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E

SUB-COMMITTEE ON HUMAN ELEMENT,


TRAINING AND WATCHKEEPING
1st session
Agenda item 3

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20 November 2013
Original: ENGLISH

VALIDATION OF MODEL TRAINING COURSES


Model course General Operator's Certificate for GMDSS
Note by the Secretariat
SUMMARY
Executive summary:

This document provides the draft of a revised model course on


General Operator's Certificate for GMDSS

Strategic direction:

5.2

High-level action:

5.2.2

Planned output:

5.2.2.5

Action to be taken:

Paragraph 3

Related document:

STW 40/14

1
Attached in the annex is a revised draft model course on General Operator's
Certificate for GMDSS.
2
The preliminary draft of this revised model course was forwarded to members of the
validation panel for their comments. Due to time constraints, any comments received on the
draft course from the validation panel will be provided directly to the Sub-Committee.
Action requested of the Sub-Committee
3
The Sub-Committee is invited to consider the above information and take action, as
appropriate.

***

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ANNEX
DRAFT MODEL COURSE ON GENERAL OPERATOR'S
CERTIFICATE FOR GMDSS

MODEL COURSE 1.25


GENERAL OPERATORS
CERTIFICATE FOR THE
GLOBAL MARITIME DISTRESS
AND SAFETY SYSTEM
2014 Edition
Course + Compendium

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This Model Course on GOC for the GMDSS is based on the Radio Regulations
Edition 2012 and SOLAS 1974 as amended. It has been compiled by Mrs. Simone
Wilde, Mr. Andreas Braun and Mr. Dietrich Kaun under direction of the Federal
Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) in co-operation with Mrs. Brunhild
Osterhues from University of Applied Science Bremen 2012

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Contents
INTRODUCTION TO MODEL COURSES................................................................... 4
PART A: COURSE FRAMEWORK.............................................................................. 6
PART B: COURSE OUTLINE AND TIMETABLE ..................................................... 11
PART C: DETAILED TEACHING SYLLABUS ......................................................... 14
PART D: INSTRUCTORS MANUAL ........................................................................ 27
PART E: EVALUATION ............................................................................................ 31
INFORMATION REQUESTED OF INSTRUCTORS WHO IMPLEMENT IMO MODEL
COURSES ................................................................................................................. 37
ANNEX 1: EXAMPLE OF TRAINEES PRACTICAL PROFICIENCY CHECKLIST . 39
ANNEX 2: PRACTICAL EXAMINATION PROTOCOL GOC .................................... 45

COMPENDIUM (see separate Contents)

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Introduction to model courses


Purpose of the model courses
The purpose of the IMO model courses are to assist maritime training institutes and
their teaching staff in organizing and introducing new training courses or in
enhancing, updating or supplementing existing training material where the quality
and effectiveness of the training courses may thereby be improved.
It is not the intention of the model course programme to present instructors with a
rigid teaching package which they are expected to follow blindly. Nor is it the
intention to substitute audio-visual or programmed material for the instructors
presence. As in all training endeavours, the knowledge, skills and dedication of the
instructor are the key components in the transfer of knowledge and skills to those
being trained through IMO model course material.
Because educational systems and the cultural backgrounds of trainees in maritime
subjects vary considerably from country to country, the model course material has
been designed to identify the basic entry requirements and trainee target group for
each course in universally applicable terms, and to specify clearly the technical
content and levels of knowledge and skill necessary to meet the intent of IMO
conventions and related recommendations.
Use of the model course
To use the model course the instructor should review the course plan and detailed
syllabus, taking into account the information provided under the entry standards
specified in the course framework. The actual level of knowledge and skills and the
prior technical education of the trainees should be kept in mind during this review,
and any areas within the detailed syllabus which may cause difficulties because of
differences between the actual trainee entry level and that assumed by the course
designer should be identified. To compensate for such differences, the instructor is
expected to delete from the course, or reduce the emphasis on, items dealing with
knowledge or skills already attained by the trainees. He should also identify any
academic knowledge, skills or technical training which they may not have previously
acquired.
By analysing the detailed syllabus and the academic knowledge required to allow
training in the technical area to proceed, the instructor can design an appropriate preentry course or, alternatively, insert the elements of academic knowledge required to
support the technical training elements concerned at appropriate points within the
technical course.
Adjustment of the course objectives, scope and content may also be necessary if in
your maritime industry the trainees completing the course are to undertake duties
which differ from the course objectives specified in the model course.
By analysing the detailed syllabus and the academic knowledge required to allow
training in the technical area to proceed, the instructor can design an appropriate preentry course or, alternatively, insert the elements of academic knowledge required to

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support the technical training elements concerned at appropriate points within the
technical course (ref. 1st and 2nd class Radio Electronic Certificate).
Within the course plan the course designers have indicated their assessment of the time
that should be allotted to each learning area. However, it must be appreciated that these
allocations are arbitrary and assume that the trainees have fully met all entry
requirements of the course. The instructor should therefore review these assessments
and may need to re-allocate the time required to achieve each specific learning
objective.
Lesson Plans
Having adjusted the course content to suit the trainee intake and any revision of the
course objectives, the instructor should draw up lesson plans based on the detailed
syllabus. The detailed syllabus contains specific references to the textbooks or
teaching material proposed for use in the course. Where no adjustment has been
found necessary in the learning objectives of the detailed syllabus, the lesson plans
may simply consist of the detailed syllabus with keywords or other reminders added
to assist the instructor in making his presentation of the material.
Presentation
The presentation of concepts and methodologies must be repeated in various ways
until the instructor is satisfied that the trainee has attained each specified learning
objective. The syllabus is laid out in learning-objective format and each objective
specifies what the trainee must be able to perform as the learning outcome.
Implementation
For the course to run smoothly and to be effective, considerable attention must be
paid to the availability
and use of:
Properly qualified instructors
Support staff
Rooms and other spaces
Real equipment
GMDSS communication simulator, where appropriate, with Touchscreens and
PTT working in a network
Textbooks, technical papers
Other reference material

Thorough preparation is the key to successful implementation of the course. The IMO
has produced Guidance on the Implementation of IMO Model Courses, which deals
with this aspect in greater detail.

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PART A: Course Framework


Scope
This course covers the training recommendations in annex 3 to the IMO Assembly
resolution A. 703 (17) - Recommendation on Training of Radio Operators related to
the General Operators Certificate (GOC).
The course is revised to meet the Radio Regulations 2012.
Objective
A trainee successfully completing this course and passing the prescribed examination
should be able to efficiently operate the GMDSS equipment, and to have primary
responsibility to radio communications during distress-, urgency-, safety and routine
incidents. Given the number of severe problems being experienced in the GMDSS as
a result of the large amount of false Distress alerts that sometimes occur, training will
also be provided in techniques to avoid the unintentional transmission of false
Distress alerts and the procedures to use in order to mitigate the effects of false
Distress alerts following unintentional transmission.
Entry standards
This course framework requires a little knowledge of maritime radio communication
practice, but a working knowledge of English as a second language. Elementary
computer skills are assumed in the recommended course timetable. Candidates are
assumed to have basic computer skills in order to participate in the course. However
additional computer skills training will be required by candidates without any basic
proficiency in the use of computers.
Certification
Every person in charge of or performing radio duties on a ship that is required to
participate in the GMDSS is required to hold an appropriate GMDSS certificate, which
satisfies the provisions of the Radio Regulations of the International
Telecommunication Union (ref. ITU RR Art. 47).
In addition, every candidate for certification in accordance with the International
Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers,
1978, as amended (STCW-Convention), for service on a ship which is required to
have a radio installation by the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea,
1974, as amended (SOLAS), shall not be less than 18 years of age, and have
completed an approved education and training and shall meet the standard of
competence specified in section A-IV/2 of the STCW Code.
The material contained in this course covers all aspects of training in GMDSS radio
communications. However, where the additional requirements for certification under
the STCW-Convention contained in column 2 of table A-IV/2 of the STCW Code are
not examined as part of the national qualification requirements for a certificate issued
under the Radio Regulations, the appropriate provisions for training and assessment
contained in section A-IV/2 of the STCW Code will have to be met separately.

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The examination must be supervised by an independent, objective examiner [usually


a qualified representative from the Administration, Port Captains Office or likewise
(STCW-Convention, Section A-I/6, A-I/7 and A-I/8)].
Course intake limitations
The maximum number of trainees should depend on the facilities and equipment
available, bearing in mind the scope and objectives of this course.
The instructor trainee ratio should be limited to 1:12. When a class size exceeds 12
trainees, an assistant instructor is required.
Practical training should be undertaken in small groups of not more than 8 trainees,
depending on the available equipment. The recommendations for facilities and
equipment for this course are based on a total number of 12 trainees and
corresponding instructor capacity (most academies, colleges or maritime education
institutions recommend 8 students per instructor).
The use of GMDSS simulators to supplement training on real equipment may allow
greater numbers to be accommodated without sacrificing training standards.
However, the course co-ordinator will have to ensure that the timetable arrangements
still provide sufficient access to real GMDSS equipment. Note also the arrangements
needed for examination and assessment listed under column 3 of table A-IV/2 of the
STCW Code.
Staff requirements
The following are the minimum qualifications recommended for instructors presenting
a course that follows the IMO Model Course 1.25. The instructor in charge shall:
be properly qualified in the subject matter.
be in possession of a valid General Operators Certificate issued by an IMO white
list flag state;
have considerable experience in maritime radio communications, including
GMDSS, also a good general knowledge of ships, maritime Distress, Urgency
Safety and Routine communications as well as Search and Rescue matters;
have completed type specific familiarization relevant to the equipment used for
training;
have a current relevant teaching qualification or have successfully completed a
Train-The-Trainer course, including the application of simulators in training and
meets the requirements of STCW regulation I/6 and I/12.
Teaching facilities and equipment (for example)
GMDSS simulation equipment must meet all applicable performance standards set
out in Regulation I/12 of the STCW-Convention.
The lecture portion of the course should take place in any suitable classroom with
adequate desk/seating space for all trainees. Standard classroom facilities must be
available such as whiteboard/chalkboard, appropriate projection system, etc.
For practical training, adequate working space and separate parallel working areas
are recommended. The following equipment is the minimum recommended:

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One fully operational MF/HF transmitter/receiver set for radiotelephony, NBDP and
DSC (an additional DSC controller is recommended since local communications
over a hard- wired back-to-back connection between DSC controllers then
becomes possible);*
One dummy satellite EPIRB (406 MHz) with hydrostatic release mechanism;*
One dummy SART;
One EGC receiver facility (An Inmarsat-C covers that requirement on board);*
A Distress alarm panel for passenger ships (1/2 dummy to avoid unintended
Distress- alarms), connected to the VHF-DSC, MF-DSC and Inmarsat-C;
One NAVTEX receiver;*
One fully operational VHF transmitter/receivers for radiotelephony and DSC,
incorporating a DSC watch receiver for channel 70 (it should be possible to go on
the air with one of them);*
One two-way portable VHF radiotelephone with charging arrangement;
One portable two-way on-scene communication for 121,5 and 123,1 MHz
(dummy);
One training network with personal computers, touchscreens and PTTs with
realistic simulation equipment should be provided for each trainee, capable of
running relevant programmes for simulating the operation of Inmarsat,-B and -C,
DSC and NBDP, Navtex, VHF-DSC, MF/HF DSC, as appropriate;
One battery inverter power supply, connected as the reserve source of energy
(not necessarily located in the working area) or a regular reserve source of
energy (radio batteries) connected to the charging arrangement (re.:
COMSAR/Circ.16, 4 March 1998); and
Sign and marking in accordance with the requirements of the administrations for
GMDSS ship stations.
Note GMDSS training equipment (real equipment) should be installed in such a
way that it corresponds with the requirements of installation on board
GMDSS vessels. The standard should be set at the Training Institutions and
not on board.
Note GMDSS training simulators have to provide all communication requirements.
This means, that the simulator should simulate the features of the
designated simulated equipment in distress-, urgency-, safety- and routine
decisions. It must be possible to simulate the contact to ship stations as well
as to all kinds of coast stations in a network of computers.
Note Throughout the course, safe working practices are to be clearly defined and
emphasized with reference to current international requirements and
regulations.
*

Two sets of equipment would prove advantageous.

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Teaching aids (A)


A1 GOC Model Course Compendium
A2 PC programme in a network, including documentation, for the simulation of:
1 Inmarsat-B / Fleet77 operations
2 Inmarsat-C operations (including EGC)
3 Narrow Band Direct Printing (NBDP)
4 Digital Selective Calling (VHF-DSC, MF/HF-DSC)
5 Navtex
A3 User manuals for all installed or simulated GMDSS equipment
A4 Log-book
A5 Demonstration equipment (SARTs, portable GMDSS VHF, portable two-way onscene Communication VHF for 121,5 and 123,1 MHz and EPIRBs)
A6 Real equipment as VHF Handheld, VHF-DSC, MF/HF including NBDP and DSC
and Inmarsat-C

IMO and ITU References (R)


R1 GMDSS handbook
R2 IA MSAR Manual
R3 Standard Marine Communication Phrases
R4 International Code of Signals (INTERCO)
R5 Master Plan of the shore-based facilities for the GMDSS
R6 STCW-Convention
R7 IMO Resolution A.814(19)
R8 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974, as amended
(SOLAS)
R9 Radio Regulations (RR), as amended
R10 Recommendation ITU-R M.585-6
R11 Recommendation ITU-R M.541-9
R12 Recommendation ITU-R M.493-13
R13 Recommendation ITU-R M.625-04
R14 Recommendation ITU-T R series
R15 Recommendation ITU-R M.690-02
Textbooks (T)
T1
T2 1
2
T3 1
2
3
4
5
6

ITU Manual for Use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile-Satellite
Services
ITU List of Coast Stations and Special Service Stations (List IV)
ITU List of Ship Stations and Maritime Mobile Service Identity Assignments (List V)
Inmarsat Maritime Communications Handbook
Harmonization of GMDSS requirements for radio installations on board
SOLAS-ships (COMSAR/Circ. 32)
EPIRB and SART User Manual
IMO International SafetyNET Manual
Inmarsats SafetyNET Users Handbook
Admiralty List of Radio Signals, Volume 5, as amended

Note It is expected that the national education institution implementing the course
will insert references to national requirements and regulations as necessary.
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Availability of publications

Information Sources:
The following contacts may be helpful in obtaining reference documents
mentioned in this Manual. International documents are available in the official
languages of the sponsoring organizations. The organization's website should have
the most current contact information such as telephone, facsimile and e-mail.
IMO Publishing
4 Albert Embankment
London SE1 7SR
United Kingdom

Website: www.imo.org
E-mail: sales@imo.org

International Telecommunication Union


(ITU) Bureau des radiocommunications
(BR)
Place des Nations
CH-1211 Genve 20
Switzerland

Website: www.itu.int/ITU-R/
E-mail: sales@itu.int

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)


999 University Street
Montreal, Quebec
Canada H3C 5H7

Website: www.icao.int
E-mail: icaohq@icao.int

Inmarsat
99 City Road
London EC1Y 1AX
United Kingdom

Website: www.inmarsat.com
E-mail:
customer.care@inmarsat.com

International Cospas-Sarsat Programme


700 de la Gauchetire West, Suite 2450
Montreal, Quebec H3B 5M2
Canada

Website: www.cospas-sarsat.org
E-mail: mail@cospas-sarsat.int

Centro Internazionale Radio-Medico (CIRM)


Viale dell'Architettura, 41
00144 Rome
Italy

Website: www.cirm.it
Email: telesoccorso@cirm.it

Amver Maritime Relations


1 South Street
USCG Battery Park Building
New York, NY 10004
United States

Website: www.amver.com

Global Positioning System (GPS)


U.S. Coast Guard
NAVCEN MS 7310
7323 Telegraph Road
Alexandria, VA 20598-7310
United States

Website: www.navcen.uscg.gov

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PART B: Course Outline and Timetable


Overview
The following section presents the topics of the 132-hour GOC course in a simplified
outline format. The topics are organized into 9 general subject areas. The total hours
are allocated in the following manner:
Practice

Lecture

Examination

58,5 hrs

68,5 hrs

5,0 hrs

The duration allocated to each topic is presented in the Course Timetables, and is
repeated in Part C Detailed Teaching Syllabus. The Learning Objectives for each
topic are presented generally in Part C, and with full detail in the compendium.
As defined in Part A Course Framework, the Classroom setting should provide one
workstation for each trainee, and all workstations should be networked to the
simulation instructor and server

Course Outline - Total 132 hours minimum

Subject Area

Hours

1.

Introduction

1,0

2.

The statutory framework of the Maritime Mobile Service

6,0

International Convention of Safety of Life at See


Radio Regulations
3.

Identification of Radio Stations

Identification of Ship Stations


Identification of Coast Stations
Identification of Search and Rescue Stations
Identification of Vessel Traffic Service Stations
Identification of Aids to Navigation
Identification of Aircraft Stations
Identification of associated craft with parent ship

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2,0

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Subject Area

Hours

Identification of Ship Earth Stations and Coast Earth Stations


4.

Service Publications

3,0

List of Coast Stations and Special Service Stations (ITU List IV)
List of Ship Stations and Maritime Mobile Service Identity
Assignments (ITU List V)
Manual for use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime MobileSatelliete Services
Admiralty List of radio Signals
5.

Technical

10,0

Radio wave propagation


Modulation basics
Transmitter and receiver basics
Batteries
Antennas
DSC basics
Radiotelex basics.
Fault location and service on GMDSS marine electronic equipment
6.

GMDSS Components

General
VHF DSC
MF/HF DSC
VHF/MF/HF/ Voice Procedure
Radiotelex
Inmarsat
COSPAS/SARSAT
EPIRB
Search and Rescue Transponder / Transmitter (SART)
Maritime safety Information
The use and functions of portable VHF radio

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84,0

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Subject Area

Hours

Portable VHF aeronautical radio for 121,5 and 123,1 MHz

7.

Other Systems used on board

2,0

Ultra High Frequency Handhelds


Automatic Identification System
Ship Security Alert System
8.

Search and Rescue operation

8,0

The role of the Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre


International Aeronautical
(IAMSAR) Manual

and Maritime

Search and Rescue

The role and method of use of ship reporting systems


9.

Miscellaneous skills and operational procedures for general


communications

11,0

Use of English in written and oral form for safety communications


Details of a radio telegram
Procedure of traffic charging
Examination
A

Theoretical Examination

Practical Examination

5,0

Providing that the learning objectives contained in part C of this course are fully
achieved, the course timetable may be adjusted to suit course entry requirements
based on different standards of prior knowledge in radio- communications or
seagoing experience. In addition, any adjustment should take into account the need
to maintain an effective instructor to student ratio and adequate access to GMDSS
equipment for practical training during course.
Some instructors consider the course programme to be quite complex and some
administrations have decided that 132 hours is a minimum amount of hours, in spite
of the students background.

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PART C: Detailed Teaching Syllabus

The detailed teaching syllabus has been written in learning-objective format in which
the objective describes what the trainee must do to demonstrate that knowledge has
been transferred.
All objectives are understood to be prefixed by the words, The expected learning
outcome is that the trainee..
In order to assist the instructor, references are shown against the learning objectives
to indicated IMO references and publications, textbooks, additional technical material
and teaching aids which the instructor may wish to use when preparing course
material. The material listed in the course framework has been used to structure the
detailed teaching syllabus; in particular,
Teaching aids (indicated by A)
IMO and ITU references (indicated by R)
Textbooks (indicated by T)
Abbreviations used in the detailed teaching syllabus are:

AP
Art.
Ch.
Fig.
p., pp
Pa.
Pt
RR
Reg.
Res.
Sect.

Appendix
Article
Chapter
Figure
Page, pages
Paragraph
Part
Radio Regulation
Regulation
Resolution
Section

Note
Throughout the course, safe working practices are to be clearly defined and
emphasized with reference to current international requirements and regulations. It is
expected that the institution implementing the course will insert references to national
and/or regional requirements and regulations as necessary.

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Learning Objectives
Subject Areas and topics have been outlined in Part B. In Part C, the Learning
Objectives associated with each topic are provided, along with teaching aids and
references. The Learning Objectives are further described in sufficient detail in the
Compendium for the development of a GOC Instructors Manual as described in Part
D. The Learning Objectives are presented in a verb-based manner to facilitate
outcomes-driven learning and skills development. All Learning Objectives are
understood to be prefixed by the phrase: The expected learning outcome is that the
trainee is able to . . . .
Bear in mind that the overarching competencies to be developed throughout the
course are the transmit and receive of information using GMDSS subsystems and
equipment fulfilling the functional requirements of GMDSS and provide radio
services in emergencies (STCW, A-IV/2). The GOC instructor should strive to
present all of the Learning Objectives in or as close to the contexts of real conditions
as possible. Through practice and understanding of these Learning Objectives as
tasks to master and apply, the trainee achieves the desired competence and which
the instructor may assess in the scored final evaluation.

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1.
2.

Introduction
The statutory framework of the Maritime
Mobile Service

International Convention of Safety of Life at


See

IMO / ITU/
Reference

1,0

2,5
R8 Ch.IV Reg.4

Functional requirements
Sea Areas

R8 Ch.II Reg.2

2.1.1.1. Definitions of coverage and sea areas for


Digital Selective Calling (DSC)

R8 Ch.II Reg.2

Carriage requirements

R8 Ch.IV Reg.8-11

2.1.1.2. Details of equipment specifications Al, A2,


A4 and A4
2.1.1.3. Details of carriage requirements
2.1.1.4. Means of ensuring availability of ship station
equipment

R8 Ch.IV Reg.4

2.1.1.5. Primary and secondary means of alerting

R8 Ch.I Reg.7, 9

2.1.1.6. Bridge alarm panel and its purpose

R9 Art.31 Sect. III

2.1.1.7. Requirements for radio safety certificates

Watchkeeping

R8 Ch.IV Reg.12

2.1.1.8. Watchkeeping procedures as defined in the


Radio Regulations

R8 Ch.IV Reg.16
R8 Ch.IV Reg.13

2.1.1.9. Other watchkeeping procedures

R8 Ch.IV Reg.13

Radio personal
Sources of power
2.1.1.10. Reserve power supplies, capacity and
duration as defined in SOLAS Convention
2.1.1.11. Reserve source of energy
2.1.1.12. Prohibitions on the connection of nonGMDSS equipment

Radio Regulations
Authority of the master
Secrecy of correspondence
Ship station licences

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3,5
R9 Art.36
R9 Art.17
R9 Art.18
R9 Art.39
R9 Art.47

R9 Art.15, 16

Teachin
g
Support
s

hrs
theor.

Learning Objectives

hrs
pract.

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IMO / ITU/
Reference

Inspection of stations
Radio Operators Certificates
Frequencies

R9 AP 1

2.1.1.13. Interferences
2.1.1.14. The use of and restrictions for different
emissions according to frequencies in the
Maritime Mobile Service (MMS)

R9 AP 18
R9 AP 17

2.1.1.15. The role of the various modes of


communication

R9 Art.51, Art.5

2.1.1.16. The usage of bands MF, HF, VHF, UHF


and SHF frequencies in the MMS
2.1.1.17. The
concept
management

of

HF

R9 AP 17
R9 Art.15

frequency

R9 AP 17, 18

2.1.1.18. VHF telephony

R9 Art.53

2.1.1.19. Frequency plans and channelling system


HF telephony
2.1.1.20. MF telephony frequencies
2.1.1.21. HF NBDP frequencies
R9 Art.31

2.1.1.22. Frequencies for distress, urgency and


safety communications
2.1.1.23. Frequencies for routine communication
and reply

Call categories
2.1.1.24. Distress
2.1.1.25. Urgency
2.1.1.26. Safety
2.1.1.27. Routine

Watchkeeping
3.

Identification of radio stations

2,0

Identification of ship stations


Ships name
Call sign
Maritime Mobile Service Identity
Group calling number

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R9 Art.19 Sect.III
R9 Art.19 Sect.IV
R10
R10, Sect. 2

Teachin
g
Support
s

Learning Objectives

hrs
theor.

hrs
pract.

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Identification of coast stations

IMO / ITU/
Reference

Teachin
g
Support
s

Learning Objectives

hrs
theor.

hrs
pract.

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R10, Annex

Identification of Search and Rescue Stations


Identification
stations

of

Vessel

Traffic

Service
R10, Sect.4

Identification of Aids to Navigation

R10, Sect.3

Identification of aircraft stations

R10, Sect.5

Identification of associated craft with parent


ship

T3-1

Identification of Ship Earth Stations and


Coast Earth Stations

4.

Service publications

1,0

2,0

R9 Art.20

List of Coast Stations and Special Service


Stations

T2

List of Ship Stations and Maritime Mobile


Service Identity Assignments
Manual for use by the Matitime Mobile and
Maritime Mobile-Satellite Services

T1
T3-6

Admiralty List of Radio Signals


5.

Technical

Radio wave propagation

2,0

Basics
Line of sight propagation
Ground waves and sky waves
Ionosphere structure
UHF and VHF propagation
MF propagation
HF propagation
VLF propagation
LF propagation
Modulation basics

1,0
R9 AP 1 Sect.II
R9 AP 1 Sect.II

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Reference

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Frequency modulation
Amplitude modulation
Bandwidth of different types of modulation

R9 AP 27 Part C

Carrier and assigned frequencies


Official designations of emission

1,0

Unofficial designations of emissions


Transmitter and receiver basics

1,0

Transmitter structure
Receiver structure
Batteries
Basics
Different kinds of batteries - UPS systems
Characteristics of different battery types
5.1.1.1. Primary batteries

1,0

5.1.1.2. Secondary batteries

Charging batteries, battery charging methods


Maintenance and monitoring of batteries
Antennas
VHF antennas
MF/HF antennas

1,0

Satellite antennas

1,0

Antenna maintenance

R13 Annex 1

DSC basics

R13 Annex 1

Radiotelex basics
Automatic request for repeat

R11, R12

A3
A6

2,0

Forward Error Correction


Fault location and service on GMDSS marine
electronic equipment
6.

GMDSS Components

General

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

5,0

A3
A6

IMO / ITU/
Reference

VHF DSC
Basics
The use and functions of the VHF radio
station installation
DSC possibilities

R11
R12

10,0

R9 Art. 30-33

Operational VHF DSC procedures in the


GMDSS

R11, R12

6.1.1.1. Telecommand and traffic information


6.1.1.2. Channel selection in call format
6.1.1.3. DSC acknowledgement
6.1.1.4. DSC relay process
6.1.1.5. Test transmissions

R9 Art.32
R9 Art.32

Alerting and announcement

R9 Art.33

6.1.1.6. Distress alert

R9 Art.33

6.1.1.7. Distress alert relay

R11

6.1.1.8. Announcements for all ships (distress,


urgency, safety)

R11, R12
R11, R12

6.1.1.9. Announcement to individual station (urgency,


safety, routine)
6.1.1.10. Group announcement (urgency, safety,
routine)

5,0

6.1.1.11. Polling and position request


6.1.1.12. Automatic/Semi-automatic service with
coast stations

R12

6.1.1.13. List of practical tasks

MF/HF-DSC
Basics
The use and functions of the MF/HF radio
station installation
DSC possibilities

10,0

R9 Art.30-33
R11
R12

R9 Art.15, AP 17+18

Operational MF/HF DSC procedures in the


GMDSS
6.1.1.14. Telecommand and traffic information
6.1.1.15. Frequency selection in call format
6.1.1.16. Acknowledgement

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R9 Art.32

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Reference

6.1.1.17. Distress alert relay

R9 Art.33
R11

6.1.1.18. Usage of frequencies

R11, R12

6.1.1.19. Test transmissions

R11, R12
R11, R12

Alerting and announcement


6.1.1.20. Distress alert
6.1.1.21. Distress alert relay

6.1.1.22. Announcement to individual


(urgency, safety, routine)
6.1.1.23. Geographic
(urgency, safety)

area

station

R9 Art.32

announcement

6.1.1.24. Group announcement (distress, urgency,


safety, routine)

R11

6.1.1.25. Polling and position request

R11

6.1.1.26. Automatic service with coast stations


R14

6.1.1.27. Practical tasks

VHF/MF/HF voice procedure


Distress procedure

R11

6,0

Urgency procedure

3,0

Safety procedure
Port
operation
communication

and

ship

movement

R13

Routine communication

R14

6.1.1.28. Calling a subscriber (ship to shore)

R9 Art.32+33

6.1.1.29. Phone call from ashore (shore to ship)


6.1.1.30. Transmission of a telegram

R13

Intership communication
On board communication
Radiotelex
Basics
Numbering
Automatic and manual calling
Radiotelex equipment
Details of a telex message

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

10

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Annex, page 21

IMO / ITU/
Reference

Operational MF/HF radiotelex procedures in


the GMDSS

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T3-1
A3

6.1.1.31. Distress procedure


6.1.1.32. Urgency procedure
6.1.1.33. Safety procedure
6.1.1.34. Routine procedure
6.1.1.35. Communication

T3-1
A3

6.1.1.36. List of practical tasks MF/HF

Inmarsat
Basics
6.1.1.37. Inmarsat space segment
6.1.1.38. Inmarsat ground segment
6.1.1.39. Different Inmarsat systems and their
functions

Inmarsat-B system
6.1.1.40. Use of the Inmarsat-B system
6.1.1.41. Components of an Inmarsat-B ship earth
station

T3-1
A3

6.1.1.42. Handling of an Inmarsat-B SES


6.1.1.43. Acquiring a satellite connection
6.1.1.44. Use of 2-digit code service via Inmarsat-B

T3-1
A3

6.1.1.45. Practical Tasks

Inmarsat-C system
6.1.1.46. The use of Inmarsat-C system
6.1.1.47. Selecting an Ocean Region
6.1.1.48. Logging-in to an Ocean Region/ NCS
Common Signalling Channel
6.1.1.49. Use of 2-digit code service via Inmarsat-C
6.1.1.50. Routing via a CES
6.1.1.51. Navigational
areas
(Navarea)
Metrological areas (Metarea)

6.1.1.52. Log out before switching off


6.1.1.53. Routine operational tasks
6.1.1.54. Quick reference Inmarsat-C guide

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R9 Art.30-33
R11

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6.1.1.55. Components of an Inmarsat-C/Mini-C


SES

T3-1

6.1.1.56. Practical Tasks

T3-1

Inmarsat-M systems
6.1.1.57. The limitations regarding Inmarsat-M and
the GMDSS

T3-1

Inmarsat Fleet 77
6.1.1.58. Components of an Inmarsat Fleet ship
earth station

T3-1

6.1.1.59. Method of acquiring


manually and automatically

T3-1

satellite

both

T3-1

6.1.1.60. Handling of an Inmarsat Fleet 77 SES

T3-1

6.1.1.61. Use of 2-digit code service via Inmarsat


Fleet

T3-1

6.1.1.62. Practical Tasks


T3-1

Inmarsat D and D+
Inmarsat Numbers (IMN)

1,0

2,0

6.1.1.64. Procedure for sending a distress alert-,


call- and message via Inmarsat-B and 0,5
Inmarsat Fleet 77

1,0

Overview of SafetyNET and FleetNET services


Operational voice procedure via Inmarsat
6.1.1.63. Distress-, urgency- safety and routine
communication

6.1.1.65. Procedure for sending an urgency calland message via Inmarsat-B and Inmarsat
Fleet 77
6.1.1.66. Procedure for sending a safety
announcement, call and message via
Inmarsat-B and Inmarsat Fleet 77
6.1.1.67. Routine communication via Inmarsat-B
and Fleet 77
6.1.1.68. List of practical tasks

Operational Inmarsat telex procedure


6.1.1.69. Distress via Inmarsat-B telex
6.1.1.70. Distress via Inmarsat-C telex

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R9 Art.34
R9 Res.205
R15

T3-3
A5

0,5

1,0

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6.1.1.71. Urgency / Safety Inmarsat-B telex


6.1.1.72. Urgency / Safety via Inmarsat-C telex
6.1.1.73. Routine communication
6.1.1.74. List of practical tasks

Inmarsat Email procedure


6.1.1.75. Procedure for sending an email to shore

Cospas/Sarsat

R9 Art.15

T3-3
A5

R9 Art.15
R9 Res.360

Structure
6.1.1.76. Cospas/Sarsat space segment
6.1.1.77. Cospas/Sarsat ground segment

Possibilities
Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
3,0
(EPIRB)

7,0

The basic operation of the Cospas/Sarsat


satellite system and signal routing/path

R9 AP 15+17

Essential parts of Cospas / Sarsat EPIRBs


Basic characteristics of operation on 406 and
121.5 MHz EPIRB

A2
A3

A3

The registration and coding of a 406 MHz


EPIRB

T3-1
T3-4
T3-5

The information contents of a distress alert


Operation
The float-free function
The correct use of the lanyard
Routine maintenance, testing requirements
and test operation
Additional EPIRB features
Withdrawal of an unintended false distress
transmission Tests
Practical Tasks
Search
and
Rescue
Transmitter (SART)

Transponder

Different types of SARTs and their operation


6.1.1.78. Search and rescue radar transponder
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0,5

1,0

0,5

1,0

A6

A6

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6.1.1.79. AIS radar transmitter

Routine maintenance, testing requirements


and test operation
Practical tasks
Maritime Safety Information (MSI)
Basics
NAVTEX
6.1.1.80. NAVTEX frequencies
6.1.1.81. NAVTEX system
6.1.1.82. Responsibilities
ordinator

of

NAVTEX

Co-

6.1.1.83. Messages
6.1.1.84. Operation of the NAVTEX receiver
6.1.1.85. Selection of transmitters, message type
6.1.1.86. Practical tasks

EGC
6.1.1.87. Geographic area messages and Inmarsat
system messages
6.1.1.88. Classes of Inmarsat-C receiver types
6.1.1.89. EGC setup

MSI via VHF/MF/HF


The usage and functions of portable VHF
radio
Practical tasks
Portable VHF Aeronautical Radio for 121,5
and 123,1 MHZ

7.

Other systems used on board

Ultra High Frequency (UHF) handhelds


Automatic Identification System
Ship Security Alert System
8.

Search and Rescue (SAR) operation

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

2,0
A6

The role of the Maritime


ordination Centre (MRCC):

Rescue

Co-

4,0

International Aeronautical and Maritime


Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual

1,0

IMO / ITU/
Reference

Maritime rescue organisations


Knowledge of SAR systems worldwide
0,5

2,5

Use of English in written and oral form for 5,0


safety communications

2,0

The role and method of use of ship reporting


systems

R2

Automated Mutual-assistance Vessel Rescue


System (AMVER)
Japanese Ship Reporting System (JASREP)
Australian Ship Reporting System (AUSREP)
Long Range Identification and Tracking of
Ships (LRIT)
9.

Miscellaneous skills and operational


procedures for general communications

Use
of
the
IMO
Communication Phrases

Standard

R3

Marine

R4

Use of the International Code of Signals


Recognition of standard abbreviations and
commonly used service codes
Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet
Details of a radio telegram

R9 AP 14

1,0

1,0

1,0

1,0

R14

The preamble
Prefix
Different types of address
The different kind of addresses
The text
The signature
Procedure of traffic charging
The international charging and accounting
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R9 Art.58
R14

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system

IMO / ITU/
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List of Coast Stations


and Special Service
Stations

The AAIC code and its use


Coast station-, landline and ship station
charge

T3-1

Currencies used Coast station-, landline and


ship station charge
Inmarsat communication charging systems
Examination
A Theoretical examination
B Practical examination

2,0
3,0

PART D: Instructors Manual


General
This manual reflects the view of an independent consultant on methodology and
organization of the work and is based on his own experience as an instructor. The
instructor should use this manual as guidance initially but should work out his own
ideas and methods, based on the experience gained and tailored to suit the various
backgrounds of the students.
This manual contains guidance on the teaching methods that are considered to be
the most appropriate to the subject matter. However, since circumstances vary, the
instructor himself must decide upon the best methods to adopt in order for the
students to attain the specified objectives.
Use the teaching aids, IMO references, etc.
The compendium accompanying this course contains text covering some subjects,
which are not adequately covered in the other course material. When using this
compendium, the instructors should take into account the students prior knowledge
of these subjects. Note that the students are training to become operators of radiocommunication equipment and not technicians or engineers.
The instructor may choose to use books if deemed suitable for this purpose. There
are also many other books covering the GMDSS, or parts of the GMDSS available
throughout the world. A number of videos and CDs are also available. The instructor
has to make sure, that the additional books used for training contain the correct
information.
It is important that the instructor makes use of official publications wherever possible,
especially those which are required to be carried on board ships. This will serve to

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Annex, page 28

familiarize the students with this information. Nevertheless, national publications


should also be taken into account.
Note that this compendium contains information of a general nature; when lecturing
on technical subjects, the instructor should make use of the technical manuals
covering the actual equipment provided for the course. Advantage should also be
taken of the information that is provided in the Inmarsat publications listed under T3.
Lesson plans
When choosing the most appropriate teaching method, it will be necessary to draw up
some form of plan. The purpose of a lesson plan is to create the structure for the
lessons, which can be adjusted according to the circumstances. Without such a plan
there is a risk of the lesson becoming disorganized and ineffective.
The process of producing a lesson plan is also very important as it focuses the
instructors attention on every detail of the course.
The time allocated to each component of the lesson is important, particularly on short
courses where there is little opportunity to compensate for lost time. It is essential that
all elements of a lesson be given a reasonable proportion of the available time.
Failure to do this would result in the neglect of certain subjects.
Other forms of lesson planning may be equally suitable, but whatever the style, the
important fact is that planning and preparation are essential to good teaching.
Use of personal computers (PCs)
More and more use of software based GMDSS simulation will take place in the
training of students, especially with regard to NBDP, DSC and lnmarsat B/-C and
Fleet operations. It is very important to make sure that the students are familiar with
this kind of equipment.
Where PCs are used for simulating1 communication exercises in this course, their use
should be made as simple and easy as possible. The PCs should be in a network
with touchscreens and PTT to handle the different equipment as realistic as possible.
The software shall simulate the equipment as realistically as possible in all situations
Unless an enhanced course, which also includes general use of PCs, is being
conducted, the instructor should avoid using precious time on purely PC-related
matters.

False Distress Alert

The generation and emission of false distress alerts must be avoided and every
precaution possible must be taken in order to achieve this. This means that the
students must understand the very serious consequences of generating and emitting
false distress alerts and be instructed on how to avoid such incidents and on the
action they should take if they inadvertently transmit such an alert.
1

Refer to the guidelines in the STCW Code (section B-1/12, paragraph 67)
regarding the use of simulators in training for seafarers.

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The different MRCCs around the globe are facing an increasing number of false alerts
(however, during the last couple of years such incidents have been reduced). The
consequences are a loss of faith in this communication system and in the GMDSS as
a concept, especially within the Search and Rescue Community. It also leads to a
serious waste of resources, both economical and human.
In view of the fact that the students are to become professionals, i.e. the persons who
will, as a part of their shipboard duties (ref. SOLAS Ch. IV, Regulation 12), be
responsible for the operation of the communication equipment, therefore the instructor
must impress upon them the importance of thinking before using this equipment,
especially regarding DSC and lnmarsat-C.
The instructor must also make sure that the students understand the possible danger
of false distress alerts being initiated by other members of the crew, especially those
who are able to gain access to equipment though lack of necessary authorization or
familiarity with the equipment that is needed to prevent improper operation. Measures
need to be ensured that whenever anybody on board, not in possession of a relevant
certificate, may be allowed to use GMDSS equipment for commercial purposes, this
person must be instructed properly and must also be supervised by a responsible
operator. As a general rule, all GMDSS training must be supervised by the Instructor
while giving training on real equipment, this to avoid unintentional alarms.
Another problem area is the testing of equipment, especially the testing of EPIRBs
and SARTs. This equipment should only be tested by qualified personnel, and
preferably only in connection with the annual radio survey and in accordance with the
prescribed testing procedures (ref. SOLAS Ch. IV, Reg. 15.9 and guidelines given in
MSC.1/Circ.1040/Rev.1).
Furthermore, a problem may arise during the installation and servicing of the GMDSS
equipment. A responsible operator should supervise this work and should ensure that
the technician knows about the risk of emission of false Distress alerts that exists
unless caution is shown. Procedures to advice RCCs of the transmission of false
Distress alerts have been established by IMO. It is necessary for the instructors to gain
familiarization with the content of IMO Assembly Resolution A. 814 (19) Guidelines
for the Avoidance of False Distress Alerts and ITU-R Resolution 349 (REV.WRC-12) Operational procedures for cancelling false distress alerts in the GMDSS.
Search and Rescue matters
When instructing qualified deck officers or students undergoing training in the deck
department, the instructor should take advantage of this fact and use whatever
navigational training equipment is available. For instance, a radar simulator, an ARPA
simulator and/or a full mission bridge simulator, or realistic GMDSS simulators (with
touchscreens and PTTs) could be an extremely valuable tool for training in SAR
communication. If such equipment is available, the instructor should co-operate with
other relevant instructors in order to provide as realistic training as possible.

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English language
The STCW Code requires that any seafarer whose duties include communications
shall have a sufficient knowledge of the English language. The Radio Regulations
recommend the use of IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases and, where
language difficulties exist, the Inter- national Code of Signals should be available for
exercises.
A general knowledge of the English language is therefore to be expected from the
students. The instructor will have to make sure that the students can actually use
maritime English for communication purpose. This is extremely necessary regarding
Distress, Urgency and Safety.
With regard to the spoken language, the instructor should conduct the majority of the
theoretical and practical training sessions using the English language and require the
students to reply to any questions, and to put their own questions and comments,
using the English language.
Independent Examination
On all theoretical subjects, the examination should be conducted as a combination of
written, practical as well as oral tests. The practical test in combination with the voice
procedure can be performed on real equipment which is connected together (VHF,
MF/HF) or on PC based simulation with touchscreen and PTT which simulates the
equipment as well as the radio conditions and carry out all relevant and necessary
general radio communications using radiotelephony, NBDP and DSC
On all practical subjects, the examination should include a combination of oral tests
and practical demonstrations (ref. STCW-Convention, Ch. IV, Section A-IV/2).
A part of the written and oral tests should be conducted in English in order to ensure
that the student, as a minimum, is able to:

read and understand written distress and safety messages received via NBDP
and Inmarsat -B/-C; compose written distress and safety messages for
transmission via (NBDP) and Inmarsat -B/-C;
conduct distress traffic and participate actively in SAR-communications via
radiotelephony; read and understand the information given in all relevant service
documents, including relevant parts of the technical documentation; and carry out
all relevant and necessary general radio communications using radiotelephony,
NBDP and DSC.

The practical tests should be carried out on real equipment or/and on the above
mentioned pc based simulation. The student must be able to (see example of
trainees proficiency checklist on use of GMDSS):

handle all relevant maritime radio equipment (VHF-DSC, MF/HF-DSC, NBDP,


Inmarsat C, Inmarsat B, Fleet 77, NAVTEX, EPIRB, SART, GPS etc.)
show all communication types (Voice, Telex, DSC etc.) in combination with the
operation of the corresponding facilities
perform traffic in all kinds of priorities (distress, urgent, safety, routine)

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Part E: Evaluation
Introduction
The effectiveness of any evaluation depends on the accuracy of the description of
what is to be measured.
The learning objectives that are used in the detailed teaching syllabus, Column 3 Methods for demonstrating competence - and Column 4 - Criteria for evaluating
competence - in Table A-IV/2 of the STCW Code, set out the methods and criteria for
evaluation.
Instructors should refer to these when designing the assessment.
It is consistent with the intent of STCW that demonstration of skills and practical
understanding is determined by direct observation, while knowledge and theoretical
understand is determined through written examination in a variety of question styles.
STCW 2010 Code
The training and assessment of seafarers required under the Convention are
administered, supervised and monitored in accordance with the provisions of
Regulation I/6 of the STCW Convention.
Assessment is also covered in detail in IMO Model Courses [3.12 & 6.09A].
Assessment Planning
Assessment planning should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and
timebound (SMART).
Some methods of assessment that could be used depending upon the
course/qualification are as follows and all should be adapted to suit individual needs:
observation (In oral examination, simulation exercises, practical demonstration);
questions (written or oral);
tests;
simulation (also refer to section A-I/12 of the STCW code 2010);
Validity
The evaluation methods must be based on clearly defined objectives, and must truly
represent what is meant to be assessed; e.g. against only the relevant criteria and
the syllabus or course guide. There must be a reasonable balance between the
subject topics involved and also, in the testing of trainees KNOWLEDGE,
UNDERSTANDING AND PROFICIENCY of the concepts.
Reliability
Assessment should also be reliable (if the assessment was done again with a similar
group/learner, would similar results be achieved). Different group of learners may
have the same subject at different times. If other assessors are also assessing the
same course/qualification, there is need to ensure all are making the same decisions.
To be reliable an evaluation procedure should produce reasonably consistent results,
no matter which set of papers or version of the test is used. If instructors are
assessing their own trainees, they need to know what they are to assess and then
decide how to do this. The what will come from the standards/learning outcomes of
the course/qualification they are delivering and the how may already be decided for
them if it is in assignments, tests or examinations.
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The instructors need to consider the best way to assess the skills, knowledge and
attitudes of their learners, whether this will be formative and/or summative and the
validity and reliability of the assessment.
All work assessed should be valid, authentic, current, sufficient and reliable; this is
often known as VACSR valid assessments create standard results:
valid the work is relevant to the standards/criteria being assessed;
authentic the work has been produced solely by the learner;
current the work is still relevant at the time of assessment;
sufficient the work covers all the standards/criteria;
reliable the work is consistent across all learners, over time and at the required
level.
It is important to note that no single method can satisfactorily measure knowledge
and skill over the entire spectrum of matters to be tested for the assessment of
competence.
Care should therefore be taken to select the method most appropriate to the
particular aspect of competence to be tested, bearing in mind the need to frame
questions which relate as realistically as possible to the requirements of the officer's
tasks at sea.
Compiling assessments
Whilst each examining authority establishes its own rules, the length of time which
can be devoted to assessing the competence of candidates for certificates of
competency is limited by practical, economic and social restraints. Therefore a prime
objective of those responsible for the organization and administration of the
assessment system is to find the most efficient, effective and economical method of
assessing the competency of candidates. An examination system should effectively
test the breadth of a candidate's KNOWLEDGE, UNDERSTANDING AND
PROFICIENCY of the subject areas pertinent to the tasks he is expected to
undertake. It is not possible to examine candidates fully in all areas, so in effect the
assessment samples a candidate's KNOWLEDGE, UNDERSTANDING AND
PROFICIENCY by covering as wide a scope as is possible within the time constraints
and testing his depth of KNOWLEDGE, UNDERSTANDING AND PROFICIENCY in
selected areas.
The assessment as a whole should assess each candidates comprehension of
principles, concepts and methodology; ability to apply principles, concepts and
methodology; ability to organize facts, ideas and arguments and abilities and skills in
carrying out the tasks to perform in the duties he or she is to be certificated to
undertake.
All evaluation and testing techniques have their advantages and disadvantages. An
examining authority should carefully analyse precisely what it should be testing and
can test. A careful selection of test and evaluation methods should then be made to
ensure that the best of the variety of techniques available today is used. Each
assessment shall be that best suited to the learning outcome or ability to be
assessed.
Quality of test items
No matter which type of test is used, it is essential that all questions or test items
used should be as brief as possible, since the time taken to read the questions
themselves lengthens the examination. Questions must also be clear and complete.

