-39)

Take L, assuming the initial conditions are all zero. Rearranging


gives the TF:
m

G (s) =

Y (s)
U (s)

bi s
=

The order of the TF is defined to be the order of the denominator


polynomial.
Note: The order of the TF is equal to the order of the ODE.

Physical Realizability:
For any physical system, n m in (4-38). Otherwise, the system
response to a step input will be an impulse. This cant happen.
Example:

i =0
n

ai s

a0 y = b1

(4-40)
i

du
+ b0u and step change in u
dt

(4-41)

i =0

4. Multiplicative Property

3. Additive Property
Suppose that an output is influenced by two inputs and that
the transfer functions are known:
Y (s)
Y (s)
= G1 ( s ) and
= G2 ( s )
U1 ( s )
U2 (s)
Then the response to changes in both U1 and U 2can be written
as:

Y ( s ) = G1 ( s )U1 ( s ) + G2 ( s )U 2 ( s )
The graphical representation (or block diagram) is:
U1(s)

G2(s)

Y (s)
U2 (s)

= G2 ( s ) and

U2 (s)
U3 ( s )

= G3 ( s )

Then,
Y ( s ) = G2 ( s )U 2 ( s ) and U 2 ( s ) = G3 ( s )U 3 ( s )
Substitute,

Y ( s ) = G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )U 3 ( s )
Or,

Y (s)

G1(s)
Y(s)

U2(s)

Suppose that,

U3 ( s )

= G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )

U3 ( s )

G2 ( s )

G3 ( s )

Y (s )

Example 1:

Linearization of Nonlinear Models

Place sensor for temperature downstream from heated


tank (transport lag)
Distance L for plug flow,
Dead time

L
V

V = fluid velocity
Tank:

K
T(s)
G1 =
= 1
U(s) 1+ 1s

T (s) K e-s
Sensor: G 2 = s = 2
T(s) 1 + 2s

K 2 1,

Overall transfer function:

2 is very small
(neglect)

So far, we have emphasized linear models which can be


transformed into TF models.
But most physical processes and physical models are nonlinear.
- But over a small range of operating conditions, the behavior
may be approximately linear.
- Conclude: Linear approximations can be useful, especially
for purpose of analysis.
Approximate linear models can be obtained analytically by a
method called linearization. It is based on a Taylor Series
Expansion of a nonlinear function about a specified operating
point.

Ts Ts T
K1 K 2 e s K1K 2 e s
= = G2 G1 =

U T U
1+ 1s 1+ 2 s
1+ 1s

Consider a nonlinear, dynamic model relating two process


variables, u and y:

dy
= f ( y, u )
dt

(4-60)

Perform a Taylor Series Expansion about u = u and y = y and


truncate after the first order terms,

f
f (u, y ) = f (u , y ) +
u

f
u" +
y
y

y"

where u! = u u and y! = y y . Note that the partial derivative


terms are actually constants because they have been evaluated at
the nominal operating point, ( u , y ).

dy
f
= f (u , y ) +
dt
u

f
u" +
y
y

0 = f (u , y )

dy dy!
=
,
dt dt

Substitute into (7) and recall that

dy! f
=
dt u

u! +
y

f
y

y!

(4-62)

Linearized
model

(4-61)

Substitute (4-61) into (4-60) gives:

The steady-state version of (4-60) is:

Example: Liquid Storage System


Mass balance:
Valve relation:

dh
= qi q (1)
dt
q = Cv h
(2)
A

A = area, Cv = constant

y"
y

Combine (1) and (2),

A
Linearize

Substitute linearized expression (5) into (3):

dh
= qi Cv h
dt

(3)

term,

dh
1 "
!
= qi Cv % h + h# &
dt
R
'
(

(6)

The steady-state version of (3) is:

h h+

1
2 h

(h h )

0 = qi Cv h

(4)

Subtract (7) from (6) and let qi! ! qi qi , noting that dh = dh!
dt dt
gives the linearized model:

Or

h h+

1
h!
R

(5)

where:

dh!
1
= qi! h!
dt
R

R!2 h
h! ! h h

Example 4.4: Two Liquid Tank in Series

Summary:
In order to linearize a nonlinear, dynamic model:

3. Introduce deviation variables.

Tank 1:
A1

Chapter 4

1. Perform a Taylor Series Expansion of each nonlinear term


and truncate after the first-order terms.
2. Subtract the steady-state version of the equation.

