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Plaintext: This is the original message or data that is fed into the algorithm as input.

Encryption algorithm: The encryption algorithm performs various substitutions and

transformations on the plaintext.

Secret key: The secret key is also input to the encryption algorithm. The exact substitutions and

transformations performed by the algorithm depend on the key.

Ciphertext: This is the scrambled message produced as output. It depends on the plaintext and

the secret key. For a given message, two different keys will produce two different ciphertexts.

Decryption algorithm: This is essentially the encryption algorithm run in reverse. It takes the

ciphertext and the secret key and produces the original plaintext.

2) What are the two basic functions used in encryption algorithms?

Substitution: In which each element in the plaintext(bit, letter, group of bits or letters)

is mapped into another element.

Transposition: In which elements in the plaintext are rearranged.

The fundamental requirement is that no information be lost(that is ,that all operations are

reversible). Most systems, referred to as product systems, involve multiple stages of substitutions

and transpositions.

3) How many keys are required for two people to communicate via a cipher?

If both sender and receiver use the same key, the system is referred as symmetric,

single-key, secret-key or conventional encryption. If both sender and receiver uses a

different key, the system is referred as asymmetric, two-key or public key

encryption.

That depends on whether you use a symmetric (shared key) or asymmetric (public/private key pair) algorithm.

If you use a symmetric key, it means both people have the same key which has been pre-shared via some

secure means. In that case, only one key is required; both parties in the communication use the same key to

encrypt and decrypt all messages.

If you use an asymmetric key algorithm, it takes at least 4 keys total: when sending a message each user will

encrypt their message with the public key of the recipient (that accounts for two of the keys). Each recipient

must then use their private key to decrypt the messages they receive (which accounts for the other two required

keys).

1.

Cryptanalysis: Cryptanalytic attacks rely on the nature of the algorithm plus perhaps some knowledge of

the general characteristics of the plaintext or even some samples plaintext-cipher text pairs. This type of

attack exploits the characteristics of the algorithm to attempt to deduce a specific plaintext or to deduce the

key being used. If the attack succeeds in deducing the key, the effect is catastrophic: All future and past

messages encrypted with the key are compromised.

2.

Brute-force attack: The attacker tries every possible key on a piece of cipher text until an intelligible

translation into plaintext is obtained. On average, half of all possible keys must be tried to achieve success.

computationally secure cipher?

unconditional security

no matter how much computer power or time is available, the cipher cannot be broken since the ciphertext

provides insufficient information to uniquely determine the corresponding plaintext

computational security

given limited computing resources (eg time needed for calculations is greater than age of universe), the cipher

cannot be broken

The definition of an unconditionally secure cryptosystem states that the cryptosystem cannot be broken

even with infinitely computational ressources and time. However, since most books define the

keyspace K to be finite, then with infinite time any computational device can perform an

exhaustive

keysearch.

Why are perfect secrecy cryptosystems unconditionally secure? I mean, how can the one-time pad with a

small keyspace be considered to be unconditionally secure (take

Are unconditionally

possible to break the cryptosystem in superpolynomial time and with neglible probability. Why

are these relaxations of unconditional security? Any cryptosystem can be broken with small

In order to define computational security, one makes the

A Caesar cipher is a type of crytographic algorithm which encrypts a message

by shifting

letters to the left or right. The key of such an algorithm is the length at

which one

shifts a letter, as well as the direction a letter is shifted

The Caesar cipher involves replacing each letter of the alphabet with the letter standing three

places down the alphabet .The alphabet is wrapped around, so that the letter following Z is A.

C = E (p) = (p + 3) mod (26)

The general Caesar cipher algorithm is

C = E (p) = (p + k) mod (26)

where k takes the value in the range 1 to 25

The decryption algorithm is

p = D(C) = (C - k) mod (26)

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