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To ensure this, it is necessary that they be reviewed by a person other than the
originator. No extraneous information should be incorporated into questions.
Examination guideline
The efficient operation of GMDSS depends on the proficiency of the maritime radio
operators. The examination should consist of a theoretical and practical part.
A Theoretical Examination
The theoretical examination should consist of multiple choice questionnaires or a
questionnaire in which the applicant can answer the questions with his own words.
Every training post should have a pool of approximately 250 to 300 questions spread
over the complete field of the section A1 to A6. Each questionnaire should consist of
approximately 100 questions.
A1: Basic knowledge of the GMDSS
Different components of the GMDSS
Construction of the GMDSS
Sea areas
Carriage requirements
Knowledge of the regulations and agreements in the maritime mobile service
(Radio Regulations, SOLAS etc.)
Regulations concerning documentation
Preservation of the secrecy of correspondence
A2: Types of communication in the maritime mobile service
Distress, urgency and safety communication
Public correspondence
Port operation service
Ship movement service
Intership communication
On board communication
A3: Types of station in the maritime mobile service
Ship stations
Ship Earth stations
Coast stations
Coast Earth stations
Pilot stations, port stations etc.
Aircraft stations
Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC)
A4: Elementary knowledge of radio frequencies and frequency bands
Frequency and wavelength
The units of frequencies: Hz, kHz, MHz, GHz.
The subdivision of the most significant part of the radio
Spectrum: MF, HF, VHF, UHF, SHF
Different propagation mechanisms and typical ranges
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Propagation on MF frequencies
Propagation on different HF frequency bands
Propagation on VHF and UHF frequencies

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A5: Frequencies allocated to the maritime mobile service


The usage of LF, MF, HF, VHF, UHF and SHF frequencies in the maritime
mobile service
Modes of communication (Radiotelephony, NBDP, Fax, Email, Data, DSC)
Classes of emission
Bandwidth of different emissions, carrier frequency and assigned frequency
Official designations of emission
Unofficial designations of emissions (e. g. TLX, SSB, AM, FM)
The concept of radio channel: simplex, semi-duplex and duplex; paired and
unpaired channels and frequencies.
Channelling systems in the VHF, MF and HF maritime mobile bands, including
allocations for the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS).
Distress and safety frequencies
Intership communications frequencies
Port operations frequencies
Ship movement frequencies
Calling frequencies
A6: Maintaining the functionality of a ship station
Sources of energy of ship stations
Batteries
Different kinds of batteries and their characteristics
Charging
Maintenance of batteries
Antenna maintenance
Functional tests
B Practical Examination
In the practical examination several applicants can proof their knowledge at the same
time depending on the technical equipment. For each applicant a protocol as shown
in Annex I should be used.
To conduct GMDSS distress-, urgency-, safety- and routine radio traffic in English
language by means of case examples on real radio devices on dummy loads
communicating with each other or on approved networked GMDSS simulation
equipment which meets all applicable performance standards set out in Regulation
I/12 of the STCW-Convention, should be used.
B1: Detailed practical knowledge and ability to use radio equipment (see Annex 1)
B2: Detailed practical knowledge of distress, urgency, safety and routine
communication procedures in radiotelephony, radiotelex and via satellite systems
Distress communication
o Alert, call and message (including DSC, EPIRB and SART)
o Distress traffic with ship stations, coast stations and aircraft stations
o Cessation of distress traffic
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o Withdrawing of a false distress alert


Urgent communication
o Announcement, call and message
o Urgency traffic with ship stations, coast stations and aircraft stations
o Cessation urgency traffic
Safety communication
o Announcement, call and message
o Safety traffic with ship stations, coast stations and aircraft stations
o Cessation safety traffic
Routine communication
o Ship station to Ship station
o Ship to Coast station or and subscriber
o Ship earth station to ship earth station
o Ship earth station to coast earth station or land subscriber
B3: Ability of using Handbooks and ITU Lists
List of coast station and Special Service Stations
List of Ship Stations and Maritime Mobile Service Identity Assignments
Handbook for the use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile Satellite
Services (Maritime Manual)
Inmarsat Handbook
Admiralty List (Vol I and Vol III)

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Information Requested of Instructors who implement IMO Model


Courses
Introduction
1 IMO model courses are periodically revised to take into account the changes which
have taken place in relevant Conventions, resolutions and other matters affecting
each course. To help IMO to improve the content of courses when they are revised,
the assistance of all instructors who implement or participate in implementing
courses is requested, whether the implementation is part of an IMO technical cooperation project or part of a Maritime Training Academys regular programme.
Information requested and its format
2 To simplify their consolidation by IMO, the technical comments and suggestions for
the improvement of model courses should follow the format that is outlined below.
If no comments or suggestions are to be provided under topic, please insert no
comments against the item.
3 Please identify:
1 the course number and title;
2 the date and location of its implementation;
3 the approximate number of IMO model courses you have implemented to date;
and
4 the approximate number of times you have implemented this particular model
course.
4 In commencing on Part A Course Framework, please comment on the items
(`Scope, Objectives, etc.) in the order in which they appear in the course; in all
cases, please indicate:
1 the number of participants who met the entry standards and the number who did
not;
2 the course intake and, if the recommendations in Course intake limitations were
exceeded, the reasons for this and your observations on the effect of this on the
quality of the course;
3 if conditions under Staff requirements were met; if not, please indicate the
nature of the deficiency and give your observations of the effect of this on the
quality of presentation of the course; and
4 any lack of equipment or facilities as compared with the recommendations under
Teaching facilities and equipment and your observations of the effect on this
lack on the quality of presentation of the course.
5 In commenting on Part B course Outline, please bear in mind that minor
variations in time allocations are inevitable. Major difficulties with allocations of
time and any omissions or redundancies of subject areas should be briefly
explained.
6 In commenting on Part C Detailed Teaching Syllabus, please identify the
specific learning objectives concerned by their paragraph numbers.

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7 In commenting on Part D Instructors Manual, please clearly identify the section


concerned. If the bibliography or the practical exercises are found to be
unsatisfactory, please identify suitable alternative texts, as far as possible, or outline
alternative exercises, as appropriate.
8 In commenting on the compendium, please clearly identify the paragraphs being
commented upon.
9 Any further comments or suggestions you may have which fall outside the scope
of the items listed above may be added at the end. In particular, your views on
the usefulness of the course material to you in implementing the course would
be appreciated, as would the contribution to IMO of any additional teaching
material you found useful in implementing it.
Please address your comments to:
International Maritime Organization
4, Albert Embankment
London
SE1 7SR
United Kingdom
Tel +44 (0)20 7735 7611
Fax +44 (0)20 7587 3210
Email: info@imo.org

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Annex 1: Example of trainees practical proficiency checklist


VHF-DSC
Transmit capabilities
DSC distress alert without nature of distress
DSC distress alert with nature of distress
DSC relay to all stations
DSC relay to an individual station (coast station or ship station)
DSC all stations urgency announcement with working channel
DSC ship to ship urgency announcement with working channel
DSC ship to coast station urgency announcement
DSC all stations safety announcement with working channel
DSC ship to ship safety announcement with working channel
DSC ship to coast station safety announcement
DSC ship to ship routine announcement with working channel
DSC ship to coast station safety announcement
DSC group announcement (urgency, safety, routine) with working channel
DSC geographic area announcement (urgency, safety, routine) with working channel
DSC polling
DSC position request
DSC medical transport
Other capabilities
Select DSC received messages out of memory (distress + non distress)
Select own MMSI numbers
Implement coast stations
Implement subscriber
Implement position and time (if no GPS is available)
Change DSC auto acknowledgement settings
Change channel
Change power settings
Switch between International channels an US channels
Switch on and off the dual watch function
Edit the address book
Carry out the implemented test routine
Operate the Volume and Squelch
Establish operational readiness (ch16, 25W, International channel selection)

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MF/HF-DSC
Transmit capabilities
DSC distress alert without nature of distress
DSC distress alert with nature of distress
DSC relay to all stations
DSC relay to geographic area
DSC relay to an individual station (coast station or ship station)
DSC all stations urgency announcement with working frequency
DSC ship to ship urgency announcement with working frequency
DSC ship to coast station urgency announcement
DSC all stations safety announcement with working frequency
DSC ship to ship safety announcement with working frequency
DSC ship to coast station safety announcement
DSC ship to ship routine announcement with working frequency
DSC ship to coast station safety announcement
DSC group announcement (urgency, safety, routine) with work. frequency
DSC geographic area announcement (urgency, safety, routine) with working
frequency
DSC polling
DSC position request
DSC medical transport
Other capabilities
Select DSC received messages out of memory (distress + non distress)
Select own MMSI numbers
Implement coast stations
Implement subscriber
Implement position and time (if no GPS is available)
Implement new coast station frequencies
Change DSC auto acknowledgement settings
Change frequencies (TX and RX) for communication
Change power settings
Change kind of modulation
Operate the Volume and Squelch
Operate the Tuning
Operate the Clarifier
Operate the RF-Gain
Switch to Automatic Gain Control
Switch between International frequency and channels
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Switch on and off the DSC watch function
Add new coast stations
Edit the paired channel list (Communication with coast stations)
Change routine DSC watch frequencies
Carry out the implemented test routine
Edit the address book
Establish operational readiness (TX/RX 2182kHz, full Power, SSB, DSC watch)
INMARSAT-B
Transmit capabilities
Sending distress alert, call and message by telephony
Sending urgency or safety calls using access codes by telephony
Sending a distress relay to a MRCC
Calling a land subscriber by telephony
Calling a ship by telephony
Test the distress facility
Sending distress alert, call and message by telex
Sending urgency or safety messages using access codes by telex
Transmitting a telex to a land subscriber
Transmitting a telex to a ship
Opening a conversation call to a ship or a land subscriber
Other capabilities telephony
Login and logout procedure
Changing the satellite
Change the Coast Earth Station (CES)
Change the position and time (if no GPS is available)
Change the azimuth and elevation
Edit the default settings (Ringtone, Background light, Language etc.)
Edit the address book
Read the call log
Commissioning
Establish operational readiness (TX/RX on, Successful login)
Other capabilities telex
Edit the configuration
Edit the address book
Compose a correct telex to a ship or a land subscriber
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Save the telex in a correct folder
Open a message out of the correct folder
Read the receive logs
Use the help function
Establish operational readiness
INMARSAT-C
Transmit capabilities
Sending distress alert without nature of distress
Sending distress alert with nature of distress
Sending distress message with nature and details of distress
Sending urgency or safety messages using access codes by telex
Transmitting a telex/fax/email etc. to a land subscriber
Transmitting a telex to a ship
Login and logout procedure
Change the satellite
Other capabilities
Edit the default settings (configuration, routing, etc.)
Implement different Metareas/Coastal warning areas
Perform a link test
Configure and carry out a data reporting
Edit the address book
Compose a correct telex/fax/email to a ship or a land subscriber
Save the telex in a correct folder
Open a message out of the correct folder
Read the logs (Transmit, Receive, EGC)
Use the help function
Establish operational readiness (Transceiver on, Printer on, Screen on)
INMARSAT Fleet77
Transmit capabilities
Sending distress alert-, call- and message by telephony
Sending urgency or safety calls using access codes by telephony
Sending a distress relay to a MRCC
Calling a land subscriber by telephony
Calling a ship by telephony
Transmit an email to a land subscriber

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Other capabilities telephony
Login and logout procedure
Changing the satellite
Change the Coast Earth Station (CES)
Change the position and time (if no GPS is available)
Edit the default settings (Ringtone, Background light, Language etc.)
Edit the address book
Read the call log
Commissioning
Establish operational readiness (TX/RX on, Successful login)
Other capabilities Email
Edit the configuration
Edit the address book
Compose a correct email to a ship or a land subscriber
Save the email in a correct folder
Open a message out of the correct folder
Read the receive logs
Use the help function
NAVTEX
Select receive station
Select receive message
Select receive frequency
Read message from receive memory
Changing the default settings (display, print etc.)
EPIRB
Putting the EPIRB out of bracket
Testing the EPIRB
Switch the EPIRB to alarm mode
Switch off the EPIRB
SART
Putting the SART out of bracket
Testing the SART
Switch the SART to transmit mode

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Switch off the SART
VHF PORTABLE
Change channel
Change power settings
Switch between International channels an US channels
Switch on and off the dual watch function
Operate Volume and Squelch control
Change Battery
UHF PORTABLE
Change channel
Change power settings
Switch on and off the dual watch function
Operate Volume and Squelch control
Change Battery
VHF AERO
Change channel
Change power settings
Operate Volume and Squelch control
Change Battery

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Annex 2: Practical Examination Protocol GOC


I Compulsory Tasks - Terrestrial Maritime Mobile Service - MF/HF-DSC
Conducting GMDSS distress-, urgency- und safety radio traffic in English language
by means of case examples on two MF/HF-DSC radio devices communicating with
each other or with approved networked radio simulation equipment.
Examinee 1
Editing DSC distress alert
1.Attempt
and transmitting distress
message in radio telephony 2.Attempt
1.Attempt
Imposing silence
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
Conducting distress traffic
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
Cease distress traffic
2.Attempt
DSC urgency
1.Attempt
announcement and
transmitting an urgency
2.Attempt
message
Record of a safety
1.Attempt
message and initiation of
further measures
2.Attempt1
Relay of a received distress 1.Attempt
alert to a coast station by
Radio-telex (ARQ)
2.Attempt

Examinee 2
Reading out memory and
acknowledging receipt of
distress message
Editing DSC distress alert
relay and transmit it to a
coast station
Conducting distress traffic

1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt

2.Attempt
Cancelling of a false distress 1.Attempt
alert (DSC and radio
telephony)
2.Attempt
Record of an urgency
message and initiation of
further measures

1.Attempt

DSC safety announcement


and transmitting a safety
message
Editing DSC distress alert
and initiation of distress
traffic by means of radio
telex (FEC)

1.Attempt

2.Attempt

2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt

I Compulsory Tasks Maritime Mobile Satellite Service - Inmarsat B


Conducting GMDSS distress-, urgency- safety and routine traffic in English language
by means of case examples on an approved networked radio simulation equipment
or functional dummy loaded Inmarsat B device.
Examinee 1
Release a distress alert
1.Attempt
and transmit the
distress message by
2.Attempt
telephony
1.Attempt
Conducting distress
traffic
2.Attempt
Request medical advice 1.Attempt
by means of access
codes via telex
2.Attempt
Transmitting of a safety 1.Attempt
message to a land
subscriber by telex
2.Attempt
Installation of a routine 1.Attempt
connection to a ship
earth stations by telex
2.Attempt

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Examinee 2
Release a distress alert
1.Attempt
and transmit the
distress message by
2.Attempt
telex
1.Attempt
Conducting distress
traffic
2.Attempt
Request medical advice 1.Attempt
by means of access
codes via telephony
2.Attempt
Transmitting of a safety 1.Attempt
message to a ship earth
station by telex
2.Attempt
Installation of a routine 1.Attempt
connection to a land
subscriber by telex
2.Attempt

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III Compulsory Tasks Maritime Mobile Satellite Service - Inmarsat C


Conducting GMDSS distress-, urgency- safety and routine traffic in English language
by means of case examples on an approved networked radio simulation equipment
or functional dummy loaded Inmarsat C device.
Set type of EGC
message

Examinee 1
1.Attempt

Initiate a distress alert


including kind of
distress
Transmitting a safety
message to a Navtex
Coordinator
Transmitting a routine
telex to a SES
Reading out receiving-,
transmitting-and EGC
memory,
Close down operation
state

2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt

1.Attempt
2.Attempt

Set type of EGC


receiving area

Examinee 2
1.Attempt

Initiate a distress alert


including kind of
distress
Request medical advice
by means of access
code
Transmitting a routine
telex to a land
subscriber
Reading out receiving-,
transmitting-and EGC
memory,
Close down operation
state

2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt

1.Attempt
2.Attempt

The examinee shall pass all compulsory tasks successfully latest in the second attempt.

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IV Additional Tasks
VHF DSC
Calling a VTS station
Set up dual watch
function
Decrease or increase
power level
Using the squelch and
explaining its function
Navtex, EPIRB, SART
Set up Navtex: kind of
message and coast
station
Testing and releasing of
an EPIRB
Testing and releasing of
a SART
MF/HF and Radio-telex
Tuning the routine DSC
scan frequencies
MF/HF: Install a ship to
ship
connection(DSC/Teleph
ony)
MF/HF: Install a ship to
ship
connection(DSC/Telex))
MF/HF: Transmitting a
message to all stations
(DSC/Radio-telex FEC)
Radio-telex: Edit and
save a telex message

Remarks of the Examiner


1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt

2.Attempt
Radio-telex: Edit
1.Attempt
address book (ship
station, land subscriber) 2.Attempt
1.Attempt
Radio-telex: Tune scan
frequencies
2.Attempt

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IV Additional Tasks
Inmarsat-B
Inmarsat B: Edit and
save a telex message
Inmarsat B:
Transmitting a fax to a
land subscriber
Inmarsat B: Changing
Satellite and coast earth
station
Inmarsat B: Edit
address book (ship
station, land subscriber)
Inmarsat B: Reading out
receiving-,and
transmitting memory
Inmarsat-C
Inmarsat C:
Transmitting a test
message to the own
SES
Inmarsat C: Edit and
save a telex message
Inmarsat C:
Transmitting a fax to a
land subscriber
Inmarsat C: Changing
Satellite and coast earth
station
Inmarsat C: Edit
address book (ship
station, land subscriber)
Inmarsat C:
Transmitting a distress
priority message

Remarks of the Examiner


1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt

1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt
1.Attempt
2.Attempt

At least two of three additional tasks shall be successfully passed latest within the second attempt

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COMPENDIUM
CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
INDEX OF TABLES
INDEX OF FIGURES
1. INTRODUCTION
65
2. THE STATUTORY FRAMEWORK OF THE MARITIME MOBILE
SERVICE
65
2.1. INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION OF SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEE
2.1.1. Functional requirements
2.1.2. Sea Areas
2.1.2.1. Definitions of coverage and sea areas for Digital Selective Calling (DSC)
2.1.3. Carriage requirements
2.1.3.1. Details of equipment specifications A1, A2, A4 and A4
2.1.3.2. Details of carriage requirements
2.1.3.3. Means of ensuring availability of ship station equipment
2.1.3.4. Primary and secondary means of alerting
2.1.3.5. Bridge alarm panel and its purpose
2.1.3.6. Requirements for radio safety certificates
2.1.4. Watchkeeping
2.1.4.1. Watchkeeping procedures as defined in the Radio Regulations
2.1.4.2. Other watchkeeping procedures
2.1.5. Radio personal
2.1.6. Sources of power
2.1.6.1. Reserve power supplies, capacity and duration as defined in SOLAS Convention
2.1.6.2. Reserve source of energy
2.1.6.3. Prohibitions on the connection of non-GMDSS equipment
2.2. RADIO REGULATIONS
2.2.1. Authority of the master
2.2.2. Secrecy of correspondence
2.2.3. Ship station licences
2.2.4. Inspection of stations
2.2.5. Radio Operators Certificates
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66
66
67
67
68
69
70
70
70
72
72
72
72
73
73
74
74
74
75
75
76
76
76
77
77

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2.2.6. Frequencies
78
2.2.6.1. Interferences
78
2.2.6.2. The use of and restrictions for different emissions according to frequencies in the Maritime
Mobile Service (MMS)
79
2.2.6.3. The role of the various modes of communication
79
2.2.6.4. The use of MF, HF, VHF, UHF and SHF frequency bands in the MMS
80
2.2.6.5. The concept of HF frequency management
82
2.2.6.6. VHF telephony
82
2.2.6.7. Frequencies for distress, urgency and safety communications
82
2.2.6.8. Frequencies for routine communication and reply
82
2.2.7. Call categories
83
2.2.7.1. Distress
83
2.2.7.2. Urgency
83
2.2.7.3. Safety
83
2.2.7.4. Routine
83
2.2.8. Watchkeeping
83

3. IDENTIFICATION OF RADIO STATIONS


3.1. IDENTIFICATION OF SHIP STATIONS
3.1.1. Ships name
3.1.2. Call sign
3.1.3. Maritime Mobile Service Identity
3.1.4. Group calling number
3.2. IDENTIFICATION OF COAST STATIONS
3.3. IDENTIFICATION OF SEARCH AND RESCUE (SAR) STATIONS
3.4. IDENTIFICATION OF VESSEL TRAFFIC SERVICE(VTS) STATIONS
3.5. IDENTIFICATION OF AIDS TO NAVIGATION
3.6. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT STATIONS
3.7. IDENTIFICATION OF ASSOCIATED CRAFT WITH PARENT SHIP
3.8. IDENTIFICATION OF SHIP EARTH STATIONS AND COAST EARTH STATIONS

4. SERVICE PUBLICATIONS
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.

LIST OF COAST STATIONS AND SPECIAL SERVICE STATIONS (ITU LIST IV)
LIST OF SHIP STATIONS AND MARITIME MOBILE SERVICE IDENTITY ASSIGNMENTS (ITU LIST V)
MANUAL FOR USE BY THE MARITIME MOBILE AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE SERVICES
ADMIRALTY LIST OF RADIO SIGNALS

5. TECHNICAL
5.1. RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION
5.1.1. Basics
5.1.2. Line of sight propagation
5.1.3. Ground waves and sky waves
5.1.4. Ionosphere structure
5.1.5. UHF and VHF propagation
5.1.6. MF propagation
5.1.7. HF propagation
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85
85
85
85
86
86
87
87
88
88
89
89
89

90
90
91
92
93

94
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
100

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5.1.8. VLF propagation
5.1.9. LF propagation
5.2. MODULATION BASICS
5.2.1. Frequency modulation
5.2.2. Amplitude modulation
5.2.3. Bandwidth of different types of modulation
5.2.4. Carrier and assigned frequencies
5.2.5. Official designations of emission
5.2.6. Unofficial designations of emissions
5.3. TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER BASICS
5.3.1. Transmitter structure
5.3.2. Receiver structure
5.4. BATTERIES
5.4.1. Basics
5.4.2. Different kinds of batteries - UPS systems
5.4.3. Characteristics of different battery types
5.4.3.1. Primary batteries
5.4.3.2. Secondary batteries
5.4.4. Charging batteries, battery charging methods
5.4.5. Maintenance and monitoring of batteries
5.5. ANTENNAS
5.5.1. VHF antennas
5.5.2. MF/HF antennas
5.5.3. Satellite antennas
5.5.4. Antenna maintenance
5.6. DSC BASICS
5.7. RADIOTELEX BASICS
5.7.1. Automatic request for repeat (ARQ)
5.7.2. Forward Error Correction (FEC)
5.8. FAULT LOCATION AND SERVICE ON GMDSS MARINE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

6. GMDSS COMPONENTS
6.1. GENERAL
6.2. VHF DSC
6.2.1. Basics
6.2.2. The use and functions of the VHF radio station installation
6.2.3. DSC possibilities
6.2.4. Operational VHF DSC procedures in the GMDSS
6.2.4.1. Telecommand and traffic information
6.2.4.2. Channel selection in call format
6.2.4.3. DSC acknowledgement
6.2.4.4. DSC relay process
6.2.4.5. Test transmissions
6.2.5. Alerting and announcement
6.2.5.1. Distress alert
6.2.5.2. Distress alert relay

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6.2.5.3. Announcements for all ships (distress, urgency, safety)
6.2.5.4. Announcement to individual station (urgency, safety, routine)
6.2.5.5. Group announcement (urgency, safety, routine)
6.2.5.6. Polling and position request
6.2.5.7. Automatic/Semi-automatic service with coast stations
6.2.5.8. List of practical tasks
6.3. MF/HF-DSC
6.3.1. Basics
6.3.2. The use and functions of the MF/HF radio station installation
6.3.3. DSC possibilities
6.3.4. Operational MF/HF DSC procedures in the GMDSS
6.3.4.1. Telecommand and traffic information
6.3.4.2. Frequency selection in call format
6.3.4.3. Acknowledgement
6.3.4.4. Distress alert relay
6.3.4.5. Use of frequencies
6.3.4.6. Test transmissions
6.3.5. Alerting and announcement
6.3.5.1. Distress alert
6.3.5.2. Distress alert relay
6.3.5.3. Announcement to individual station (urgency, safety, routine)
6.3.5.4. Geographic area announcement (urgency, safety)
6.3.5.5. Group announcement (distress, urgency, safety, routine)
6.3.5.6. Polling and position request
6.3.5.7. Automatic service with coast stations
6.3.5.8. Practical tasks
6.4. VHF/MF/HF VOICE PROCEDURE
6.4.1. Distress procedure
6.4.2. Urgency procedure
6.4.3. Safety procedure
6.4.4. Port operation and ship movement communication
6.4.5. Routine communication
6.4.5.1. Calling a subscriber (ship to shore)
6.4.5.2. Phone call from ashore (shore to ship)
6.4.5.3. Transmission of a telegram
6.4.6. Intership communication
6.4.7. On board communication
6.5. RADIOTELEX
6.5.1. Basics
6.5.2. Numbering
6.5.3. Automatic and manual calling
6.5.4. Radiotelex equipment
6.5.5. Details of a telex message
6.5.6. Operational MF/HF radiotelex procedures in the GMDSS
6.5.6.1. Distress procedure
6.5.6.2. Urgency procedure
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6.5.6.3. Safety procedure
183
6.5.6.4. Routine procedure
184
6.5.6.5. List of practical tasks MF/HF
190
6.6. INMARSAT
192
6.6.1. Basics
192
6.6.1.1. Inmarsat space segment
192
6.6.1.2. Inmarsat ground segment
194
6.6.1.3. Different Inmarsat systems and their functions
196
6.6.2. Inmarsat-B system
198
6.6.2.1. Use of the Inmarsat-B system
198
6.6.2.2. Components of an Inmarsat-B ship earth station
198
6.6.2.3. Handling of an Inmarsat-B SES
200
6.6.2.4. Acquiring a satellite connection
201
6.6.2.5. Use of 2-digit code service via Inmarsat-B
202
6.6.2.6. Practical Tasks
203
6.6.3. Inmarsat-C system
204
6.6.3.1. The use of Inmarsat-C system
206
6.6.3.2. Selecting an Ocean Region
207
6.6.3.3. Logging-in to an Ocean Region/ NCS Common Signalling Channel
207
6.6.3.4. Use of 2-digit code service via Inmarsat-C
207
6.6.3.5. Routing via a CES
208
6.6.3.6. Navigational areas (Navarea) / Metrological areas (Metarea)
208
6.6.3.7. Log out before switching off
208
6.6.3.8. Routine operational tasks
209
6.6.3.9. Quick reference Inmarsat-C guide
209
6.6.3.10. Components of an Inmarsat-C/Mini-C SES
211
6.6.3.11. Practical Tasks
212
6.6.4. Inmarsat-M systems
213
6.6.4.1. The limitations regarding Inmarsat-M and the GMDSS
214
6.6.5. Inmarsat Fleet 77
214
6.6.5.1. Components of an Inmarsat Fleet ship earth station
215
6.6.5.2. Method of acquiring satellite both manually and automatically
216
6.6.5.3. Handling of an Inmarsat Fleet 77 SES
216
6.6.5.4. Use of 2-digit code service via Inmarsat Fleet
218
6.6.5.5. Practical Tasks
218
6.6.6. Inmarsat-D and D+
219
6.6.7. Inmarsat Numbers IMN
219
6.6.8. Overview of SafetyNET and FleetNET services
219
6.6.9. Operational voice procedure via Inmarsat
220
6.6.9.1. Distress-, urgent- safety and routine communication
220
6.6.9.2. Procedure for sending a distress alert-, call- and message via Inmarsat-B and Inmarsat Fleet
77
221
6.6.9.3. Procedure for sending an urgency call- and message via Inmarsat-B and Inmarsat Fleet 77
221
6.6.9.4. Procedure for sending a safety announcement, call and message via Inmarsat-B and
Inmarsat Fleet 77
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Annex, page 54
6.6.9.5. Routine communication via Inmarsat-B and Fleet 77
6.6.9.6. List of practical tasks
6.6.10. Operational Inmarsat telex procedure
6.6.10.1. Distress via Inmarsat-B telex
6.6.10.2. Distress via Inmarsat-C telex
6.6.10.3. Urgency / Safety Inmarsat-B telex
6.6.10.4. Urgency / Safety via Inmarsat-C telex
6.6.10.5. Routine communication
6.6.10.6. List of practical tasks
6.6.11. Inmarsat Email procedure
6.6.11.1. Procedure for sending an email to shore
6.7. COSPAS / SARSAT
6.7.1. Structure
6.7.1.1. Cospas/Sarsat space segment
6.7.1.2. Cospas/Sarsat ground segment
6.7.2. Possibilities
6.8. EPIRB
6.8.1. The basic operation of the COSPAS-SARSAT satellite system and signal routing/path
6.8.2. Essential parts of Cospas / Sarsat EPIRBs
6.8.3. Basic characteristics of operation on 406 and 121,5 MHz EPIRB
6.8.4. The registration and coding of a 406 MHz EPIRB
6.8.5. The information contents of a distress alert
6.8.6. Operation
6.8.7. The float-free function
6.8.8. The correct use of the lanyard
6.8.9. Routine maintenance, testing requirements and test operation
6.8.10. Additional EPIRB features
6.8.11. Withdrawal of an unintended false distress transmission
6.8.12. Practical Tasks
6.9. SEARCH AND RESCUE TRANSPONDER / TRANSMITTER (SART)
6.9.1. Different types of SARTs and their operation
6.9.1.1. Search and rescue radar transponder
6.9.1.2. AIS radar transmitter
6.9.2. Routine maintenance, testing requirements and test operation
6.9.3. Practical tasks
6.10. MARITIME SAFETY INFORMATION
6.10.1. Basics
6.10.2. NAVTEX
6.10.2.1. NAVTEX frequencies
6.10.2.2. NAVTEX system
6.10.2.3. Responsibilities of a NAVTEX Co-ordinator
6.10.2.4. Messages
6.10.2.5. Operation of the NAVTEX receiver
6.10.2.6. Selection of transmitters, message type
6.10.2.7. Practical tasks
6.10.3. EGC
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Annex, page 55
6.10.3.1. Geographic area messages and Inmarsat system messages
6.10.3.2. Classes of Inmarsat-C receiver types
6.10.3.3. EGC setup
6.10.4. MSI via VHF/MF/HF
6.11. THE USE AND FUNCTIONS OF PORTABLE VHF RADIO
6.11.1. Practical tasks
6.12. PORTABLE VHF AERONAUTICAL RADIO FOR 121,5 AND 123,1 MHZ

7. OTHER SYSTEMS USED ON BOARD


7.1. ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY (UHF) HANDHELDS
7.2. AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
7.3. SHIP SECURITY ALERT SYSTEM

8. SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATION


8.1. THE ROLE OF THE MARITIME RESCUE CO-ORDINATION CENTRE
8.1.1. Maritime rescue organisations
8.1.2. Knowledge of SAR systems worldwide
8.2. INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL AND MARITIME SEARCH AND RESCUE (IAMSAR) MANUAL
8.3. THE ROLE AND METHOD OF USE OF SHIP REPORTING SYSTEMS
8.3.1. Automated Mutual-assistance Vessel Rescue System (AMVER)
8.3.2. Japanese Ship Reporting System (JASREP)
8.3.3. Australian Ship Reporting System (AUSREP)
8.3.4. Long Range Identification and Tracking of Ships (LRIT)

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9. MISCELLANEOUS SKILLS AND OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES


FOR GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS
281
9.1. USE OF ENGLISH IN WRITTEN AND ORAL FORM FOR SAFETY COMMUNICATIONS
9.1.1. Use of the IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases
9.1.2. Use of the International Code of Signals
9.1.3. Recognition of standard abbreviations and commonly used service codes (Q-Code)
9.1.4. Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet
9.2. DETAILS OF A RADIO TELEGRAM
9.2.1. The preamble
9.2.2. Prefix
9.2.3. Different types of address
9.2.4. The text
9.2.5. The signature
9.3. PROCEDURE OF TRAFFIC CHARGING
9.3.1. The international charging and accounting system
9.3.2. The AAIC code and its use
9.3.3. Coast station-, landline and ship station charge
9.3.4. Currencies used for the account of international radio communications
9.3.5. Inmarsat communication charging systems

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284

APPENDIX 1: VOICE PROCEDURES

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APPENDIX 2: MORSE CODE TABLE
APPENDIX 3: PHONETIC ALPHABET AND FIGURE CODE
APPENDIX 4: Q-CODES
APPENDIX 5: FREQUENCIES USED FOR DSC
APPENDIX 6: VHF FREQUENCIES
APPENDIX 7: MF FREQUENCIES
APPENDIX 8: HF DUPLEX CHANNELS
APPENDIX 9: VOICE SHIP SHIP FREQUENCIES
APPENDIX 10: FREQUENCIES FOR DATA TRANSMISSION
APPENDIX 11: TELEX SHIP COAST FREQUENCIES
APPENDIX 12: TELEX SHIP SHIP FREQUENCIES
APPENDIX 13: TELEX COMMAND CODES
APPENDIX 14: TABLE OF MARITIME IDENTIFICATION DIGITS
APPENDIX 15: LIST OF CALL SIGNS
APPENDIX 16: TWO DIGIT ACCESS CODES
APPENDIX 17: NON DELIVERY CODES NOTIFICATION (NDN)

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Annex, page 57

AA: Accounting Authority


AAIC:
Accounting Authority Identification Code
AGC:
Automatic Gain Control
AIS:
Automatic Identification System
ALRS:
Admiralty List of Radio Signals
AM:
Amplitude Modulation
AMSA:
Australian Maritime Safety Authority
AMVER:
Automated Mutual-assistance Vessel Rescue System
AOR-E:
Atlantic Ocean Region-East
AOR-W:
Atlantic Ocean Region West
ARQ:
Automatic request for repeat
ASCII:
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASP:
Application service providers
AtoN:
Aids to Navigation
ATU:
Antenna Tuning Unit
AUSREP:
Australian Ship Reporting System
bps:
bits per second
CC:
Coast station Charge
CES:
Coast Earth Station
CESO:
Coast Earth Station Operator
ch70:
VHF channel70
CP:
Public Correspondence
CR:
Restricted public Correspondence
CS:
Coast Stations
CSP:
Communications service providers
DCE:
Data Circuit terminating Equipment
DSB:
Double-Sideband
DSC:
Digital Selective Calling
DTE:
Data Terminal Equipment
EGC:
Enhanced Group Call
EHF:
Extra High Frequency
ENID:
EGC network Identification
EPIRB:
Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
fax:
Facsimile
FEC:
Forward Error Correction
FM:
Frequency Modulation
FSK:
Frequency Shift Keying
GEOSAR: Geostationary Search and Rescue
Gfr:
Goldfranc
GLONASS: Global Navigation Satellite System
GMDSS:
Global Maritime Distress and safety System
GNSS:
Global Navigational Satellite System
GOC:
General Operators Certificate
GPS:
Global Positioning System
GSO:
Geostationary Orbit
HF:
High Frequency
HSD:
High Speed Data
IAMSAR:
International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue
ICAO:
International Civil Aviation Organization
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Annex, page 58

IMN:
Inmarsat:
INTERCO:
IOR:
ISP:
ITU:
JASREP:
LEOSAR:
LF:
LL:
LRIT:
LUF:
LUT:
MCC:
Metarea:
MF:
MID:
MMSI:
MPDS:
MRCC:
MSI:
MUF:
Navarea:
NAVTEX:
NBDP:
NCS:
NDN:
nm:
NOAA:
NOC:
OSC:
OTF:
POR:
PSDN:
PSTN:
PTT:
R/T:
RCC:
RF:
ROC:
RR:
RSC:
SAR:
SART:
SCC:
SDR:
SES:
SHF:
SMC:

Inmarsat Number
International Mobile Satellite Organization
International Code of Signals
Indian Ocean Region
Inmarsat service provider
International Telecommunication Union
Japanese Ship Reporting System
Low Earth Orbit Search and Rescue
Low Frequency
Land Line charge
Long Range Identification and Tracking of Ships
Lowest usable frequency
Local User Terminals
Mission Control Centre
Metrological areas
Medium Frequency
Maritime Identification Digits
Maritime Mobile Service Identity
Mobile Packet Data Service
Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre
Maritime Safety Information
Maximum Usable Frequency
Navigational areas
Navigational Text Message
Narrow Band Direct Printing
Network Co-ordination Station
Non-Delivery Codes Notification
Nautical miles
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Network Operations Centre
On-Scene Co-ordinator
Optimum Traffic Frequency
Pacific Ocean Region
Packet Switched Data Network
Public Switched Telephone Network
Push To Talk
Radio Telephony
Rescue Co-ordination Centre
Radio Frequency
Restricted Operators Certificate
Radio Regulations
Rescue Sub Centre
Search and Rescue
Search and Rescue Transponder
Satellite Control Centre
Special Drawing Right
Ship Earth Station
Super High Frequency
Search and Rescue Mission Co-ordinator

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Annex, page 59

SOLAS:
SRR:
SSAS:
SSB:
STCW:
SURPIC:
UHF:
UTC:
VAT:
VHF:
VLF:
VTS:

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea


Search and Rescue Region
Ship Security Alarm System
Single Sideband
International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and
Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 as amended
Surface Picture
Ultra High Frequency
Universal Co-ordinated Time
Value Added Tax
Very High Frequency
Very Low Frequency
Vessel Traffic Service

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Annex, page 60

Table 1: Equipment specification ...............................................................................70


Table 2: Type of emission and its application ............................................................79
Table 3: Modes of communication .............................................................................80
Table 4: MF frequency bands ....................................................................................81
Table 5: Distress / Urgency /Safety Frequencies (MF/HF in kHz) .............................82
Table 6 Routine frequencies in (MF/HF in kHz) .........................................................82
Table 7: Frequency bands .........................................................................................94
Table 8: Frequency ranges and their applications .....................................................96
Table 9: Important VHF channels and their application ...........................................129
Table 10: VHF DSC possibility table ........................................................................133
Table 11: VHF-DSC practical training tasks ............................................................141
Table 12: International MF DSC frequencies ...........................................................143
Table 13: MF/HF DSC possibility table ....................................................................148
Table 14: MF/HF-DSC practical training tasks.........................................................158
Table 15: Radiotelex practical training tasks ...........................................................191
Table 16: Service of different Inmarsat types in comparison ...................................197
Table 17: INMARSAT-B practical training tasks ......................................................204
Table 18: INMARSAT-C practical training tasks ......................................................213
Table 19: Different Inmarsat Fleet systems in comparison ......................................215
Table 20: INMARSAT Fleet 77 practical training tasks ............................................219
Table 21: EPIRB practical training tasks .................................................................242
Table 22: SART practical training tasks ...................................................................246
Table 23: NAVTEX transmission .............................................................................249
Table 24: Codes for message types ........................................................................253
Table 25: NAVTEX practical training tasks ..............................................................256
Table 26: VHF PORTABLE practical training tasks .................................................266

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Annex, page 61

Figure 1: Statutory framework .............................................................................. 65


Figure 2: SOLAS .................................................................................................. 66
Figure 3: Limits of sea areas British Isles and North West Europe DSC .............. 68
Figure 4: Example of a Maritime Radio Station for terrestrial and satellite
communication..................................................................................... 69
Figure 5: Bridge alarm panel ................................................................................ 72
Figure 6: Radio Regulations ................................................................................. 76
Figure 7: ITU Regions (Article V RR) .................................................................... 80
Figure 8: List of coast stations and special service stations ................................. 90
Figure 9: List of Ship Stations and Maritime Mobile Service Identity Assignments
............................................................................................................. 91
Figure 10: Manual for Use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile-Satellite
Services ............................................................................................... 92
Figure 11: Admiralty List of Radio Signals Vol.1 ................................................... 93
Figure 12: Example of wavelength ....................................................................... 95
Figure 13: Line of sight propagation ..................................................................... 96
Figure 14: Ground waves and sky waves ............................................................. 97
Figure 15: Sky wave radio path ............................................................................ 98
Figure 16: HF radio communication paths ............................................................ 103
Figure 17: Frequency modulation ......................................................................... 106
Figure 18: Amplitude modulation .......................................................................... 108
Figure 19: A3E DSB Telephony (Commercial broadcast)..................................... 108
Figure 20: J3E SSB Telephony (supressed carrier) ............................................. 109
Figure 21: F3E Frequency modulated telephony (Sidebands for single tone are
shown) ................................................................................................. 109
Figure 22: A3E DSB Telephony (Commercial Broadcast) .................................... 110
Figure 23: H3E SSB Telephony (full carrier)......................................................... 110
Figure 24: J3E SSB Telephony (supressed carrier) ............................................. 111
Figure 25: F1B Frequency modulated telex .......................................................... 111
Figure 26: Basic transmitter block diagram........................................................... 113
Figure 27: Basic receiver block diagram ............................................................... 114
Figure 28: Lead acid battery ................................................................................. 115
Figure 29: Battery charging system ...................................................................... 118
Figure 30: VHF ground plane antenna ................................................................. 120
Figure 31: VHF dipol antenna ............................................................................... 120
Figure 32: VHF rod antenna ................................................................................. 120
Figure 33: T-type MF/HF wire antenna ................................................................. 121
Figure 34: Inmarsat-C omnidirectional antenna .................................................... 122
Figure 35: Inmarsat-B parabolic follow up antenna .............................................. 123
Figure 36: Example antenna installation ............................................................... 123
Figure 37: Technical format of a call sequence (DX / RX) .................................... 124
Figure 38: Communication possibilities ................................................................ 126
Figure 39: The range of VHF transmissions ......................................................... 128
Figure 40: VHF channeling ................................................................................... 129
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Figure 41: VHF radio station ................................................................................. 130


Figure 42: Handling of a received VHF DSC distress alert ................................... 136
Figure 43: Range of MF transmitter ...................................................................... 142
Figure 44: MF/HF radio station ............................................................................. 144
Figure 45: Handling of a received VHF/MF DSC distress alert ............................... 152
Figure 46: Handling of a received HF DSC distress alert ....................................... 152
Figure 47: Example of a rectangular geographic area ............................................ 155
Figure 48: Canellation of False distress alerts ........................................................ 165
Figure 49: Sample of a telegram ............................................................................ 173
Figure 50: Answerback description (land subscriber) ............................................. 177
Figure 51: Answerback description (ship subscriber) ............................................. 177
Figure 52: Manual telex calling of a coast station ................................................... 178
Figure 53: Automatic telex calling procedure to a land subscriber .......................... 178
Figure 54: Radioltelex terminal ............................................................................... 179
Figure 55: Example telex to land subscriber ........................................................... 180
Figure 56: Example distress telex transmission ...................................................... 182
Figure 57: Example urgency telex transmission ..................................................... 183
Figure 58: Example safety telex transmission ........................................................ 184
Figure 59: Example routine telex transmission to a land subscriber ....................... 185
Figure 60: Example link connection ........................................................................ 186
Figure 61: Example running telex transmission ...................................................... 187
Figure 62: Example details of connection ............................................................... 188
Figure 63: Example manual ship to ship connection............................................... 189
Figure 64: Example running ship to ship connection .............................................. 190
Figure 65: Inmarsat satellite positions .................................................................... 192
Figure 66: Inmarsat coverage map (I 3).................................................................. 193
Figure 67: Allocation of a communication channel ................................................. 195
Figure 68: Different Inmarsat types in comparison ................................................. 196
Figure 69: Inmarsat B equipment............................................................................ 199
Figure 70: Inmarsat B cradle .................................................................................. 200
Figure 71: Inmarsat B telex screen ......................................................................... 201
Figure 72: Inmarsat B antenna alignment ............................................................... 202
Figure 73: Inmarsat-B log in satellite ...................................................................... 202
Figure 74: Inmarsat-B manual selection of satellite ................................................ 202
Figure 75: Inmarsat-B request medical advice by 2-digit code ............................... 202
Figure 76: Inmarsat satellites and Navareas / Metareas......................................... 208
Figure 77: Components of different Inmarsat-C types ............................................ 211
Figure 78: Interface possibilities ............................................................................. 212
Figure 79: Inmarsat Fleet 77 components .............................................................. 215
Figure 80: Inmarsat Fleet 77 cradle ........................................................................ 216
Figure 81: Inmarsat Fleet 77 Email screen ............................................................. 217
Figure 82: Overview of SafetyNET and FleetNET .................................................. 220
Figure 83: Overview of priorities ............................................................................. 221
Figure 84: Example Inmarsat land subscriber international phone number ............ 221
Figure 85: Example Inmarsat B ship earth station phone number .......................... 222
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Figure 86: Inmarsat-B telex selecting distress transmission ................................... 223


Figure 87: Inmarsat-B telex distress transmission .................................................. 224
Figure 88: Example International Inmarsat land subscriber telex number .............. 224
Figure 89: Inmarsat Mini-C telex distress panel ...................................................... 225
Figure 90: Inmarsat-C distress telex settings .......................................................... 225
Figure 91: Inmarsat-C mayday relay telex transmission ......................................... 226
Figure 92: Inmarsat-C priority settings .................................................................... 227
Figure 93: Inmarsat-B urgency transmission .......................................................... 228
Figure 94: Example Inmarsat-B ship earth station telex number ............................ 228
Figure 95: Inmarsat-C address book ...................................................................... 230
Figure 96: Inmarsat Fleet 77 Email transmission .................................................... 231
Figure 97: Inmarsat Fleet 77 Email settings ........................................................... 231
Figure 98: GEOSAR coverage and GEOLUT location............................................ 232
Figure 99: LEOSAR and GEOSAR satellite constellation ....................................... 234
Figure 100: GEOLUT stations ................................................................................ 235
Figure 101: Cospas / Sarsat LUTs.......................................................................... 236
Figure 102: Different EPIRB types .......................................................................... 238
Figure 103: Communication path in Cospas / Sarsat system ................................. 239
Figure 104: EPIRB .................................................................................................. 241
Figure 105: SART ................................................................................................... 243
Figure 106: SART images on radar screen ............................................................ 244
Figure 107: AIS SART image on radar screen ....................................................... 245
Figure 108: Navarea / Metarea overview ................................................................ 248
Figure 109: Example NAVTEX coverage areas of transmission ............................. 250
Figure 110: MSI information line ............................................................................. 251
Figure 111: Example of a navigational warning via NAVTEX ................................. 254
Figure 112: NAVTEX receiver ................................................................................ 255
Figure 113: Geographical EGC transmission ......................................................... 259
Figure 114: EGC information line ........................................................................... 260
Figure 115: EGC navigational warning ................................................................... 261
Figure 116: EGC weather information .................................................................... 261
Figure 117: EGC SAR information .......................................................................... 262
Figure 118: Example of different Inmarsat-C classes ............................................. 263
Figure 119: Inmarsat-C EGC set up window .......................................................... 264
Figure 120: Maritime VHF handheld ....................................................................... 265
Figure 121: Portable VHF aeronautical radio.......................................................... 267
Figure 122: ECDIS screen with AIS signals ............................................................ 269
Figure 123: Basic concept of the GMDSS .............................................................. 270
Figure 124: Example of SAR regions...................................................................... 271
Figure 125: LRIT system ........................................................................................ 280
Figure 126: Example of spelling ............................................................................. 282
Figure 127: Preamble of a radio telegram .............................................................. 282
Figure 128: Inmarsat billing .................................................................................... 286

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Introduction to the Compendium


This Compendium to the IMO Model Course for the GMDSS GOC is intended as an
aid to both students and instructors. It aims to bring together, into one document,
theory concerning different aspects of radio communications, which may be of value
in the explanation and comprehension of subjects studied for the GOC.
The Instructor may use document as radio communications theory reference work, to
supplement the documents listed in part A of the IMO Model Course. When using the
compendium, it should be noted that the students are training to become operators of
radio communication equipment, and not technicians or engineers (although that can
be more or less accomplished by doing the 1st or 2nd Class Radio Electronic
Certificate). Students may find the theoretical and general interest parts helpful as
background reading, which will increase and clarify their understanding of the
subjects.
It should not be noted that the material covered by the compendium is in places, in
excess of that required by the holder of a GMDSS GOC Certificate.