(7)

dh1
= qi q1
dt

q1 =

1
h1
R

A1

dh1
1
= qi h1
dt
R

A1

dh '1
1
= q'i h '1
dt
R

H1' ( s )
R1
K1
=
=
Qi' ( s ) A1R1s + 1 1s + 1

q1' =

1 '
h1
R

Q1' ( s ) 1
1
=
=
H1' ( s ) R1 K1

(8)

The same procedure leads to the model for tank 2 and valve 2 as below:
H 2' ( s)
R2
K2
=
=
Q1' ( s) A2 R2 s + 1 2 s + 1

Chapter 4

Q2' ( s ) 1
1
=
=
H 2' ( s ) R2 K 2
Q2' ( s ) Q2' ( s ) H 2' ( s ) Q1' ( s) H1' ( s)
=
Qi' ( s ) H 2' ( s ) Q1' ( s ) H1' ( s ) Qi' ( s )

Q2' ( s )
1 K 2 1 K1
1
=
=
Qi' ( s ) K 2 2 s + 1 K1 1s + 1 ( 1s + 1)( 2 s + 1)

Example(4.7((Nonlinear(Problem(
A horizontal cylindrical tank shown below is used to suppress the
surges in inlet flow. Develop a mathematical model for the process.

dh f
f
f
= f+
(h h) +
( qi qi ) + ( q q)
dt
h
qi
q

f
=
qi

f
=
q
Assume constant density, volumetric balance results in:

dV
= qi q
dt
dV
dh
= Wt L
dt
dt
dh
Wt L
= qi q
dt
Wt = 2 R2 ( R h)2 = 2 R2 ( R2 + h2 2Rh) = 2 2Rh h2 = 2 ( D h)h
dh
1
=
(q q )
dt L 2 ( D h)h i

L 2 ( D h) h

Qi(s)

G1(s)

1
_

H(s)

L 2 ( D h) h
1

(
&

Q(s)

%
#

&
L 2 ( D h )h #$
f
= '
h
h

G2(s)

( qi q ) = 0

dh '
=
dt

h=h

1
_

SH ' ( s) =

'
i

(q q ' )

L 2 ( D h) h

'

H ( s) = G1 ( s)Qi' ( s) + G2 ( s)Q ' ( s)


G1 =

1
_

L 2 ( D h) h

1
s

L 2 ( D h) h

G2 =

1
_

L 2 ( D h) h

1
s

[Qi' ( s) Q ' ( s)]

where:

State-Space Models

x =

the state vector

u =
Dynamic models derived from physical principles typically
consist of one or more ordinary differential equations (ODEs).
In this section, we consider a general class of ODE models
referred to as state-space models.

the control vector of manipulated variables (also called


control variables)

d =

the disturbance vector

y =

the output vector of measured variables. (We use


boldface symbols to denote vector and matrices, and
plain text to represent scalars.)

Consider standard form for a linear state-space model,

The elements of x are referred to as state variables.

x! = Ax + Bu + Ed

(4-90)

The elements of y are typically a subset of x, namely, the state


variables that are measured. In general, x, u, d, and y are
functions of time.

y = Cx

(4-91)

The time derivative of x is denoted by x! = dx / dt .

Matrices A, B, C, and E are constant matrices.

Example 4.9
Show that the linearized CSTR model of Example 4.8 can
be written in the state-space form of Eqs. 4-90 and 4-91.
Derive state-space models for two cases:
(a) Both cA and T are measured.
(b) Only T is measured.
Solution
The linearized CSTR model in Eqs. 4-84 and 4-85 can be written
in vector-matrix form:

" dc!A # " a


$ dt % $ 11
$
%=$
$ dT ! % $ a
&$ dt '% & 21

a12 # "c!A # " 0 #


% $ % + $ %T !
%$ % $ % s
a22 '% &$ T ! '% &$b2 '%

(4-92)

Let x1 ! c!A and x2 ! T,! and denote their time derivatives by x!1
and x!2 . Suppose that the steam temperature Ts can be
manipulated. For this situation, there is a scalar control variable,
u ! Ts! , and no modeled disturbance. Substituting these
definitions into (4-92) gives,
! x $ ! a
$
a $! x $ !
# 1 & = # 11 12 &# 1 & + # 0 & u
b2 &%
# x & # a
&#
&
" 2 % " 21 a22 %" x2 % #"

B
A

(4-93)

which is in the form of Eq. 4-90 with x = col [x1, x2]. (The symbol
col denotes a column vector.)

a) If both T and cA are measured, then y = x, and C = I in


Eq. 4-91, where I denotes the 2x2 identity matrix. A and B are
defined in (4-93).
b) When only T is measured, output vector y is a scalar,
y = T ! and C is a row vector, C = [0,1].
Note that the state-space model for Example 4.9 has d = 0
because disturbance variables were not included in (4-92). By
contrast, suppose that the feed composition and feed temperature
are considered to be disturbance variables in the original
nonlinear CSTR model in Eqs. 2-60 and 2-64. Then the linearized
model would include two additional deviation variables, c!Ai
and Ti!.