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1.

Introduction

Radio has been the foundation of the distress and safety systems used by ships at
seas in the first instance of the use of radio to save lives at sea in1899. It was soon
realized that, to be effective, a radio based distress and safety system had to be
founded on internationally agreed rules concerning the type of equipment, the radio
frequencies used an operational procedures. The first international agreement was
established under the auspices of the predecessor to the International
Telecommunication Union (ITU). Many of the operational procedures for morse
telegraphy established at the turn of the century have been maintained to the present
day.
The current system is called the Global Maritime Distress and safety System
(GMDSS).This system was adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO)
in 1988 and replaces the 500 kHz Morse code system. The GMDSS provides a
reliable ship-to-shore communications path in addition to ship-to-ship alerting
communications. The new system is automated and uses ship-to-shore and ship to
ship alerting by means of terrestrial radio and satellite radio paths for alerting and
subsequent communications. The GMDSS will apply to all cargo ships of 300 gross
tonnages and above, and to all passenger ships, regardless of size, on international
voyages.
2.

The statutory framework of the Maritime Mobile Service

Figure 1: Statutory framework

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2.1. International Convention of Safety of Life at See

Figure 2: SOLAS

As more detailed regulations became necessary for the shipping industry, the most
recent of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS 1974)
was adopted in 1974, 1978 and 1988 and amended from time to time. The SOLAS
Convention has become one of the main instruments of the IMO. The GMDSS used
by most of the worlds shipping until 1992, is defined by chapter IV of the SOLAS
Convention and the ITU Radio Regulations (RR). There was a transition period from
the old to the new system in order to allow the industry time to overcome any
unforeseen problems in implementation of the new system. The transitional period
began on 1 February 1992 and continued to 1 February 1999.
SOLAS Chapter IV applies to all ships engaged on international voyages except:
Cargo ships less than 300 gross tonnage,
Ships of war and troopships,
Ships not propelled by mechanical means,
Wooden ships of primitive build,
Pleasure yachts not engaged in trade,
Fishing vessels, and
Ships being navigated within the Great Lakes of North America.
2.1.1. Functional requirements
The GMDSS is a largely, but not fully, automated system which requires ships to
have a range of equipment capable of performing the nine radio communication
functions of the GMDSS in accordance with Regulation 4-1 of the SOLAS
Convention. Every ship, while at sea, shall be capable for the:
transmission of ship-to-shore distress alerts by at least two separate and
independent means, each using a different radio communication service;
reception of shore-to-ship distress alerts;
transmission and reception of ship-to-ship distress alerts;

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transmission and reception of search and rescue co-ordinating


communications;
transmission and reception of on-scene communications;
transmission and reception of signals for locating;
transmission and reception of maritime safety information;
transmission and reception of general radio communications to and from
shore-based radio systems or networks; and
transmission and reception of bridge-to-bridge communications.
2.1.2. Sea Areas
2.1.2.1.Definitions of coverage and sea areas for Digital Selective Calling (DSC)
The GMDSS is based on the concept of using four marine communication sea areas
to determine the operational, maintenance and personnel requirements for maritime
radio communications.
Sea area A1 means an area within the radiotelephone coverage of at least
one VHF coast station in which continuous DSC alerting is available, as may
be defined by a Contracting Government. Such an area could extend typically
about 30 nautical miles (nm) from the coast station (SOLAS Chapter IV,Reg.
2-12).
Sea area A2 means an area, excluding sea area A1, within the radiotelephone
coverage of at least one MF coast station in which continuous DSC alerting is
available, as may be defined by a Contracting Government. For planning
purposes this area typically extends to up to 150 nm offshore, but would
exclude any A1 designated areas. In practice, satisfactory coverage may often
be achieved out to around 300 nm offshore (SOLAS Chapter, IV, and Reg. 213).
Sea area A3 means an area, excluding sea areas A1 and A2, within the
coverage of an International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat)
geostationary satellite in which continuous alerting is available, This area lies
between about latitudes 76 north and 76 south, but excludes A1 and/or A2
designated areas (SOLAS Chapter IV,Reg. 2-14).
Sea area A4 means an area outside sea areas A1, A2 and A3. This is
essentially the Polar Regions, north and south of about 76 of latitude, but
excludes any other areas (SOLAS Chapter IV,Reg. 2-15).

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Figure 3: Limits of sea areas British Isles and North West Europe DSC

2.1.3. Carriage requirements


Equipment carriage requirements for ships at sea depend upon the sea area in which
the ship is sailing. Furthermore, ships operating in the GMDSS are required to carry a
primary and a secondary means of distress alerting. This means having VHF DSC as
a primary system for a ship near coastal areas, backed up by a satellite Emergency
Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB). A ship operating in an offshore ocean
area could have Medium-Frequency DSC, High-Frequency DSC or Inmarsat satellite
communications as a primary system backed up by a satellite EPIRB. The type of
equipment used in the primary system is determined by the sea area in which the
ship will be navigating.
The carriage requirements are defined in SOLAS chapter IV, Reg. 7 to 9 for the four
sea areas. Table 1 shows how the SOLAS Regulations would translate into the bare
minimum carriage requirements for the four sea areas. The majority of ships will,
however, be fitted with a more comprehensive radio installation.

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MF/HF-DSC

Radiotelex

VHF-DSC

Battery
Charger

Inmarsat C

Inmarsat C
Distress Panel

Figure 4: Example of a Maritime Radio Station for terrestrial and satellite communication

2.1.3.1. Details of equipment specifications A1, A2, A4 and A4


Sea
areaA1

Sea
areaA2

Sea
areaA3

Sea
areaA4

VHF with DSC

SART (2)

NAVTEX receiver

EGC receiver

EPIRB

VHF portable (2 or 3)

Equipment

MF telephony with DSC


plus
Inmarsat-B or Inmarsat-C
MF/HF telephony with DSC and telex
Notes:

X
X
X

X or
X

Required in those sea areas where the NAVTEX service is available.


Required in those sea areas where the NAVTEX service is NOT available.
The EGC receive facility may be included in the standard Inmarsat-C terminal.
406 MHz COSPAS-SARSAT EPIRB

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Table 1: Equipment specification

2.1.3.2. Details of carriage requirements


Every ship shall be provided in accordance with SOLAS IV, Reg. 7:
a VHF radio installation capable of transmitting and receiving DSC and
radiotelephony (Minimum ch70, ch06, ch13 and ch16) a radio installation
capable of maintaining a continuous DSC watch on VHF channel 70 (ch70)
a search and rescue locating device capable of operating either in the 9 GHz
band or on frequencies dedicated for Automatic Identification System (AIS).
a receiver capable of receiving international Navigational Text Message
(NAVTEX) service broadcasts if the ship is engaged on voyages in any area in
which an international NAVTEX service is provided
a radio facility for reception of maritime safety information by the Inmarsat
enhanced group calling system if the ship is engaged on voyages in any area
of Inmarsat coverage but in which an international NAVTEX service is not
provided.
An EPIRB which shall be capable of trans-mitting a distress alert through the
polar orbiting satellite service operating in the 406 MHz band
Every passenger ship shall be provided with means for two-way on-scene
radio communications for search and rescue purposes using the aeronautical
frequencies 121.5 MHz and 123.1 MHz from the position from which the ship
is normally navigated
2.1.3.3. Means of ensuring availability of ship station equipment
The means of ensuring the availability of equipment are determined by the sea areas
in which the ship sails (SOLAS Chapter IV, Reg. 15).
In sea areas A1 and A2, the availability of equipment shall be ensured by using one
of the following methods:
duplication of equipment;
shore-based maintenance;
at-sea electronic maintenance; or
a combination of the above, as may be approved by the Administration.
In sea areas A3 and A4, the availability of equipment shall be ensured by using a
combination of at least two of the above mentioned methods, as may be approved by
the Administration.
2.1.3.4. Primary and secondary means of alerting
The method of distress alerting can depend on the sea area in which the ship is
sailing and on the equipment carried. As provided in SOLAS, transmitting ship-toshore distress alerts by at least two separate and independent means, each using a

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different radio communication service (SOLAS Chapter IV, Reg. 4).The likely
methods of initiating a distress alert in the four sea areas are shown below.
Sea Area A1

VHF DSC on channel 70


EPIRB (Cospas/Sarsat)
Search and Rescue Transponder (SART)

Sea Area A2

VHF DSC on channel 70 (for ships in a range of 30 nm)


MF DSC on 2187.5 kHz
Inmarsat
EPIRB(Cospas/Sarsat)
SART

Sea Area A3

VHF DSC on channel 70 (for ships in a range of 30 nm)


MF DSC on 2187.5 kHz (for ships in a range of 150 nm)
Inmarsat and/or
HF DSC on 8414.5 kHz and all other HF DSC frequencies
EPIRB(Cospas/Sarsat)
SART (Radar and/or AIS)

Sea Area A4

VHF DSC on channel 70 (for the ships in a range of 30 nm)


MF DSC on 2187.5 kHz (for the ships in a range of 150 nm)
HF DSC on 8414.5 kHz and all other HF DSC frequencies
EPIRB(Cospas/Sarsat)
SART (Radar and/or AIS)

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2.1.3.5. Bridge alarm panel and its purpose


A distress alarm panel is a device which makes it possible to initiate transmission of
distress alerts by the radio from the position from which the ship is normally
navigated. It is normally connected to the VHF-DSC, MF-DSC and Inmarsat-C
terminal. (SOLAS Chapter IV, Reg. 9 to 11)
Function Buttons

Display

Figure 5: Bridge alarm panel

2.1.3.6

Distress Button
VHF, MF-HF, Inmarsat

Requirements for radio safety certificates

A Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate shall be issued after an initial or renewal
survey to a cargo ship which complies with the relevant requirements of SOLAS
Chapter IV by the Administration under which flag the vessel is sailing. The validation
of the certificate shall not exceed five years.(SOLAS Chapter I, Reg. 12 and 13)
2.1.4 Watchkeeping
2.1.4.1 Watchkeeping procedures as defined in the Radio Regulations

Ships, whilst at sea, shall maintain a continuous watch appropriate to the sea area in
which the ship is sailing (SOLAS Chapter IV, Reg. 12), using:
VHF DSC channel 70
MF DSC distress and safety frequency 2187.5 kHz
HF DSC distress and safety frequencies: 8414l5 kHz and also on at least one
of the distress and safety DSC frequencies 4207.5 kHz, 6312.0 kHz, 12577.0
kHz or 16804.5 kHz, appropriate to the time of day and the geographical
position of the ship, if the ship is fitted with an MF/HF radio station. This watch
may be kept by means of a scanning receiver
VHF channel 16, if practicable
an Inmarsat Ship Earth Station (SES) (if the ship is fitted with) for satellite
shore-to-ship distress alerts
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a radio watch for broadcasts of Maritime Safety Information (MSI) on the


appropriate frequency or frequencies on which such information is broadcast
for the area in which the ship is navigating
A continuous watch for broadcasts of MSI shall also be kept, for the area in which the
ship is sailing, by:
NAVTEX (518 kHz) receiver
Inmarsat-C or Enhanced Group Call (EGC) SafetyNET receiver
HF telex
2.1.4.2.

Other watchkeeping procedures

Weather and navigational warnings are also transmitted at fixed times throughout the
day by coast stations on MF, HF and VHF. The ITU List of Radio Determination and
Special Service Stations should be consulted for further details. National
publications, such as the Admiralty List of Radio Signals (ALBS) Vol. 5, may be
consulted as useful additional aids.
Detailed radio communication watchkeeping requirements are set forth in part A,
chapter VIII and part B, chapter VIII of the International Convention on Standards of
Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 as amended (STCW
Convention) as well as in the RR Chapter VII Art. 3112 to 3120.
In addition to the distress and safety DSC frequencies ship stations should monitor
automatically the DSC ship-to-ship routine calling frequency 2177 kHz in the MF
band and the international routine DSC frequencies used by coast stations in order to
receive Public Correspondence (CP).
2.1.5 Radio personal
Regulation IV/16 of the SOLAS Convention requires that:
Every ship shall carry personnel qualified for distress and safety radio communication
purposes to the satisfaction of the Administration. The personnel shall be holders of
certificates specified in the RRs as appropriate, any one of whom shall be designated
to have primary responsibility for radio communications during distress incidents.
The provisions of the RRs require that the personnel of ship stations and ship earth
stations for which a radio installation is compulsory under international agreements
and which use the frequencies and techniques of the GMDSS shall include at least.
For stations on board ships which sail beyond the range of VHF coast stations:
A holder of a first- or second- class radio electronic certificate or a General
Operators Certificate (GOC);
For stations on board ships which sail within the range of VHF coast stations:
A holder of a first-or second- class radio electronic certificate or a General
Operators Certificate or a Restricted Operators Certificate (ROC).
An ROC only covers the operation of GMDSS equipment required for GMDSS sea
area A1, and does not cover the operation of GMDSS A2/A3/A4 equipment fitted on
a ship over and above the basic A1 requirements, even if the ship is in a sea area A.
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The combined effect of the requirements for maintenance and personnel in the four
sea areas is that there must be at least one GOC holder on board ships sailing in A2,
A3 or A4 sea areas.
The STCW Convention requires that all deck officers shall hold an appropriate
qualification to operate VHF radio communication equipment; that is, ROC standard
on GMDSS ships or whatever international/ national requirements determine.
In those cases, particularly in sea area A1, where additional equipment, over and
above the minimum carriage requirements, is fitted, a higher standard of operators
certification may also be required in order to ensure that the operator knowledge
requirements match the actual equipment comprising the radio installation. (SOLAS
Chapter IV, Reg. 16)
2.1.6. Sources of power
To comply with the SOLAS Convention, ships are required to have a supply of
electrical energy available sufficient to operate the radio installations, and to be able
to charge any batteries used as part of a reserve source of energy, at all times while
at sea.
2.1.6.1. Reserve power supplies, capacity and duration as defined in SOLAS
Convention
Reserve source or sources (SOLAS Ch. IV, Reg. 13) of energy are a mandatory
requirement and must be capable of powering the radio installation in the event of
failure of the ships main and emergency source of electrical energy for the purpose
of conducting distress, urgency and safety radio communications. The reserve
sources of energy have to be capable of simultaneously operating the VHF radio
installation and, as appropriate for the sea area or sea areas for which the ship is
equipped, either the MF radio installation, the HF radio installation or the ship earth
station and other necessary loads, such as navigational equipment linked to the radio
installation or essential emergency lighting for the installation. AIS is included after 1
July 2002.
The reserve sources of energy should be adequate for at least one hour or six hours,
depending on whether the ship is provided with an emergency source of electrical
power complying with SOLAS Ch. 11-1/42 or 43 and Ch. IV/13.2.1 and 13.2.2, as
appropriate. The reserve power sup- ply must be independent of the propelling power
of the ship and the ships electrical system. (SOLAS Chapter IV, Reg. 13)
2.1.6.2. Reserve source of energy
The radio communication equipment may operate either from the ships DC or AC
mains supply (often stepped down to 24 V DC), or from 24 V DC supplied by a bank
of batteries. The batteries often form a reserve source of energy, which are on a
Float Charging System so that, should the mains supply fail, the batteries
automatically take over. The float charging system ensures that the batteries are
always fully charged. If necessary, a boost charge can be given at any time, i.e., a
higher current charging supply is applied to secure a quicker charging period. (More
details under sub clause 0. 5.
Technical)
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2.1.6.3. Prohibitions on the connection of non-GMDSS equipment


All equipment to which this chapter applies shall be of a type approved by the
Administration. Such equipment shall conform to appropriate performance standards
not inferior to those adopted by the Organization (SOLAS Chapter IV, Reg. 14)
2.2. Radio Regulations
Since the global use and management of frequencies and the martime radio
operational procedures require a high level of international cooperation, one of the
principal tasks in the International Telecommunication Unions (ITU) Radio
Communication Sector is to facilitate the complex intergovernmental negotiations
needed to develop legally binding agreements between sovereign States. These
agreements are embodied in the RRs and in world and regional plans adopted for
different space and terrestrial services.
Today, the RR apply to frequencies ranging from 9 kHz to 400 GHz, and incorporate
over 1000 pages of information describing how the spectrum must be used and
shared around the globe. In an increasingly unwired world, some 40 different radio
services compete for allocations to provide the spectrum needed to extend
applications or support a larger number of users.
Covering both legal and technical issues, these Regulations serve as an international
instrument for the optimal international management of the spectrum covering radio
and communication procedures.
The four volumes of the RR are published with their Articles, Appendices,
Resolutions and Recommendations by the ITU. The regulations regard, among other
things, to:
Operational procedures
Distress, urgency and safety signals
Authority of the master
Secrecy of correspondence
Ship station licences
Inspection of stations
Radio Operators Certificates
Frequencies
Watchkeeping

Identification of radio stations

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Figure 6: Radio Regulations

2.2.1. Authority of the master


The service of a ship station is placed under the sole authority of the master or of the
person responsible for the ship or other vessel carrying the station.
The person holding this authority shall require that each operator comply with the
RRs and that the ship station for which the operator is responsible is used, at all
times, in accordance with the RRs.
The master or the person responsible, as well as all persons who may have
knowledge of the text or even of the existence of a radio telegram, or of any
information whatever obtained by means of the radio communication service, are
placed under the obligation of observing and ensuring the secrecy of
correspondence.
2.2.2. Secrecy of correspondence
The holder of a radio station licence is required to preserve the secrecy of
telecommunications, as provided in the RRs.
Administrations shall undertake the necessary measurements to prohibit and prevent
the unauthorized interception of radio communications not intended for the general
use of the public or other than that which the station is authorized to receive. The
divulgence of the contents, simple disclosure of the existence, publication of any use
whatever, without authorization of information of any nature whatever obtained by the
interception of radio communications is forbidden.
In cases where unauthorized correspondence is involuntarily received it shall not be
reproduced, nor communicated to third parties, nor used for any purpose. Even its
existence shall be disclosed.
2.2.3. Ship station licences
No transmitting station may be established or operated by a private person or by any
enterprise without a license issued in an appropriate form and in conformity with the
provisions of these regulations by or on behalf of the government of the country to
which the station in question is subject (RRs, Chapter V, and Art. 18).
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The government which issues a license to a mobile station or a mobile earth station
shall indicate therein in clear form the particulars of the station, including its name,
call sign and, where appropriate, the public correspondence category, as well as the
general characteristics of the installation.
To facilitate the verification of licences issued to mobile stations and mobile earth
stations, a translation of the text in one of the working languages of the Union shall
be added, when necessary, to the text written in the national language.
2.2.4. Inspection of stations
The governments or appropriate Administrations of countries which a ship station or
ship earth station visits may require the production of the licence for examination.
The operator of the station, or the person responsible for the station, shall facilitate
this examination. The licence shall be kept in such a way that it can be produced
upon request. As far as possible, the licence, or a copy certified by the authority
which has issued it, should be permanently exhibited in the station.
The inspectors shall have in their possession an identity card or badge, issued by the
competent authority, which they shall show on request of the master or person
responsible for the ship or other vessel carrying the ship station or the ship earth
station.
When the licence cannot be produced or when manifest irregularities are observed,
governments or administrations may inspect the radio installations in order to satisfy
themselves that these conform to the conditions imposed by the RRs.
In addition, inspectors have the right to require the production of the operators
certificates, but proof of professional knowledge may not be demanded.
When a government or an Administration has found that the operators certificates
cannot be produced, then this Administration must inform the Administration under
which the ship station or ship earth station is registered as soon as possible.
According to SOLAS Regulations the radio stations of passenger ships including
those used in life-saving appliances shall be subject to an initial survey before the
ship is put into service and annual surveys.
The radio installations, including those used for life-saving appliances, of cargo ships
shall be subject to an initial survey before the ship is put in service and a renewal and
periodical survey at intervals specified by the Administration.
The surveys for passenger and cargo ships shall be such as to ensure that the ships
radio stations, including those used in life-saving appliances are in all respects in
satisfactory working conditions.
Before leaving, the inspector shall report the result of his inspection to the master, or
the person responsible for the ship or other vessel carrying the ship station or ship
earth station inspector shall make this report in writing.
2.2.5. Radio Operators Certificates
The service of every ship radiotelephone station, ship earth station and ship station
using the frequencies and techniques for GMDSS, as prescribed in Chapter VII of the
RR, shall be controlled by an operator holding a certificate issued or recognized by
the government to which the station is subject. Provided the station is so controlled,
other persons besides the holder of the certificate may use the equipment. (RR,
Chapter IX, Art. 47)
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There are six categories of certificates, shown in descending order of requirements,


for personnel of ship stations and ship earth stations using the frequencies and
techniques prescribed in Chapter VII. An operator meeting the requirements of a
certificate automatically meets all of the requirements of lower order certificates.
(World radio communication conference 2007)
First-class radio electronic certificate
Second-class radio electronic certificate
General operators certificate
Restricted operators certificate.
Long range certificate (only for non-SOLAS vessels)
Short range certificate (only for non-SOLAS vessels)
The holder of one of the first four certificates specified above may carry out the
operation of SOLAS ship stations or ship earth stations using the frequencies and
techniques prescribed in Chapter VI of the RR. After a period of 5 years, the
certificates for service on SOLAS ships have to be revalidated.
The restricted operators certificate covers only the operation of GMDSS equipment
required for GMDSS sea areas A1, and does not cover the operation of GMDSS
A2/A3/A4 equipment fitted on a ship over and above the basic A1 requirements, even
if the ship is operating in a sea area A1. GMDSS sea areas A1, A2, A3 and A4 are
identified in the SOLAS convention see also 0 of this compendium.
The holder of one of these certificates may carry out the service of ship stations or
ship earth stations on board leisure crafts using the frequencies and techniques
prescribed in Chapter VI of the RR. These certificates have a lifelong validation.
2.2.6. Frequencies
2.2.6.1. Interferences
All stations are forbidden to carry out unnecessary transmissions, or the transmission
of superfluous signals, or the transmission of false or misleading signals, or the
transmission of signals without identification) Transmitting stations shall radiate only
as much power as is necessary to ensure a satisfactory service.
In order to avoid unlawful interferences
locations of transmitting stations and, where the nature of the service permits,
locations of receiving stations shall be selected with particular care;
radiation in and reception from unnecessary directions shall be minimized by
taking the maximum practical advantage of the properties of directional
antennas whenever the nature of the service permits;
the choice and use of transmitters and receivers shall be in accordance with
the provisions of the RRs.
Special consideration shall be given to avoiding interference on distress and safety
frequencies.

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The class of emission to be employed by a station should be such as to achieve


minimum interference and to assure efficient spectrum utilization.

2.2.6.2. The use of and restrictions for different emissions according to


frequencies in the Maritime Mobile Service (MMS)
All kind of emissions are described in the RR appendix 1.
Table 2 shows some popular emissions in the MMS:
Kind of emission

Explanation

Used in Band

A1A

Unmodulated morse code

MF, HF

A2A

Double Sideband morse code

MF, HF

H2A

Single Sideband morse code

MF, HF

J2B

Single Sideband Telex

MF, HF

F1B

Frequency Modulated Telex

MF, HF

A3E

Double Sideband Telephony

No more applicable

H3E

Single Sideband Telephony (full carrier)

2182 kHz (MF)

R3E

Single Sideband Telephony (reduced carrier)

MF, HF

J3E

Single Sideband
carrier)

MF, HF

F3E

Frequency modulated Telephony

VHF

G3E

Phase modulated telephony

VHF

Telephony

(suppressed

Table 2: Type of emission and its application

The emission H3E is only allowed on 2182 kHz. The emission J3E is the most used
emission for radiotelephony in MF and HF bands. For technical details see 0 5.2.
Modulation basics in this compendium.
2.2.6.3. The role of the various modes of communication
Kind of emission

Used for

A1A

Morse telegraphy, Free line signal on Telex frequencies

A2A

Morse telegraphy, Free line signal on Telex frequencies

H2A

Morse telegraphy, Free line signal on Telex frequencies

J2B

Single Sideband Radiotelex

F1B

NAVTEX, DSC

A3E

Older lifeboat station telephony

H3E

MF Telephony on 2182 kHz, Bearing signal (Carrier)

R3E

Telephony on MF and HF, not often used

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J3E

MF/HF Telephony with ship- or coast stations

F3E

VHF telephony

G3E

VHF telephony on ships

Table 3: Modes of communication

2.2.6.4. The use of MF, HF, VHF, UHF and SHF frequency bands in the MMS
For the allocation of frequencies the world has been divided into three Regions as
shown on the following map.

Figure 7: ITU Regions (Article V RR)

To avoid mutual interferences there are certain MF frequency bands allocated for
each region. In addition other frequency bands can also be used regardless of the
region. As shown in the table below single frequency bands can be allocated to
different radio services in the appropriate regions. The use of single frequencies in
each MF band in its region is allocated by the responsible Authority of each country.

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Region 1

Region 2

Region 3

1 606.5-1 625
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE
LAND MOBILE

1 625-1 705
FIXED
MOBILE
BROADCASTING
RADIOLOCATION

1 606.5-1 800
FIXED
MOBILE
RADIOLOCATION
RADIONAVIGATION

1 635-1 800
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE
LAND MOBILE

1 705-1 800
FIXED
MOBILE
RADIOLOCATION
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION

1 800-2 000
AMATEUR
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile
RADIONAVIGATION
RADIOLOCATION

1 850-2 000
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronauticalmobile

1 850-2 000
AMATEUR
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile
RADIOLOCATION
RADIONAVIGATION

2 000-2 065
FIXED
MOBILE

2 000-2 025
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)

2 000-2 065
FIXED
MOBILE

2 065-2 107
MARITIME MOBILE

2 045-2 160
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE
LAND MOBILE

2 065-2 107
MARITIME MOBILE

2 107-2 170
FIXED
MOBILE

2 170-2 173.5
MARITIME MOBILE

2 107-2 170
FIXED
MOBILE

2 170-2 173.5
MARITIME MOBILE

2 173.5-2 190.5
MOBILE (distress and calling)

2 170-2 173.5
MARITIME MOBILE

2 173.5-2 190.5 MOBILE


(distress and calling)

2 190.5-2 194
MARITIME MOBILE

2 173.5-2 190.5
MOBILE (distress and calling

2 190.5-2 194
MARITIME MOBILE

2 194-2 300
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)

2 190.5-2 194
MARITIME MOBILE

2 194-2 300
FIXED
MOBILE

2 300-2 498
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)
BROADCASTING

2 194-2 300
FIXED
MOBILE

2 300-2 495
FIXED
MOBILE
BROADCASTING

2 502-2 625
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)

2 300-2 495
FIXED
MOBILE
BROADCASTING

2 505-2 850
FIXED
MOBILE

2 625-2 650
MARITIME MOBILE
MARITIME RADIONAVIGATION

2 505-2 850
FIXED
MOBILE

3 155-3 200 FIXED


MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)

2 650-2 850
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)

3 155-3 200
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)

3 200-3 230
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)
BROADCASTING

3 155-3 200
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)

3 200-3 23
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)
BROADCASTING

3 230-3 400 FIXED


MOBILE except aeronautical mobile
BROADCASTING

3 200-3 230
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)
BROADCASTING

3 230-3 400 FIXED


MOBILE except aeronautical mobile
BROADCASTING

3 500-3 900
AMATEUR
FIXED
MOBILE

3 230-3 400
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile
BROADCASTING

3 750-4 000
AMATEUR
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)

3 500-3 800
AMATEUR
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile

Table 4: MF frequency bands

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2.2.6.5. The concept of HF frequency management


In the different HF bands between 4 MHz and 26 MHz certain frequencies are
allocated for the purpose of radiotelephony, radio telex (NBDP), facsimile (fax), data
and transmission. The frequency plan and channelling system are enlisted in the
RRs appendix 17 and in appendix 10 - 14 of this compendium.
2.2.6.6. VHF telephony
The VHF maritime band between about 156 MHz and 174 MHz is split into 54
channels with a bandwidth of 25 kHz each. The channel spacing of 12,5 kHz can be
used if the neighbouring authorities agree. The list of VHF channels and their
frequencies can be found in the RRs appendix 18 and in appendix 8 of this
compendium.
2.2.6.7. Frequencies for distress, urgency and safety communications
DSC RX

DSC TX

RTP-COM

NBDP

Direction

ch70

ch70

ch16

--

S-S, S-CS, Area

2187,5

2187,5

2182,0

2174,5

S-S, S-CS, Area

4207,5

4207,5

4125,0

4177,5

S-S, S-CS, Area

6312,0

6312,0

6215,0

6268,0

S-S, S-CS, Area

8414,5

8414,5

8291,0

8376,5

S-S, S-CS, Area

12577,0

12577,0

12290,0

12520,0

S-S, S-CS, Area

16804,5

16804,5

16420,0

16695,0

S-S, S-CS, Area

Table 5: Distress / Urgency /Safety Frequencies (MF/HF in kHz)

2.2.6.8. Frequencies for routine communication and reply


DSC RX
ch 70
2177,0
2177,0
4219,5
6331,0
8436,5
12657,0
16903,0
19703,5
22444,0
26121,0

DSC TX
ch70
2177,0
2189,5
4208,0
6312,5
8415,0
12577,5
16805,0
18898,5
22374,5
25208,5

RTP-COM
VHF-Work
MF-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work

Table 6 Routine frequencies in (MF/HF in kHz)

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NBDP
-MF-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work
Coast-Work

Direction
S-S, S-CS, Area
S-S, Area
S-CS
S-CS
S-CS
S-CS
S-CS
S-CS
S-CS
S-CS
S-CS

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The routine DSC frequencies in the HF area for calling coast stations are the first of
three lines of DSC routine calling frequencies in the RR The coast working
frequencies are described in the RR, appendix 17
2.2.7. Call categories
In the GMDSS there are 4 categories of priority.
2.2.7.1. Distress
The transmission of a distress alert and/or a distress call and message indicates that
a mobile unit or person is threatened by grave and imminent danger and
requires immediate assistance.
Distress communications shall have priority over all other communications.
2.2.7.2. Urgency
The transmission of an urgency announcement and an urgency call and message
indicates that
the following informations refer to an urgent need for assistance or
a medical transport or
a medico call/message.
Urgency communications shall have priority over all other communications, except
distress communication.
2.2.7.3. Safety
The transmission of a safety announcement and a safety call and message indicates
that
the following informations refer to the safety of navigation,
weather conditions,
nautical warnings or
to the ship movement communication.
Safety communications shall have priority over all other communications, except
distress and urgency communication.
2.2.7.4. Routine
The transmission of a routine announcement and a routine call and message
indicates that the following informations refer not to distress- urgency- or safety
purposes. Routine communications shall have no priority.
2.2.8. Watchkeeping
Coast stations assigned with watch-keeping responsibilities in the GMDSS shall
maintain an automatic DSC watch on frequencies and for periods of time as indicated

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in the information published in the List of Coast Stations and Special Service
Stations.
Coast earth stations assigned with watch-keeping responsibilities in the GMDSS
shall maintain a continuous automatic watch for appropriate distress alerts relayed by
space stations.
Ship stations, appropriately equipped, shall, whilst at sea, maintain an automatic
DSC watch on the appropriate distress and safety calling frequencies in the
frequency bands in which they are operating. Ship stations, where which have the
appropriate equipment, shall also maintain watch on the appropriate frequencies for
the automatic reception of transmissions of meteorological and navigational warnings
and other urgent information to ships.
Ship stations complying with the provisions of the RRs should, where practicable,
maintain a watch on the frequency 156.8 MHz (VHF channel 16)
Ship earth stations complying with the provisions of the RRs shall, while at sea,
maintain watch except when communicating on a working channel.

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3.

Identification of radio stations

In transmissions carrying identification signals a station shall be identified by a call


sign, by a Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) or by other recognized means of
identification which may be one or more of the following: name of station, location of
station, operating agency, official registration mark, flight identification number,
selective call number or signal, selective call identification number or signal,
characteristic signal, characteristic of emission or other clearly distinguishing features
readily recognized internationally
When a station operating in the maritime mobile service or the maritime mobilesatellite service is required to use maritime mobile service identities, the responsible
Administration shall assign an identity to the station in accordance with the provisions
described in ITU-R M.585-4.
Maritime mobile service identities are formed by a series of nine digits which are
transmitted over the radio in order to uniquely identify ship stations, ship earth
stations, coast stations, coast earth stations, and other non-ship borne stations
operating in the maritime mobile service or the maritime mobile-satellite service, and
group calls
These identities are formed in such a way that the identity or part thereof can be
used by telephone and telex subscribers connected to the public telecommunications
network principally to call ships automatically in the shore-to-ship direction. Access to
public networks may also be achieved by means of free-form numbering plans, so
long as the ship can be uniquely identified using the systems registration database
to obtain the ship station identity, call sign or ship name and nationality.
All transmissions shall be capable of being identified by identification signals
3.1. Identification of ship stations
Ships shall be identified by the following:
a call sign or
the official name of the ship preceded, if necessary, by the name of the owner
on condition that there is no possible confusion with distress, urgency and
safety signals; or
its selective call number or signal.
3.1.1. Ships name
Normally the ship will be named by the owner of the vessel.
3.1.2. Call sign
All stations open to international public correspondence, all amateur stations, and
other stations which are capable of causing harmful interference beyond the
boundaries of the territory or geographical area in which they are located, shall have
call signs from the international series allocated to its Administration as given in the
Table of Allocation of International Call Sign Series in appendix 19 of the
compendium.

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The ITU assigns call sign series to each country. Germany for example has the
series DAA-DRZ and Y2A-Y9Z.
Example:
DGDC, DL4766, Y5LM
Call signs are being formed in the following way:
two characters and two letters, or
two characters, two letters and one digit (other than the digits 0 or 1), or
two characters (provided that the second is a letter) followed by four digits
(other than the digits 0 or 1 in cases where they immediately follow a letter), or
two characters and one letter followed by four digits (other than the digits 0 or
1 in cases where they immediately follow a letter). (WRC-07)
Details of call sign series for each country will found in appendix 19 of the
compendium.
3.1.3. Maritime Mobile Service Identity
Ships participating in the maritime radio services should be assigned a nine digit
unique ship station identity in the format
M1I2D3X4X5X6X7X8X9
Where in the first three digits represent the Maritime Identification Digits (MID) and X
is any figure from 0 to 9. The MID denotes the geographical area of the
Administration responsible for the ship station so identified.
The MMSI of a vessel is assigned by an Administration of a country under which flag
the vessel is sailing. An important element of a MMSI is the MID. Each Administration
has been allocated one or more MID for its use. Germany for example has been
allocated 211 and 218:
Example:
211 232 000, 218 456 000
You will find details of MMSI series for each country in appendix 18 of the
compendium.
Survival craft station call signs shall conform to the following:
The call sign of the parent ship followed by two digits (other than the
digits 0 or 1 in cases where they immediately follow a letter).
3.1.4. Group calling number
Group ship station call identities for calling simultaneously more than one ship are
formed as follows:
01M2I3D4X5X6X7X8X9
Where the first figure is zero and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The MID represents only
the territory or geographical area of the Administration assigning the group ship

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station call identity and does not therefore prevent group calls to fleets containing
more than one ship nationality
3.2. Identification of coast stations
In addition to the call sign, coast stations in the maritime radio services should be
assigned a nine-digit unique coast station identity in the format
0102M3I4D5X6X7X8X9
Where the digits 3, 4 and 5 represent the MID and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The
MID reflects the territory or geographical area in which the coast station or coast
earth station is located.
Group coast station call identities for calling simultaneously more than one coast
station are formed as a subset of coast station identities, as follows:
0102M3I4D5X6X7X8X9
Where the first two figures are zeros and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The MID
represents only the territory or geographical area of the Administration assigning the
group coast station call identity. The identity may be assigned to stations of one
Administration which are located in only one geographical region as indicated in the
relevant ITU-T Recommendations.
The combination 010293949506070809 is reserved for the All Coast Stations Identity
and should address all VHF 00XXXXXXX stations. It is not applicable to MF or HF
coast stations.
3.3. Identification of Search and Rescue (SAR) Stations
When an aircraft is required to use maritime mobile service identities for the purposes
of conducting search and rescue communications with stations in the maritime
mobile service, the responsible Administration should assign a nine-digit unique
aircraft identity, in the format
111213M4I5D6X7X8X9
Where the digits 4, 5 and 6 represent the MID and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The
MID represents only the territory or geographical area of the Administration assigning
the aircraft call identity.
The Administration may use the seventh digit to differentiate between certain specific
uses of this class of MMSI, as shown in the example applications below:
111MID1XX
111MID5XX
The combination

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Fixed-wing aircraft
Helicopters

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111213M4I5D6070809
should be reserved for a Group Aircraft Identity and should address all 111MIDXXX
stations within the Administration. The Administration may further augment this with
additional Group Call identities, i.e. 111MID111, etc.
3.4. Identification of Vessel Traffic Service(VTS) stations
VTS stations will normally not have call signs. They should be called by the station
name followed by its purpose and the word Radio for example:

Hamburg Pilot Radio


Hamburg Traffic Radio
Hamburg Port Radio
Kiel Kanal Radio
Hunte Bridge Radio

As the number of coast stations decreases in many countries, an Administration may


wish to assign MMSI of the format above (Coast Stations) to harbour radio stations,
pilot stations and other stations participating in the maritime radio services. The
stations concerned should be located on land or on an island in order to use the
00MIDXXXX format.
The Administration may use the sixth digit to further differentiate between certain
specific uses of this class of MMSI, as shown in the example applications below:
00MID1XXX
00MID2XXX
00MID3XXX

Coast radio stations


Harbour radio stations
Pilot stations, etc.

3.5. Identification of Aids to Navigation


When a means of automatic identification is required for a station aiding navigation at
sea, the responsible Administration should assign a nine-digit unique number in the
format
9192M3I4D5X6X7X8X9
where the digits 3, 4 and 5 represent the MID and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The
MID represents only the territory or geographical area of the Administration assigning
the call identity for the navigational aid.
The format shown above applies to unmanned AIS aids to navigation(AtoN) floating
in the water and virtual AIS aids to navigation belonging to aids to navigation
systems. The Administration may use the sixth digit to differentiate between certain
specific uses of the MMSI, as shown in the example applications below:

99MID1XXX

Physical AIS AtoN

99MID6XXX

Virtual AIS AtoN

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In addition to the use of the sixth digit to differentiate between specific navigational
aids as explained above, the seventh digit may be used for national purposes, to
define areas where the AIS AtoN are located or types of AIS AtoN to the discretion of
the Administration concerned.
3.6. Identification of aircraft stations
Aircraft stations are identified by:
a call sign which may be preceded by a word designating the owner or the
type of aircraft; or
a combination of characters corresponding to the official registration mark
assigned to the aircraft; or
a word designating the airline, followed by the flight identification number.
The call sign consists of two characters and three letters.
An aircraft which has to be able to communicate with ships and/or coast stations in
cases other than SAR can use maritime mobile equipment. Administrations should
assign ships MMSIs.
3.7. Identification of associated craft with parent ship
Devices used on craft associated with a parent ship, need unique identification.
These devices which participate in the maritime mobile service should be assigned a
nine-digit unique number in the format
9182M3I4D5X6X7X8X9
where the digits 3, 4 and 5 represent the MID and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The
MID represents only the territory or geographical area of the Administration assigning
the call identity for the craft associated with a parent ship.
This numbering format is only valid for devices on board crafts associated with a
parent ship. A craft may carry multiple devices for which a MMSI is required. These
devices may be located in lifeboats, life-rafts, MOB-boats or other craft belonging to a
parent ship.
3.8. Identification of Ship Earth Stations and Coast Earth Stations

Inmarsat-B starts with number 3, all in all 9-digits


Inmarsat-C starts with number 4, all in all 9-digits
Inmarsat-M starts with number 6, all in all 9-digits
Inmarsat Fleet starts with number 76, all in all 9-digits and
60 for high speed data, all in all 9-digits

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4.

Service publications

4.1.

List of Coast Stations and Special Service Stations (ITU List IV)

Figure 8: List of coast stations and special service


stations
The List IV contains important information for the mariner, in relation to
radiocommunications including the GMDSS and CP services. Detailed information is
provided in relation to the facilities available at each maritime coast radio station.
These stations may provide watch keeping using DSC techniques and
radiotelephony. The frequencies for transmitting, receiving and the geographical
coordinates for each station are given. Details of additional services such as medical
advice, navigational and meteorological warnings, MSI, AIS, meteorological bulletins
and radio time signals are given with the hours of service and operational
frequencies. It also contains information on Port stations, Pilot stations, Coast earth
stations, VTS stations, contact information of RCC, SAR agencies, Navarea
coordinators and AtoNs.
It should be noted that no supplements will be printed between two editions.
However, a file containing a compilation of changes, notified to this List, will be made
available for information, free of charge, through the ITU MARS webpage.

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4.2.
(ITU

List of Ship Stations and Maritime Mobile Service Identity Assignments


List V)

Figure 9: List of Ship Stations and Maritime Mobile Service Identity Assignments

The List of Ship Stations and Maritime Mobile Service Identity Assignments (List V) is
a service publication prepared and issued, once a year, by the ITU, in accordance
with provision no. 20.8 of the RR.
As stipulated in appendix 16 to the RR, this List shall be provided to all ship stations
for which a GMDSS installation is required by international agreement.
This List is published in CD-ROM format and contains the Preface and reference
tables in a booklet form.
The CD-ROM contains, in pdf format, information concerning ship stations, coast
stations and search and rescue aircraft for which an MMSI has been notified to the
radiocommunication bureau as well as other ship stations, predetermined groups of
ship stations, Accounting Authority (AA) identification codes and contact information
of notifying administrations.
The CD-ROM also contains a database which enables users to search for and
display particulars and details of ship stations, accounting authorities and countries
responsible for the notifications.
The CD ROM also contains a database, along with an interface similar to the ITU
MARS system (http://www.itu.int/ITU-R/go/mars/en). Which enables users to search
for and display, particulars and details of ship stations, AAs and countries
responsible for the notifications.

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4.3.

Manual for use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile-Satellite


Services

Figure 10: Manual for Use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile-Satellite Services

The Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile-Satellite Services reflects the regulatory
provisions and the latest decisions concerning those services by ITU conferences
(including relevant decisions pertaining to the introduction of new systems and
techniques). As prescribed in appendix 16 of the RR, the Manual is required to be
carried in stations on board ships.
The Manual for use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile-Satellite Services is
published in accordance with Article 20 (No. 20.14) of the RR, and results from
studies carried out in the ITU-R since 2008. Edition 2013 comprises two volumes, not
sold separately. Volume 1 provides descriptive text of the organization and operation
of the GMDSS and other maritime operational procedures, while volume 2 contains
the extracts of the regulatory texts associated with maritime operations.

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4.4.

Admiralty List of Radio Signals

Figure 11: Admiralty List of Radio Signals


Vol.1
The Admiralty List of Radio Signals series provides comprehensive information on all
aspects of maritime radio communications. The data is organised into six volumes,
some divided into several parts for ease of handling. Each of the six volumes is
presented in a user-friendly format with full colour photographs and diagrams.
The contents range from a complete listing of stations handling maritime public
correspondence to a full range of products and services essential for compliance with
the GMDSS. The volumes also feature radio stations broadcasting weather services
and forecasts and a detailed explanation of the complexities of Global Satellite
Position Fixing Systems. ALRS publications are presented in a user-friendly format
and are updated through section VI of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to
Mariners. New editions are published annually containing all changes to information
held.
Volume 1

(Parts 1 & 2) - Maritime Radio Stations

Volume 2

Radio Aids to Navigation, Satellite Navigation Systems, Differential


GPS (DGPS) Legal Time, Radio Time Signals and Electronic Position
Fixing Systems

Volume 3

(Parts 1 & 2) - Maritime Safety Information Services

Volume 4

Meteorological Observation Stations

Volume 5

Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)

Volume 6

(Parts 1 - 7) - Pilot Services, Vessel Traffic Services and Port


Operations

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5.

Technical

5.1.

Radio wave propagation

The radio wave is needed to carry the signal information efficiently and without
distortion. In the case of audio frequencies, which may range from about 50Hz to 15
kHz, it would not be technically feasible to radiate the information directly from a
practical transmitter and antenna. (Try to calculate the wavelength by the above
mentioned formula with the15 kHz frequency. Then you will see the impractical size
of the antenna you need for such a transmission.)
Higher frequencies can radiate efficiently from antennas having dimensions typically
between a quarter and one wave length. Thus, practical communication systems use
a radio wave to carry the audio or other (e.g., vision or data) information between the
transmitting and receiving sites.
Three main physical mechanisms govern the propagation of radio waves:
Line of sight
Ground wave
Sky wave
Each frequency range has its own propagation characteristic. The reliability of a
connection between two stations with a transmitter and a receiver depends on the
choice of the correct frequency band.
The Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum is divided in several major bands:
Frequency Band

Description

15 kHz - 30 kHz

Very Low Frequency (VLF)

30 kHz - 300 kHz

Low Frequency (LF)

300 kHz -

4 MHz

4 MHz - 30 MHz
30 MHz - 300 MHz
300 MHz -

3 GHz

Medium Frequency (MF)


High Frequency (HF)
Very High Frequency (VHF)
Ultra High Frequency (UHF)

3 GHz - 30 GHz

Super High Frequency (SHF)

30 GHz - 300 GHz

Extra High Frequency (EHF)

Table 7: Frequency bands

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5.1.1. Basics
The equivalent between wavelength and frequency
Radio waves radiate at the velocity of light, 300 x 106 m per second. The equivalent
between the velocity of light (c), frequency (f) and the wavelength () i.e. longer
wavelength corresponded to lower frequency, shorter wavelength to higher
frequency.

f = number of cycles per second


c = velocity of light 300 x 106 meters per second (300000 km per second)
= wavelength in meters

Figure 12: Example of wavelength

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The subdivision of the most significant parts of radio spectrum used in


Maritime Mobile Service (MMS)
Frequency Band
30 kHz 300 kHz

Description

Example for MMS

Low Frequency (LF)

Weather Information

Medium Frequency (MF)

NAVTEX, DSC

High Frequency (HF)

NAVTEX, DSC, Voice,


Telex and Data communication

30 MHz 300 MHz

Very High Frequency (VHF)

DSC, Voice, Data communication

300 MHz 3 GHz

Ultra High Frequency (UHF)

Voice communication,
Satellite communication

300 kHz 4 MHz


4 MHz 30 MHz

Table 8: Frequency ranges and their applications

Different Antennas used for specific frequencies


Different types of antennas have to correspond with the different frequency ranges
for which the antennas are used (see also 0.)
5.1.2. Line of sight propagation

Figure 13: Line of sight propagation

Above about 50 MHz, propagation is essentially by line-of-sight. This is


accomplished, in the case of terrestrial radio, via the lower part of the atmosphere
termed the troposphere and in the case of space communication via earth-orbiting
satellites.
Figure 13: Line of sight propagation shows a stylised terrestrial radio link. In general,
the received signal is the sum of a direct signal along path a, clear of the ground, and
several reflected signals along paths such as b and c. Because a radio signal
undergoes a phase reversal at the reflection point, the theoretical situation is that the
direct and reflected signals should cancel out if the receiver antenna is at ground
level.
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Since land has poor ground conductivity, total cancellation does not occur in practice,
as simple experiment with portable VHF FM receiver will show. However, the sea is a
very good conductor, which means that maritime VHF antennas should be mounted
well above the sea in order to avoid severe cancellation effects.
5.1.3. Ground waves and sky waves

Figure 14: Ground waves and sky waves

In principle, a transmitting antenna sited at the earths surface will set up a surface
wave which follows the curvature of the earth. The distance, over which reliable
communications can be achieved by the surface, or ground wave, depends on the
frequency and the physical properties (i.e. ground conductivity and dielectric
constant) of the earth along the transmission path. A ground wave can only be
established with useful efficiency where the wavelength is greater than several tens
of meters.
Seawater has the highest conductivity and will support the propagation of a ground
wave, in much the same manner as a metal plate. At the other end of the scale, an
arid desert provides very lossy ground conditions and will not support the efficient
propagation on ground wave signal.
The significance of this for maritime communications is that long distance working is
possible at medium to low frequencies using only modest transmitter power
compared to those for broadcasting at similar frequencies over land.
Figure 13: Line of sight propagation also shows surface wave propagation over a
terrestrial radio link. In principle, the received signal will be the sum of the line-ofsight signals and the surface wave. In practice, however, one or other of the two
components will predominate depending on the transmission frequency and length of
the radio link. Ground wave propagation predominates at MF, LF and VLF.

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Within the frequency range of 1 30 MHz, ionospheric reflection is the controlling


factor in achieving long-distance communications by radio waves.
5.1.4. Ionosphere structure

Figure 15: Sky wave radio path

Because the ionization process in the upper atmosphere is responsible for this effect
that is caused by the sun, it will be evident that the density of ionization will vary with
the time of day and the season of the year. The sunspot cycle, which takes
approximately 11years, also has an effect. Ionospheric storms and other
disturbances occur from time to time and in extreme cases can cause a
communication black-out lasting for some days.
In general, the net result is that, to communicate over a given distance, a higher
frequency is necessary when the density of ionization is high and a lower frequency
when the density of ionization falls.
Long-distance propagation of radio waves at HF is mainly the result of single or
multiple reflections from ionized regions in the upper atmosphere known collectively
as the ionosphere. These ionized regions are generated at heights of 100 40 (55
220 nm) as a result of partial ionization of the molecules making up the rare field
upper regions by ultraviolet and soft (long wavelength x-ray solar radiation). The
ionization process converts the molecules into plasma of ions and free electrons.
There is a complex variation in the degree of ionization with height such that distinct
layers of more intense ionization are formed. The different layers result from different
parts of the ultraviolet spectrum. The heights of these layers vary from day to night
and with seasons. The most important layers for long-distance propagation of radio
waves are:
The Elayer at 120 km
The F1layer at 200 km
The F2layer at 300 - 400km

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At night and mid-winter the F1 and theF2 layers combines to form a single F- layer at
approximately 250 km. This is a result of a gradual recombination of the ions and
electrons back into the atmospheric gas molecules during night.
Below the E-layer is the D-layer, at a height of 50 90 km, which also has an
influence on propagation, but more as an absorber of radio waves than as a
reflecting layer. However, at VLF and LF frequencies the D-layer is sufficiently
reflective to guide signals between the ground and the bottom of the D-layer for
several thousand kilometres with little attenuation.
Ionospheric reflection may be simply described as the phenomenon where by a wave
appears to undergo reflection on reaching a suitable ionized region. Free electrons
are set in motion so a store-radiate the wave in a changed direction. As it passes
through the ionized layers, the wave may eventually be reflected back to the earth.
On a simplified view the effect may be viewed as reflection from an area at what is
termed the mirror height.
The effect is frequency-dependent, with a greater degree of ionization being
necessary to cause reflection as the frequency is increased. Usually the higher layers
have the greater degree of ionization and therefore reflect the highest frequencies.
Because of the greater mirror height, the communication
Range achieved by a single reflection will also be greatest under these
circumstances.
The solar radiation responsible for ionizing the atmosphere varies continuously from
day to night and between the seasons. Sunspot activity also has a strong underlying
effect on the degree of ionization. The level of sunspot activity varies over a cycle of
around 11years, with periods of maximum ionization occurring when the number of
sunspots is at a maximum.
Normally, the variation is predictable enough for the best frequency bands to be
selected for the intended communication path without difficulty.
HF communications can, however, be disrupted by ionospheric storms for several
days at a time when eruptions on the suns surface emit a stream of high-energy
charged particles which then obliterate the ionized layers the F-region in particular.
Aurorally displays in the Polar Regions often accompany these events.
Ionospheric storms are often preceded by sudden ionospheric disturbances (sids)
when intensely strong bursts of ultraviolet radiation from the sun produce intense
ionization of the low D-layer. When sids occur, waves are absorbed in the D-layer
before reaching the higher layers or are reflected over much shorter distances than
usual, with the result that long-distance communications will be blocked for hours at
the time.
5.1.5. UHF and VHF propagation
Above 50 MHz the predominant propagation mechanism is by straight-line paths, i.e.,
line-of sight.
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For satellite communications an unobstructed view of the satellite is required, and the
ship earth station antenna must be mounted to achieve the best view to the satellite
possible.
For terrestrial communications the range depends upon the heights of both the
transmitting and receiving antenna. Because of a slight bending effect on radio
waves in the troposphere, caused mainly by water vapor, the radio horizon is in fact
greater than the optical horizon by factor of 4/3.
Taking this factor into account, the maximum range at sea is given by the formula:

Range in nm =
4 x [ Tx (ft) + 4Rx (ft)]
Range in nm = 2.22 x [ Tx (m) + JRx (m)]
Range in km = 4.12x [ Tx (m) + Rx (m)]

Where Tx and Rx are the heights of the transmitting and receiving antenna above
sea level, measured in feet or meters as indicated.
5.1.6. MF propagation
Day Propagation
MF communications depend mainly on ground-wave propagation but with a further
reduction in range because of the increased effect of attenuation by the earth.
A coast station can achieve good ground wave coverage for voice communications
up to 550 km (300 nm). Ship stations, with less powerful transmitters and less
elaborate antenna systems, can usually expect reliable ground wave
communications up to 275 km (150 nm) for voice communications and 550 km (300
nm) for DSC/telex.
Night propagation
However, in addition to the ground wave propagation, sky wave propagation starts to
become significant at MF, particularly at night, greatly extending the range. This can
be a negative effect, however, owing to mutual interference between stations on the
same frequency and interference fading caused by signals arriving at the receiver by
different paths (ground wave and sky wave) from the transmitting station.
5.1.7. HF propagation
In practice a good guide to establishing reliable communication at HF is to monitor
the transmission of the appropriate coast station channels e.g. telex (NBDP), Voice
transmissions (weather report, traffic lists) on the more likely bands for the time of
day and season and then call the station on whichever band provides a strong stable
signal. If this is not successful, the other bands should be tried. The ionosphere can
behave erratically at times, and on occasion, reception is better in the ship-to-shore
direction than in the shore-to-ship direction or vice versa. Communication is
frequently unreliable around sunrise and sunset.

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The considerably variability of radio communication at HF is a consequence of signal


propagation being predominately by sky wave, both day and night. A ground wave
signal is still present but attenuates too rapidly to be of value for reliable commercial
communications.
The D-layer of the ionosphere has little effect above 4 MHz and long-distance
propagation is done by reflection from the E- or F-layers. In general terms, the higher
the HF band used, the greater the range. This is because the higher the frequency,
the further the wave has to pass into the ionosphere before it undergoes sufficient
bending to be returned to earth. To a first approximation, therefore, the situation is
that the higher the frequency, the greater will be the reflection (mirror) height and so
greater will be the potential range.
Long-range propagation is also possible as a result of multiple reflections between
the ground, the ionosphere and even between the layers of the ionosphere itself.
However, these modes of transmission are very variable and would not be used
intentionally for normal commercial communications.
The best policy for reliable HF communications is to use the highest frequency
consistent with the length of the radio circuit using a single reflection. The angle at
which a radio wave enters the ionosphere is also an important factor, with reflection
occurring at a lower height for oblique incidence compared to vertical incidence (see
Figure 15: Sky wave radio path)
The highest frequency which can be used to communicate between two fixed points
by sky wave propagation is known as the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF). Since
this frequency puts the receiver on the edge of the ship distance, it is better to use
the lower frequency of 0.85 x MUF, termed the Optimum Traffic Frequency (OTF), in
order to improve reliability. Note, however, that the preferred choice of channel may
already be in use.
For example, to establish communications with Kiel Mail Radio (Germany, HF e-mail)
during daytime, the following would apply:
4 MHz = N. France
6 MHz = N. Spain
8 MHz = N. Africa
12 MHz = Ghana
16 MHz = Angola
22/25 MHz = South Africa
At night, due to changes in the ionosphere, the situation changes as the F1 and F2
layers merge and the heights of the E and F layers fall. The general result is that, to
cover the same range at night it is necessary to halve the operating frequency; e.g., a
link from Kiel Mail to Cape Town during daytime is possible on 22/25 MHz. During the
night the 12 MHz bands would be the first choice.
When transmitting eastwest, the signal may pass from daytime to night-time
conditions, and it may be very difficult to establish effective communications. One
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strategy is to estimate the optimum transmission band according to the day / night
conditions at the midpoint of the radio circuit. The best course of action may be to
wait until the entire path between the two stations is in daylight or darkness/nighttime.

Maximal usable frequency


The MUF which is reflected by the ionosphere over any particular path is known as
the MUF. The MUF depends on:

the time of the day;


season;
latitude and;
period of sunspot cycle.

The MUF varies according to which layer is responsible for reflection back to the
earth. For each layer, the MUF is obtained when the ray path leaves the earth
tangentially, so that the ray approaches the appropriate layer at as oblique an angle
as possible. As shown in Figure 15: Sky wave radio path, this correspond to an
overall ground-to-ground distance of about 4000 km (2200 nm) for F2- layer
propagation (path A); or 2500 km (1300 nm) for E-layer (path B). Any rays leaving
the earth at a higher angle of elevation (path C) will penetrate the layer and not be
reflected. To use such ray angles, with consequently shorter path, it is necessary to
reduce the operating frequencies (path D)
In general, the strongest signals (i.e. those with least attenuation) will occur using
frequencies just below the MUF, for the particular path distance and layer involved.
When a wave is sent vertically upwards (see Figure 15: Sky wave radio path), the
highest frequency for which reflection by any particular layer will occur is termed the
critical frequency, fo. This frequency is much lower than the MUF for oblique
incidence, being related approximately by
MUF = fo/cos ,
where is the angle of incidence of the ray to the layer. At frequencies higher than fo,
the waves will penetrate the layer and be lost, but as the angle of radiation is
progressively lowered an angle will be reached where reflection occurs (termed as
the critical wave angle). Signals can then be received at a great distance (receiver
Rx2 in Figure 16: HF radio communication paths), and radiation at lower angles will
be reflected to even greater distances (e.g., receiver Rx3).

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Figure 16: HF radio communication paths

Receivers at Rx2 and Rx3 can receive signal by reflection from the ionosphere from
points P2 andP3 respectively. The point P2 represents the location nearest the
transmitter where reflection can take place at the frequency being used. The distance
from the transmitter to Rx2 is termed the SKIP DISTANCE and represents the
minimum distance where sky wave propagation will be effective at this frequency. At
point P1 the level of ionization is not sufficient to return a signal to earth. The receiver
Rx1 represents the point at which a signal can still be received by ground wave
propagation from the transmitter. There will therefore be a region, known as the SKIP
ZONE, where propagation by both ground wave and sky wave is very poor and little
useful signal will be received.
At points nearer to the transmitter no signals will be received by ionospheric
reflection, but when sufficiently close to the transmitter (receiver Rx1 in Figure 16: HF
radio communication paths) to be within range of the ground wave the signals will
again be heard. In between there is an area of very poor reception, termed the skip
zone. The distance from the transmitter to the nearest point, at which a wave at a
particular operating frequency returns, after reflection, back to the earth (receiver
Rx2) is known as the skip distance.
When the frequency is less than the critical frequency fo there will, of course be no
skip at all. This situation is often found for frequencies below 8 MHz.
The critical wave angle for a particular layer depends on the operating frequency and
decreases as the frequency increases. In consequence, the skip distance increases
with frequency.
The MUF therefore represents a limit, which must not be exceeded for the receiver to
remain in the area of reception just beyond the skip zone. The result is that the skip
distance extends towards the receiver as the operating frequency approaches the
MUF. The reflecting layer also absorbs HF radiation, and this effect decreases
markedly as the operating frequency approaches the MUF.

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The combined effect is that, for any particular radio circuit, the optimum working
frequency lies just below the MUF for the particular path. Any rise in operating
frequency of fall in MUF will result in a sudden drop-out of received signals as the
skip zone extends to include the reception point.
Lowest usable frequency (LUF)
As the operating frequency is reduced, the reflection will occur in the lower layers of
the ionosphere. However, at lower altitudes, and in the D-layer especially, the energy
in the wave is subject to increase absorption caused by collisions between air
molecules and electrons which are set in motion by the radio waves. The effect
increases at lower frequencies, and the limit for any particular path is reached at the
LUF.
While the MUF is determined solely by the physical properties of the ionosphere, the
LUF also has dependence on the radiated power and the receiver sensitivity over the
circuit, and can be controlled to an extent by attenuation to optimizing equipment and
antenna performance hence the need to keep both equipment and antennas in
good condition.
Optimum traffic frequency
Ionospheric absorption is much less at night than during the day and therefore the
attenuation of the lower HF frequencies is very little different from that of higher
frequencies during the day. Since the MUF at night over a particular path will
generally be less than half the daytime figure, this means that for night-time longdistance communications it is possible to maintain considerably lower frequencies
and still achieve good reliability. The MUF for a particular path is higher during
summer months than in the winter months, but during ionospheric storms the MUF
may become much lower for transmission in some directions but higher in others.
In planning the optimum traffic (or working) frequency for any particular time, season,
distance and direction, it is therefore necessary to take all of these variations into
consideration.
At any particular time, a sky wave path is available on channels in a window below
the MUF and above the LUF. The MUF is defined by the prevailing ionospheric
conditions, but the LUF is set by a combination of path loss and equipment
parameters such as transmitter power, noise and receiver/antenna performance. In
practice, the first choice of working frequency for sustained circuit reliability would be
around 85% of the MUF.
The MUF can be predicted on a long-term average basis. The variations in MUF can
be up to a third higher or lower on a "normal" day-to-day basis and, in disturbed
conditions, the MUF can be less than half the predicted value.
The LUF is typically about half the MUF for maritime HF equipment, but this can vary
considerably. Under normal conditions, the window of available frequencies varies
predictably as follows:

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daytime MUF is higher than night-time MUF;


winter MUFs are both lower than and vary more than summer MUFs;
radio circuits less than 1000 km (600 nm) normally use frequencies below 15
MHz;
radio circuits greater than 1000 km normally use frequencies above 15 MHz;
and

MUFs are higher when the sunspot number is high

Single hop condition


An HF radio circuit can also be set up by multiple reflections between the ionosphere
and the ground. Variability and absorption increase with each reflection (or hop), so
the single-reflection (hop) path, as described above, is to be preferred for maximum
circuit reliability.
To avoid multiple-hop conditions it is advisable to aim for the MUF for the highest
ionospheric layer, in the expectation that this will normally exceed the MUF for the
lower levels and thereby avoid multiple reflections involving the lower layers.
5.1.8. VLF propagation
The radio wave follows the curvature of the earth's surface and is known as a ground
wave. The range of a ground wave signal is governed by the rate of loss of energy
into the ground, which in turn is governed by the value of ground conductivity. The
attenuation of the ground wave is least over seawater and greatest over the rocky
ground or deserts.
VLF signals are reflected well by the D-layer of the ionosphere, because the height of
the D-layer is of the same order of wavelengths at VLF, the net effect is of a
waveguide for VLF signals between the ground and the D- layer. The signal
attenuation is very low under these conditions and transmission paths up to 22000
km (12000 nm) are possible.
Large antenna arrays are normally used at VLF with very high output transmitter
powers (750 kW) to give virtually world-wide coverage. VLF transmissions are
therefore only used in the shore to ship direction. VLF signals penetrate the sea to a
depth of a few tens of meters, making them very effective for maintaining
communications with submerged submarines.
5.1.9. LF propagation
At LF, ground wave propagation predominates, as with VLF, and due to the higher
frequency, the range is reduced, particularly over land, due to the relatively greater
attenuation effect of poor ground conductivity as the wavelength is reduced. The
waveguide effect between the ground and the D-layer still applies at LF, and
conditions are in fact more stable than at VLF. There is also an improvement with
regards to lower background noise levels at LF. However the path attenuation is
higher.
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Ranges of one to 3600 km (2000 nm) are possible at LF but, again, large antennas
and transmitter output powers are required.
5.2.

Modulation basics

The simplest form of communication is Morse code, sent by switching the carrier
frequency on and off in a sequence of dots and dashes. But the rate of information
is relatively low, 20 to 25 words per minute is a good communication rate. But to
transmit information by using Morse code a special knowledge and ability is required.
Modulation is the mechanism whereby a radio frequency carrier wave is used for the
transmission of information. In doing so the carrier frequency is changed by a useful
signal. Thereby it becomes possible to transmit a low frequency useful (DSB) signal
on a high frequency. The transmitting signal covers a certain bandwidth which
depends on the useful signal.
In AM the high-frequency amplitude is varied by a low-frequency useful signal.
FM is a mechanism in which the carrier frequency is altered by the signal to be
transmitted.
Narrow Band Direct Printing (NBDP) is a method for radiotelex. For this purpose, the
telegraph signal shifts the frequency of the carrier between predetermined values. In
the maritime context the type of information carried is mainly speech or data.
5.2.1. Frequency modulation
In the telecommunications, Frequency Modulation (FM, code of emission: F3E)
conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency. This
contrasts with Amplitude Modulation (AM), in which the carrier is varied while the
frequency remains constant.

Figure 17: Frequency modulation

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In radiotelephony frequency modulation is also known as phase modulation (code of


emission: G3E) when the carrier phase modulation is in time integral of the FM
signal. The ITU designates some VHF channels as F3Eand others as G3E but, as far
as the operator is concerned, there is no difference because a change in frequency
of the carrier also results in a corresponding change in the phase of the carrier, and
vice versa.
In frequency shift keying (FSK), which is used for NBDP a frequency of 170 Hz is
shifted about a certain centre frequency (e.g.1700 Hz) as mark and space tones.
I.e. mark = 1685 Hz and space = 1785 Hz.

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5.2.2. Amplitude modulation


In AM the information modulated on to the carrier wave appears as frequencies
below and/or above the carrier frequency, known as sidebands of a certain
bandwidth depending on the nature of information.
In radiotelephony each sideband requires a bandwidth of 2.8 kHz for an acceptable
speech communication. The upper and lower sidebands contain the same
information. And a bandwidth around the carrier frequency is 5.6 kHz for the
transmission of speech, although 32.8 kHz were sufficient.

Figure 18: Amplitude modulation

In double-sideband (DSB) transmission method (code of emission: A3E) more than


two thirds of the transmitter output power is contained in the carrier which contains
no useful information signal. By elimination the duplicated information in the lower
sideband, along with the carrier, the transmitter efficiency is increased by the power
which was necessary to transmit the lower sideband. The code of emission for single
sideband (SSB) transmission with full carrier is H3E. In effect, the frequency space
which was necessary to transmit two sidebands is now reduced by 50 %, and so
more stations can transmit.
Amplitude

fc

Figure 19: A3E DSB Telephony (Commercial broadcast)


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Frequency

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In the GMDSS all maritime voice communication will use SSB with suppressed
carrier (code of emission: J3E). In this mode nearly the full transmitter output power
is spent to transmit the information signal.
Amplitude

Frequency

fc

Figure 20: J3E SSB Telephony (supressed carrier)

5.2.3. Bandwidth of different types of modulation


The bandwidth for a given class of emission is the width of the frequency band which
is just sufficient to ensure the transmission of information at the rate and with the
quality required under special conditions.
For different types of communication different values of bandwidth are required and
necessary, on one hand not to interfere other radio services and on the other hand to
minimize interference by statics and noise.
If the bandwidth on the receivers side is set too wide for the mode of transmission
then more noise will be apparent. Also, greater interference from unwanted stations
or adjacent frequencies will be received. It will reduce the receiving quality of the
wanted station.
Frequency and phase modulation (F3E/G3E) generate several sidebands above and
below the carrier for each modulation frequency which depends on the depth of
modulation. Thus the occupied channel bandwidth for a frequency-modulated voice
transmission is about 16 kHz.
Amplitude

fc

Frequency

Figure 21: F3E Frequency modulated telephony (Sidebands for single tone are shown)

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In amplitude modulation the bandwidth is much smaller than in FM. Because 2.8 kHz are necessary to
transmit speech with a sufficient quality the bandwidth for DSB transmission (H3) is 5.6 kHz. (

Figure 21 and Figure 22) In the SSB mode it is 2.8 kHz, independently if it is H3E or
J3E. (Figure 23 and Figure 24)
Amplitude

Frequency

fc

Figure 22: A3E DSB Telephony (Commercial Broadcast)

Amplitude

fc

Figure 23: H3E SSB Telephony (full carrier)

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Frequency

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Amplitude

Frequency

fc

Figure 24: J3E SSB Telephony (supressed carrier)

Because of the frequency shift mode, which is used for NBDP transmissions, a
comparing small bandwidth of 300 Hz only is required. (Figure 25)
Amplitude

Frequency
fc

Figure 25: F1B Frequency modulated telex

5.2.4. Carrier and assigned frequencies


The carrier frequency is a frequency which is necessary to convey information on HF.
Thereby the carrier frequency is modulated by the content of information, either in
FM or AM or FSK.
The assigned frequency is the centre of a frequency band assigned by an
Administration to a station or service.
5.2.5. Official designations of emission
ITU Radio Regulations classify and symbolize emissions according to their basic
characteristics.
The basic characteristics are:
First symbol:
Letter A
Letter H
Letter F
Letter G
Letter J
Second symbol:

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type of modulation of the carrier


AM double sideband transmissions
SB transmissions with full carrier
frequency modulation
phase modulation
SSB transmissions with suppressed carrier
nature of signal(s) modulating the carrier

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Figure 1
Figure 2

no modulating signal (e.g. Morse code)


a single channel containing quantized or digital
information without the use of a modulating sub-carrier
a single channel containing analogue information
two or more channels containing quantized or digital
information

Figure 3
Figure 7
Third symbol:
Letter A
Letter B
Letter E

type of information to be transmitted


telegraphy for aural reception
telegraphy for automatic reception
telephony

In maritime radio communications the following classes of emission are used:


A1A
A2A
H3E
J3E
F3E
G3E
F1B
J2B

Signalling by keying the carrier directly Morse code


DSB modulated Morse code
SSB full carrier radiotelephony (in older equipment for 2182 kHz
only)
SSB suppressed carrier radiotelephony
FM radiotelephony
phase modulation radiotelephony
frequency shift keying, radiotelex (NBDP)
SSB telegraphy for automatic reception, radiotelex

5.2.6. Unofficial designations of emissions


Besides the above mentioned ITU designated classes of emission there are several
unofficial designations for different transmissions.
AM
SSB
CW
TLX
5.3.

double side band telephony (commercial broadcast, A3)


single sideband, suppressed carrier (J3E)
Morse code (A1A)
radiotelex in F1B mode

Transmitter and receiver basics

5.3.1. Transmitter structure

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Figure 26: Basic transmitter block diagram

The radio frequency generator produces the carrier, i.e., the frequency on which a
transmission will be carried out.
The modulator is used to combine the information signals from the microphone or the
telex with the carrier. The type of modulation may be amplitude (AM) frequency (FM)
or phase (PM). This modulated signal is then amplified within the transmitter and fed
to the antenna.
The antenna requires tuning to the carrier frequency so that it will radiate efficiently.
Antennas made from wire elements radiate most efficiently when they are one
quarter of a wavelength long.
It is not practicable to install an antenna on board ships, which is physically the ideal
length covering all of the MF or HF bands. However, the electrical length of the
antenna can be lengthened or shortened in respect to its physical length by the
introduction of extra radio-frequency circuit elements, inductors and capacitors, in an
Antenna Tuning Unit (ATU).
In most modern equipment, this is achieved automatically by pressing the <Tune>
button before actual transmission. A signal strength meter, which measures antenna
current, gives a visual indication of transmission. Most equipment allows for Manual
tuning mode on 2182 kHz in case the automatic tuning fails. Individual manufacture's
manuals should be consulted for further details.
The default 2182 kHz setting need only be carried out upon installation or if the
appropriate antenna is moved or changed.

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5.3.2. Receiver structure

Figure 27: Basic receiver block diagram

The wanted signal is received by tuning the input to the receiver to the wanted
frequency. Received signals vary greatly in strength due to a number of factors, e.g.
A local transmitter radiating high or low power.
A distant station radiating high or medium power.
Variations in the ionosphere, which may affect signals on MF at night or on
HF at any time polarization fading.
Simultaneous reception by ground and sky waves on MF at night, which
may constantly vary in strength or phase and interact with each other
interference fading.
On the HF bands, signals can reach the receiver having taken different
paths, again causing interference fading.
The radio frequency <Gain> or <Sensitivity> control allows manual adjustment of the
input amplifier so as to set up the gain to suit conditions. Continual adjustment of the
gain control may be necessary if fading occurs, in which case the Automatic Gain
Control (AGC) can be switched, thereby taking over from manual control, i.e., the
AGC holds the output at a nearly constant level even though the input may fluctuate
widely.
Most GMDSS MF/HF receivers can be tuned into the Wanted Signal by more than
one method, i.e., if paired HF frequencies are required you can simply select the ITU
channel number.
Alternatively, the actual frequency can be keyed in. If it becomes necessary to retune to a station only a few kHz away, then the up/down <Tune Arrows> can be
used.

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Fine-tuning is sometimes necessary, especially when it is required to clarify'


reception of SSB speech transmissions (i.e., mode of emission = J3E). Selection of
the <clarifier> allows tuning down to an accuracy of 10 Hz but it is normally used by
listening to the output and tuning to the speech rather than to the actual frequency.
The <Volume> or <AF Gain> control simply varies the amount of signal passing to
the loudspeaker, whilst the <squelch> or <mute> control turns off the loudspeaker
when no signals are being received.
The setting of the <mode> control is dependent upon the type of modulated signal
being received, i.e., on the mode of emission
5.4.

Batteries

5.4.1. Basics
The GMDSS requires for the ships radio station among others a power supply by a
rechargeable battery. Some equipment like EPIRBs, portable VHF-transceivers and
SARTS are mainly powered by primary batteries.
Generally batteries cells provide electrical energy by means of an electro-chemical
reaction involving the exchange of electrons between the positive and negative
electrodes (anodes and cathodes) of the cell through an electrically conducting ionexchange medium, in liquid or paste form, called the electrolyte. When an external
electrical load is connected current is generated as electrons transfer from the
cathode to the anode. While a cell delivers electrical energy, the chemical
composition of the electrodes is changing. The capacity of the cell will decrease and
eventually exhaust when no further chemical change is possible.

Figure 28: Lead acid battery

The defining characteristics of various types of cells are the cell (battery) voltage and
the battery capacity. The cell voltage is open-circuit potential difference between the

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electrodes (also called electromotive force [emf]), depending resulting from the
particular electrochemical reaction between the electrodes and the electrolyte.
The capacity of a battery of cells indicates the amount of energy which can be
delivered over a standard discharging period. The measurement for battery capacity,
at a temperature of 20C is ampere-hour (AH). That means, that theoretically a
battery of cells, in a good condition, rated at 140 AH can deliver 10 amperes for 10
hours.
5.4.2. Different kinds of batteries - UPS systems
Generally batteries can be divided in two main groups:
Primary cells/batteries
Secondary cells/batteries
Primary batteries have a single lifespan. That means, that it is impossible to recharge
them and therefore they require periodic replacement. Although not rechargeable,
primary batteries have compensation advantages in several applications where small
size and long storage life are the main consideration. Over the smaller range of
battery size, the ratio power output to weight or size is typically superior for primary
cells.
UPS systems
For ships radio stations SOLAS requires three independent types of power supply:

ships main source of energy

ships emergency source of energy

reserve source of energy (for radio stations only)


In case of a breakdown of the ships main power supply the ships emergency source
of energy must be able to supply all important loads of the ship with the necessary
energy for the duration of 18 hours. The emergency source of energy can consist of
a self-starting generator or a battery.
If the emergency source of energy is a generator it must connect automatically with
the emergency switch board and take over all important loads within 45 seconds.
On every ship a reserve source of energy must be available to conduct distress and
safety radio traffic in case of a breakdown of the main and the emergency source of
energy for at least one hour. To bridge the time from breakdown of ships main
source of energy until fully acceptance of important loads by the emergency source
of energy the serve source of energy will take over the energy supply of the radio
station.
5.4.3. Characteristics of different battery types
5.4.3.1. Primary batteries
Zinc-carbon-cells:

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For many decades the zinc-carbon cell was the mass market primary cell. The cells
consist of a zinc cover as the negative electrode (cathode) and a bar of pressed
carbon as the positive electrode (anode), which is beset with an electrolyte of an
ammonium-chlorine solution. The electric tension of one zinc-carbon cell is 1.5 Volts.
The disadvantage of zinc-carbon cells is that they are not leak proof. At a discharged
cell electrolyte can leak and hence destroy the battery contacts and printed circuit
boards.
Lithium batteries:
Lithium batteries consist of an anode made of lithium and graphite and manganese
dioxide cathode. Mostly propylene carbon or acetonitrile is used as electrolyte. The
cell voltage ranges from 2.6 to 3.6 Volts. They are ideal for a high reliability.
Nevertheless they should be replaced latest after three to five years. They are mostly
used in EPIRBs and SARTs. Because they should be replaced after a certain time
the EPIRBs or SARTs body is to be marked with the date of battery replacement.
5.4.3.2. Secondary batteries
Lead acid batteries:
The advantage of secondary cell batteries over primary batteries is the ability to
recharge repeatedly. The 2 Volts cell lead-acid battery has been in widespread use
for more than 150 years and is still the most commonly used type of secondary
battery on board ships. Lead-acid accumulators consist of an acid-proof body and
two lead plates with the function of positive and negative electrodes. The lead plates
are beset with a 38% sulphuric acid (H2SO). PVC fence between the plates
guarantee that the plates do not contact each other.
In a discharged condition lead sulphate (PBSO) settles on both electrodes
(Plates).In a charged condition the positive electrode consists of lead oxide (PbO
and the negative electrode of lead (Pb).The measure of the charging condition is the
acid density, it is between 1.24 g/cm and 1.28 g/cm. The acid density of a badly
loaded battery is 1.1 g/cm. But if the density is less that 1.18 g/cmthe battery can be
considered to be damaged, and it will not reach its full capacity.
Nickel-Iron or Nickel-Cadmium batteries:
Other types of batteries in common use in marine installation are nickel-iron (NiFe) or
nickel cadmium (Ni-Cad) batteries. These types are more robust and less dangerous
than lead batteries.
In opposite to lead batteries the electrolyte of NiFe or Ni-Cad does not consist of an
acid but of a 20% caustic potash (KOH) with a specific gravity of 1.17 g/cm to 1.19
g/cm in charged condition. In Ni-Fe batteries the positive electrode (anode) consists
of nickel and the negative electrode (cathode) of iron plates. In Ni-Cad batteries there
are nickel-hydroxide-coated plates as anode and cadmium-Hydroxide-coated plates
as cathode. Each cell of both types of batteries is able to deliver an output voltage

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between 1.2 Volts and 1.7 Volts when fully charged, but their output capacity
increases with temperature.
Unlike lead batteries, NiFe and NiCad batteries may be left discharged for a long
period of time without deterioration. They exhibit a memory effect during the
Charge/Discharge cycle and should be fully discharged before being charged or full
capacity will not be achieved.
Lithium-Ion batteries:
Due to further Development of primary lithium cells there are usable rechargeable
lithium-ion cells are available. Lithium-ion batteries have a high energy density and
no memory effect. The cell voltage and the maximal charging and discharging current
vary depending on the applied materials for the electrodes and the electrolyte. The
durability of lithium-ion batteries deteriorates as well by employment as by the time,
also without any employment.
The nominal voltage of lithium cells is approximately 3.6 V, the charging voltage is
between 4.0 V and 4.3 V. Deeply discharged batteries cause an irreversible damage.
Lithium-ion batteries require a special and complicated charging circuit.
5.4.4. Charging batteries, battery charging methods
Current Battery Indicator
Charging Voltages

Emergency Light
Switch

12V Alarm LED

Charging Current

AC Alarm LED

Menu Knobs

Figure 29: Battery charging system

The GMDSS requires an automatic charging system if rechargeable batteries are


used as reserve source of energy. The charging system must be capable of fully
recharging the batteries within 10 hours to the required minimum capacity. The value
of the average of the charging current should measure 10% of value of the batterys
capacity.
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Example:
Battery capacity = 140 Ah average charging current = 14 A.
To determine the state of an open lead-acid cell it is usual to take readings of the
specific gravity of the electrolyte by using a hydrometer. This is possible because the
specific gravity rises and falls linearly during the charge and discharge process. The
specific gravity of a fully charged battery differs between 1.24 g/cm and 1.28 g/cm,
depending on the batterys maker.
If the reserve source of energy consist of a sealed lead-acid battery it is impossible to
determine the specific gravity of the acid. In this case a yearly capacity test of the
reserve source of energy is necessary. At a reduced level of electrolyte in NiFe and
NiCad cells are topped up with caustic potash.
5.4.5. Maintenance and monitoring of batteries
A frequent maintenance is the basis for a reliable working condition of the battery.
When working on batteries, effective safety precautions must be taken i.e.

wearing protective goggles and gloves

never use naked flames

do not wear metal articles, exercise extreme care when using metal tools

check fully charge on operation

avoid over-discharging below 2,1 Volts for any cell

do not leave a battery discharged or it will become difficult or impossible to


charge

ensure electrolyte level is maintained, but do not overfill, 1 cm above plates is


adequate

note specific gravity of each cell, large variations between cells usually mean
that one or more cells no longer retain a charge and so warn of impending
failure

keep cells top clean and dry, check ventilation holes, tighten terminals and
coat with Vaseline

never put metal things on cells tops.

During the charging process in a lead-acid cell explosive hydrogen gas is developed,
hence the need to avoid naked flames or sparks which could cause ignition.
During use, in lead-acid batteries the water evaporates from the battery electrolyte. It
has to be replaced. When topping up the battery cells, distilled water has to be used
to avoid introducing any extraneous chemicals into the electrolyte, which could block
the chemistry of the charging/discharging process.

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However, if in NiFe or NiCad batteries the level of liquid is reduced the cells have to
be topped up not, with distilled water but with caustic potash.
5.5. Antennas
An antenna is an element capable of radiating and intercepting radio waves. The
radiation and reception of radio waves is most effective when the antenna is in
resonance. Various resonant configurations can be achieved by antennas with
dimensions of 1/4 or 1/2 wavelength or multiples thereof. It is more important for a
transmitting antenna to be in resonance than for a receiving antenna since
transmitter performance can be badly degraded by a mismatched antenna. Older
types of transmitter could be damaged, by feeding into poor antenna but modern
designs usually incorporate automatic protection circuitry to shut down the transmitter
or reduce power to a safe level if necessary.
5.5.1. VHF antennas
As the wavelength in the maritime VHF-band (154-174 MHz) is around 2 meters it is
possible to use 1/4- and 1/2- wavelength antennas. The most basic design is the
dipole, which consists of a split 1/2-wavelength element connected at the centre to a
balanced feeder cable. Figure xxx shows some simple examples of VHF antennas,
including the artificial ground-plain antenna and the VHF rod antenna typically a
1.5 m fiberglass pole contains a dipole antenna. As noted in section vhf propagation,
it is important that VHF antennas are mounted as high as possible and in a position
free from obstruction by the ship's superstructure.

Feeder

Cable

Figure 30: VHF ground


plane antenna

Cable

Figure 31: VHF dipol


antenna

Figure 32: VHF rod


antenna

5.5.2. MF/HF antennas


In the MF/HF bands, however, wavelengths vary from 180 meters (1.650 kHz) to
about 12 meters (26 MHz). Resonant /4- or /2 antennas covering this entire
1

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frequency range are therefore not possible. The problem can be eased by using a
number of separate antennas, each covering a single band or several harmonically
related bands.
An ATU is usually used to "match" the transmitter output to the antenna over a wide
range of frequencies. In effect, the ATU uses electrical components, i.e. coils
(inductors) and capacitors, to achieve a resonant electrical length in combination with
the actual physical length of the antenna. Nevertheless, it must be noted that the
efficiency is still determined by the physical length of the antenna. Even if the ATU
can match a very short antenna to the transmitter, for example, the overall efficiency
will be poor.
Connections between the transceiver, the ATU and the main antenna should be kept
as short as possible to ensure the efficient transfer of energy to the antenna.

Figure 33: T-type MF/HF wire antenna

If there is ample space between existing masts or to erect special antenna masts,
then the main or emergency antenna may be a wire antenna. A wire antenna may be
stretched between masts or between a mast and another elevated part of the ship's
superstructure. An example is shown in Figure 33: T-type MF/HF wire antenna
(today, mostly whip-antennas are used), although inverted-L types antennas may be
found.
However, because of lack of space on board many modern ships, most GMDSS
fittings use vertical whip antennas for MF/HF transmissions. For example, the main
HF transceiver may use an 8 m whip, the MF telephony device may use a 4 m whip
and the NAVTEX receiver may use a 1 m whip. A separate 6 m whip is commonly
used for the MF/HF DSC receiver.

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5.5.3. Satellite antennas


For the different Inmarsat standards various antenna types are required.
Inmarsat-C
For Inmarsat standard C devices omnidirectional antennas are used. These
antennas are comparatively of small dimensions because the signals to be
exchanged do not need such high field strength and not a wide band width than voice
communications. The Inmarsat-C antenna must be installed in a position on the ship
in which an omni-directed view to the satellite is possible.

Figure 34: Inmarsat-C omnidirectional antenna

Inmarsat-B, Fleet, -M
Because of the need of more band width for Inmarsat devices dealing with voice and
High Speed Data (HSD) exchange the antenna must be exactly spotted to the
appropriate satellite. For this requirement can be only fulfilled by parabolic follow up
antennas.

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Figure 35: Inmarsat-B parabolic follow up antenna

5.5.4. Antenna maintenance

Figure 36: Example antenna installation

All antennas should be kept clean, salt deposits removed, and feeders, isolators and
brackets checked regularly.
The various insulators must also be checked for cracks and must be cleaned
regularly. The Safety loop on a wire antenna prevents the antenna falling if undue
strain (e.g., from high winds or build-up of ice) is placed upon it; the weak link should
break in the first instance rather than the antenna.
A spare wire antenna should be carried and should be stored in an easily accessible
place so that it can rapidly be erected if necessary.
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It should be remembered that dangerously high voltage and RF currents are present
close to the main antenna. Ideally, the ATU and the link to the main antenna shall be
protected to prevent any one touching the feeder.
Before doing any maintenance work on any antenna, ensure that power is removed
from the equipment and that the main fuses are removed and kept in a safe place (a
pocket is often the simplest and safest place).
As a further precaution, the antenna, where possible, should also be grounded, since
RF energy can still be induced in the antenna from other antennas on board or on
nearby ships. Even though a shock from an induced RF voltage may only startle
rather than cause direct injury, an accident may still result through, for example,
falling from a ladder, or dropping tools from a height.
An antenna rigging plan shall be available showing the positions of the various
antennas.
5.6 DSC basics
Dot pattern

Dot pattern

Phasing
sequence

Phasing
sequence
Format
specifier

Call content

Adress

Closing sequence

Category

Self identification

Figure 37: Technical format of a call sequence (DX / RX)

The system is a synchronous system using characters composed from a ten-bit errordetecting code. The phasing sequence provides information to the receiver to permit
correct bit phasing
Apart from the phasing characters, each character is transmitted twice in a timespread mode; the first transmission (DX) of a specific character is followed by the
transmission of four other characters before the re-transmission (RX) of that specific
character takes place, allowing for a time-diversity reception interval of:
400 ms for HF and MF channels and
331/3 ms for VHF radio telephone channels
The phasing sequence consists of specific characters in the DX and RX positions
transmitted alternatively. (ITU-R M 493) Six DX characters are transmitted.
The classes of emission, frequency shifts and modulation rates are as follows:
F1B or J2B 170 Hz and 100 baud for use on HF and MF DSC calling channels.
When frequency-shift keying is effected by applying audio signals to the input of
single-sideband transmitters (J2B), the centre of the audio-frequency spectrum
offered to the transmitter is 1 700 Hz. When a DSC call is transmitted on HF and MF
working channels for public correspondence, the class of emission is J2B. In this
case, audio tones with frequencies 1 700 Hz 85 Hz and modulation rate 100 Bd are
used in order for the DSC call to be transmitted.

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The call content includes information about self- identification, address (if necessary),
category of call, frequency information and ships position information (in case of
distress alerting).
The end of sequence (EOS) character is transmitted three times in the DX position
and once in the RX position.
5.7.

Radiotelex basics

The Mode of emission for Radiotelex / NBDP is F1B.


In the F1B method telex signal codes are transmitted at MF/HF as a sequence of two
audio tones. According to ITU recommendations a frequency shift of 170 Hz about
the centre frequency of 1700 Hz is used to send the mark and space tones. That
means, that mark = 1615 Hz and space = 1785 Hz.
A narrower bandwidth for a transmitted signal means that less noise and interference
(both man-made and natural) is apparent at the receiver, resulting a relatively smaller
masking effect on the wanted transmission. Furthermore the transmitter power is
used more efficiently. The net effect is that, for the same transmitter power, the
effective range of a transmission will be greatly extended by using a narrow
bandwidth method of modulation such as SSB.
5.7.1. Automatic request for repeat (ARQ)
ARQ is a mode for communication between two stations. In this mode the receiving
telex station checks the incoming code groups representing the first three characters
and if these are correctly received it requests the sending telex station to send the
next three characters. If a group is received incorrectly, the receiving telex station
requests to repeat the last group.
5.7.2. Forward Error Correction

(FEC)

FEC is used for communication to All Stations. It is sometimes known as broadcast


FEC, or collective FEC. This mode would be used, e.g. for distress traffic and for
NAVTEX broadcasts. The information is sent continuously with a continuous repeat of
five characters later. The receiving telex station waits for each repeated character and
providing one of the two characters confirms to the correct code, the character is printed.
5.8

Fault location and service on GMDSS marine electronic equipment

Familiarization with the use of manufacturers documentation and users handbooks to


locate simple faults. Trouble shooting in accordance with the documentation of equipment.
Control of the GMDSS equipment to make sure that a safe and correct working of the
equipment is possible. Knowledge of installations within the GMDSS equipment.
Use of built-in test measuring instruments. Indication in different switch positions and
the appropriate desired values in each switch position, in accordance with
manufacturers handbooks. Read battery current in load condition.
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Use of software in accordance with the equipment. An understanding of indications


on displays and screens and follow the instructions of the menu.
Familiarization with the use of Ampere, Volt, Ohm meters and checking of main and
battery voltage, battery acid or base by using a hydrometer as well as fuses and
antenna isolation, where practical.
Knowledge of elementary fault repair. Knowledge of fuses indication. Measures of
precaution while repair work, using the appropriate tools.
6.

GMDSS components

6.1.

General

Ship Station

CP, CR,

Coast Station
Ship Station

Figure 38: Communication possibilities

The maritime mobile service is a service between coast stations and ship stations, or
between ship stations, or between associated on-board communication stations;
survival craft stations and Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)
stations may also participate in this service.
A coast station is a land station in the maritime mobile service which is not intended
to be used in motion.
A ship station is a mobile station in the maritime mobile service located on board a
vessel which is not permanently moored, other than a survival craft station
A survival craft station is a mobile station in the maritime mobile service or the
aeronautical mobile service intended solely for survival purposes and located on any
lifeboat, life raft or other survival equipment.
The public correspondence is any telecommunication except distress-, urgency- or
safety communications which the offices and stations must accept for exchange. A
ship station open for public correspondence shall have an Accounting Authority
Identification Code (AAIC) which guarantees the accounting of telecommunications.

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Restricted public correspondence (CR) can be used by stations which have a need
for limited public correspondence only and have not concluded an accounting
contract with an accounting authority.
The port operations service is a maritime mobile service in or near a port, between
coast stations and ship stations, or between ship stations, in which messages are
restricted to those relating to the operational handling, the movement and the safety
of ships and, in emergency, to the safety of persons. Messages which are of a CP
nature shall be excluded from this service.
The ship movement service is a safety service in the maritime mobile service other
than a port operations service, between coast stations and ship stations, or between
ship stations, in which messages are restricted to those relating to the movement of
ships. Messages which are of a CP nature shall be excluded from this service.
In the terrestrial radio services UHF, VHF, MF and HF the first rule should always be:
Listen first Then transmit
The ship station license and the radio operators certificates have to be kept on board
in original and have to be presented upon request of authorized persons.
The actual editions of service publications, edited by ITU as there are:
List of coast stations and special service stations
List of ship stations and maritime mobile service identity assignments
Manual for the maritime mobile and maritime mobile satellite service
have to be kept on board (see also chapter 4: Service Publications)
In communications between coast stations and ship stations, the ship station shall
comply with the instructions given by the coast station in all questions relating to the
order and time of transmission, to the choice of frequency, and to the duration and
suspension of work.
In communications between ship stations, the station called controls the working in
the manner indicated above.
However, if a coast station finds it necessary to intervene, the ship stations shall
comply with the instructions given by the coast station. (ITU, R M 541Section V. 30
(1) (3))
6.2.

VHF DSC

6.2.1. Basics
The propagation of VHF transmissions is a line-in-sight transmission. The range of
VHF transmissions depends in the first instance on the height of the appropriate
antenna, but also on the transmitting power of the transmitting station. Generally it
can be assumed that the range of VHF transmissions is approximately 30 nautical
miles. It has to be noted that the coverage range of DSC transmissions is higher than
that of voice transmissions.

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Every ship borne maritime VHF transmitter must be capable to vary its power output
between high power and low power. The high power output must not fall below 6
Watt and not exceed 25 Watt. In the low power position the output power can vary
between 0.5 Watt and 1.0 Watt.
To avoid interferences the lowest necessary output power shall be selected when
installing VHF contacts. For establishing contacts to stations in a close distance to a
transmitting station (see Figure 39: The range of VHF transmissions) mostly the low
power output should be sufficient, while for contact s between stations in a farer
distance to any other the high power transmitting position can be selected.

8 nm with 1W

30 nm with 25W

Figure 39: The range of VHF transmissions

The ITU allocated the frequency band 156 MHz to 174 MHz to the maritime mobile
vhf service. Originally this range was divided into 28 channels, from channel 01 to
channel 28. The distance between two channels was 50 kHz. Later, when more
modern technical possibilities were available the channel spacing changed to 25 kHz.
The additional channels got the numbering from channel 60 to channel 88 so that the
numbering of the already existing equipment needed not to be changed worldwide.
Regarding the frequency band channel 60 now is the first channel followed by
channel 01 in a distance of 25 kHz followed by channel 61 in a distance of 25 kHz
etc. (See Figure 40: VHF channeling)

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Figure 40: VHF channeling

In the VHF band simplex channels are used as well as duplex channels.
Simplex operation is an operating method on one single frequency of a
telecommunication channel in which transmission is alternately made possible in
each direction, for example, by means of a manual control. Channel 16 is a simplex
channel using TX frequency 156,8 MHz as well as RX frequency 156,8 MHz. Simplex
channels are used for communications in ship to ship and in ship to shore and shore
to ship (mostly port operation service).
Duplex operation is an operating method using a two-frequency telecommunication
channel in which transmission is possible in both directions simultaneously. Channel
28 is a duplex channel using TX frequency 157,4 MHz and RX frequency 162,0 MHz.
Duplex channels are to be used for communications between ship- and coast
stations.
Semi-duplex operation is a method of occupying a two-frequency telecommunication
channel on which has simplex operation at one end of the circuit and duplex
operation at the other.
The most important VHF channels and their applications are shown in Table 9.
Channel
Ch 70
Ch 16
Ch 06
Ch 13
Ch 15+17
Ch 75+76

Description
DSC distress alert, urgency, safety and
routine announcement
Voice distress, urgency, safety and routine
calling
Ship to ship SAR operation, safety related
communication
Communication for safety of navigation, ship
movement and port operation service
On board communication, power does not
exceed 1W
Navigation related communication (max 1W),
AIS via Satellite

Table 9: Important VHF channels and their application

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Special
May used also by
aircraft stations
May used also by
aircraft stations
May used also by
aircraft stations

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6.2.2. The use and functions of the VHF radio station installation

Display

Control
Buttons

Menu
Buttons

Keyboard

Indicator
Lamps

Loudspeaker

Squelch
On/Off
Switch

Volume

Distress
Button

Figure 41: VHF radio station

Controls
Distress Button: This button is protected by a lid. To use, lift the Lid and Push
the distress button to transmit a distress alert (without kind of distress).
Volume: Adjust the volume.
Squelch: Pull and adjust silent when no station is received. This knob is also to
make sure before calling a coast station on a working channel that there is no
traffic in progress.
Control Buttons: Control the power (1W or 25W), switching between
International or US channels, switch the Loudspeaker on or off, setting the light
intensity.
Menu Buttons: Switch between Tel Mode (Radiotelephone parameters are
show) and DSC Mode (DSC Parameters are shown), Open the Address Book,
Press TX / Call to start creating a DSC alert or announcement, Press RX /
LOG to open received calls.

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Keyboard: Push the number buttons to key in a channel, press and hold the
Shift Button to get access to the orange second functions (Dual Watch, Scan,
Functions etc.).
On / OFF Switch: Push to switch the device on or off.
Loudspeaker: to influence the loudspeaker turn the Volume Switch or push the
relevant Control Button.
Indicator lamps: These lamps show the condition when lid for TX transmitting,
1W 1W transmission mode, CALL DSC announcement is received, ALARM
an alarm call is received.
Display: The display shows the current settings of Channel, Volume, Squelch,
Transmitting power, Loudspeaker condition etc.
Selection of channels
To select any channel other than displayed push the number buttons 0....9, e.g. to
select channel 28 push first 2 than 8. For a quick change to channel 16 just press
the 16 key.
Squelch
The sensitivity of receivers can be adjusted with squelch so that the basic noise,
which is always present, is not quite audible. If this adjusted level exceeds a stronger
signal the NF signal can pass and will become audible. Any missing signals or any
signals which level which is below the adjusted level then the receiver remain mute.
Dual watch
If it is necessary to observe channel 16 and another channel simultaneously press
the shift button and then Dual Watch (DW). In the dual watch mode the receiver
switches between a selected channel and channel 16 in very short intervals.
Selection of power
Push the power button to switch between 25W and 1W, depending on the distance to
be covered.
Other features
In every case the operation instructions of this device has to be observed.
6.2.3. DSC possibilities
In the maritime mobile service VHF equipment of two different quality standards can
be used. Class A/B covers VHF equipment which is obligatory for the use on board of
ships which are applicable for SOLAS convention. Class D is mainly intended for the
use on ships which do not apply to the SOLAS convention but voluntarily they can
additional be used to the obligatory VHF equipment on board of SOLAS ships. The
table below shows all features of Class A/B and Class D VHF equipment.
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Applicable to
Type

Ships
Class A/B

Ships
Class D

Coast

TX

RX

TX

RX

TX

RX

RT

RLS

RT

EPIRB

RT

EPIRB

RT

EPIRB

RT

EPIRB

RT

EPIRB

RT

EPIRB

All modes RT

Duplex RT

Medical transport

Ships and aircraft (res.18)

All modes RT

Duplex RT

RT acknowledgement

Unable to comply acknowledgement

Position request

Position acknowledgement

Test

Test acknowledgement

All mode RT

Duplex RT

Distress alerts

Distress acknowledgement

Distress relay individual

Distress relay geographic area

Distress relay all ships

Distress relay acknowledgement individual

Distress relay ackn all ships

Urgency and Safety all ships

Urgency/Safety individual

Routine group calls

Routine individual calls and their acknowledgement

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All mode RT

Duplex RT

RT acknowledgement

Data

Data acknowledgement

Unable to comply acknowledgement

Polling

Request

Able to comply acknowledgement

Unable to comply acknowledgement

End of call request

End of call acknowledgement

..Polling acknowledgement
Semi/Auto VHF (optional)

Start of call

= available

= not available

Table 10: VHF DSC possibility table

6.2.4. Operational VHF DSC procedures in the GMDSS


DSC provides an automated access to coast stations and ships.
The message information is stored in the receiver and can be displayed or printed
out following receiving. Four levels of priority Distress, Urgency, Safety and
Routine are available for DSC calls. At all coast stations, ship-to-shore Distress
calls receive priority handling and are routed to the nearest Rescue Co-ordination
Centre (RCC). On board ship, DSC receivers sound an alarm when a Distress call is
received.
DSC is a technique of transmitting digital codes, which allow suitably equipped
stations to:
Transmit and receive Distress alerts.
Transmit and receive Distress alert acknowledgements.
Relay Distress alerts.
Announce Urgency and Safety calls.
Initiate routine priority calls and set up working channels for subsequent
general communications on Radio Telephony (R/T) or telex.
The detailed DSC procedures are contained in the most recent version of
Recommendation ITU-R M 541
The only VHF DSC channel is channel 70 (156,525 MHz).
All DSC calls automatically include phasing signals, error- checking signals and
identity (MMSI number) of the calling station. The protocol includes an initial dot
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pattern, which is used to alert scanning receivers that a DSC call is imminent. Other
information can be added, either manually or automatically. The actual information
added is dependent upon the purpose of the call.
The DSC call is set up by entering information, using the command menu of the DSC
controller that is attached to, or incorporated into, the transmitter.
6.2.4.1. Telecommand and traffic information
Telecommand and traffic information are features which are important for the
handling of the subsequent information exchange.
6.2.4.2.

Channel selection in call format

When calling another maritime mobile station the DSC call format should contain
information about a working channel on which both stations subsequently exchange
their information. On calling a coast station, do not propose a working channel in the
DSC announcement because the coast station will inform each mobile station which
working channel shall be used for communication with this coast station.
6.2.4.3. DSC acknowledgement
DSC announcements to all stations or to a certain group of stations must not be
acknowledged by any of the receiving stations. However, individual DSC
announcements either to a coast station or another ship station should be
acknowledged by the called station where ever possible.
6.2.4.4. DSC relay process
The only case in which DSC information are relayed can be cases of distress.
6.2.4.5. Test transmissions
The number and duration of test transmissions shall be kept to a minimum. They
should be coordinated with a competent authority or a coast station, as necessary,
and, wherever practicable, be carried out on artificial antennas or with reduced
power.
However, testing on the distress and safety calling frequencies should be avoided,
but where this is unavoidable, it should be indicated that these are test
transmissions.
6.2.5. Alerting and announcement
Alerting
An alert is a digital selective call (DSC) using a distress call format, in the bands
used for terrestrial radio communication, or a distress message format, in which
case it is relayed through space stations.
The distress alert relay is a DSC transmission on behalf of another station.
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Announcement
An announcement is a digital selective call using urgency, safety or routine call
format in the bands used for terrestrial radio communication, or urgency, safety or
routine message format, in which case it is relayed through space stations.
Call
A call is the initial voice or text procedure.
6.2.5.1. Distress alert
The DSC equipment should be capable of being pre-set to transmit the distress alert
on channel 70.
The distress alert shall be composed by entering the ships position information, the
time at which it was taken and the nature of distress. Normally the actual ships
position is taken from a suitable navigation indicating receiver. If the position of the
ship cannot be entered, the position information will be replaced as the digit 9
transmitted ten times. If the time cannot be included, then the time information will be
transmitted automatically as the digit 8 repeated four times.
Activate the distress alert attempt by a dedicated distress button.
A distress alert attempt will be transmitted as 5 consecutive calls on channel 70. To
avoid call collision and the loss of acknowledgements, this call attempt may be
transmitted on the same frequency again after a random delay of between 3 and 4
min from the beginning of the initial call. This allows acknowledgements arriving
randomly to be received without being blocked by retransmission. The random delay
will be generated automatically for each repeated transmission; however it will be
possible to override the automatic repeat manually.
The DSC equipment should be capable of maintaining a reliable watch on a 24-hour
basis on channel 70.
If time permits, key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard

the nature of distress,


the ships last known position (latitude and longitude),
the time (in Universal Co-ordinated Time (UTC)) the position was valid,
type of subsequent distress communication (telephony).

DSC Acknowledgements of distress alerts should be initiated manually.


Acknowledgements should be transmitted on the same frequency as the distress
alert was received.
Distress alerts shall normally be acknowledged by DSC by appropriate coast stations
only. Acknowledgements by coast stations on VHF will be transmitted as soon as
practicable.
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The acknowledgement of a distress alert consists of a single DSC acknowledgement


which shall be addressed to all ships and include the identification of the ship, its
position and the time the position was valid and if possible, the nature of distress,
which is being acknowledged.
In areas where reliable communications with one or more coast stations are
practicable, ship stations on receiving a distress alert or a distress call from another
vessel should defer acknowledgement for a short interval of time, so that a coast
station may make the first acknowledgement.
Ships receiving a DSC distress alert from another ship should set watch on channel
16 and acknowledge the call by radiotelephony when they are able to render help.
If a ship station continues to receive a DSC distress alert on VHF channel 70, a DSC
acknowledgement should be transmitted to terminate the call only after consulting
with a Rescue Coordination Centre or a Coast Station and being directed to do so
(see Figure 42: Handling of a received VHF DSC distress alert).
The automatic repetition of a distress alert attempt should be terminated
automatically on receipt of a DSC distress acknowledgement.
An inadvertent DSC distress alert shall be cancelled by DSC, if the DSC equipment is
so capable. However in all cases, cancellations shall also be transmitted by
radiotelephony.

Figure 42: Handling of a received VHF DSC distress alert

6.2.5.2. Distress alert relay


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Radio personnel serving on ships should be made aware of the consequences of


transmitting a distress relay call and of routing a DSC distress alert relay to other
than coast stations (CS).
The number of unintended activations of DSC distress alerts and DSC distress alert
relays creates an extra work load and confusion to (M)RCCs and also causing delay
in the response-time. The original distress alert from a ship in distress should not be
disrupted by other ships, by transmitting a DSC distress alert relay.
Recommendation ITU-R M.541-9 on Operational procedures for the use of DSC
equipment in the Maritime Mobile Service identifies only two situations in which a
ship would transmit a distress relay call (distress alert relay):
On receiving a distress alert on VHF channel 70, which is not acknowledged
by a coast station after a suitable time. The distress alert relay should be
addressed to the appropriate coast station, where ever possible; and
On knowing that another ship in distress is not able to transmit the distress
alert itself and the master of the transmitting ship considers that further help is
necessary. The distress alert relay and call should be addressed to "all ships"
or to the appropriate coast station.
Under no circumstances is a ship permitted to transmit a DSC distress alert relay
purely on receipt of a DSC distress alert on either VHF or MF channels.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:
Distress relay
All Ships or the 9-digit identity of the appropriate coast station,
the 9-digit identity of the ship in distress, if known,
the nature of distress,
the latest position of the ship in distress, if known,
the time (in UTC) the position was valid (if known),
type of subsequent distress communication (telephony).
Coast stations, after having received and acknowledged a DSC distress alert, may if
necessary, retransmit the information received as a DSC distress alert relay,
addressed to all ships or a specific ship.
Ships receiving a distress alert relay transmitted by a coast station shall not use DSC
to acknowledge the alert, but should acknowledge the receipt of the alert by
radiotelephony on channel 16.
6.2.5.3. Announcements for all ships (distress, urgency, safety)
The announcement is carried out by transmission of a DSC urgency/safety
announcement on the DSC distress and calling channel 70.
The DSC urgency/safety announcement may be addressed to all stations at or to a
specific station. The channel on which the urgency/safety message will be
transmitted shall be included in the DSC urgency/safety announcement.

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Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:


the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (all ships);
the category of the call (urgency/safety),
the channel on which the urgency/safety message will be transmitted,
the type of communication in which the urgency/safety message will be given
(radiotelephony),
transmit the DSC urgency/safety call.
Ship stations in receipt of an urgency/safety all ships announcement shall monitor the
frequency or channel indicated for the message for at least five minutes.
However, in the maritime mobile service, after the DSC announcement the urgency
message shall be transmitted on a working frequency:
in the case of a long message or a medical call; or
in areas of heavy traffic when the message is being repeated.
After the DSC announcement the safety message shall be transmitted on a working
channel.
In the maritime mobile service, the safety message shall, where practicable, be
transmitted on a working channel. A suitable indication to this effect shall be made in
the DSC announcement. In the case that no other option is practicable, the safety
message may be sent by radiotelephony on VHF channel 16 (frequency 156.8 MHz).
6.2.5.4. Announcement to individual station (urgency, safety, routine)
The VHF DSC channel 70 is used for DSC for distress and safety purposes as well
as for DSC for public correspondence.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard for ship calling:
the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (individual);
The individual or group MMSI
the category of the call (urgency/safety/routine),
the channel on which the urgency/safety/routine message will be transmitted,
the type of communication in which the urgency/safety/routine message will be
given (radiotelephony),
transmit the DSC urgency/safety/routine call.
A DSC announcement for an individual coast station is transmitted as follows.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:
the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (individual);
Individual coast station MMSI
the category of the call (urgency/safety/routine),
the type of the subsequent communication (normally radiotelephony),
transmit the DSC call.
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A DSC call for public correspondence may be repeated channel 70, if no


acknowledgement is received within 5 min. Further call attempts should be delayed
at least 15 min, if acknowledgement is still not received
The acknowledgement of a routine DSC announcement from a coast station contains
a VHF channel on which the subsequent traffic shall be carried out.

6.2.5.5. Group announcement (urgency, safety, routine)


The purpose of group announcements is to inform a certain group of ships - or coast
stations of an event which could be of interest for that group of stations only.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:
the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (group);
Group MMSI
the category of the call (urgency/safety/routine),
the channel on which the urgency/safety/routine message will be transmitted,
the type of communication in which the urgency/safety/routine message will be
given (radiotelephony),
transmit the DSC urgency/safety/routine group announcement.
6.2.5.6. Polling and position request
The purpose of polling is to assert that the called station is in the range of the calling
station and if it is operational. Position request is selected when a station wants to
get position details from a called station.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:
the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (polling/ position
request);
Individual MMSI
the category of the call (urgency/safety),
transmit the DSC urgency/safety polling/position request announcement.
The polling acknowledgement does not contain any special information. The fact that
an acknowledgment has been received from the called station shows that the called
ship is within the range and its VHF equipment is in operation.
The polling acknowledgement does not contain any special information. The fact that
an acknowledgment has been received from the called station shows that the called
ship is within the range and its VHF equipment is in operation.
6.2.5.7. Automatic/Semi-automatic service with coast stations
A couple of coast stations offer the possibility for a direct dialling to land subscribers
without any operators involvement.

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A DSC announcement for an individual coast station automatic service call


transmitted as follows.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:
the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (individual);
Individual coast station MMSI
country code, area code and telephone number of subscriber
the category of the call (urgency/safety/routine),
the type of the subsequent communication (normally radiotelephony),
transmit the DSC announcement.
6.2.5.8. List of practical tasks
Done?
Transmit capabilities
DSC distress alert without nature of distress
DSC distress alert with nature of distress
DSC relay to all stations
DSC relay to an individual station (coast station or ship station)
DSC all stations urgency announcement with workingchannel
DSC ship to ship urgency announcement with working channel
DSC ship to coast station urgency announcement
DSC all stations safety announcement with working channel
DSC ship to ship safety announcement with working channel
DSC ship to coast station safety announcement
DSC ship to ship routine announcement with working channel
DSC ship to coast station safety announcement
DSC group announcement (urgency, safety, routine) with working channel
DSC geographic area announcement (urgency, safety, routine) with working channel
DSC polling
DSC position request
DSC medical transport

Other capabilities
Select DSC received messages out of memory (distress + non distress)
Select own MMSI numbers
Implement coast stations
Implement subscriber
Implement position and time (if no GPS is available)
Change DSC auto acknowledgement settings

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Change channel
Change power settings
Switch between International channels an US channels
Switch on and off the dual watch function
Edit the address book
Carry out the implemented test routine
Operate the Volume and Squelch
Establish operational readiness (ch16, 25W, International channel selection)

Table 11: VHF-DSC practical training tasks

6.3.

MF/HF-DSC

6.3.1. Basics
The range of MF transmitter does not only depend on its output power (see Figure
43: Range of MF transmitter) but also on an optimal matching of the transmitter to the
transmitting antenna. It depends also on the time of day. For the propagation during
daylight hours the ground wave is mostly used.
It is to note that a DSC transmission can generally cover a higher range than an
analogue voice transmission.
On most MF transmitters the output power can be varied in several steps from low
power to high power in accordance with IMO performance standards.
To avoid any interference the lowest necessary output power shall be selected for
establishing contacts (see Figure 43: Range of MF transmitter)
.
To avoid interferences the lowest necessary output power shall be selected when
installing MF/HF contacts. For establishing contacts to stations within a close
distance to the transmitting station, the use of the low power output should be
sufficient, whilst contacting stations at a greater distance, the use of the high power
transmitting position can be selected.

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80 nm with low power

200 nm with full power

Figure 43: Range of MF transmitter

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Direction

Receive(kHz)

Transmit (kHz)

2187,5

2187,5

2187,5

2187,5

2187,5

2187,5

Routine ship to ship, individual station, geographic area


announcement

2177,0

2177,0

Routine ship to coast station

2177,0

2189,5

Distress ship to ship, ship to coast station, all stations


individual station, geographic area announcement
Urgency ship to ship, ship to coast station, all stations
individual station, geographic area announcement
Safety ship to ship, ship to coast station, all stations
individual station, geographic area announcement

Table 12: International MF DSC frequencies

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6.3.2. The use and functions of the MF/HF radio station installation
Control
Buttons

Display

Menu
Buttons

Indicator
Lamps

Control
knob
Volume

Keyboard

Distress
Button

Figure 44: MF/HF radio station

Controls
Distress Button: This button is protected by a lid. To use, lift the Lid and Push
the distress button to transmit a distress alert (without kind of distress).
Volume: Adjust the volume
Control knob: Pull and adjust frequency or RF-Gain.
Control buttons: Switch between channel or frequency, switch between
Transmitter- or receiver frequency, changing the class of emission, tuning the
receiver or switch to RF-Gain.
Menu buttons: Switch between Tel Mode (Radiotelephone parameters are show)
and DSC Mode (DSC Parameters are shown, must be selected if DSC routine
frequencies should be watched additionally), Open the Address Book, Press TX /
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Call to start creating a DSC alert or announcement, Press RX / LOG to open


received calls.
Keyboard: Push the number buttons to key in a channel or frequency, press and
hold the Shift button to get access to the orange second functions (Power, Scan
or additional functions)
On / OFF Switch: Push to switch the device on or off
Loudspeaker: to influence the loudspeaker turn the Volume Switch or push the
relevant Control Button.
Indicator lamps: These lamps show the condition when lid for TX transmitting,
transmission mode, CALL DSC announcement is received, ALARM an alarm
call is received.
Display: The display shows the current settings of Channel/Frequency, Volume,
Kind of emission, Transmitting power etc.
Selecting the RX (receive) and TX (transmit) frequency
The actual RX and TX frequencies can be keyed in. If it becomes necessary to retune to a station, with only a small Hertz frequency difference, then the up/down
<Tune Arrows> can be used (RX).
Selecting ITU channel number
GMDSS MF/HF receivers can be tuned to the Wanted Signal by more than one
method, i.e., if paired HF frequencies are required, then it is possible to simply select
the ITU channel number
Using of clarifier or RX (receiver) fine tuning
Fine-tuning is sometimes necessary, especially when it is required to "clarify'
reception of single-sideband (SSB) speech transmissions (i.e., mode of emission =
J3E). Selection of the <clarifier> allows tuning down to an accuracy of 10 Hz but it is
normally used by listening to the output and tuning to the speech rather than to the
actual frequency.
Selecting the class of emission
As there are different classes of emission for voice, NBDP (telex) or data
transmissions it is absolutely necessary to select the correct class of emission in
order to receive a suitable desired signal.
The setting of the <mode> control is dependent upon the type of modulated signal
being received/transmitted, i.e., on the mode of emission
Using volume control and squelch
The Volume or AF gain control simply varies the amount of signal passing to the
loudspeaker, whilst the squelch control turns off the loudspeaker when no signals are
being received.

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Controlling RF gain and using automatic gain control


The radio frequency <Gain> or <Sensitivity> control allows manual adjustment of the
input amplifier so as to set up the gain to suit conditions. Continual adjustment of the
gain control may be necessary if fading occurs, in which case the AGC can be
switched, thereby taking over from manual control, i.e., the AGC holds the output at a
nearly constant level even though the input may fluctuate widely.
Using 2182 kHz instant selector
The purpose of the 2182 kHz instant key is to adjust receiver and transmitter
frequency to 2182 kHz, to the appropriate class of emission to voice communication
and to maximum power output in order to avoid time consuming manual tuning.
Transmitting power
The MF/HF transmitters offer the possibility to vary output power.
Selection of transmitter power level
For establishing contacts to stations in a close distance to a transmitting station (see
Figure 43: Range of MF transmitter) the range of MF/HF transmissions mostly the
low power output should be sufficient, while for contacts between stations in a farer
distance to any other stations the high power transmitting position can be selected.
Transmitter tuning
To guarantee an optimal emission of the required frequency (wavelength) via the
antenna it is necessary to match the antenna length to the wavelength. This will be
done by an ATU, either manually or automatically when pressing the PTT key.
6.3.3. DSC possibilities
Regarding VHF equipment, MF/HF equipment is also divided into two different quality
standards. Class A/B covers MF/HF equipment which is obligatory for the use on
board of ships which are applicable for SOLAS convention. Class E is mainly intended
for the use on ships which do not apply to the SOLAS convention but voluntarily they
can be used additionally to the obligatory MF/HF equipment on board of SOLAS ships.
The table below shows all features of Class A/B and Class E MF/HF equipment.

Applicable to
Type

Ships
Class A/B

Ships
Class E

Coast

TX

RX

TX

RX

TX

RX

RT

CED

Distress alerts

Distress acknowledgement

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RT (MF)

FEC (MF)

RT (HF)

FEC (HF)

RT

FEC

RT

FEC

RT

FEC

RT

FEC

RT

FEC

J3E RT

F1B FEC

J3E RT

F1B FEC

Medical transport

Ships and aircraft (res.18)

J3E RT

J3E RT with pos number

J3E RT acknowledgement

F1B FEC or ARQ

F1B FEC or ARQ with pos number

F1B FEC or ARQ acknowledgement

Unable to comply acknowledgement

Position request

Positon requenst acknowledgement

Test

Test acknowledgement

J3E RT

F!B FEC

Distress relay individual

Distress relay geographic area

Distress relay all ships

Distress relay acknowledgement individual

Distress relay ackn all ships

Urgency and Safety all ships

Urgency and Safety geographic area

Urgency/Safety individual and their acknowledgement

Routine group calls

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Routine individual calls and their acknowledgement
J3E RT

JE RT with pos number

J3E acknowledgement

F1B FEC, ARQ or Data

F1B FEC, ARQ or Data with pos number

F1B FEC, ARQ or Data acknowledgement

Unable to comply

Polling

Request coast station

Request ship station

Able to comply acknowledgement

Signal strength test by ship on working channel

Coast station ackn. with new working frequency

Coast station ackn. with same working frequency

Unable to comply

End of call request on working channel

End of call acknowledgement on working channel

..Polling acknowledgement
Semi/Auto MF/HF (optional) J3E RT, F!B FEC, ARQ

= available

= not available

Table 13: MF/HF DSC possibility table

6.3.4. Operational MF/HF DSC procedures in the GMDSS


DSC provides automated access to coast stations and ship stations.
In general the DSC procedures on MF and HF are the same than described under
the operational VHF DSC procedures. However there are some differences between
VHF DSC and MF/HF DSC:
On MF/HF equipment no all ships announcement is available.
There is a possibility to transmit a multi frequency distress alert in all MF/HF
bands.
Each band between 2MHz (MF) to 16 MHz (HF) has one DSC distress alerting
and urgency/safety announcement frequency available which is used in both
directions, ship to shore, shore to ship and ship to ship (simplex). See Table
12: International MF DSC frequencies.
Additionally in the bands between 2 MHz and 26 MHz there are several
routine DSC announcement frequencies available for both, international and
national announcements. In the 2 MHz band the frequency 2177,0 kHz is used
for DSC routine announcements in the direction ship to ship (simplex). For
routine DSC announcements in direction ship to shore and shore to ship in the
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bands between 2 MHz and 26 MHz duplex frequencies are applicable (see
appendix 7).
6.3.4.1. Telecommand and traffic information
Telecommand and traffic informations are features as there is frequency information,
class of emission, position information..., which are also important for the handling of
the subsequent information exchange.
6.3.4.2. Frequency selection in call format
When calling another maritime mobile station the DSC call format shall contain
working frequency information on which both stations subsequently exchange their
information. At calling a coast station no working channel should be purposed in the
DSC announcement because the coast station will inform the mobile station on which
free working frequency has to be conducted.
6.3.4.3. Acknowledgement
DSC announcements to a geographic area or to a certain group of stations must not
be acknowledged in any case by any other receiving station. Individual DSC
announcements either to a coast stations or another ship station should be
acknowledged by the called station where ever possible.
6.3.4.4. Distress alert relay
The only cases in which DSC information are relayed are in cases of distress.
6.3.4.5. Use of frequencies
DSC watchkeeping
Due to the fact that in the MF and HF bands different DSC frequencies are available
MF/HF equipment offers the possibility that the communication receiver can either be
used as a scan receiver for the observation of DSC routine frequencies or for normal
traffic exchange. Additionally a second DSC receiver, which is always part of the
MF/HF equipment, is used as a scan receiver for the DSC distress alerting
frequencies in the bands between 2 MHz and 16 MHz.
Intership frequencies (Simplex)
Ship to ship traffic should be conducted as simplex communications. Although duplex
communications are permitted under certain conditions.
Coast station frequencies (Duplex)
Ship to shore traffic is mostly duplex communications. HF coast station frequencies
are normally paired frequencies which are indicated by a channel numbers. It is
possible to enter the RX and TX frequencies of a certain channel manually or enter
the channel number so that the RX and TX frequencies tuned automatically.

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6.3.4.6. Test transmissions


Testing on the exclusive DSC distress and safety frequencies should be avoided as
far as possible by using other methods. MF and HF test calls can be carried out with
the category urgency or safety and the announcement may be automatically
acknowledged by the called coast station. Normally there would be no further
communication between the two stations involved.
6.3.5.

Alerting and announcement

6.3.5.1. Distress alert


The DSC equipment shall be capable of being preset to transmit the distress alert on
2187,5 kHz or one of the HF DSC distress frequencies between 4MHz and 16 MHz.
The distress alert shall be composed by entering the ships position information, the
time it was valid and the nature of distress. Normally the actual ships position is
taken from a suitable navigation indicating receiver. If the position of the ship cannot
be entered, the position information will be replaced as the digit 9 transmitted ten
times. If the time cannot be included, then the time information will be transmitted
automatically as the digit 8 repeated four times.
Activate the distress alert attempt by a dedicated distress button.
A distress alert attempt will be transmitted as 5 consecutive alerts on the selected
DSC distress frequency. To avoid alert collision and the loss of acknowledgements,
this call attempt may be transmitted on the same frequency again after a random
delay of between 3 and 4 min from the beginning of the initial call. This allows
acknowledgements arriving randomly to be received without being blocked by
retransmission. The random delay will be generated automatically for each repeated
transmission; however it will be possible to override the automatic repeat manually.
The DSC equipment should be capable of maintaining a reliable watch on a 24-hour
basis on all DSC .MF/HF distress frequencies.
The DSC distress alert on MF should be transmitted to all stations, on HF to an
individual coast station.
If time permits, key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard
the coast station MMSI (only HF),
the nature of distress,
the ships last known position (latitude and longitude),
the time (in UTC) the position was valid,
type of subsequent distress communication (telephony or NBDP).
DSC distress alerts may be sent on a number of HF bands in two different ways:

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either by transmitting the DSC distress alert on one HF band, and waiting a few
minutes for receiving acknowledgement by a coast station;
if no acknowledgement is received within 3 min, the process is repeated by
transmitting the DSC distress alert on another appropriate HF band etc.;
or by transmitting the DSC distress alert at a number of HF bands with no, or only
very short, pauses between the calls, without waiting for acknowledgement
between the calls.
It is recommended to follow procedure a) in all cases, where time permits to do so;
this will make it easier to choose the appropriate HF band for commencement of the
subsequent communication with the coast station on the corresponding distress
traffic channel.
DSC acknowledgements of distress alerts on 2187,5 kHz (MF) should be initiated
manually. DSC acknowledgements should be transmitted on the same frequency as
the distress alert was received.
Distress alerts shall normally be acknowledged by DSC by appropriate coast stations
only. Acknowledgements by coast stations on MF/HF will be transmitted as soon as
practicable.
The acknowledgement of a distress alert consists of a single DSC acknowledgement
which shall be addressed to all ships and include the identification of the ship, its
position and the time the position was valid and the nature of distress, whose distress
alert is being acknowledged.
In areas where reliable communications with one or more coast stations are
practicable, ship stations in receipt of a distress alert or a distress call from another
vessel should defer acknowledgement for a short interval so that a coast station may
be the first to acknowledge receipt.
Ships receiving a DSC distress alert from another ship should keep watch on the
radio telephony or radiotelex frequency in the same frequency band in which the
distress alert was received. In the MF band ships must acknowledge the receipt of
the distress alert and/or message on 2182 kHz (voice) or 2174,5 kHz (NBDP) (see
Figure 45: Handling of a received VHF/MF DSC distress alert).
Ships receiving a DSC distress alert on HF from another ship shall not acknowledge
the alert (see Figure 46: Handling of a received HF DSC distress alert).
If no DSC distress acknowledgement is received from a coast station within 5 min
and no distress communication is observed going on between a coast station and the
ship in distress:
inform a Rescue Coordination Centre via appropriate radio communications
means,
transmit a DSC distress alert relay to a coast station

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The automatic repetition of a distress alert attempt should be terminated


automatically on receipt of a DSC distress acknowledgement.
An inadvertent DSC distress alert shall be cancelled by DSC, if the DSC equipment is
so capable. However in all cases, cancellations shall also be transmitted by
radiotelephony or radiotelex depending on where and with which mode of
communication the DSC alert was transmitted.

Figure 45: Handling of a received VHF/MF DSC distress alert

Figure 46: Handling of a received HF DSC distress alert

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6.3.5.2. Distress alert relay


In case it is considered appropriate to transmit a DSC distress alert relay. Distress
alerts relay on HF should be initiated manually; If the master realizes that another
ship in distress is not able to transmit the distress alert itself and further help is
necessary, then he can transmit a DSC distress alert relay. This distress alert relay
and call should be addressed to all ships in a geographic area or to the appropriate
coast station.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:
Distress relay,
the 9-digit identity of the appropriate coast station,
the 9-digit identity of the ship in distress, if known,
the nature of distress,
the latest position of the ship in distress, if known,
the time (in UTC) the position was valid (if known),
type of subsequent distress communication (telephony).
Transmit the distress alert relay.
Coast stations, after having received and acknowledged a DSC distress alert, may if
necessary, retransmit the information received as a DSC distress alert relay,
addressed to all ships in a geographic area or a specific ship.
Ships receiving a distress alert relay transmitted by a coast station shall not use DSC
to acknowledge the alert, but should acknowledge the receipt of the alert by
radiotelephony or radiotelex.
Ships receiving a DSC distress alert relay from a coast station on HF, addressed to
all ships within a specified area, should NOT acknowledge the receipt of the relay
alert by DSC, but by radiotelephony or radiotelex on the telephony or telex distress
traffic frequency in the same band(s) in which the DSC distress relay call was
received.
6.3.5.3. Announcement to individual station (urgency, safety, routine)
Urgency and safety announcements to individual stations should be carried out on a
suitable DSC distress frequency.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard for urgent or safety:
the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (individual),
The individual ship or coast station 9 digit identity,
the category of the call (urgency/safety),
the frequency (ship to ship only)on which the urgency/safety message will be
transmitted,
the type of communication in which the urgency/safety message will be given
(radiotelephony/radiotelex),

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the DSC distress frequency band must correspond with the frequency band for
the message transmission.
Transmit the DSC urgency/safety announcement.
Routine announcements will be carried out on a DSC routine frequency.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard for routine:
the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (individual),
The individual ship or coast station 9 digit identity,
the category of the call (routine),
the frequency (ship to ship only)on which the routine message will be
transmitted,
the type of communication in which the routine message will be given
(radiotelephony/radiotelex),
the DSC routine frequency band must correspond with the frequency band for
the message transmission,
A DSC announcement for an individual coast station is transmitted as follows.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:
the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (individual),
Individual coast station 9 digit identity,
the category of the call (urgency/safety/routine),
the type of the subsequent communication (normally radiotelephony/
radiotelex),
the DSC distress or routine frequency band must correspond with the
frequency band for the message transmission.
Transmit the announcement.
The acknowledgement of an urgency/safety/routine DSC announcement from a coast
station contains the working frequency or channel on which the subsequent traffic
shall be carried out.
6.3.5.4. Geographic area announcement (urgency, safety)
The announcement is carried out by a transmission of a DSC urgency/safety
announcement on the DSC distress and announcement frequency in the band in
which it is assumed that the transmission will be received.
The DSC urgency/safety announcement may be addressed to all stations in a
geographic area or to a specific station (see Figure 47: Example of a rectangular
geographic area). The frequency on which the urgency/safety message will be
transmitted shall be included in the DSC urgency/safety announcement.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:
the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (geographic area),
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the category of the call (urgency/safety),


the frequency on which the urgency/safety message will be transmitted,
the type of communication in which the urgency/safety message will be given
(radiotelephony/radiotelex),
the DSC distress frequency band must correspond with the frequency band for
the message transmission.
Transmit the DSC geographic area urgency/safety announcement.
Ship stations in receipt of an urgency/safety geographic area announcement shall
monitor the frequency or channel indicated for the message for at least five minutes.
However, in the maritime mobile service, after the DSC announcement the urgency/
safety message shall be transmitted on a working frequency in radiotelephony or
radiotelex.
Reference point
55 degrees north,
004 degrees West

55 degrees north,
001 degrees West
03 degrees

02 degrees

53 degrees north,
004 degrees West

53 degrees north,
001 degrees West

Figure 47: Example of a rectangular geographic area

6.3.5.5. Group announcement (distress, urgency, safety, routine)


All coast stations call
Recommendation ITU-R M.493 on DSC systems for use in the Maritime Mobile
Service provides for "group calls" an address consisting of the characters
corresponding to the station's MMSI and a number of Administrations have already
assigned a "group call" MMSI to their coast stations in addition to the coast stations
individual MMSI.
By multilateral agreements, a "group call" MMSI could be assigned to all coast
stations of a specific region, e.g., an RCC area and could comply with IMO's
requirement without need of introducing further modifications to GMDSS equipment.
An alternative method to implement an "all coast stations" call without the need to
modify Recommendation ITU-R M.493 could be to define one MMSI world-wide as
an address for all coast stations. However, this solution would also require a
modification of the setup at each coast station participating in the GMDSS.
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The purpose of group announcements is to inform a certain group of ships- or coast


stations of an event which could be of interest to that group of stations only.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:
the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (group),
Group 9 digit identity,
the category of the call (urgency/safety/routine),
the channel on which the urgency/safety/routine message will be transmitted,
the type of communication in which the urgency/safety/routine message will be
given (radio telephony, radiotelex),
the DSC distress or routine frequency band must correspond with the
frequency band for the message transmission.

Transmit the DSC group announcement.


6.3.5.6. Polling and position request
The purpose of polling is to assert that the called station is in the range of the calling
station and if it is operational. Position request is selected when a station wants to
get position details of a called station.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:
the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (polling/ position
request),
Individual 9 digit identity,
the category of the call (urgency/safety),
the DSC distress frequency in the band in which a reply can be awaited.
Transmit the DSC urgency/safety polling/position request announcement.
The polling acknowledgement does not contain any special information. The fact of
receiving the acknowledgment from the called station indicates that the called ship is
in the range and its MF/HF equipment is operational.
The position request acknowledgement contains the called ships position and points
to the fact that the MF/HF equipment is in range of the calling station and operational.
6.3.5.7

Automatic service with coast stations

A couple of coast stations offer the possibility for a direct dialling to land subscribers
without any operators involvement.
A DSC announcement for an individual coast station automatic telephone service call
transmitted as follows.
Key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:
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the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (individual),


Individual coast station 9 digit identity,
country code, area code and telephone number of subscriber,
the category of the call (urgency/safety/routine),
the type of the subsequent communication (normally radiotelephony),
the DSC distress or routine frequency in the band in which the call shall be
carried out.

Transmit the DSC announcement.


For automatic telex service communications will not be established via DSC but with
the telex equipment only (see 0)
6.3.5.8

Practical tasks
Done?

Transmit capabilities
DSC distress alert without nature of distress
DSC distress alert with nature of distress
DSC relay to all stations
DSC relay to geographic area
DSC relay to an individual station (coast station or ship station)
DSC all stations urgency announcement with working frequency
DSC ship to ship urgency announcement with working frequency
DSC ship to coast station urgency announcement
DSC all stations safety announcement with working frequency
DSC ship to ship safety announcement with working frequency
DSC ship to coast station safety announcement
DSC ship to ship routine announcement with working frequency
DSC ship to coast station safety announcement
DSC group announcement (urgency, safety, routine) with work. frequency
DSC geographic area announcement (urgency, safety, routine) with working
frequency
DSC polling
DSC position request
DSC medical transport
Other capabilities
Select DSC received messages out of memory (distress + non distress)
Select own MMSI numbers
Implement coast stations
Implement subscriber

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Implement position and time (if no GPS is available)
Implement new coast station frequencies
Change DSC auto acknowledgement settings
Change frequencies (TX and RX) for communication
Change power settings
Change kind of modulation
Operate the Volume and Squelch
Operate the Tuning
Operate the Clarifier
Operate the RF-Gain
Switch to Automatic Gain Control
Switch between International frequency and channels
Switch on and off the DSC watch function
Add new coast stations
Edit the paired channel list (Communication with coast stations)
Change routine DSC watch frequencies
Carry out the implemented test routine
Edit the address book
Establish operational readiness (TX/RX 2182kHz, full Power, SSB, DSC watch)
Table 14: MF/HF-DSC practical training tasks

6.4.

VHF/MF/HF voice procedure

6.4.1. Distress procedure


Distress communications rely on the use of terrestrial MF, HF and VHF radio
communications and communications using satellite techniques. Distress
communications shall have absolute priority over all other transmissions. The
following terms apply:
The distress alert is a digital selective call (DSC) using a distress call format, in
the bands used for terrestrial radio communication, or a distress message format,
in which case it is relayed through space stations.
The distress call is the initial voice or text procedure.
The distress message is the subsequent voice or text procedure.
The distress alert relay is a DSC transmission on behalf of another station.
The distress call relay is the initial voice or text procedure for a station not itself in
distress
The distress call shall be sent on the distress and safety frequencies designated in
the MF, HF and VHF bands for radiotelephony. The distress alert or call and
subsequent messages shall be sent only on the authority of the person responsible
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for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station or the mobile earth
station. It shall be transmitted with full carrier power (VHF - 25W, MF/HF full power)
Transmissions by radiotelephony shall be made slowly and distinctly, each word
being clearly pronounced to facilitate transcription. The phonetic alphabet and figure
code in appendix 14 of the RR and the abbreviations and signals in accordance with
the most recent version of Recommendation ITU-R M.1172 should be used where
applicable.
Ship-to-ship distress alerts are used to alert other ships in the vicinity of the ship in
distress and are based on the use of DSC in the VHF and MF bands. Additionally,
the HF band may be used. Ship stations equipped for DSC procedures may transmit
a distress call and distress message immediately following the distress alert in order
to attract attention from as many ship stations as possible. Ship stations not
equipped for DSC procedures shall, where practical, initiate the distress
communications by transmitting a radio telephony distress call and message on the
frequency 156.8 MHz (VHF channel 16).
The radiotelephone distress signal consists of the word MAYDAY. The distress call
sent on the frequency 156.8 MHz (VHF channel 16) or on MF/HF shall be given in
the following form:
MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY
THIS IS
SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME
CALL SIGN
MMSI
The distress message which follows the distress call should be given in the following
form:
MAYDAY; SHIPS NAME; CALL SIGN;MMSI
the position, given as the latitude and longitude, or if the latitude and
longitude are not known or if time is insufficient, in relation to a
known geographical location;
the nature of the distress;
the kind of assistance required;
any other useful information
Distress Relay
A station in the mobile or mobile-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in
distress (for example, by a radio call or by observation) shall initiate and transmit a
distress alert relay and/or a distress call relay on behalf of the mobile unit in distress
once it has ascertained that any of the following circumstances apply.

on receiving a distress alert or call which is not acknowledged by a coast


station or another vessel within five minutes

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on learning that the mobile unit in distress is otherwise unable or incapable


of participating in distress communications, if the master or other person
responsible for the mobile unit not in distress considers that further help is
necessary

However, a ship shall not transmit a distress alert relay to all ships by DSC on the
VHF or MF distress frequencies following receipt of a distress alert sent by DSC by
the ship in distress.
When an aural watch is being maintained on shore and reliable ship-to-shore
communications can be established by radiotelephony, a distress call relay is sent by
radiotelephony and addressed to the relevant coast station or rescue coordination
centre on the appropriate frequency.
The distress call relay sent by radiotelephony should be given in the following form:
MAYDAY RELAY MAYDAY RELAY MAYDAY RELAY
ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS
THIS IS
SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME
CALL SIGN
MMSI
(all identifications of the relaying vessel)
This call can be addressed to all stations or to an individual station. This call shall be
followed by a distress message which shall, as far as possible, repeat the information
contained in the original distress alert or message or the observations done by the
relaying station:
Following received on Channel 16 at time in UTC
MAYDAY; SHIPS NAME; CALL SIGN;MMSI
(All identifications of the vessel in distress)
the position, given as the latitude and longitude, or if the latitude and
longitude are not known or if time is insufficient, in relation to a
known geographical location;
the nature of the distress;
the kind of assistance required;
any other useful information
or
following observed
MAYDAY
(only MAYDAY, if the vessel in distress is not known)

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the observed position, given as the latitude and longitude, or if the


latitude and longitude are not known or if time is insufficient, in
relation to a known geographical location;
the nature of the distress
the kind of assistance required;
any other useful information

Acknowledgement
Acknowledgement of receipt of a distress alert, including a distress alert relay, shall
be made in the manner appropriate to the method of transmission of the alert and
within the time-scale appropriate to the role of the station in receipt of the alert.
When acknowledging receipt of a distress alert sent by DSC, the acknowledgement
in the terrestrial services shall be made by DSC, radiotelephony or narrow-band
direct-printing telegraphy as appropriate to the circumstances, on the associated
distress and safety frequency in the same band in which the distress alert was
received, taking due account of the directions given in the most recent versions of the
RR Art.32.
In areas where reliable communications with one or more coast stations are
practicable, ship stations in receipt of a distress alert or a distress call from another
vessel should defer acknowledgement for a short interval so that a coast station may
acknowledge receipt in the first instance.
When acknowledging by radiotelephony the receipt of a distress alert or a distress
call from a ship station or a ship earth station, the acknowledgement should be given
in the following form:
MAYDAY
SHIPS NAME and CALL SIGN or MMSI
(of the vessel in distress)
THIS IS
SHIPS NAME and CALL SIGN
(of the acknowledging vessel)
RECEIVED MAYDAY
Ship stations in receipt of a distress call sent by radiotelephony on the frequency
156.8 MHz (VHF channel 16) shall, if the call is not acknowledged by a coast station
or another vessel within five minutes, acknowledge receipt to the vessel in distress
and use any means available to relay the distress call to an appropriate coast station
or coast earth station.
However in order to avoid making unnecessary or confusing transmissions in
response, a ship station, which may be at a considerable distance from the incident,
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receiving an HF distress alert, shall not acknowledge it but shall observe the distress
frequency in the band in which the distress alert was sent and shall, if the distress
alert is not acknowledged by a coast station within five minutes, relay the distress
alert, but only to an appropriate coast station or coast earth station.
A ship station acknowledging receipt of a distress alert sent by DSC should, in
accordance with the following.

In the first instance, acknowledge receipt of the distress alert by using


radiotelephony on the distress and safety traffic frequency in the band
used for the alert, taking into account any instructions which may be
issued by a responding coast station.

If acknowledgement by radiotelephony of the distress alert received on the


MF or VHF distress alerting frequency is unsuccessful, acknowledge
receipt of the distress alert by responding with a digital selective call on
the appropriate frequency.

However, unless instructed to do so by a coast station or a rescue coordination


centre, a ship station may only send an acknowledgement by DSC in the event that:

no acknowledgement by DSC from a coast station has been observed;


and

no other communication by radiotelephony or narrow-band direct-printing


telegraphy to or from the vessel in distress has been observed; and

at least five minutes have elapsed and the distress alert by DSC has been
repeated.

A ship station in receipt of a shore-to-ship distress alert relay or distress call relay
should establish communication as directed and render such assistance as required
and appropriate.
Distress Traffic and on scene communication
On receipt of a distress alert or a distress call, ship stations and coast stations shall
set watch on the radiotelephone distress and safety traffic frequency associated with
the distress and safety calling frequency on which the distress alert was received.
Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required
by the ship in distress, including search and rescue communications and on-scene
communications. The distress traffic shall as far as possible be on the frequencies
contained in the RR Article 31.
For distress traffic by radiotelephony, when establishing communications, calls shall
be prefixed by the distress signal MAYDAY.
The rescue coordination centre responsible for controlling a search and rescue
operation shall also coordinate the distress traffic relating to the incident or may
appoint another station to do so.
On-scene communications are those between the mobile unit in distress and
assisting mobile units, and between the mobile units and the unit co-ordinating
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search and rescue operations. Control of on-scene communications is the


responsibility of the unit co-ordinating search and rescue operations. Simplex
communications shall be used so that all on-scene mobile stations may share
relevant information concerning the distress incident. If direct-printing telegraphy is
used, it shall be in the forward error-correcting mode.
The preferred frequencies in radiotelephony for on-scene communications are 156.8
MHz and 2182 kHz. The frequency 2174.5 kHz may also be used for ship-to-ship onscene communications using narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy in the forward
error correcting mode. In addition to 156.8 MHz and 2182 kHz, the frequencies 3023
kHz, 4125 kHz, 5680 kHz, 123.1 MHz and 156.3 MHz may be used for ship-toaircraft on-scene communications.
The selection or designation of on-scene frequencies is the responsibility of the unit
co-ordinating search and rescue operations. Normally, once an on-scene frequency
is established, a continuous aural or teleprinter watch is maintained by all
participating on-scene mobile units on the selected frequency.
MAYDAY
SHIPS NAME and CALL SIGN
(for example vessel in distress)
THIS IS
SHIPS NAME and CALL SIGN
(assisting vessel)
Calling reason
The rescue coordination centre co-ordinating distress traffic, the unit co-ordinating
search and rescue operations or the coast station involved may impose silence on
stations which interfere with that traffic. This instruction shall be addressed to all
stations or to one station only, according to circumstances. In either case, the
following shall be used:
In radiotelephony, the signal SEELONCE MAYDAY
SHIPS NAME, CALL SIGN or ALL STATIONS
SEELONCE MAYDAY
Until they receive the message indicating that normal working may be resumed, all
stations which are aware of the distress traffic, and which are not taking part in it, and
which are not in distress, are forbidden to transmit on the frequencies in which the
distress traffic is taking place.
When distress traffic has ceased on frequencies which have been used for distress
traffic, the station controlling the search and rescue operation shall initiate a message
for transmission on these frequencies indicating that distress traffic has finished.
In radiotelephony, the message should consist of:
MAYDAY
ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS
THIS IS
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SHIPSNAME SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME


CALL SIGN
MMSI
the time of handing in of the message in UTC
SHIPS NAME, CALL SIGN and MMSI
(of the mobile station which was in distress)
SEELONCE FEENEE
False Alert
A station transmitting an inadvertent distress alert or call shall cancel the
transmission.
An inadvertent DSC alert shall be cancelled by DSC, if the DSC equipment is so
capable. The cancellation should be in accordance with the most recent version of
Recommendation ITU R M.493. In all cases, cancellations shall also be transmitted
by radiotelephony.
An inadvertent distress call shall be cancelled by radiotelephony in accordance with
the procedure described below.
Inadvertent distress transmissions shall be cancelled orally on the associated
distress and safety frequency in the same band on which the distress transmission
was sent, using the following procedure:
ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS
THIS IS
SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME
CALL SIGN
MMSI
PLEASE CANCEL MY DISTRESS ALERT OF time in UTC.

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Figure 48: Canellation of False distress alerts

6.4.2 Urgency procedure


Urgency communication include

Medico- and medical transport calls,

urgent communication relating extreme weather conditions and

support communications for search and rescue operations.

Urgency communications shall have priority over all other communications, except
distress.
The following terms apply:

The urgency announcement is a digital selective call using an urgency call


format in the bands used for terrestrial radio communication, or an
urgency message format, in which case it is relayed through space
stations.

The urgency call is the initial voice or text procedure.

The urgency message is the subsequent voice or text procedure.

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In a terrestrial system, urgency communications consist of an announcement,


transmitted using DSC, followed by the urgency call and message transmitted using
radiotelephony. The announcement of the urgency message shall be made on one or
more of the distress and safety calling frequencies specified in the RRs, using both
DSC and the urgency call format, or if not available, radio telephony procedures and
the urgency signal. Announcements using DSC should use the technical structure
and content set forth in the most recent version of Recommendations ITU-R M.493
and ITU-R M.541.
Ship stations not equipped for DSC procedures may announce an urgency call and
message by transmitting the urgency signal by radiotelephony on the frequency
156.8 MHz (channel 16), while taking into account that other stations outside VHF
range may not receive the announcement.
In the maritime mobile service, urgency communications may be addressed either to
all stations or to a particular station. When using DSC techniques, the urgency
announcement shall indicate which frequency is to be used to send the subsequent
message and, in the case of a message to all stations, shall use the All Ships
format setting.
Urgency announcements from a coast station may also be directed to a group of
vessels or to vessels in a defined geographical area.
The urgency call and message shall be transmitted on one or more of the distress
and safety traffic frequencies. However, in the maritime mobile service, the urgency
message shall be transmitted on a working frequency:

in the case of a long message or a medical call; or

in areas of heavy traffic when the message is being repeated.

An indication to this effect shall be included in the urgency announcement or call.


The urgency signal consists of the words PAN PAN. The urgency call format and the
urgency signal indicate that the calling station has a very urgent message to transmit
concerning the safety of a mobile unit or a person. Communications concerning
medical advice may be preceded by the urgency signal. Mobile stations requiring
medical advice may obtain it through any of the land stations shown in the List of
Coast Stations and Special Service Stations.
Urgency communications to support search and rescue operations need not be
preceded by the urgency signal.
The urgency call should consist of:
PAN PAN PAN PAN PAN PAN
ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS
THIS IS
SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME
(or coast station name)
CALL SIGN
MMSI

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followed by the urgency message or followed by the details of the channel to


be used for the message in the case where a working channel is to be used.
In radiotelephony, on the selected working frequency, the urgency call and message
consists of:
PAN PAN PAN PAN PAN PAN
ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS
THIS IS
SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME
(or coast station name)
CALL SIGN
MMSI
the text of the urgency message
The urgency call format or urgency signal shall be sent only on the authority of the
person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station or
mobile earth station. The urgency call format or the urgency signal may be
transmitted by a land station or a coast earth station with the approval of the
responsible authority.
Ship stations in receipt of an urgency announcement or call addressed to all stations
shall not acknowledge. Ship stations in receipt of an urgency announcement or call of
an urgency message shall monitor the frequency or channel indicated for the
message for at least five minutes. If, at the end of the five-minute monitoring period,
no urgency message has been received, a coast station should, if possible, be
notified of the missing message. Thereafter, normal working may be resumed.
Coast and ship stations which are in communication on frequencies other than those
used for the transmission of the urgency signal or the subsequent message may
continue their normal work without interruption, provided that the urgency message is
not addressed to them nor broadcast to all stations.
When an urgency announcement or call and message was transmitted to more than
one station and action is no longer required, an urgency cancellation should be sent
by the station responsible for its transmission.
The urgency cancellation should consist of:
PAN PAN PAN PAN PAN PAN
ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS
THIS IS
SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME
(or coast station name)
CALL SIGN
MMSI
PLEASE CANCEL URGENCY MESSAGE OF time in UTC

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Medical Transport
The term medical transports, as defined in the 1949 Geneva Conventions and
Additional Protocols, refers to any means of transportation by land, water or air,
whether military or civilian, permanent or temporary, assigned exclusively to medical
transportation and under the control of a competent authority of a party to a conflict
or of neutral States and of other States not parties to an armed conflict, when these
ships, craft and aircraft assist the wounded, the sick and the shipwrecked.
For the purpose of announcing and identifying medical transports which are
protected under the above-mentioned Conventions, the procedure of urgency
announcement, call and message is obligatory. The urgency call shall be followed by
the addition of the single word MAY-DEE-CAL, in radiotelephony.
When using DSC techniques, the urgency announcement on the appropriate DSC
distress and safety frequencies shall always be addressed to all stations on VHF and
to a specified geographical area on MF and HF and shall indicate Medical transport
in accordance with the most recent version of Recommendations ITU-R M.493 and
ITU-R M.541.
Medical transports may use one or more of the distress and safety traffic frequencies
for the purpose of self-identification and to establish communications. As soon as
practicable, communications shall be transferred to an appropriate working
frequency.
The use of the signals described above indicates that the message which follows
concerns a protected medical transport. The message shall convey the following
data:

call sign or other recognized means of identification of the medical


transport;

position of the medical transport;

number and type of vehicles in the medical transport;

intended route;

estimated time en route and of departure and arrival, as appropriate;

any other information, such as flight altitude, radio frequencies guarded,


languages used and secondary surveillance radar modes and codes.

The use of radio communications for announcing and identifying medical transports
is optional; however, if they are used, the provisions of the RRs and particularly of
the Articles 30-33 shall apply.
6.4.3. Safety procedure
Safety communications include

navigational and meteorological warnings,

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urgent information,

ship-to-ship safety of navigation communications,

communications relating to the navigation, movements and needs of ships


and

weather observation messages destined for an official meteorological


service.

Safety communications shall have priority over all other communications, except
distress and urgency
The following terms apply:
the safety announcement is a digital selective call using a safety call format in
the bands used for terrestrial radio communication or a safety message
format, in which case it is relayed through space stations;
the safety call is the initial voice or text procedure;
the safety message is the subsequent voice or text procedure
In a terrestrial system, safety communications consist of a safety announcement,
transmitted using DSC, followed by the safety call and message transmitted using
radiotelephony, narrow-band direct-printing or data. The announcement of the safety
message shall be made on one or more of the distress and safety calling frequencies
using either DSC techniques and the safety call format, or radiotelephony procedures
and the safety signal.
However, in order to avoid unnecessary loading of the distress and safety calling
frequencies specified for use with DSC techniques:
safety messages transmitted by coast stations in accordance with a
predefined timetable should not be announced by DSC techniques;
safety messages which only concern vessels sailing in the vicinity should be
announced using radiotelephony procedures
In addition, ship stations not equipped for DSC procedures may announce a safety
message by transmitting the safety call by radiotelephony. In such cases the
announcement shall be made using the frequency 156.8 MHz (VHF channel 16),
while taking into account that other stations outside VHF range may not receive the
announcement.
In the maritime mobile service, safety messages shall generally be addressed to all
stations. In some cases, however, they may be addressed to a particular station.
When using DSC techniques, the safety announcement shall indicate which
frequency is to be used to send the subsequent message and, in the case of a
message to all stations, shall use the All Ships format setting.
In the maritime mobile service, the safety message shall, where practicable, be
transmitted on a working frequency in the same band(s) as those used for the safety
announcement or call. A suitable indication to this effect shall be made at the end of
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the safety call. In the case that no other option is practicable, the safety message
may be sent by radiotelephony on the frequency 156.8 MHz (VHF channel 16).
The safety signal consists of the word SECURITE.
The safety call format or the safety signal indicates that the calling station has an
important navigational or meteorological warning to transmit. Messages from ship
stations containing information concerning the presence of cyclones shall be
transmitted, with the least possible delay, to other mobile stations in the vicinity and
to the appropriate authorities through a coast station, or through a rescue
coordination centre via a coast station or an appropriate coast earth station. These
transmissions shall be preceded by the safety announcement or call. Messages from
ship stations, containing information on the presence of dangerous ice, dangerous
wrecks, or any other imminent danger to marine navigation, shall be transmitted as
soon as possible to other ships in the vicinity, and to the appropriate authorities
through a coast station, or through a rescue coordination centre via a coast station or
an appropriate coast earth station. These transmissions shall be preceded by the
safety announcement or call
The complete safety call should consist of:
SECURITE SECURITE SECURITE
ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS
(or individual called station, three times)
THIS IS
SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME
(or coast station name)
CALL SIGN
MMSI
followed by the safety message or followed by the details of the channel to be
used for the message in the case where a working channel is to be used.
In radiotelephony, on the selected working frequency, the safety call and message
should consist of:
SECURITE SECURITE SECURITE
ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS ALL STATIONS
(or individual called station, three times)
THIS IS
SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME SHIPS NAME
(or coast station name)
CALL SIGN
MMSI
the text of the safety message
Ship stations in receipt of a safety announcement using DSC techniques and the All
Ships format setting, or otherwise addressed to all stations, shall not acknowledge.
Ship stations in receipt of a safety announcement or safety call and message shall
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monitor the frequency or channel indicated for the message and shall listen until they
are satisfied that the message is of no concern to them. They shall not make any
transmission likely to interfere with the message
Intership navigation safety communications
Intership navigation safety communications are those VHF radiotelephone
communications conducted between ships for the purpose of contributing to the safe
movement of ships. The frequency 156.650 MHz is used for intership navigation
safety communications (see also RR appendix 15).
6.4.4. Port operation and ship movement communication
Radio traffic belonging port operation and ship movement service is a radio traffic
regarding the safety of navigation. Calls for this service do not contain the safety
signal e.g.:
Hamburg Pilot
this is
Moby Dick / TFKA
I will arrive at your position in about two hours
Over
Use of other frequencies for safety
Radio communications for safety purposes concerning ship reporting
communications, communications relating to the navigation, movements and needs
of ships and weather observation messages may be conducted on any appropriate
communications frequency, including those used for public correspondence. In
terrestrial systems, the bands 415-535 kHz (see RR Article 52), 1606.5-4000 kHz
(see RR Article 52), 4000-27500 kHz (see RR appendix 17), and 156-174 MHz (see
RR appendix 18) are used for this function. In the maritime mobile-satellite service,
frequencies in the bands 1530-1544 MHz and 1626.5-1645.5 MHz are used for this
function as well as for distress alerting purposes.
6.4.5. Routine communication
Routine communications are communications which do not require any priority.
6.4.5.1.Calling a subscriber (ship to shore)
After announcing the coast station by DSC and receiving their acknowledgement
including the working frequencies, the coast station will call the ship station as soon
as possible on the specified frequency like e.g.
Moby Dick / TKFA 251 725 110
this is
Lyngby Radio
How do you read me?
The ship station replies and supplies the coast stations with the necessary details
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Lyngby Radio
this is
Moby Dick / TKFA 251 725 110
I read you loud and clear. I have a phone call to Hamburg
country code 49
area code 40
telephone number 2006570
my accounting code (AAIC) is IS01
over
The coast station replies as follows:
Moby Dick / TKFA
this is
Lyngby Radio
I understood, I shall call your party
When the subscriber ashore is on the line, the coast station will inform the ship
station to start talking:
Moby Dick / TKFA
this is
Lyngby Radio
your party is on the line, go ahead please
After finishing the conversation the coast station will inform the ship station about the
appropriate duration to be paid:
Moby Dick / TKFA
this is
Lyngby Radio
It was a 5 minutes call. I have no more traffic for you.

6.4.5.2. Phone call from ashore (shore to ship)


After receiving a DSC announcement from a coast station the ship station has to
acknowledge the receipt by DSC as soon as possible and tune to the working
frequencies which were given in the coast stations announcement. Then the coast
station will call the ship station on the mentioned working frequency:
Moby Dick / TKFA 251 725 110
this is
Lyngby Radio
How do you read me?

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The ship station replies to the coast station:


Lyngby Radio
this is
Moby Dick / TKFA 251 725 110
I read you loud and clear.
over
The coast station will inform the ship station as follows e.g.
Moby Dick / TKFA
this is
Lyngby Radio
I have a phone call from Hamburg for the master, stand by I will connect you
When the subscriber ashore is on the line, the coast station will inform the ship
station to start talking:
Moby Dick / TKFA
this is
Lyngby Radio
your party is on the line, go ahead please
6.4.5.3. Transmission of a telegram
The contact installation for the transmission of a radio telegram via DSC is the same
procedure as described under 06.4.5.1.Calling a subscriber (ship to shore) and 0
6.4.5.2.
Phone call from ashore (shore to ship).
After receiving the acknowledgement from the called station, the transmission of the
following telegram will be carried out in radiotelephony as follows:

Preamble:
Prefix
Address
Text
Signature

Figure 49: Sample of a telegram

The telegram begins:


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Moby Dick / TKFA 4 13/12 12 0930 IS01 =


Urgent =
Halo Hamburg =
Eta Rotterdam 15.03.0700lt stop require
cash usd 5000 =
Master +

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MOBY DICK I repeat and spell Mike Oskar Bravo Yankee ....call sign Tango Kilo
Foxtrot Alfa, number 4 with 13 slash (/) 12 words of 12th at 0930 accounting code
India Sierra 01
Prefix:
URGENT
Address:
Halo I repeat and spell Hotel Alpha Lima Oskar, Hamburg I repeat and spell Hotel
Alpha Mike Bravo Uniform Romeo Golf
Text:
ETA ROTTERDAM I repeat and spell Romeo Oskar Tango Tango Echo Romeo
Delta Alpha Mike it follows a mixed code group, I spell 15 point 03 point 0700 Lima
Tango STOP REQUIRE CASH it follows a group of letters Uniform Sierra Delta it
follows a group of figures 5000
Signature:
MASTER
End of telegram, over
6.4.6. Intership communication
The main purpose of intership communication is the exchange of information
regarding the safety of navigation, weather information etc. The exchange of private
information should be kept as short as possible. Intership communication on VHF
takes always place on simplex channels, on MF/HF it should normally carry out also
on simplex frequencies. But it is possible to use duplex frequencies where permitted,
duplex communication should be avoided wherever possible (save frequency space).
The Ship to ship announcement by DSC must contain the priority, the mode of
operation, and the channel or frequency on which the subsequent communications
shall be exchanged. The vessel announcing ship to ship communications has to wait
for an acknowledgement from the called vessel before both ships can start their
information exchange as described below:
Tina / DILD 211 327 000
this is
Moby Dick / TKFA 251 725 110
I have information, how do you read me?
over
The called station replies:
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Moby Dick / TKFA 251 725 110


this is
Tina / DILD 211 327 000
I read you loud and clear, go ahead please
Over
The calling station starts the information exchange. During further communication it is
not necessary to exchange the MMSI verbally:
Tina / DILD
this is
Moby Dick / TKFA
My position is....
over
6.4.7. On board communication
The purpose of on board communications is the exchange of information regarding
the operation of the own vessel on VHF or/and UHF channels. The power output is
limited on VHF to 1W, on UHF to 2W.
The on board communication covers:

Internal Communication on the vessel


Communication between the parent ship and its live saving appliances
Communication between the parent ship and its pram
Communication while towing or mooring the vessel

The identification of the controlling station (bridge) is the ships name followed by the
word control. The identity of the first participating station (handheld) is the ships
name followed by the word Alpha, for the second station it is ships name followed by
the word Bravo etc.
The voice procedure for example:
Moby Dick Charly
this is
Moby Dick Control
What is the distance to the pier?
Over
6.5. Radiotelex
In Sea area A4, NBDP is the only means of communications in which written
information on MF/HF regarding safety of navigation can be exchanged. For ships
operating in sea area A4 Radiotelex equipment is compulsory.

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6.5.1. Basics
The purpose of radiotelex (NBDP) in the maritime mobile service is the exchange of
information in direction ship to shore, shore to ship, ship to ship and broadcast to all
stations.
Two modes of operation are used dependent upon the message destination, i.e.,
whether the message is addressed to one specific station or to all stations.
ARQ: This is the mode for communication between two stations to transmit and
receive information during a certain connection. At the end of the own
transmission the signals GA+? (Go Ahead) have to be keyed in to inform the
receiving station that it now can start with its reply. The +? effects that the
transmission permit has changed from one station to the other.
FEC: This is the mode for communication broadcasting to all stations or to
transmit to an individual station in one direction only during a certain connection.
This mode would be used, for example, for distress traffic or for NAVTEX
broadcasts.
6.5.2. Numbering
In the maritime mobile service there are three different identification numbers
available to call other radiotelex stations:
Coast station telex number consist of four digits, e.g. 3220
Ship station telex number consists of five digit, e.g. 32456
MMSI consists of 9 digit, e.g. 211 234 500
Answerbacks are used to ensure that two communicating stations are connected to
the subscriber they wanted to communicate with. The answerback consists of:
telex number
Chosen abbreviation
Country code
The answerback of a subscriber ashore consists of
His telex number without country code
Chosen abbreviation (might be companies name)
Country code (letters)

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Land subscriber answerback


22249

RUSSJ

DK

telex number

Country code
Chosen abbreviation

Figure 50: Answerback description (land subscriber)

The answerback of a ship station consists of:


Its telex number
Chosen abbreviation (might be the call sign)
X (indicates a mobile station)

Ships answerback
3220

HEBG

telex number

Mobile station
Call sign

Figure 51: Answerback description (ship subscriber)

Additionally to the above mentioned telex identities it must be possible to maritime


telex stations also by using their MMSI.
6.5.3. Automatic and manual calling
Radiotelex calls to coast stations can be made manually by entering its telex number
and then entering the receiving and transmitting frequencies or the appropriate ITU
channel for HF telex operation which will be used for traffic.

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Figure 52: Manual telex calling of a coast station

Fully automatic calls can also be made when the operator selects the already
prepared message, the destination (land subscriber), type of operation (dirtlx),
coast station from a pre-programmed list, and then the transmission time. The
equipment then chooses the most appropriate free channel and sends the message.

Figure 53: Automatic telex calling procedure to a land subscriber

When communication has been established, various command codes can be used
dependent upon the purpose of the call or the service required (see appendix 15 of
this compendium).

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6.5.4. Radiotelex equipment


The Radiotelex terminal consists of
Screen and keyboard
MF/HF transceiver including modem
Printer
Screen and keyboard
Terminal Info

Date and Time

Hint Bar

Text Field

Menu Bar
Info Field

Figure 54: Radioltelex terminal

Terminal Info:

Shows the current Terminal function (ARQ, FEC or


distress mode)

Date and Time:

Shows Date and Time

Hint bar:

Gives some hints for using functions

Text Field:

Key in the text of telex

Menu Bar:

Shows the current available function menus

Info Field:

Gives information about the status of the terminal

MF/HF transceiver including modem


The task of the transceiver is to transmit and to receive the appropriate telex signals.
The task of the modem is to modulate the signals to be transmitted and to
demodulate the received signals.
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Printer
The printer records all transmitted and received messages and commands which are
necessary for telex communications.
6.5.5. Details of a telex message
If possible, the telex message should be prepared in advance by typing it into
memory, with the telex terminal in local mode. This allows editing of the message
before transmission.
The telex message format should generally be in accordance with the relevant ITU-T
Recommendation and include the following information:
Origin
Destination
Text of message
Signature
End of message indicator nnnn
Figure 55: Example telex is shown below.

Origin
Destination

Signature
End of message

Figure 55: Example telex to land subscriber

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6.5.6. Operational MF/HF radiotelex procedures in the GMDSS


The procedures for radiotelex priority traffic (distress, urgency, safety) are
comparable to the appropriate procedures in radio telephony (see 0).
When using radiotelex the words this is, used in radio telephony, will be replaced by
the letters DE. The word received will be replaced by the letters RRR and all
stations will be replaced by the letters CQ. Mostly the ships name will be replaced
by the call sign of the vessel because the call sign is shorter than the ships
name.Any
Information transmitted to all stations shall be preceded by a DSC alert or
announcement.
6.5.6.1. Distress procedure
Coast stations and ship stations with narrow-band direct-printing equipment shall set
watch on the narrow-band direct-printing frequency associated with the distress alert
if it indicates that narrow-band direct-printing is to be used for subsequent distress
communications. If practicable, they should additionally set watch on the
radiotelephone frequency associated with the distress alert frequency.
Distress communications by direct-printing telegraphy should normally be established
by the ship in distress and should be in the broadcast (forward error correction)
mode. The ARQ mode may subsequently be used when it is advantageous to do so.
The frequency 2174.5 kHz may also be used for ship-to-ship on-scene
communications using narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy in the forward error
correcting mode.
After a DSC distress alert on a suitable alerting frequency the subsequent distress
traffic begins, as shown in the example below (Alert on 2187,5 kHz, Transmission on
2174,5 kHz), on a telex frequency associated with the appropriate alerting frequency.

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Figure 56: Example distress telex transmission

6.5.6.2. Urgency procedure


Error correction techniques in accordance with relevant ITU-R Recommendations
shall be used for urgency messages by direct-printing telegraphy. All messages shall
be preceded by the urgency signal PAN PAN.
Urgency communications by direct-printing telegraphy addressed to all stations
should be transmitted in the FEC broadcast mode. The ARQ mode can be used for
urgency communications in direction ship to coast station.
After a DSC urgency announcement on a suitable alerting frequency the subsequent
urgency traffic begins, as shown in the example below (Announcement on 2187,5
kHz, Transmission on 2174,5 kHz), on a telex frequency associated with the
appropriate alerting frequency.

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Figure 57: Example urgency telex transmission

6.5.6.3. Safety procedure


Safety communications by direct-printing telegraphy addressed to all stations should
be transmitted in the FEC broadcast mode. The ARQ mode can be used for safety
communications in direction ship to coast station.
MSI is transmitted by means of narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy with forward
error correction using the frequencies 4210 kHz, 6314 kHz, 8416.5 kHz, 12579 kHz,
16806.5 kHz, 19680.5 kHz, 22376 kHz and 26100.5 kHz.
After a DSC safety announcement on a suitable alerting frequency the subsequent
safety traffic begins, as shown in the example below (Announcement on 2187,5 kHz,
Transmission on 2174,5 kHz), on a telex frequency associated with the appropriate
alerting frequency.

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Figure 58: Example safety telex transmission

6.5.6.4.

Routine procedure

Routine communication by direct-printing telegraphy is generally addressed to an


individual station (Ship- or Coast station) and should be transmitted in the ARQ
mode. The FEC selective mode can also be used for routine communications in one
direction ship to ship and ship to shore.
Working with coast stations.
In the following example it is planned to transmit an already prepared and stored
message (Russ1-TLX) via Mobile Radio to the land subscriber Russjensen. This
message will be sent to the land subscriber in dirtlx mode which means that the
message will be conveyed direct while the entire connection. See Figure 59:
Example routine telex.

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Figure 59: Example routine telex transmission to a land subscriber

The first line indicates the start time, the RX and TX frequencies which are
used with the coast station, the operation mode ARQ and the telex
number of coast station.
The second line shows the answerback of the coast station.
The third line indicates the ships own answerback.
In the fourth line the coast station asks with the signals (GA+?) for the land
subscribers telex number. After changing the transmission permit the ship
station automatically sends the expression dirtx (direct telex) followed by
the land subscribers country code and telex number.
The coast station replies with the code MOM (stand by for a moment).
The coast station dials the mentioned telex number.
The seventh line shows the land subscribers answerback which indicates
that the connection is installed.
MSG+? indicates that the land subscriber is able to receive the message.

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Figure 60: Example link connection

After an exchange of answerbacks, and upon receipt of the message code MSG+?,
the ship sends its traffic. The next picture show that message transmitting is going
on. The white shimming letters have not yet been transmitted.

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Figure 61: Example running telex transmission

To disconnect the link to the shore-based subscriber, the telex system keys
automatically the message code KKKK. The coast station then responds with a
date/time group and the call duration, followed by an invitation to continue, i.e.,
GA+?
To close the link with the coast station, the system keys automatically the code
BRK+ (break) and return the telex terminal to the "STANDBY" condition. (see
Figure 62)

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Figure 62: Example details of connection

Working with ship stations


The following example describes a connection between two ship stations for
conversation in ARQ mode on the frequency 8398 kHz.
Before the telex link can be installed the station which wants to contact the other has
to announce the attention to get in contact via telex. This DSC announcement
contains the priority (safety), the class of emission (telex, F1B) and the working
frequency on which the subsequent telex communication shall be conducted.

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Figure 63: Example manual ship to ship connection

The following picture shows the exchanged telex communications. All information
printed in small letters are outgoing from the calling station, information printed in
capital letters indicate the response of the called station

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Figure 64: Example running ship to ship connection

6.5.6.5. List of practical tasks MF/HF


Done?
Transmit capabilities
Sending distress alert, call and message to all stations (DSC+FEC)
Sending distress alert, call and message to an individual stations (DSC+ARQ)
Sending a distress relay to a MRCC (DSC+ARQ)
Sending urgency or safety messages to all stations (DSC+FEC)
Sending urgency or safety messages to an individual station (DSC+ARQ)
Transmitting a telex to a land subscriber automatically(dirtlx)
Transmitting a telex to a land subscriber manually (dirtlx)
Transmitting a telex to a land subscriber (dirtlx+conversation))
Transmitting a telex to a ship (DSC+ARQ)
Establishing a conversation call to a ship (DSC+ARQ)

Other capabilities telex


Edit the configuration

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Edit the address book
Coast station setup
Compose a correct telex to a ship or a land subscriber
Save the telex in a correct folder
Open a message out of the correct folder
Read the receive logs
Poll for message
Use the help function
Establish operational readiness
Table 15: Radiotelex practical training tasks

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6.6.

Inmarsat

6.6.1 Basics
The Inmarsat structure consists of a space segment and a ground segment.
6.6.1.1. Inmarsat space segment
The Inmarsat communications structure comprises of three major components:

The space segment


The ground segment
The ship earth stations

The space segment is provided by lnmarsat, and consists of four geostationary


communications satellites, with backup satellites in orbit ready to be used if
necessary.
Geostationary communications satellites are launched into the geostationary orbit
(GSO), which is circular orbit 35 700 km (19270 nm) above the equator and lying in
the plane of the equator. Satellites in the GSO orbit the earth at exactly the same rate
as the earth rotates about its axis and therefore appear to be stationary above a fixed
point on the earth's equator, thus eliminating the need to track the satellite from fixed
earth stations

Figure 65: Inmarsat satellite positions

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The use of the GSO to achieve virtually worldwide coverage by radio from space with
a minimum of three equally spaced satellites was first proposed in 1945.
Solar panels provide communications satellites with their electrical power
requirements and hydrazine gas motors provide the means to perform minor
positional corrections in orbit.
The Inmarsat satellites are controlled from the Satellite Control Centre (SCC) based
in the Inmarsat Headquarters in London, United Kingdom.
Extent of global coverage
The coverage area of each satellite (also known as "the footprint") is defined as the
area on the earth's surface (sea and/or land) within which a mobile or fixed antenna
can obtain reliable line-of-sight communications with the satellite.
Each Inmarsat satellite is engineered to provide complete coverage of the visible
face of the earth. The line-of-sight is not, however, satisfied over the Polar Regions,
and communications start to become unreliable for locations above the 76 north or
south

Figure 66: Inmarsat coverage map (I 3)

Ocean Regions
The four Inmarsat satellites, corresponding to the four ocean regions, provide
overlapping coverage (see Figure 65 and Figure 66) and are positioned thus:

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Atlantic Ocean Region East (AOR-E)

orbital location at 15.5 W

Pacific Ocean Region (POR)

orbital location at 178 E

Indian Ocean Region (IOR)

orbital location at 64 E

Atlantic Ocean Region West (AOR-W)

orbital location at 54 W

In order to call a SES in one of the four ocean regions, the following telex and
telephone access codes, corresponding to the international country codes in the
public telex and telephone networks, should be used:
Telex
580

Telephone
870

6.6.1.2. Inmarsat ground segment


The ground segment comprises a global network of Coast Earth Stations (CESs) or
rather a Land Earth Station (LES), Network Co-ordination Stations (NCSs), and a
Network Operations Centre (NOC). Each CES provides a link between the satellites
and the national/international communications network. The large antennas used by
the CESs to communicate with the satellite for its ocean region are capable of
handling many calls simultaneously to and from the SESs.
A CES operator is typically a large telecommunications company, which can provide
a wide range of communications services to the SESs communicating through the
CES. Each of the Inmarsat communications systems has its own network of CESs.
For each Inmarsat system a separate NCS is located within each ocean region, to
monitor and control its communications traffic. Each NCS communicates with the
CESs in its ocean region, and with the other NCSs, as well as with the NOC located
in the Inmarsat headquarters, making possible the transfer of information throughout
the system. The NCSs are involved in setting up calls to and from SESs by assigning
a channel, which both the SES and CES use for the call

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Figure 67: Allocation of a communication channel

A SES is a device installed on a ship (or a fixed installation in a maritime


environment) to enable the user to communicate to and from shore-based
subscribers, via a selected satellite and CES. Inmarsat does not manufacture SESs,
but permits independent manufacturers to produce models, which meet typeapproval standards, set by Inmarsat for the particular Inmarsat system, Inmarsat-B, C, -M. or Fleet 77. Only type-approved SESs are permitted to communicate over the
Inmarsat satellites.

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6.6.1.3. Different Inmarsat systems and their functions


Figure 68: Different Inmarsat types in comparison compares the size, the weight and
the extent of their equipment above and below deck.

Figure 68: Different Inmarsat types in comparison

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Table 16: Service of different Inmarsat types in comparison below indicates the
features of different types of Inmarsat systems and their compliance with the
GMDSS.

Table 16: Service of different Inmarsat types in comparison


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6.6.2. Inmarsat-B system


The Inmarsat-B system was introduced in 1994 and uses digital technology to
provide high quality telephone, fax, telex, e-mail and data communications, with the
antenna size and weight being approximately the same as for the older Inmarsat-A.
Inmarsat-B is capable of high-speed data communications (at up to 64 Kbit), making
it especially suitable for data-intensive users such as oil and seismological
companies which need to exchange large amounts of data on a regular basis
6.6.2.1. Use of the Inmarsat-B system

Following successful installation and commissioning, lnmarsat-B maritime terminals


can be used to access the full range of Inmarsat services, including access to the
GMDSS infrastructure.
lnmarsat-B offers similar services to the passed Inmarsat-A and is generally
envisaged as the digital successor to the analogue-based Inmarsat-A. lnmarsat-B
offers users dedicated digital facsimile and data services at a speed of 9600 bits/s.
Inmarsat-M terminals are intended for telephone and low- speed (2400 bits/s)
facsimile and voice-band services.
Note, however, that lnmarsat-M maritime terminals are not accepted for use in
the GMDSS, because there is no provision for a direct printing (i.e., telex)
facility. They do, however, have a Distress-alerting button and can be used at
sea where GMDSS compliance is not required, or to supplement a ship's
GMDSS equipment.
Both Inmarsat-B and Inmarsat-M are digital systems, which allow the user to send
information using minimal bandwidth and satellite power, thus reducing operating
costs.
To function, all terminals must be switched on and allowed to warm up as
recommended in the manufacturer's instructions.
6.6.2.2. Components of an Inmarsat-B ship earth station
In general, Inmarsat-B equipment consist of a parabolic antenna, a power supply
unit, a transceiver, a monitor, a keyboard a printer and a control unit. The control unit
contains a display, control buttons, and a handset.

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Figure 69: Inmarsat B equipment

The purpose of the parabolic antenna (Figure 35) is to spot and track any desired
satellite. Generally maritime satellite antennas are generally protected against
weather influences e.g. rain, hail, snow etc., dirt and salt from the sea.

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6.6.2.3. Handling of an Inmarsat-B SES

ON/OFF
Switch
Display
Indicator
Lamps

Signal Level
Menu keys

Cursor keys
Hook off key

Distress
Button

Keypad
Keypad
Shift key

Select key

Loudspeaker

Figure 70: Inmarsat B cradle

Display:

Shows information about status or menu info

Indicator lamps:

Gives info about the power, call or in use status

Cursor key:

Allows navigating in menus

Shift key:

Push that key to be able to get access to second level

Loudspeaker:

The loudspeaker can be switched on or off

On/OFF Switch:

To switch the handset on or off

Signal level:

Indicates the signal strength

Menu keys:

Get access to the address book, answering machine and ocean


region menu.

Hook off key:

Push this key to hook on or off

Key pad:

Use to enter telephone numbers or insert letters.

Select key:

Push to select something.

Distress button:

Push to transmit a distress alert and distress voice call.

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Menu bar

Printer info

Message info

Info field

Text field

Info bar

Figure 71: Inmarsat B telex screen

Menu bar:

Shows information about current available menus

Printer info:

Shows details about the connected printer

Message info:

Shows received messages

Text field:

You may type in a telex or fax text

Info bar:

Shows the current Sat Status and Help function

6.6.2.4. Acquiring a satellite connection


The Inmarsat-B system works mainly automatically. The equipment should be
connected to a Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS) receiver (e.g. GPS).
This ensures that the equipment will direct the antenna automatically to the correct
azimuth and elevation angel of the most suitable satellite and will log in. Figure 73
and Figure 72 shows the current log in satellite and its azimuth and elevation angel.

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Figure 73: Inmarsat-B log in satellite

Figure 72: Inmarsat B antenna


The Inmarsat-B equipment offers the possibility toalignment
change the satellite manually. See
Figure 74

Figure 74: Inmarsat-B manual selection of satellite

6.6.2.5. Use of 2-digit code service via Inmarsat-B


With the two digit code SESs have access to special services via Telephony and/or
telex which are offered by certain institutions ashore. It should be noted, that some
services required by two digit code are liable to pay costs.
The code 32 e.g. is used to obtain medical advice without pay. Some CESs has
direct connections with local hospitals for use with this code.

Figure 75: Inmarsat-B request medical advice by 2-digit code

All access codes are listed in the Inmarsat Handbook and in appendix 20 of this
compendium.

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6.6.2.6. Practical Tasks


Done?
Transmit capabilities
Sending distress alert, call and message by telephony
Sending urgency or safety calls using access codes by telephony
Sending a distress relay to a MRCC
Calling a land subscriber by telephony
Calling a ship by telephony
Test the distress facility
Sending distress alert, call and message by telex
Sending urgency or safety messages using access codes by telex
Transmitting a telex to a land subscriber
Transmitting a telex to a ship
Opening a conversation call to a ship or a land subscriber

Other capabilities telephony


Login and logout procedure
Changing the satellite
Change the Coast Earth Station (CES)
Change the position and time(if no GPS is available)
Change the azimuth and elevation
Edit the default settings (Ringtone, Background light, Language etc.)
Edit the address book
Read the call log
Commissioning
Establish operational readiness (TX/RX on, Successful login)

Other capabilities telex


Edit the configuration
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Edit the address book
Compose a correct telex to a ship or a land subscriber
Save the telex in a correct folder
Open a message out of the correct folder
Read the receive logs
Use the help function
Establish operational readiness
Table 17: INMARSAT-B practical training tasks

6.6.3. Inmarsat-C system


Inmarsat-C was introduced in 1991 to complement Inmarsat-A by providing a global
low cost two-way data communications network using a small terminal that could be
fitted on either a large or small vessel. Its compactness makes it especially suitable
for smaller vessels such as yachts, fishing vessels or supply craft. The Inmarsat-C
system does not provide voice communications but is a means of sending text, data
and e-mail messages to and from shore-based subscribers using a store-and-forward
technique. This requires the user to prepare the message prior to sending it; it is then
transmitted via the land earth station operator who sends it on to its intended
destination. The global communications capability of the Inmarsat-C system,
combined with its MSI broadcasts and distress-alerting capabilities, has resulted in
the Inmarsat-C system being accepted by the IMO as meeting the requirements of
the GMDSS.
The lnmarsat-C system was introduced in 1991 to complement the Inmarsat-A
system by providing low-cost global communications on a small terminal, suitable for
fitting on all vessels, large and small. The small size makes the lnmarsat-C especially
suitable for smaller vessels, such as yachts, fishing vessels or supply craft
The Inmarsat-C system does not provide voice communications, but does provide a
means of sending text messages or data to and from an SES, using "store-andforward" messaging. This technique requires a user to prepare the message/data on
the terminal and then transmit it via the Inmarsat-C satellite system. After a short
delay the message/data will be delivered to the recipient's terminal, where it may be
printed, viewed or stored.
lnmarsat-C communication services provide the means to send or receive messages
between an lnmarsat-C SES and a shore-based telex terminal, personal computer or
E-mail service.
An Inmarsat-C SES can also send text messages to a shore-based facsimile terminal
EGC services enable authorized shore-based information providers to send
information over the lnmarsat-C system to selected groups of SESs. These may be
within a defined geographical area, or belong to a defined group such as a shipping
company. Two EGC services are available
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SafetyNET, which is used to broadcast MSI to ships.


FleetNET, which is used typically by companies to send commercial
information to ships belonging to their fleet.
The lnmarsat-C system can satisfy the GMDSS satellite communication requirements
for sea area A3 through the provision of:

Distress alerting and distress priority messaging.


Reception of MSI by means of EGC SafetyNET broadcasts.
General Communications by means of several types of store-and-forward
messaging services besides the lnmarsat-C distress and safety functions.

Depending on individual CES facilities, Inmarsat-C supports the following commercial


store-and-forward messaging services:

Telex message service: send and receive messages between the SES
and any telex terminal which is connected to the national/international
telex networks
Facsimile messaging service: send facsimile messages to a shore-based
facsimile terminal, and receive re-typed facsimile messages indirectly, via
a facsimile bureau service
Messages to and from a computer: exchange messages, through the
intermediary of a specialist service provider, between the SES and any
computer terminal which is connected to the Public Switched Telephone
Network (PSTN), provided that the remote computer and the SES are
equipped with suitable hardware and software
E-mail services: exchange messages and files with subscribers to E-mail
services, world-wide (e.g. using X.400, Internet, etc.) through the
intermediary of an E-mail service provider

The lnmarsat-C system features automatic data reporting and polling, which also
results in many advantages for general communications. Data reporting allows for
the transmission of information at prearranged intervals or as required, while polling
allows the user's shore-based management to interrogate the remote ship terminals
at any time for the required information, e.g., position, course, speed, fuel
consumption, cargo temperature, etc. It is usual to link the SES terminal with a
variety of navigation systems, such as Global Positioning System (GPS), in order to
provide position reporting, which ensures that the terminal will receive the correct
area calls.
A CES may interface with any of the following devices connected to the
national/international telecommunications network:

A telex terminal connected to the international telex network.


A computer connected to the international Packet Switched Data Network
(PSDN) or the X.25 or X.400 network, named after the communications
standards (protocols) used on the network.

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A computer connected to the PSTN.


A facsimile terminal connected to the PSTN. The Inmarsat-C-system
allows an SES to send messages directly to an SES. A facsimile terminal
may, instead, send text messages indirectly, via a facsimile bureau
service, where the message is re-typed, and sent as a store-and-forward
message to the SES. Several Inmarsat-C CESs and other organizations,
offer such a bureau service.
Dedicated equipment, such as a data-processing system, connected to a
private network (such as a leased line).

The CES is connected via leased or public landlines directly to a RCC. Every
lnmarsat-C CES can therefore route distress calls from an SES with top priority to a
specialized land-based centre, to ensure efficient search and rescue activities.
Depending on its policy, an lnmarsat-C CES may also interface messages received
from one SES, for forwarding over the satellite link to another SES, to enable ship-toship communications.
6.6.3.1. The use of Inmarsat-C system
The lnmarsat-C system provides a continuous worldwide service for sending and
receiving text or data messages.
Various lnmarsat-C SES models available do not have a common control layout or
operating features, but all share the common characteristics of providing global
communications on a small terminal, which is simple to install and has modest power
requirements.
The lnmarsat-C SES may also be used to exchange messages with another
Inmarsat-SES (or a Land Mobile Earth Station, LMES), i.e., ship-to-ship or mobile-tomobile messaging.
The Inmarsat-C system is based on digital technology, which means that anything
that can be encoded into digital data, whether text keyed in, numeric data read from
instruments, or other information in digital form, can be sent and received over the
system.
The basic technique used for sending and receiving messages over the lnmarsat-C
system is known as "store-and-forward messaging. Ship-to-shore messages are
prepared on the terminal and then transmitted via an Inmarsat satellite, in a series of
data packets, to an lnmarsat-C CES. This CES acts as an interface (or gateway)
between the satellite link (the space segment) and the national/international
telecommunications network. If the CES receives any data packets in error, it signals
back to the SES to re-transmit those packets, and the procedure is repeated until the
CES has received the complete message with no errors. The CES stores the
message briefly before forwarding it over the telecommunication network to its
intended destination; hence the term "store-and-forward".

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A similar procedure takes place when a shore-based correspondent sends a


message through a CES addressed to a terminal. The lnmarsat-C system is very
flexible, allowing a wide variety of equipment to be connected at either end. The
equipment used at either end and the associated communications services depend
on individual circumstances. In the event that communications cannot be established,
consult the list of Non-Delivery Codes Notification (NDN) shown in appendix 21 of
this compendium.
6.6.3.2. Selecting an Ocean Region
In many parts of the world, the Ocean Regions covered by different satellites overlap.
For example, the coverage map of Inmarsat-C CESs shows that the North Sea is
covered by the AOR-W, AOR-E, and IOR satellites. Within such an overlap zone, an
antenna is in line-of-sight of more than one satellite (provided the antenna is not
obstructed), and the SES may be logged-in to any one of the associated Ocean
Regions.
N.B. MSI by EGC SafetyNET for Navarea I is only available via the AOR-E
satellite (see section 12 for a detailed description of EGC services)
6.6.3.3. Logging-in to an Ocean Region/ NCS Common Signalling Channel
The SES must be logged-in to an Ocean Region before messages can be sent or
received over the lnmarsat-C system. Logging-in informs the system that the SES is
now available for communications, and causes the SES to tune to the NCS Common
Signalling Channel (or NCS Common Channel) for that Ocean Region. When the
SES is tuned to the NCS Common Channel, it is said to be synchronised, or
listening, to the channel, or in idle mood.
Some SESs perform a log-in automatically when switched on, selecting the strongest
NCS Common Channel signal. Other SESs do not perform an automatic log-in, but
must be logged-in manually to a selected Ocean Region /NCS. Refer to the
manufacturer's instructions for how to perform a manual log-in.
After a few minutes, the SES should indicate that it has successfully logged-in to the
selected Ocean Region, and show the received signal strength of the NCS Common
Channel. The signal strength should be at least the minimum suggested by the
manufacturer. If not, refer to the manufacturer's instructions concerning further
action.
During distress working or when requiring MSI for your ocean area, you should set
the automatic scan on your terminal to scan only your ocean region. When changing
ocean regions it is only necessary to log-in to the new NCS.
6.6.3.4. Use of 2-digit code service via Inmarsat-C
With the two digit code Inmarsat-C SESs have access to special services via telex
which are offered by certain institutions ashore. For details see 0.

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6.6.3.5. Routing via a CES


The required CES and routeing is selected using a 3-digit code, e.g., to contact
Goonhilly, key in code 102 for the AOR-E routeing or code 002 for the AOR-W
routeing. This is usually done as a simple selection from the Transmit menu, where
all the CESs are available as a preprogramed list stored in memory. Whilst in the
transmit menu, access the address book to programme in the name and number of
any terminals that you wish to contact. When the routeing and subscriber have been
selected, press <Enter> to transmit.
6.6.3.6. Navigational areas (Navarea) / Metrological areas (Metarea)
An EGC receiver is able to receive MSIs in the dedicated Navarea / Metarea
automatically. For more information regarding EGC reception and the selection of
Navareas and message types see 0.

Figure 76: Inmarsat satellites and Navareas / Metareas

6.6.3.7. Log out before switching off


If possible, keep the SES under power and logged-in to an Ocean Region at all
times, so that the SES is ready to send or receive messages immediately. However,
if the SES is to be switched off for a prolonged period (for example, to conserve
electrical power), and it is logged-in to an Ocean Region, then the SES must be
logged-out of that Ocean Region before the SES is switched off.
Logging-out of the SES informs the Ocean Region NCS that the SES is no longer
able to receive messages. The system will then reject any messages intended for the
SES and inform callers that this SES is not available.

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WARNING: Failure to log-out before switching off the SES will result in repeated
attempts to send the message via the selected CES to the SES whenever a caller
tries to communicate. Eventually, after a number of re-tries (depending on the CES),
the CES will cease attempting to deliver the message and, if requested, return a nondelivery notice to the sender.Therefore, switching off an SES without logging-out first
may well then result in messages being completely lost rather than being delayed.
6.6.3.8. Routine operational tasks
The following tasks should be carried out at regular intervals of no more than every
eight hours and ideally even more frequently:

On the SES monitor, check which Ocean Region is currently logged in. If
this has changed from the previously intended Ocean Region, make sure
that the new Ocean Region is suitable, particularly for potential
correspondents. Remember that the CES selected in the new Ocean
Region must support the required communications services.

Inform potential correspondents of the new Ocean Region, so that


they can make contact as desired.

Check that the signal strength indicated on the SES is above the minimum level
recommended by the manufacturer
9.1.1.1.

Quick reference Inmarsat-C guide

The steps below summarize how to use an Inmarsat-C SES for distress and safety
purposes, and how to send and receive general communications.
Prepare your SES
1. Make sure your SES antenna has an unobstructed view of the sky in all directions.
2. Switch on your Inmarsat-C SES and all associated equipment.
3. Log in to the ocean region you have selected.
4. Decide on the CES through which you are going to communicate.
5. Confirm that your SES is logged in and receiving a strong NCS Common Channel
signal.
Routine checks
1. Throughout your journey, make sure that your SES is receiving a strong signal and all
associated equipment is working properly.
2. If you are going to sail outside the ocean region to which you are currently logged in,
make sure your SES is logged in either manually or automatically to the new ocean
region and receiving a strong signal.

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Sending a distress call
You may use your SES to send a brief distress alert or a more detailed distress
priority message to an RCC.
Receiving MSI broadcasts
Your SES can receive broadcasts of MSI within an ocean region
Sending a message (ship-to-shore)
1. Create your message on the SES text editor or edit an existing message.
2. Select transmit (send) mode.
3. Select the CES through which you want your message routed.
4. Select the time of your message and whether you want confirmation of delivery and
hardcopy.
5. Before sending your message check that all the details you have entered are correct.
6. Enter the command to transmit (send) your message.
Receiving messages (shore-to-ship)
1. Make sure that everyone who may need to contact you knows how to do so.
2. Provided your SES is logged in and receiving a strong NCS Common Channel signal, it
should automatically receive all messages intended for it.
3. Make sure that your SES is set to store and/or print all received messages.
4. Note that some EGC messages may be sent frequently and could fill up your SESs
memory or disk storage.

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6.6.3.10 Components of an Inmarsat-C/Mini-C SES

Figure 77: Components of different Inmarsat-C types

Interconnection
Inmarsat permits only type-approved SES models, and their peripherals, to be
commissioned into the lnmarsat-C system. An SES comprises two parts the Data
Terminal Equipment (DTE) and the Data Circuit terminating Equipment (DCE). In
some models the DTE and DCE may be built into the same case, whilst in other
models they are separate.
DTE Interface
The DTE interfaces external input/output devices to the SES, such as:
A keyboard, screen and printer
An external computer
WARNING: If a multi-tasking computer is used to operate an Inmarsat-C
SES, no unnecessary software should be installed which could prevent the
computer performing an Inmarsat-C function, or cause it to be infected by
"viruses", which might adversely affect communications.
A position-reporting system, using for example GPS, the Global Navigation
Satellite System (GLONASS), to provide the ship's position, for use in
periodic position reports.
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The DTE also provides storage for messages created on the keyboard, before they
are transmitted over the satellite link.
DCE Interface
The DCE interfaces the SES to the satellite system, using its transmitter and receiver
and an antenna. The DCE functions in a sense as a "satellite modem" by analogy to
a modem, which provides an interface between a computer and the telephone
network. The DCE transmitter and receiver can be tuned independently to different
channels, depending on the circumstances.

Figure 78: Interface possibilities

Antenna
The antenna must be able to maintain a line-of-sight path with the selected satellite.
On a ship-based DCE, the antenna is omni-directional, so that it can transmit to and
receive from the intended satellite even when the ship is pitching and rolling in heavy
seas. (Figure 34: Inmarsat-C omnidirectional antenna)
Note that this type of antenna has no moving parts, unlike the much larger InmarsatB directional antenna, which constantly moves to counter the motion of the ship, and
so requires considerably elaborate electronics and power sources.
6.6.3.11. Practical Tasks
Done?
Transmit capabilities
Sending distress alert without nature of distress
Sending distress alert with nature of distress
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Sending distress message with nature and details of distress
Sending urgency or safety messages using access codes by telex
Transmitting a telex/fax/email etc. to a land subscriber
Transmitting a telex to a ship
Login and logout procedure
Change the satellite
Other capabilities
Edit the default settings (configuration, routing, etc.)
Implement different Metareas/Coastal warning areas
Perform a link test
Configure and carry out a data reporting
Edit the address book
Compose a correct telex/fax/email to a ship or a land subscriber
Save the telex in a correct folder
Open a message out of the correct folder
Read the logs (Transmit, Receive, EGC)
Use the help function
Establish operational readiness (Transceiver on, Printer on, Screen on)
Table 18: INMARSAT-C practical training tasks

6.6.4. Inmarsat-M systems


Inmarsat-M was introduced in 1993 to complement the existing Inmarsat-A system by
providing global telephone/fax and data communications on an SES which is
inexpensive and compact in size. The Inmarsat-M SES is smaller and lighter than an
Inmarsat-B SES, making this network suitable for smaller vessels such as fishing
vessels and yachts.
lnmarsat-M services include two-way global telephone, facsimile and computer data
communications. Inmarsat-M SESs are available as either single-channel or
multichannel models. However, a multi-channel SES generally requires greater
transmission power than a single-channel SES, so the power supply and antenna for
a multi-channel Inmarsat-M SES model are larger and of higher gain than for a
single-channel model
The Inmarsat mini-M system was launched in January 1997 and offers the same
services as Inmarsat-M, but in a smaller, more lightweight and compact unit. This
SES can be made smaller because it operates only in the spot-beam coverage of the
latest Inmarsat-3 satellites.

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Using internal batteries, the typical talking time is about 1.5 - 2.5 hours and up to 50
hours on standby. However, most maritime installations have external power supplies
which allow for continuous operation. It is possible to operate an Inmarsat mini-M
with a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card. It can be easily installed and removed,
making it possible for a number of individuals to make calls on a shared Inmarsat
mini-M, whilst still allowing for individual billing
lnmarsat-M does not form any part of the GMDSS as it is unable to comply with
regulations concerning reception of distress alerts due to the fact that the system is
voice only and there is no facility for direct printing of messages.
6.6.4.1. The limitations regarding Inmarsat-M and the GMDSS
lnmarsat-M does not form any part of the GMDSS as it is unable to comply with
regulations concerning reception of distress alerts due to the fact that the system is
voice only and there is no facility for direct printing of messages.
6.6.5. Inmarsat Fleet 77
The Inmarsat Fleet 77 system was launched in November 2001. It offers a unique
high performance service for high-speed shore-to-ship and ship-to-shore
communications. Fleet 77 introduces a new Mobile ISDN and Mobile Packet Data
Service (MPDS) delivering voice, fax and data at speeds of up to 64 kbit/s. Inmarsat
Fleet 77 is equipped to satisfy and safety telephony requirements of the GMDSS
only. It offers more efficient data-driven communications for applications such as
technical management and crew roistering, accessing a head office intranet, and
obtaining updates of weather and chart information. Store-and-forward video is also
available for on board diagnostics and telemedicine.

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Table 19: Different Inmarsat Fleet systems in comparison

6.6.5.1. Components of an Inmarsat Fleet ship earth station


In general, Inmarsat Fleet 77 equipment consists of a parabolic antenna, a power
supply unit, a transceiver, a PC, a keyboard, a printer and a control unit. The control
unit contains a display, control buttons, a distress button and a handset.

Figure 79: Inmarsat Fleet 77 components

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6.6.5.2. Method of acquiring satellite both manually and automatically


The Inmarsat Fleet 77 system works mainly automatically. The equipment has to be
connected to a GNSS receiver (e.g. GPS). This ensures that the equipment will direct
the antenna automatically to the correct azimuth and elevation angel of the most
suitable satellite and will log in. See also 0.
6.6.5.3. Handling of an Inmarsat Fleet 77 SES

Info Line
LCD Display

Distress Button

Hint Line
Indicator LEDs
Menu Button

2nd Level
Button

Alpha Numeric
Buttons

Priority Indicator
LEDs

Figure 80: Inmarsat Fleet 77 cradle

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The handset is the primarily interface for the Fleet 77 system. It enables the user to
dial numbers, it displays error and status messages, and it is used to configure the
transceiver.
Distress Button: Push to transmit a distress alarm
Priority Indicator LEDs: This section gives info about transmitting priorities
Info Line: Shows the mailbox and signal strength
LCD Display: Shows details of the current menu. This section gives the user visual
indications about the operation and status of the system
Hint Line: Gives hints to the current used menu
Indicator LEDs: shows info about power, alarm, synchronisation and connection
Menu Button: Gives access to different menus. This section enables the user to
interact with the software menu system of the transceiver
2nd Level Button: Gives access to the 2nd key level
Alpha Numeric Buttons: This section enables the user to dial and perform data
entry functions into the transceiver

Message Window

Task Buttons

Folder Window

Address Book
Window

Text Window
Figure 81: Inmarsat Fleet 77 Email screen

Folders window is located in the upper left part of the screen. This window includes
the following folders:

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Sent Items - sent messages


Inbox - Incoming messages
Drafts - draft messages for transmission
Outbox - messages ready for transmission
Deleted Items - deleted messages

Address Book window is located in the bottom left part of the screen. This window
contains a list of email subscribers.
Message window is located in the right part of the screen. The details of the marked
message can be seen in the bottom part of the window.
Text Window is located in the lower right part of the screen. The details of the
marked message can be seen.
6.6.5.4. Use of 2-digit code service via Inmarsat Fleet
With the two digit code Fleet SESs have access to special services via telephony
which are offered by certain institutions ashore. It should be noted, that some
services required by two digit code are liable to pay costs.
All access codes are listed in the Inmarsat Handbook and in Annex 20 of this model
course
6.6.5.5. Practical Tasks
Done?
Transmit capabilities
Sending distress alert-, call- and message by telephony
Sending urgency or safety calls using access codes by telephony
Sending a distress relay to a MRCC
Calling a land subscriber by telephony
Calling a ship by telephony
Transmit an email to a land subscriber
Other capabilities telephony
Login and logout procedure
Changing the satellite
Change the Coast Earth Station (CES)
Change the position and time (if no GPS is available)
Edit the default settings (Ringtone, Background light, Language etc.)
Edit the address book
Read the call log
Commissioning
Establish operational readiness (TX/RX on, Successful login)
Other capabilities Email

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Edit the configuration
Edit the address book
Compose a correct email to a ship or a land subscriber
Save the email in a correct folder
Open a message out of the correct folder
Read the receive logs
Use the help function
Table 20: INMARSAT Fleet 77 practical training tasks

6.6.6. Inmarsat-D and D+


Inmarsat-D is a one way data transfer system for mobile stations (Simplex
Broadcast). Inmarsat-D+ is more enhanced with a back channel where an
acknowledgement can be received. Inmarsat-D and D+ are often used as a Ship
Security Alarm System (SSAS).
6.6.7. Inmarsat Numbers IMN
Each system uses a distinctive Inmarsat Number (IMN) series which allows the SES
functionality to be recognized from the number allocated to that terminal:
lnmarsat-B Nine digits, beginning with 3
lnmarsat-C Nine digits, beginning with 4
lnmarsat-M Nine digits, beginning with 6
Inmarsat Fleet 77Nine digits, beginning with 76
Inmarsat Fleet 77Nine digits, beginning with 60 (HSD)
Beispiel
6.6.8. Overview of SafetyNET and FleetNET services
SafetyNET and FleetNET are part of EGC. Information regarding SafetyNET can be
found under 0.
FleetNET offers the possibilities for receiving information transmitted for groups of
ships, for fleets or ships of a certain flag state (See Figure 82: Overview of
SafetyNET and FleetNET). Information regarding it should be noted, that the
participation of FleetNET is liable to pay costs.

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Figure 82: Overview of SafetyNET and FleetNET

6.6.9. Operational voice procedure via Inmarsat


Inmarsat-B, -M and Fleet systems are constructed among others for voice
communications.

6.6.9.1. Distress-, urgent- safety and routine communication


The distress-, urgency- and safety communications in the GMDSS must comply with
the appropriate rules of the RRs as defined in chapter VII.
Some Inmarsat equipment offers the possibility to transmit so called priority
messages. Priority messages suppress other messages with a lower importance
(See Figure 83: Overview of priorities).
Priority P3
Distress

A distress (P3) will


pre-empt all other
communications
Priority P2

Urgent

An urgency (P2) call


will pre-empt both
safety
(P1)
and
routine (P0) calls
Priority P1

Safety

Routine

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A safety (P1) call will


pre-empt a routine
(P0) call
Priority P0

Lowest priority

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Figure 83: Overview of priorities

6.6.9.2

Procedure for sending a distress alert-, call- and message via Inmarsat-B
and Inmarsat Fleet 77

To perform a distress alert the user has to press the distress button on the cradle.
This ship to shore distress alert produces the satellite number, the ships Inmarsat ID
and the priority distress on a screen in the appropriate Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre (MRCC) / RCC. The alert will be interrupted if the button is
released within five seconds.
After the MRCC has responded to the ship the vessel starts its transmission of a
distress call and distress message as described under 0 with the exemption that a
transmission of a MMSI is not necessary.
Distress messages transmitted through Inmarsat systems are sent through the
general communication channels with absolute priority to ensure rapid receipt.
To perform a distress alert relay in the direction ship to shore, the user has to
transmit a distress priority message (P3, see Figure 83) to a MRCC without pressing
the distress button.
When receiving a distress priority call in the direction shore to ship, the personal on
board will be alerted by an audible alarm and by an indicator light.

6.6.9.3. Procedure for sending an urgency call- and message via Inmarsat-B and
Inmarsat Fleet 77
Every urgency call and message has to be addressed either to a subscriber ashore
or to another ship earth station. When editing an urgency call it has to be noted that
the priority P2 must be selected (See Figure 83). Subscribers ashore can be e. g.
Hospitals and MRCCs.
The land subscribers telephone number is mostly compose of as follows:

Country Code

Area Code
Telephone Number

Access Code

00

49

421

536870

Figure 84: Example Inmarsat land subscriber international phone number

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Calling a ship earth station needs after the common access code the satellite access
number for telephony and then the ships Inmarsat ID e.g. Inmarsat-B ID:

Access Code

Inmarsat B ID

Sat Access
Code

00

870

323 411 100

Figure 85: Example Inmarsat B ship earth station phone number

The priority P2 indicates that the following communications are of a very high
importance. Because of this the use of the urgency signal Pan Pan is therefore not
necessary, it would confuse the subscriber e.g. a hospital ashore. The urgency signal
can be used in connection with MRCCs, RCCs and ship earth stations. The voice
procedures to conduct P2 communications see 0
6.6.9.4.Procedure for sending a safety announcement, call and message via
Inmarsat-B and Inmarsat Fleet 77
Every safety call and message has to be addressed either to a subscriber ashore or
to another ship earth station. When editing a safety call it has to be noted that the
priority P1 must be selected (See Figure 83). Subscribers ashore can be e. g.
NAVTEX coordinator, weather administrations, MRCCs....
The priority P1 indicates that the following communications are regarding the safety
of navigation or important weather information. Because of this the use of the safety
signal Securite is therefore not necessary, it would confuse the subscriber e.g.
national hydrographic offices. The safety signal can be used in connection with
MRCCs, RCCs and ship earth stations. The voice procedures to conduct P1
communications see 0.
6.6.9.5. Routine communication via Inmarsat-B and Fleet 77
Every routine call and message has also been addressed either to a subscriber
ashore or to another ship earth station. Editing a routine call follow the instructions
given in Figure 84
6.6.9.6. List of practical tasks
6.6.10

Operational Inmarsat telex procedure

Inmarsat-B and Inmarsat-C are constructed among others for telex communications.
The distress-, urgency- and safety communications in the GMDSS must comply with
the appropriate rules of the RRs as defined in chapter VII.

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For the transmission of priority messages the appropriate instructions of the


manufactures are to be observed.
6.6.10.1 Distress via Inmarsat-B telex
Inmarsat-B provides the possibility to transmit a true distress alert or a distress test.
To perform a telex distress alert the user has to select the distress menu and to click
within the menu on Transmit Distress (See Figure 86).

Figure 86: Inmarsat-B telex selecting distress transmission

The distress information will be conveyed from the SES via the satellite and the CES
to the responsible MRCC.
After the connection is established the automatic transmission of distress information
will start. When the automatic transmission is finished additional details can be
manually added by the operator on the ship in distress.
The existing connection is a duplex connection so both parties are able to respond
after inviting each other with GA+ (go ahead). See Figure 87
Distress messages transmitted through Inmarsat systems are sent on the general
communication channels with absolute priority to ensure rapid receipt.

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Connection Information

Automatic Transmisson

Answer from RCC

Manually inserted information


by ship earth station

Figure 87: Inmarsat-B telex distress transmission

To perform a distress alert relay in the direction ship to shore, the operator has to
transmit a distress priority message (P3, see Figure 83) to a MRCC / RCC by
entering the appropriate telex number See Figure 88.
Telex Country Code
Access Code

00

Telex Number

41

246466

Figure 88: Example International Inmarsat land subscriber telex number

The further On Scene Communications must be carried out on VHF or MF and,


where necessary on HF distress frequencies.
6.6.10.2. Distress via Inmarsat-C telex
Inmarsat-C provides two possibilities to transmit a distress alert:

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Distress alert including the ships Inmarsat ID and the last known position and
time.
Distress alert including the ships Inmarsat ID, the last known position and time
and additionally the nature of distress.
In the first method open the cover lid and press the distress button for at least 5
seconds, until the transmission starts. (See Figure 89)

Figure 89: Inmarsat Mini-C telex distress panel

In the second method enter the distress menu and select the nature of distress (See
Figure 90). Then lift the cover lid and push the distress button for at least 5 seconds.
(See Figure 89)

Figure 90: Inmarsat-C distress telex settings

The distress information will be conveyed from the SES via the satellite and the CES
to the responsible MRCC.
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To perform a distress alert relay in the direction ship to shore, the operator has to
prepare a distress relay message as described in Figure 91.

Figure 91: Inmarsat-C mayday relay telex transmission

Thereafter the operator has to select the transmit menu and click on the distress
priority. Then the addressee will change to SEARCH & RESCUE automatically.
(See Figure 92). After pressing the send button the distress information will be
conveyed from the SES via the satellite and the CES to the responsible MRCC.

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Figure 92: Inmarsat-C priority settings

The further On Scene Communications has to be carried out on VHF or MF and,


where necessary on HF distress frequencies
6.6.10.3. Urgency / Safety Inmarsat-B telex
Inmarsat-B offers two possibilities to transmit messages to any subscriber:
Transmit the message directly to the subscriber and interrupt the connection
after sending automatically.
Set up a conversation call then transmit the message. The existing
connection is a duplex connection so both parties are able to respond after
inviting each other with GA+ (go ahead).
Figure 93 shows method one. After preparing an urgency or safety message the
access code (00), the telex country code (41) and the telex number of the destination
(246466) have to be filled into the appropriate address field. By pushing the return
key on the keyboard the transmitting starts.

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Figure 93: Inmarsat-B urgency transmission

To perform an urgency or safety call and message to another SES the access code,
the Sat access code and the Inmarsat-B ID of the other SES have to be filled into the
address field as shown below.
Access Code

00

Inmarsat B ID

Sat Access
Code

580

323 411 100

Figure 94: Example Inmarsat-B ship earth station telex number

6.6.10.4. Urgency / Safety via Inmarsat-C telex


The Inmarsat-C system does not offer the possibility for a call for conversation.
Subscribers either ashore or on a ship cannot be reached by a direct call in the
Inmarsat-C system. The store and forward mode is possible only. That means that
prepared messages are send from the SES via a satellite into a memory of a CES.
Then the connection will be interrupted automatically. The CES will forward the
message to the addressee automatically as soon as possible. After delivery the CES
will send an appropriate acknowledgement to the SES.
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6.6.10.5. Routine communication


Sending and receiving a telex / fax via Inmarsat-B
The format for a telex has to be composed in accordance with the relevant ITU-T
Recommendation. For dialling a telex subscriber it has to be started with the access
code 00 (automatic dialling) followed by the telex country code (28) and the telex
subscriber number (511244). In the direct connection after the telex delivery the
connection will be shut down automatically.
On the other hand there is a possibility for direct conversation between the SES and
the subscriber ashore. After dialling the subscribers number, within approximately 15
seconds you should receive the answerback of the called. This means that the telex
connection to the called subscriber has been established. You may now proceed with
your telex message
To send a fax it is necessary to dial the number like the normal phone connection
(see 0).
Sending and receiving a telex / fax via Inmarsat-C
Before transmitting a prepared telex or fax, the address book which contains different
types of addresses, has to be opened to select the correct telex or fax address. After
composing a telex or a fax it is possible to transmit a telex via two different types of
telex addresses (See Figure 95):
Subscriber ashore: Click on Telex, enter telex country code and subscribers
number as well as subscribers answerback (See Figure 95).
Ship subscriber: Click on Mobile, enter satellite access code (580) and the
Inmarsat-C ID of the ship to be called.
For a fax transmission the address book has to contain a fax address in which Fax
is selected and the country code, area code, and the subscribers fax number is
entered.

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Figure 95: Inmarsat-C address book

6.6.10.6 List of practical tasks


6.6.11.

Inmarsat Email procedure

Inmarsat Fleet 77 and Inmarsat-C offer the possibility to transmit emails in the
direction ship to shore and ship to ship.
6.6.11.1. Procedure for sending an email to shore
An easy way to send an email is to use Inmarsat Fleet 77. After composing an email
it should be made sure, that the system is online. Then select or enter the correct
email address and press the send button. The email will be immediate send to the
addressee. (See Figure 96)

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Figure 96: Inmarsat Fleet 77 Email transmission

Before sending a composed or stored email, the address book has to be prepared
with an email address. Then click the email address, click More E-mail and enter
subject details then press SEND (See Figure 97). The email will now deliver to the
subscriber.

Figure 97: Inmarsat Fleet 77 Email settings

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6.7. Cospas / Sarsat


6.7.1.Structure

Figure 98: GEOSAR coverage and GEOLUT location

6.7.1.1. Cospas/Sarsat space segment


Geostationary Search and Rescue (GEOSAR) satellite constellation
The GEOSAR constellation is comprised of satellites provided by the USA
(geostationary operational environmental satellite series), India (Indian national
satellite system series) and the European Organisation for the exploitation of
meteorological satellites.
The Cospas-Sarsat GEOSAR system
The GEOSAR system consists of 406 MHz repeaters carried on board various
geostationary satellites, and the associated Local User Terminals (LUT)s called
GEOLUTs which process the satellite signal.
As a GEOSAR satellite remains fixed relative to the Earth, there is no Doppler effect
on the received frequency and Doppler radio location positioning techniques cannot
be used to locate distress beacons. To provide rescuers with beacon position
information, such information must be either:
acquired by the beacon through an internal or an external navigation
receiver and encoded in the beacon message, or

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derived, with possible delays, from the Low Earth Orbit Search and
Rescue (LEOSAR) System.

The 406 MHz GEOSAR system


Cospas-Sarsat has demonstrated that the current generation of Cospas-Sarsat 406
MHz beacons could be detected using search and rescue instruments on board
geostationary satellites. The GEOSAR system consists of 406 MHz repeaters carried
on board various geostationary satellites and the associated ground facilities called
GEOLUTs which process the satellite signal.
Geostationary satellites orbit the Earth at an altitude of 36,000 km, with an orbit
period of 24 hours, thus appearing fixed relative to the Earth at approximately 0
degrees latitude (i.e. over the equator). A single geostationary satellite provides
GEOSAR uplink coverage of about one third of the globe, except for Polar Regions.
Therefore, three geostationary satellites equally spaced in longitude can provide
continuous coverage of all areas of the globe between approximately 70 degrees
North and 70 degrees South latitude.
Since GEOSAR satellites remain fixed relative to the Earth, there is no Doppler effect
on the received frequency and, therefore, the Doppler positioning technique cannot
be used to locate distress beacons. To provide rescuers with position information, the
beacon location must be either:
acquired by the beacon though an internal or an external navigation receiver
and encoded in the beacon message, or
derived from the LEOSAR system Doppler processing.
Cospas-Sarsat has demonstrated that the GEOSAR and LEOSAR system search
and rescue capabilities are complementary. For example the GEOSAR system can
provide almost immediate alerting in the footprint of the GEOSAR satellite, whereas
the LEOSAR system:
provides excellent coverage of the polar regions (which are beyond the
coverage of geostationary satellites);
can calculate the location of distress events using Doppler processing
techniques; and
is less susceptible to obstructions which may block a beacon signal in a given
direction because the satellite is continuously moving with respect to the
beacon.
LEOSAR satellite constellation
The Cospas-Sarsat 406 MHz LEOSAR system uses the same polar-orbiting satellites
as the 121.5 MHz system and, therefore, operates with the same basic constraints
which result from non-continuous coverage provided by LEOSAR satellites, although
with significantly improved performance resulting from the improved beacon technical
characteristics. The use of low-altitude orbiting satellites provides for a strong
Doppler effect in the up-link signal thereby enabling the use of Doppler positioning
techniques. The Cospas-Sarsat 406 MHz LEOSAR system operates in two coverage
modes, namely local and global coverage.

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Figure 99: LEOSAR and GEOSAR satellite constellation

406 MHz LEOSAR global mode


The 406 MHz SARP system provides global coverage by storing data derived from
on board processing of beacons signals, in the spacecraft memory unit. The content
of the memory is continuously broadcast on the satellite downlink. Therefore, each
beacon can be located by all LEOLUTs which track the satellite (even for LEOLUTs
which were not in the footprint of the satellite at the time the beacon was detected by
the satellite).
This provides the 406 MHz global coverage and introduces ground segment
processing redundancy.
The diagram to the right depicts a LEOSAR satellite orbiting the Earth in the direction
of the North Pole. The blue circle represents the satellite field of view at a point in the
recent past when the satellite was over the southern Atlantic Ocean. At that point in
time the satellite detected the 406 MHz beacon in Antarctica, however, since there
were no LEOLUTs in its field of view, a distress alert could not be generated at that
time. Nevertheless, the satellite continued to transmit the processed data associated
with this distress beacon. When the LEOLUT located on the North West coast of
Africa came into the view of the satellite, this LEOLUT received the beacon
information and generated a distress alert.
The 406 MHz global mode may also offer an additional advantage over the local
mode in respect of alerting time. As the beacon message is recorded in the satellite
memory by the first satellite pass which detected the beacon, the waiting time is not
dependent upon the satellite achieving simultaneous visibility with the LEOLUT and
the beacon. Consequently, the time required to produce alerts could be considerably
reduced.

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The animated graphic depicts two beacons: the yellow beacon is detected in global
mode only whereas the red beacon is detected in both local and global modes.
6.7.1.2. Cospas/Sarsat ground segment
GEOLUTs
A GEOLUT is a ground receiving station in the Cospas-Sarsat System that receives
and processes 406 MHz distress beacon signals which have been relayed by a
Cospas-Sarsat geostationary satellite. Due to the extremely large continuous
coverage footprint provided by each geostationary satellite, GEOLUTs are able to
produce near instantaneous alerting over extremely large areas. However, due to the
fact that the satellite remains stationary with respect to distress beacons, GEOLUTs
are not able to determine beacon locations using Doppler processing techniques. In
view of this, 406MHz beacons with location protocols allow for the encoding of
position data in the transmitted 406 MHz message, thus providing for quasi-real time
alerting with position information via the GEOSAR system.

Figure 100: GEOLUT stations

LEOSAR coverage
The Cospas-Sarsat LEOSAR system provides global coverage for 406 MHz beacons
and coverage over most land areas for 121.5 MHz beacons. The shaded areas
indicate regions without coverage for 121.5 MHz beacons.

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ALGIERS, ALGERIA

15 BEIJING, CHINA

29 LAHORE, PAKISTAN

OUARGLA, ALGERIA

16 HONG KONG, CHINA

30 CALLAO, PERU

PARANA, ARGENTINA

17 TOULOUSE, FRANCE

31 ARKHANGELSK, RUSSIA

RIO GRANDE, ARGENTINA

18 BANGALORE, INDIA

32 NAKHODKA, RUSSIA

ALBANY, AUSTRALIA

19 LUCKNOW, INDIA

33 JEDDAH, SAUDI ARABIA

BUNDABERG, AUSTRALIA

20 JAKARTA, INDONESIA

34 SINGAPORE

BRASILIA, BRAZIL

21 BARI, ITALY

35 CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA

RECIFE, BRAZIL

22 KEELUNG, ITDC

36 MASPALOMAS, SPAIN

CHURCHILL, CANADA

23 YOKOHAMA, JAPAN

37 BANGKOK, THAILAND

10 EDMONTON, CANADA

24 DAEJEON, KOREA

38 COMBE MARTIN, UK

11 GOOSE BAY, CANADA

25 WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND

39 ALASKA, USA

12 EASTER ISLAND, CHILE

26 ABUJA, NIGERIA

40 CALIFORNIA, USA

13 PUNTA ARENAS, CHILE

27 TROMSOE, NORWAY

41 FLORIDA, USA

14 SANTIAGO, CHILE

28 SPITSBERGEN, NORWAY

42 GUAM
43 HAWAII, USA
44 HAIPHONG, VIETNAM

Figure 101: Cospas / Sarsat LUTs

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LEOLUTs
The configuration and capabilities of each LEOLUT may vary to meet the specific
requirements of the participating countries, but the Cospas and Sarsat LEOSAR
spacecraft downlink signal formats ensure inter-operability between the various
spacecraft and all LEOLUTs meeting Cospas-Sarsat specifications.
The capability of a LEOLUT is determined, for the most part, by the LEOSAR satellite
channels it was designed to process. There are a possible 4 channels that may,
depending upon the specific satellite being tracked, be available for processing.
Some satellites support all the channels listed below, and some only support a
limited set of them.
The 406 MHz Search and Rescue Processor (SARP) satellite channel
transmits received 406 MHz beacon data which has already been partially
processed by the satellite to determine the identification, transmit time, and
received frequency for each distress beacon transmission burst. Because of
the on board memory capability of the SARP channel, this channel provides
global (yet not continuous) coverage for distress beacons which operate at
406 MHz
The 406 MHz Search and Rescue Repeater (SARR) channel receives
406 MHz beacon transmission bursts and immediately retransmits them on the
satellite downlink. Since there is no memory associated with the repeater
channel, this type of processing supports only local mode coverage (i.e. the
distress beacon and the LEOLUT must be in simultaneous view of the satellite
for a period of time). Furthermore, since the satellite does not process the
data, all the processing is performed by the LEOLUT.
121.5 MHz and 243 MHz Search and Rescue Repeater (SARR) channels
operate in a fashion similar to the 406 MHz SARR channel; however,
121.5/243 MHz beacons do not include identification information.
For the 121.5 MHz, 243 MHz and 406 MHz signals received via their respective
SARR channel, each transmission is detected and the Doppler information
calculated. A beacon position is then determined using this data. In the case of
406 MHz distress beacons, the LUT is also able to provide identification information
associated with the beacon.
Processing the SARP channel 2400 bits per second (bps) data (i.e. those generated
from 406 MHz transmissions) is relatively straightforward since the Doppler
frequency is measured and time-tagged on board the spacecraft. All 406 MHz data
received from the satellite memory on each pass can be processed within a few
minutes of pass completion.
To maintain accurate location processing, an update of the satellite ephemeris is
produced each time the LUT receives a satellite signal. The downlink carrier is
monitored to provide a Doppler signal using the LUT location as a reference, or

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highly stable 406 MHz calibration beacons at accurately known locations are used to
update the ephemeris data.
6.7.2. Possibilities
6.8.

EPIRB

The transmission of an EPIRB signal can be considered to be a distress alert. The


essential purpose of an EPIRB signal is to help determine the position of survivors
during SAR operations.
The EPIRB signal indicates that one or more persons are in distress, that they
possibly may no longer be on board a ship or aircraft and that receiving facilities may
no longer be available.

Figure 102: Different EPIRB types

6.8.1. The basic operation of the COSPAS-SARSAT satellite system and signal
routing/path
A LUT receiving an EPIRB transmission would consider that the vessel in distress is
unable to transmit a distress message and so a distress alert relay and a distress
message would normally be transmitted by a coast station to ships in the area by any
suitable means, e.g., Inmarsat (EGC), DSC, NAVTEX.
This EPIRB-system uses low-altitude polar-orbiting satellites operating in the 406
MHz band. The transmissions are received by the satellites, which pass on the
relevant information to a LUT, which then passes information to rescue authorities via
a Mission Control Centre (MCC). See Figure 103

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Figure 103: Communication path in Cospas / Sarsat system

6.8.2. Essential parts of Cospas / Sarsat EPIRBs


An EPIRB consists of a buoy, which carries antennas and the necessary electronic
equipment, power supplies, navigational aids, a hydrostatic release, and possibly a
control panel with an interface to the ship's power supply and remote activator.
Some EPIRB types incorporate an integral navigation receive capability provided e.g.
by a GPS receiver, enabling the position to be updated automatically. In this case,
data may be fed directly into the Distress Message Generator

All types of EPIRBs should additionally be equipped with a flashing light with a low duty-cycle ratio,
which is automatically activated by the onset of darkness to locate the EPIRBs position visually. See

Figure 104

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6.8.3. Basic characteristics of operation on 406 and 121,5 MHz EPIRB


The emission of a 406 MHz band EPIRB will be relayed by an appropriate satellite to
a LUT which forwards the distress information via a MCC to the MRCC automatically.
A 121.5 MHz terrestrial signalling facility is included on all current production Cospas
/ Sarsat EPIRBs, which serves primarily to provide a homing signal for SAR units and
other aircrafts
6.8.4. The registration and coding of a 406 MHz EPIRB
The ship owner must ensure that any EPIRB have been registered with the relevant
authority in the flag state, enabling details to be available to SAR authorities when
requested.
6.8.5. The information contents of a distress alert
The position of the EPIRB can be found by the satellite, using Doppler frequency-shift
measurement techniques. The 406 MHz EPIRB transmits digitally coded information,
regarding: distress information, country of origin and ships identification and serial
number. Optionally EPIRBs can additionally transmit the distress position, the date and
time, if supplied with navigational aids. Some EPIRBs offer the feature for remote control
with the possibility to select the nature of distress which then will also be transmitted
6.8.6. Operation
All EPIRBs should have arrangements for local manual activation or float-free release and self-activation.
Remote activation from the navigating bridge, while the EPIRB is installed in the float-free mounting, may
also be provided. The equipment, mounting and releasing arrangements should be reliable, and should
operate satisfactorily under the most extreme conditions likely to be met at sea. Manual distress alert
initiation should require at least two independent actions, remove a protection facility then activate the
distress switch. See

Figure 104

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Antenna

Red/green
LED

Test Button

Strobe
Light

Activation
Switch

Figure 104: EPIRB

6.8.7. The float-free function


The buoy is mounted in place until it is released manually or by the float-free
mechanism. A float free mechanism consists of a hydrostatic release facility which
releases the EPIRB out of its bracket in case of sinking when the EPIRB has reached
a certain water depth (approx. 1.5m). A possible interface to ship's radio and
navigational systems may be done by means of conventional plugs and sockets or by
cordless connection which must not hinder the EPIRB on free floating.
6.8.8. The correct use of the lanyard
EPIRBs should be installed so that they cannot be tampered with or accidentally
activated. EPIRBs are equipped with a buoyant lanyard suitable for use as a tether in
order to secure the beacon to a life raft, boat or person in the water.
To prevent the EPIRB from being dragged under water, the lanyard should never be
attached to the ship, or arranged in such a way that it can be trapped in the ship's
structure when floating free.
6.8.9. Routine maintenance, testing requirements and test operation
EPIRBs incorporate the means to carry out regular tests (without access to the space
segment) and indicate the emission of a distress alert or any fault in the equipment.
EPIRBs should be tested in accordance with producers manual on a regular basis as
follows:
Press and release test button
Red lamp should flash once.

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The indicator lamp should flash in accordance with the appropriate producers
information
After 60 seconds the EPIRB must switch off automatically
6.8.10 Additional EPIRB features
The VHF EPIRB is intended for use in al sea areas and operates by transmitting a
DSC Distress alert on the channel 70 (156.525 MHz)
The "nature of distress" indication should be "EPIRB emission". The "distress coordinates" and "time" need not be included in the DSC message. In this case,
however, the digit "9" repeated ten times and the digit "8" repeated four times should
replace the missing position and time information. The "type of subsequent
communication" should be "no information", Some VHF DSC EPIRBs also
incorporate a 9 GHz search and rescue transponder for the purpose of providing a
locating signal
6.8.11.

Withdrawal of an unintended false distress transmission

If an EPIRB is accidentally activated, the nearest coast station or an appropriate


coast earth station or MRCC/RCC MUST be informed immediately that a false
distress alert has been transmitted and should be cancelled. Details of those stations
which are involved are to be found in the ITU List of Coast Stations and various
publications produced by national Administrations and service providers
6.8.12.

Practical Tasks
Done?

Putting the EPIRB out of bracket


Remove EPIRB into the bracket
Testing the EPIRB
Switch the EPIRB to alarm mode
Switch off the EPIRB
Table 21: EPIRB practical training tasks

6.9. Search and Rescue Transponder / Transmitter (SART)


This equipment is used to home SAR units to the position of a vessel or persons in
distress. This piece of equipment should only be activated in cases of distress.
To ensure that the SART transmission will be receivable over a useful distance it is
essential that the SART be mounted as high as possible. In order to maximise the
range, the regulations require a mounting height of at least 1 metre above sea level.

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Switch
Ring

Security
Tab

Indicator
Light

Figure 105: SART

6.9.1. Different types of SARTs and their operation


6.9.1.1.Search and rescue radar transponder
They operate in the 9 GHz band and transmit only, assuming they are switched on,
when triggered by another radar pulse of a vessel or a radar station ashore. The
range of a radar transponder depends of the height of its antenna which should be at
least 1meter above sea level. Then the SART signals can be received by vessels in a
distance of approximately 5 nautical miles, detection at longer ranges will be
achieved from aircraft; at 3000 ft. for example, the aircraft radar should elicit a useful
response up to 30 nautical miles away from the SART.
The transmission produces a distinctive line on the radar display of about 12 blips
extending out from the location of the SART along the line of bearing. These change
to concentric circles when the SAR unit reaches to within about 1 mile of the SART.
The radar display produced by the SART is illustrated in Figure 106

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Figure 106: SART images on radar screen

The SART image on the radar display may be more easily identified, especially if
clutter or many other targets are present, by detuning the SAR unit's radar. Detuning
reduces the intensity of return echoes on the display but allows the SART signal to
be seen more easily since the SART emits a broad-band signal which detuning does
not affect to the same degree
Detuning the radar can be dangerous, and may infringe collision- avoidance
regulations in some locations, because echoes from real targets will be removed
6.9.1.2. AIS radar transmitter
The AIS radar transmitter operates on channel AIS1 and AIS2 in the maritime mobile
VHF band. The AIS SART is a self-contained radio device used to locate a survival
craft or a distress vessel by sending updated position reports using a standard
automatic identification system (AIS) class A position report.
A position and time synchronization of AIS SART are derived from a build in GNSS
receiver (e.g. GPS). Once per minute the position is send as a serious of eight
identical position report message (four on AIS1 and four on AIS2). This scheme
creates a high probability that at least one of the messages is send on the highest
point of a wave.
The range of AIS transmitters depends of the height of its antenna and is comparable
to the range of the radiation of maritime VHF equipment.
The transmission of an AIS SART generates a special symbol on electronic sea
charts (circle with cross). The picture below shows a half gated radar screen in order
to point out the AIS signals (SART, Vessel, Base station).

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Base Station

Vessel

AIS SART

Figure 107: AIS SART image on radar screen

6.9.2. Routine maintenance, testing requirements and test operation


SARTs incorporate the means to carry out regular tests and indicate any fault in the
equipment.
Radar transponders should be tested in accordance with producers manual on a
regular' basis as follows:
Switch SART to test mode
Hold SART in view of radar antenna. Check that visual indicator light operates
Check that audible beeper operates
Observe radar display concentric circles should be displayed
AIS radar transmitters cannot be tested except by authorised persons with special
test equipment on board the vessel. The producer instructions are to be observed.
The batteries life should be checked in accordance with the appropriate label on the
SART (AIS+Radar).
6.9.3. Practical tasks
Done?
Putting the SART out of bracket

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Remove SART into bracket
Testing the SART
Switch the SART to transmit mode
Switch off the SART
Table 22: SART practical training tasks

6.10. Maritime Safety Information


Maritime safety information comprise navigational and meteorological warnings,
meteorological forecasts, shore-to-ship distress alerts, SAR information and other
urgent safety-related messages of vital importance broadcast to ships. It may also
include electronic chart correction data.
The MSI service is an internationally coordinated network of broadcasts of MSI from
official information providers, such as:
National hydrographic offices, for navigational warnings and electronic chart
correction data
National meteorological offices, for weather warning and forecasts
Maritime rescue co-ordination centres for shore-to-ship distress alerts, and other
urgent information
The International Ice Patrol, for North Atlantic ice hazards
Reception of MSI broadcasts is free of charge to all ships.
6.10.1.

Basics

There are different systems for broadcasting MSI


The International NAVTEX Service, whereby the Information Provider forwards
the MSI for a given area via a NAVTEX transmitter. The reception of NAVTEX
MSI is limited by the range of the MF propagation to the coastal area around the
transmitter.
The International SafetyNET Service, whereby the Information Provider forwards
the MSI for a given area to an Inmarsat-C Land Earth Station (LES), for
broadcasting via the satellite network over an entire Inmarsat Ocean Region;
consequently, ships can receive SafetyNET MSI anywhere in that Ocean Region,
irrespective of their distance from the LES or MSI Provider.
MSI information can also be broadcasted by coast radio stations on VHF and HF
frequencies using Radiotelephony as well as Radiotelex on HF. The VHF
propagation is limited to a range of approximate 30 miles, the HF propagation can
be unlimited (including Polar Regions) depending on the appropriate frequency
range.

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6.10.2.

NAVTEX

NAVTEX is an international automated direct-printing service for promulgation of


navigational and meteorological warnings, meteorological forecasts and other urgent
information to ships. It was developed to simple and automated means of receiving
MSI on board ships at sea in coastal waters. The information transmitted may be
relevant to all sizes and types of vessel and the selective message-rejection feature
ensures that every mariner can receive a safety information broadcast which is
tailored to his particular needs.
In the GMDSS, a NAVTEX receiving capability is part of the mandatory equipment
which is required to be carried in certain vessels under the provisions of the
International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
Details of operational and planned NAVTEX services are published periodically in the
various national lists of radio signals, in an annex to the International
Telecommunication Union's ITU List of coast stations and special service stations in
the GMDSS Master Plan published by IMO in its series of GMDSS Circulars.
6.10.2.1. NAVTEX frequencies
The following frequencies may be used for NAVTEX broadcasts:
518 kHz
Type of service:
Content:
Language:
Co-ordination:

International
MSI
English
By IMO NAVTEX Co-ordinating Panel

490 kHz and 4209.5 kHz


Type of service:
National
Content:
MSI
Language:
As selected by the national administration
Co-ordination:
Transmitter identification character allocated by IMO
NAVTEX Co-ordinating Panel
Other national frequencies allocated by the ITU
Type of service:
National
Content:
As selected by the national administration
Language:
As selected by the national administration
Co-ordination:
By appropriate national administration
6.10.2.2. NAVTEX system
As shown in Figure 108 the worldwide NAVTEX system comprises 21 Navareas /
Metareas. In each Navarea / Metarea there are several NAVTEX transmitting stations
available, each identified by a different single letter of the alphabet.

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Figure 108: Navarea / Metarea overview

The principal features of NAVTEX are the use of a single frequency, with
transmissions from stations within and between Navareas and Metareas coordinated
on a time-sharing basis to reduce the risk of mutual interference (See Figure 108).
The List below shows the transmitter identification characters and their associated
transmission start times. Each transmitter identification character is allocated a
maximum transmission time of 10 minutes every 4 hours.

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Table 23: NAVTEX transmission

NAVTEX transmissions have a designed maximum range of about 400 nautical


miles. The minimum distance between two transmitters with the same transmitter
identification identifier is, therefore, be sufficient to ensure that a receiver cannot be
within range of both at the same time. In order to avoid erroneous reception and
interference of transmissions from two stations having the same transmitter
identification character, it is necessary to ensure that such stations have a large
geographical separation.

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Figure 109: Example NAVTEX coverage areas of transmission

6.10.2.3. Responsibilities of a NAVTEX Co-ordinator


The NAVTEX Co-ordinator is responsible for the messages transmitted by each
station under his control. This responsibility includes checking that the content of
each message is in accordance with the international regulations and that it is
relevant to the NAVTEX service area of the transmitting station.
6.10.2.4. Messages
The national providers (described under 0) forward an MSI to a responsible NAVTEX
co-ordinator in order to transmit the message via one or more NAVTEX stations
within his Navarea (See Figure 110)

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Figure 110: MSI information line

The NAVTEX co-ordinator decides whether a message belongs to the priority vital,
important or routine
VITAL priority messages
Messages assessed as VITAL, are to be broadcast immediately, subject to
avoiding interference to on-going transmissions. On receipt of a message with a
VITAL priority, the NAVTEX Co-ordinator will commence monitoring the NAVTEX
frequency. If the frequency is clear, the VITAL message is to be transmitted
immediately. If the frequency is in use, the Co-ordinator shall contact the station
which, according to the schedule, will be transmitting during the following time slot
and ask it to postpone their transmission start by one minute, to allow a space for
the VITAL message. Once the VITAL message has been transmitted, the
scheduled station is free to start its routine transmissions;
Example: SAR information, Tsunami warnings etc. = VITAL priority
IMPORTANT priority messages
Messages assessed as IMPORTANT, are to be broadcast during the next
available period when the NAVTEX frequency is unused. This is to be identified
by monitoring the frequency. It is expected that this level of priority will be
sufficient for the majority of urgent information;
Example: Meteorological warnings = IMPORTANT priority and
ROUTINE priority messages.
Messages assessed as ROUTINE, are to be broadcast at the next scheduled
transmission time. This level of priority will be appropriate for almost all messages
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broadcast on NAVTEX and are always to be used unless special circumstances


dictate the use of the procedures for an IMPORTANT or VITAL priority message.
Example: Meteorological forecasts = ROUTINE priority
NAVTEX messages include instructions to the NAVTEX receiver for processing MSI.
These instructions consist of four technical B characters which make up an
alphanumeric code as follows:
B1 Transmitter Identification Character: The transmitter identification character is
a single letter which is allocated to each transmitter. It is used to identify the
broadcasts which are to be accepted by the receiver and those to be rejected,
and also the time slot for the transmission.
B2 Subject Indicator Character: Information is grouped by subject in the NAVTEX
broadcast and each subject group is allocated a B2 subject indicator character.
The subject indicator character is used by the receiver to identify the different
classes of messages as listed in Table 24. Messages received which have been
transmitted using subject indicator character D will set off an alarm built into the
NAVTEX receiver.
B3B4 Message Numbering Characters: Each message within each subject group
is allocated a two digit sequential serial number, beginning at 01 and ending at
99. The B3B4 message numbering characters together, are often referred to as
the NAVTEX number. The NAVTEX number is solely allocated as a component
of the NAVTEX message identity and should not be confused with (and bears no
correlation to), the series identity and consecutive number of the Navarea or
Coastal warning contained in the message.

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Table 24: Codes for message types

The NAVTEX message below is an example for a typical NAVTEX reception. The
navigational warning (A) was transmitted in the Navarea I by the NAVTEX station
Tallinn (K).

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Transmitting Station
Tallin
Start group

Kind of message
Navigational warning
Message number 38

Date / Time group

ZCZC KA38
051444 UTC AUG
KALININGRAD NAV WARN 097
SOUTHEASTERN BALTIC, KUSHKAYA KOSA LIGHT
LESNOJ 55-01.0N 020-36.8E UNLIT
NNNN

End of message

Text

Figure 111: Example of a navigational warning via NAVTEX

6.10.2.5. Operation of the NAVTEX receiver


A dedicated NAVTEX receiver comprises a radio receiver, a signal processor and a
printing device. Optionally the NAVTEX equipment can additionally include:
an integrated printing device; or
a dedicated display device with a printer output port and a message memory; or
a connection to an integrated navigation system and a message memory; which
has the ability to select messages to be printed, or viewed and stored in a
memory
The operational and technical characteristics of the NAVTEX system are contained in
relevant ITU Recommendation. Performance standards for ship borne equipment are
laid down in relevant IMO Resolutions.

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DIM Switch
Display

Enter Knob

Navigate Knob
Open Button
Menu Knob
List Knob
Print Paper

Print Knob

Hint Display

On/Off Switch

Figure 112: NAVTEX receiver

On/Off Switch

push turns the power on or off

Menu Button

Opens menu/Returns to the previous display

Nav Button

Shifts the cursor and display; selects items on menus

Enter Button

Selects a shown item

List Button

Opens the LIST options

Print Button

opens the PRINT option

Display

indicates particulars of a received message

Hint Display

indicates menu functions

Dim Switch

Adjusts the panel and LCD dimmer


(+: raises the setting -: decreases the setting)

Print Paper

on the print paper the received message will be printed out

Open Button

push to replace the paper roll

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6.10.2.6. Selection of transmitters, message type


Reception of messages, transmitted using subject indicator characters A, B, D and L,
which have been allocated for navigational warnings, meteorological warnings,
search and rescue information, acts of piracy warnings, tsunamis and other natural
phenomena, is mandatory and cannot be rejected on the NAVTEX receiver. This has
been designed to ensure that ships using NAVTEX always receive the most vital
information.
Some subject indicator characters can be used to reject messages concerning
certain subjects which may not be required by the ship (e.g. LORAN messages may
be rejected by deselecting the B2 subject indicator character H on the NAVTEX
receiver on board a ship which is not fitted with a LORAN receiver).
A user may choose to accept messages, as appropriate, either from the single
transmitter which serves the sea area around his position or from a number of
transmitters. Ideally, the user should select the station within whose coverage area
his vessel is currently operating and the station into whose coverage area his vessel
will transit next. (See Figure 109)
6.10.2.7. Practical tasks
Select receive station
Select received message
Select receive frequency
Read message from receive memory
Changing the default settings (display, print etc.)
Changing paper
Table 25: NAVTEX practical training tasks

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6.10.3. EGC
As the NAVTEX system covers coastal waters up to about 400 nautical miles only
shipping must be enabled to receive MSI beyond the NAVTEX coverage. One of
these systems is the EGC.
The EGC system supports two services for selective reception:
The EGC SafetyNET service, which allows the EGC receiver operator to program
the receiver with the geographical areas for which MSI will be received, and the
categories of MSI messages required
The EGC FleetNET service, a commercial service, where individual EGC
receivers are programmed to store an EGC network Identification (ENID) code,
which is used to select only messages intended for ships belonging to a group,
such as a fleet or national flag, or subscribers to an information service.
EGC receivers can be programmed individually to use this information to select only
the required messages, and to reject all others.
Figure 76 on page 208 shows the coverage of the four Inmarsat satellites in
connection with 21 Navareas / Metareas. In the sea area A4 an EGC reception is
impossible because the satellite propagation is hinder by the earth curvature.
Navareas / Metareas within the sea area A4 will be supplied with MSI by HF
radiotelephony or radiotelex via a coast station.
6.10.3.1. Geographic area messages and Inmarsat system messages
The following is a list of the different types of MSI which can received with EGC
receivers:
All ships (general call);
Navarea / Metarea warnings, MET forecast or Piracy warnings to Navarea or
Metarea;
Navigational, Meteorological or Piracy warnings to a circular or rectangular area;
Search and Rescue coordination to ships to a circular or rectangular area;
Shore-to-ship distress alerts to a circular area;
Coastal warnings include the following type of messages:

Navigational warnings;
Meteorological warnings;
Ice reports;
Search and rescue information, acts of piracy warnings, tsunami and other
natural phenomena;
Meteorological forecasts;
Pilot and VTS service messages;

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AIS service messages (non navigational aid);


LORAN system messages;
GNSS messages;
Other electronic navigational aid messages;
Other Navigational warnings (additional to Navigational warnings);
No messages on hand.

To avoid excessive duplication of broadcasts, the IMO has authorised the following
arrangements:
For a given Navarea 7 Metarea or other area, which is covered by more than one
Ocean Region satellite, scheduled broadcasts of MSI, such as navigational
warnings and meteorological information, are made only via a single nominated
satellite/Ocean Region.
For a Navarea / Metarea or other area, which is covered by more than one Ocean
Region satellite, unscheduled broadcasts of MSI, such as gale warnings, distress
alert relays, search and rescue coordination are made via all satellites/Ocean
Regions which cover the area concerned.
SafetyNET offers the ability to address MSI to a given geographical area. The area
may be fixed, as IMO defined Navareas and Metareas coastal warning area or it may
be a user defined circular or rectangular area. MSI is submitted for broadcast using
three priorities:
Safety Priority 1,
Urgency Priority 2 and
Distress- Priority 3.
Aboard ships MSI messages are received by Inmarsat-C and mini-C type-approved
maritime terminals with EGC SafetyNET capability (see Figure 113).

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Figure 113: Geographical EGC transmission

Information providers authorized to broadcast messages (MSI) through a CES and


NCS to SESs which are equipped with an EGC receive capability. (See Figure 114)

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Navigational
Warnings

Meteorological
Warnings

SAR
Information

Other
urgent/safety
informations

Maritime Safety Information


(International and national co-ordination)

Co-ordinated Broadcast Services

Area A

Area B

Area C

Network Co-ordination Station (NCS)

Figure 114: EGC information line

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The text below shows a typical safety message broadcasted via Inmarsat-C EGC

LES 102 - MSG 7698 - MetWarn/Fore Safety Call to Area: 1 - PosOK


STRATOS CSAT 81.148.5.74 1-MAY-2011 05:44:00 606085
NAVAREA ONE 044
ENGLAND, EAST COAST
Thames Estuary.
Chart BA 1975.
Black Deep light-buoy moved to 51-47.79N 001-36.31E.
Figure 115: EGC navigational warning

The text below shows a typical urgent message broadcasted via Inmarsat-C EGC

LES 112 - MSG 1140 - MetWarn/Fore Urgent Call to Area: 5 - PosOK


NL BURUM LES 28-MAY-2011 15:36:29 831346
WARNING NR 074/2011
ROUGH SEA WARNING
ISSUED AT 1500 GMT - MON - 28/FEB/2011
SOUTH OCEANIC AREA S OF 30S AND E OF 035W STARTING AT
010000 GMT. WAVES FM NE/NW BECOMING SW/SE 3.0/4.0 METERS.
VALID UNTIL 020600 GMT.
Figure 116: EGC weather information

The text below shows a typical Distress Relay broadcasted via Inmarsat-C EGC

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LES 105 - MSG 5966 - SAR Distress Call to Area: 35+36 N 11+14 E
PosOK
FM MRCC ROME - ITALIAN COAST GUARD
TO ALL SHIPS TRANSITING IN SICILY CHANNEL
IN ORDER TO PROTECT THE HUMAN LIFE AT SEA, YOU ARE KINDLY
REQUESTED TO KEEP A SHARP LOOKOUT AND TO REPORT ANY
SIGHTINGS OF BOATS WITH MIGRANTS ON BOARD TO MRCC ROME
AT FOLLOWING NUMBERS:
PHONE: 0039 06 59084527 / 59084409
FAX: 0039 06 5922737 / 59084793
INM-C: 424744220
EMAIL: ufficio3.reparto3@mit.gov.it
Figure 117: EGC SAR information

6.10.3.2. Classes of Inmarsat-C receiver types


EGC SafetyNET (and FleetNET) broadcasts are received using Inmarsat-C or
Inmarsat mini-C maritime terminals of different classes. Class 2 and 3 models
provide EGC capability in addition to shore-to-ship and ship-to-shore messaging
capability; class 0 are stand-alone EGC receivers only. (See Figure 118)

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Figure 118: Example of different Inmarsat-C classes

6.10.3.3. EGC setup


The EGC setup window (Figure 119) shows that additional Navareas / Metareas 2, 3
and 9 and Coastal warning areas A, B, C, E, F, K, M are selected to receive MSI. To
be sure that this information will be received, it is necessary to check that the terminal
is logged in to the nominated satellite.
System Messages options is used to set up the terminal to receive Inmarsat System
type EGC messages giving information about Inmarsat systems, planned outages,
new services, etc.

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Figure 119: Inmarsat-C EGC set up window

6.10.4.

MSI via VHF/MF/HF

Maritime safety information is information which is necessary for the safety of


navigation. This informations includes SAR information, meteorological and
navigational warnings as well as weather forecasts and weather analyses and charts.
Coast stations may transmit MSI using radiotelex in the FEC mode on the following
frequencies:
4210 kHz
6314 kHz
8416 kHz
12579 kHz

16806.5 kHz
19680.5 kHz
22376 kHz
26100.5 kHz

Transmission times are given in the ITU List of Coast Stations and Special Service
Stations.
Navigation and weather messages are also transmitted on R/T frequencies at the
times indicated in the ITU List of Coast Stations and Special Service Stations and in
various national publications.

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6.11 The use and functions of portable VHF radio

Antenna

Display

Volume

Squelch

Scan Knob

Dual Watch

Ch16 Switch

Power Knob

Light Mode

On /Off Switch

Figure 120: Maritime VHF handheld

On/Off Switch:

To push the On/Off button switch the device on or off

Power Knob:

Push this button to switch between Low and high power


or 6W)

Display:

The display shows the current settings of Channel, Volume,


Squelch, Transmitting power, Loudspeaker condition etc.

Volume:

Press Volume key and adjust the volume by pressing the


navigate buttons up or down

Scan Knob:

Press and hold Scan key to scan all channels or set a channel
and press and hold scan key

Ch16 Switch:

push to select ch 16 as fast as possible

Squelch:

Push squelch button to select squelch mode than adjust with


navigation buttons

Dual Watch:

Press and hold D/W button to select dual watch of selected


channel and channel 16.

Light Mode: Backlight on/off and light mode select

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Portable maritime VHF handheld radios can be used for two purposes:
For distress communications between the mother vessel and lifesaving
appliances and between lifesaving appliances.
For on board communications between the controlling station and slave
stations and between slave stations.
Primary emergency batteries are to be stored and sealed for emergency situations
and a secondary rechargeable battery must be used only for daily on board
communication in the portable VHF transceiver.
6.11.1.

Practical tasks
Done?

Change channel
Change power settings
Switch between International channels an US channels
Switch on and off the dual watch function
Operate Volume and Squelch control
Change Battery
Table 26: VHF PORTABLE practical training tasks

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6.12 Portable VHF aeronautical radio for 121,5 and 123,1 MHz

Antenna

Channel
Selector

Volume

Squelch

PTT
Microphon
e

121,5
Indicator

TX
Indicator

On/Off
Switch

Volume

Battery
Pack

Channel
Selector

Figure 121: Portable VHF aeronautical radio

On/Off Switch:

To push the On/Off button switch the device on or off

Channel Selector: Select between two different frequencies (121,5 MHz and 123,1
MHz)
121,5 Indicator:

121,5 MHz indicator LED is on if 121,5 MHz is select by the


channel selector

Volume:

Adjust volume by pulling the volume adjusting dial. The small


screen indicates the level of volume

Squelch:

Adjust squelch by rotate the adjusting dial. The small screen


indicates the level

TX Indicator:

The indicator LED is on while pressing the Push To Talk (PTT)


button

PTT

Push to talk button. Push if you wish to talk.

Microphone:

Speak into the microphone while pushing the PTT

Light Mode:

Change Battery Pack by pressing two buttons if the battery is


empty

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This portable VHF aero transceiver is a battery operated 200mW carrier AM


transceiver for the VHF air band (118-137MHz) covering the two frequencies
121.5MHz and 123.1MHz. The unit is specially designed and manufactured as an
emergency two way transceiver for communication with aircrafts and it is part of
carriage requirements for passenger vessels.
7.

Other Systems used on board

7.1.

Ultra High Frequency (UHF) handhelds

UHF handhelds are used for on board communications. They are working in the
frequency range around 457MHz and 467 MHz. They are especially qualified for
communications within the superstructure and between the decks house, the engine
room or cargo holds of a vessel.
7.2

Automatic Identification System

AIS is an automatic tracking system used on ships and by VTS identifying and
locating vessels by electronically exchanging data with other nearby ships, AIS base
stations and satellites.
Information provided by AIS equipment such as unique identification (MMSI),
position, course and speed can be displayed on a screen or ECDIS (See figure
XXX). AIS is intended to assist a vessel`s watch standing and allow officers and
maritime authorities to track and monitor vessel movements and to avoid collisions.
The ECDIS screen shows several ships (triangles) with their identities (MMSI) and
courses.

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Figure 122: ECDIS screen with AIS signals

7.3. Ship Security Alert System


The ship security alert system, when activated in case of e.g. piracy or armed attack,
shall:
Initiate and transmit a ship to shore security alert to a competent authority
designated by the Administration, which in these circumstances may include the
Company, identifying the ship, its location and indicating that the security of the
ship is under threat or has been compromised;
Not send the ship security alert to any other ships;
Not raise any alarm on-board the ship;
Continue the ship security alert until deactivated and/or reset
The ship security alert system shall be capable of being activated from the navigation
bridge and in at least one other location. The alarm should be send via a reliable and
suitable communication system.

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8.

Search and Rescue operation

Figure 123: Basic concept of the GMDSS

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the IMO coordinate, on a
global basis, member states efforts to provide SAR services.

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The aim is to provide an effective worldwide system, so that wherever people sail or
fly, SAR services will be available if needed. The overall approach that each state
takes in establishing, providing, and improving SAR services is influenced by the fact
that these efforts are an integral part of a global SAR system.
8.1. The role of the Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre
The SAR Convention (1979) established the need for centres assigned with the task
of co-ordinating rescue operations on a regional basis to be known as Maritime
Rescue Coordination Centres. Under this Convention, the Worlds oceans were
divided into areas or SAR regions for search and rescue purposes, for which
contracting coastal states were to be responsible (See Figure 124)

Figure 124: Example of SAR regions

The RCC is an operational facility responsible for conducting an efficient organization


of SAR services and for co-ordinating the carrying out of SAR operations within an
Search and Rescue Region (SRR) SAR action in response to any distress situation is
achieved through co-operation among SAR Administrations. The MRCC nearest the
distress incident will normally acknowledge the distress alert and assume
responsibility for SAR co-ordination.
A RCC co-ordinates, but does not necessarily provide SAR facilities throughout the
internationally recognized SRR as described in the global SAR plan of the IMO.
8.1.1. Maritime rescue organisations
A search and rescue organization shall be established for the provision of search and
rescue services in accordance with the IMO International Convention on Maritime
Search and Rescue, 1979, as amended, and the Convention on International Civil
Aviation.
The competent national authorities shall be responsible for the provisions of their
search and rescue services.
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During search and rescue operations, the competent national authorities shall be
entitled to call for the collaboration and support of other Government services.
Questions of the assignment of costs, connected with the conduct of a search and
rescue operations, shall not be allowed to interfere with its prompt and effective
execution by the departments in charge.
States being party to the SOLAS Convention, the International Convention on
Maritime Search and Rescue, and the Convention on International Civil Aviation,
have accepted the obligation to provide aeronautical and maritime SAR coordination
services for their territories, territorial seas, and where appropriate, the high seas.
SAR services must be available on a 24 hour basis.
To carry out these responsibilities, a State should either establish a national SAR
organization, or join one or more other States to form a regional SAR organization. In
some areas an effective and practical way to achieve this goal is to develop a
regional system associated with a major ocean area and continent.
Maritime SRRs are published in the IMO SAR plan. The purpose of having SRRs is
to clearly define who has primary responsibility for co-ordinating responses to
distress situations in every area of the world, which is especially important for an
automatic routing of distress alerts to responsible RCCs.
8.1.2. Knowledge of SAR systems worldwide
The SAR system, like any other system, has individual components that must work
together to provide the overall service. Each SRR is associated with an RCC. The
goal of ICAO and IMO conventions relating to SAR is to establish a global SAR
system.
Operationally, the global SAR system relies upon States to establish their national
SAR system and then co-ordinate provision of their services with other States for
Worldwide coverage.
The primary system components are:
communications throughout the SRR and with external SAR services
an RCC for the coordination of SAR services
if necessary, one or more Rescue Sub Centre (RSC) to support an RCC within its
SRR
SAR facilities, including SRUs (SAR Units) with specialised equipment and
trained personnel, as well as other resources which can to be used to conduct
SAR operations.
On-Scene Co-ordinator (OSC) assigned, as necessary, for co-ordinating the onscene activities of all participating facilities
support facilities that provide service in support of SAR operations.
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8.2

International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (IAMSAR)


Manual

ICAO and IMO have jointly developed a manual to foster co-operation between
themselves, between neighbouring states and between aeronautical and maritime
Authorities on SAR.
There are three volumes of the IAMSAR Manual. These volumes provide guidelines for
a common aviation and maritime approach to organizing and providing SAR services.
Each IAMSAR Manual volume is written with specific SAR system duties in mind, and
can be used as a stand-alone document, or, in conjunction with the other two
volumes, as a means to attain a full view of the SAR system.
The Manual will assist those responsible for establishing, managing, and supporting
SAR services to understand the:
functions and importance of SAR services;
relationships between global, regional, and national aspects of SAR;
components and support infrastructure essential for SAR;
training needed to coordinate, conduct, and support SAR operations,
communications functions and requirements for SAR;
basic principles of managing and improving SAR services to ensure success.
Volume I

is the Organization and Management volume and discusses the global


SAR system concept, establishment and improvement of national and
regional SAR systems, and co-operation with neighbouring States to
provide effective and economical SAR services.

Volume II

the Mission Co-ordination volume assists personnel who plan and coordinate SAR operations and exercises.

Volume III

is the Mobile Facilities volume and is intended to be carried aboard


rescue units, aircraft, and vessels to help with performance to search,
rescue, or OSC functions, and with aspects of SAR that pertain to their
own emergencies.

8.3 The role and method of use of ship reporting systems


Various states have implemented ship reporting systems. A ship reporting system
enables the Search and Rescue Mission Co-ordinator (SMC) to quickly know the
approximate positions, courses and speeds of vessels in the vicinity of a distress
situation by means of a Surface Picture (SURPIC), and other information about the
vessel which may be valuable, e.g., whether a doctor is aboard, know how to contact
the vessels, improve possibility for rapid aid during emergencies, reduce the number
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of calls for assistance to vessels unfavourably located to respond and reduce the
response time to provide assistance.
Masters of vessels should be encouraged to send regular reports to the Authority
operating a ship reporting system for SAR.
Ships are a key SAR resource for RCCs, the reporting systems enable them to
quickly identify the capable vessel which will be least harmed by a diversion,
enabling other vessels in the vicinity to be unaffected.
A list of many of the ship reporting systems is listed in the IAMSAR Manual Vol II.
8.3.1. Automated Mutual-assistance Vessel Rescue System (AMVER)
AMVER is a worldwide system operated exclusively to support SAR and make
information available to all RCCs.
The AMVER System has been implemented in the US since 1958, it is operated by
the United States Coast Guard and it provides important aid to the development and
co-ordination of Search and Rescue efforts. On demand, the SAR authorities are
quickly informed on the position and characteristics of vessels near a reported
distress situation.
AMVERs greatest use is in providing SURPICs to RCCs. A SURPIC either lists
latitude/longitude or provides a graphical display of vessels near the position of a
distress situation.
Merchant vessels of 1000 gross tons or more on any voyage of greater than 24 hours
should participate. In general, international participation is voluntary regardless of
owners nationality or vessels flag, voyage origin, or destination.
To register and participate in AMVER ships have to complete the SAR(Q)form:
http://www.amver.com/sarqform.asp.
AMVER participants will note the basic format for AMVER reports corresponds to the
IMO standard.
There are four types of AMVER reports:
Sailing Plan

(AMVER/SP//) The Sailing Plan contains complete routing


information and should be sent within a few hours before,
upon, or within a few hours after departure.

Position Report

(AMVER/PR//) The Position Report should be sent within 24


hours of departure and subsequently at least every 48 hours
until arrival. The destination should be included.

Deviation Report

(AMVER/DR//) The Deviation Report should be sent as soon


as any voyage information changes, which could affect
AMVERs ability to accurately predict the vessels position.
Changes in course or speed due to weather, ice, change in

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destination, or any other deviations from the original Sailing


Plan should be reported as soon as possible.
Arrival Report

(AMVER/FR//) The Arrival report should be sent upon arrival


at the sea buoy or port of destination.

Reporting Format:
Each AMVER message consists of report lines. There are 15 types of lines. The first
line begins with the word AMVER followed by a slash (/), a two letter code identifies
the report type and ends with a double slash (//), as shown below.
Each remaining line begins with a specific letter followed by a slash to identify the
line type. The remainder of each line contains one or more date fields separated by
single slashes. Each line ends with a double slash.
All reports should end with an end-of-report (Z) line. This Z-line has been new added
to facilitate automatic processing of AMVER reports, because the information
required for position and Deviation Reports has been increased, as recommended by
numerous participants, to ensure enough information is provided to keep AMVER
accurate.
Example for a Sailing Report:
AMVER/SP//
A/SANDY JOAN/KGJF//
B/240635Z MAR//
E/045//
F/198//
G/TOKYO/3536N/13946E//
I/LOS ANGELES/3343N/11817W/031300Z APR//
L/GC/210/4200N/18000E/280400Z//
L/RL/200/4200N/16000W/300030Z//
L/RL/161//
M/JCS//
V/MD/NURSE//
X/NEXT REPORT 250800Z//
Y/JASREP/MAREP//
Z/EOR//

A/vessels name/radio call sign//


B/date and time//
E/current course //
F/estimated average speed//
G/port of departure/lat/long//
I/destination/lat/long/eta//
L/route information lines//
M/current coastal radio station
or satellite number
V/onboard medical resources//
X/up to 65 characters of
amplifying comments
Y/relay instructions//
Z/end of report//

The lines M,V,X and Y are optional items, Y line is required for US vessels.
Transmission of messages:
The following methods are recommended for ships to transmit AMVER reports:
E-mail:
If a ship already has an inexpensive means of sending electronic mail to an internet
address, this is a preferred method. The messages may be sent to:
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amvermsg@amver.org or amvermsg@amver.com .The e-mail path on shore to the


AMVER center is free, but the communications service provider may still charge from
ship to shore.
AMVER/SEAS Compressed Message via INMARSAT-C via Telenor:
Ships must be equipped with INMARSAT-C transceiver with floppy drive and
capability to transmit a binary file.
Ships must have an IBM-compatible computer with an interface between the
computer and the INMARSAT transceiver.
The AMVER/SEAS Software can be downloaded free of charge from the internet at:
http://seas.amverseas.noaa.gov/seas
The AMVER address is: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),
the phone number must be entered in the address book of the INMASRSAT-C
transceiver.
Ships that meet the system requirements may send combined AMVER/Weather
observation messages free of charge via Telenor Land Earth Stations at: 001
(Southbury) AORW, 101 (Southbury)AORE, 201 (Santa Paula)-POR, 321
(Aussaguel) IOR.
HF Radio-telex Service of USCG Communication Stations:
Information how to send AMVER messages this way can be found at:
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/marcomms/cgcomms/call.htm
HF Radio at no cost via USCG contractual agreements with the following companies:
Mobile marine radio (WLO)
Mobile (WCL)
Marina Del Ray (KNN) Seattle (KLB)
Telex:

AMVER Address: (0) (230) 127594 AMVERNYK

AMVER reports may be filed via telex using either satellite (code 43) or HF radio.
Ships must pay the tariffs for satellite communications.
Fax:
Fax number to the USCG Operations System Center (OSC) in Martinsburg, West
Virginia:
(01) (304) 264-2505
Stations which accept AMVER messages are listed e.g. in Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Vol 1.
Further information on the AMVER program may be obtained from:
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United States Coast Guard


AMVER Maritime Relations Office
USCG Battery Park Building
1 South Street 2. Floor
New York, NY 10004-1499
U.S.A.
Tel: +1 212 668-7764
Fax: (212)668-7684
Telex: 127594 AMVERNYK
Mail:benjamin.m.strong@uscg.mil
8.3.2. Japanese Ship Reporting System (JASREP)
The JASREP System provides up-to-date information on the movements of vessels
in order, in the event of a distress incident:
to reduce interval between the loss of contact with a vessel and the initiation of
search and rescue operations in cases where no distress signal has been
received;
to permit rapid determination may be called upon to provide of vessels which can
assist
to permit delineation of a search area of limited size in case the position of a
vessel in distress is unknown or uncertain;
to facilitate the provision of urgent medical assistance or advice to vessels not
carrying a doctor
The JASREP is compatible with the AMVER system with which the Japan Coast
Guard co-operate in information exchange on the ships positions for search and
rescue purposes.
Any ship regardless of tonnage, flag or type may participate in the JASREP System
as far as she is within the service area. The approximate service area is the sea
enclosed by the parallel of latitude 17 N and the meridian of longitude 165 E The
participation is voluntary.
There are four types of JASREP reports:
sailing plan
position report
deviation report
final report
The formats of the reports are nearly the same as described above with AMVER.
Participation in this system initiates when a ship sends her sailing plan and
terminates when the ship sends her final report to Japan Coast Guard.
If no position report or final report is received from a participant in no less than 27
hours subsequently the previous port, Japan Coast Guard will verify the safety.
Depending on circumstances, SAR operations will be initiated and hence position
reports and final reports must be sent without fail.
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Reports should be sent to a Japanese coast station. These stations may be called on
VHF or 2189,5 KHz (DSC), other means such as telex or Email may be used.
8.3.3. Australian Ship Reporting System (AUSREP)
AUSREP was established in 1973 in accordance with SOLAS as a result of an
incident where a trading ship was lost off the west coast of Tasmania.
This reporting system is operated by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA)
through the Australian Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC Australia) in Canberra.
Ships trading in the Australian region could notify the authorities of their planned
routes and itineraries.
AUSREP is mandatory for certain ships but other commercial ships visiting Australia
or transiting Australian waters are encouraged to participate voluntarily. Vessels
required to participate in the AUSREP system are:
All Australian registered ships engaged in interstate or overseas trade and
commerce, while in the AUSREP area.
Ships not registered in Australia, but engaged in the coasting trade between
Australia and the external territories, or between external territories, while in the
AUSREP area.
Foreign ships, from their arrival at their first Australian port, until their departure
from their final Australian port. However, they are encouraged from their entry into
and final departure from the AUSREP area.
Australian fishing vessels proceeding on overseas voyages, while in the AUSREP
area (excluding Queensland-New Guinea voyages).
The area of coverage for AUSREP and for the Australian SRR are identical.
AUSREP is a positive reporting system which means that, should an expected report
not be received, action including worldwide communication checks, alerting of ships
in the vicinity and possible launching of search aircraft will be initiated.
Ships participating in AUSREP are required to provide several reports:
sailing plans
position reports
deviation reports
final reports
Primary means of communication for reporting purposes are Inmarsat-C using
special access code (SAC 1243 via the Perth CES (Pacific 212 or Indian 312)), HF
or other Inmarsat Communication as phone/fax/telex services.
One method to send the Position Reports is Inmarsat-C polling, masters of vessels
being polled will still be required to send sailing plans, deviation reports and final
reports so that the system integrity is maintained. Masters are asked not to send
manual Position Reports unless polling is unavailable. More details on the AUSREP
system may be obtained in the information booklet published by AMSA, or from the
RCC direct by telephone.

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8.3.4. Long Range Identification and Tracking of Ships (LRIT)


In May 2006, the IMO adopted resolutions of the 81st Maritime safety Committee
which made amendments to the SOLAS 74 and introduced the establishment of the
Long Range Identification and Tracking System for reasons related to national
security.
The main purpose of the LRIT ship position reports is to enable a contracting
Government to obtain ship identity and location information in sufficient time to
evaluate the security risk. The LRIT system is mandatory since 31st December 2008
for all passenger ships, cargo ships of over 300 gross tonnes, high speed crafts and
mobile offshore drilling units.
The LRIT system consists of:
the satellite communication equipment already installed on board ship,
Communications service providers (CSP),
Application service providers (ASP),
LRIT data centres,
the LRIT distribution plan and
the International LRIT data exchange.
A ship in transit sends a position report via its shipborne equipment (Inmarsat-C, D+,
Iridium or HF). The message includes the shipborne equipment identifier, positional
data latitude and longitude, and the date and time of the transmission and must be
sent 4 times a day (every 6 hours). The frequency of messages can be changed to a
maximum of once every 15 minutes through a user request.
The CSP operates the satellites and the communication infrastructure and services
to link the various parts of the LRIT system, using communication protocols in order
to ensure the end-to-end secure transfer of the LRIT information.
The data is then transmitted to the ASP.
The ASP completes the LRIT information of the vessel by adding the ship identity
(IMO and MMSI number) as well as the date and time the position report is received
and forwarded by the ASP.
The extended message is then passed to a LRIT Data Centre. These centres are a
system of National, Regional and Cooperative LRIT Data Centres, they collect and
distribute data to Contacting Governments and Search and Rescue services
according to the Data Distribution Plan, which defines rules and rights for access
(which users can receive which information).
The Data Centres interact with the LRIT International Data exchange. Each
administration should provide to the LRIT Data Centre it has selected, a list of the
ships entitled to fly its flag, which are required to transmit LRIT information, together
with other salient details and should update such lists when changes occur (see
Figure 125) Ships should only transmit the LRIT information to the Data Centre
selected by their administration.

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Figure 125: LRIT system

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9.

Miscellaneous
skills
communications

9.1.

Use of English in written and oral form for safety communications

and

operational

procedures

for

general

It is recommended to use the English language to ensure a sufficient standard


communication. It is very important that distress-, urgency- and safety traffic have to
be conducted so that everybody involved receiving this information can understand it
correctly.
9.1.1. Use of the IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases
The IMO has published in its Standard Marine Communication Phrases special
phrases for different events to ensure that crew members involved understand the
meaning of such phrases how they are really meant.
9.1.2. Use of the International Code of Signals
If there is the risk that the standard communication phrases are not correctly
understood the IMO International Code of Signals (INTERCO) can be consulted to
bridge those difficulties. In case of phrases the code of signal uses codes consisting
of one or more code groups of one or more letters followed by a figure describing a
special situation. The use of the code of signals has to be announced by the word
INTERCO
Example:
Code

Meaning

RB

I am dragging my anchor

RS

No- one is allowed on board

9.1.3. Recognition of standard abbreviations and commonly used service


codes (Q-Code)
Certain situations in the traffic exchange can be expressed by so called Q-codes,
consisting of three letters beginning with the letter Q which can be used as a
question or a statement. The Q-codes are defined in the RRs and can additionally be
found in appendix 6 of this compendium.
Example:
Q-Code
QTH
QRV

Question
What is your position?
Are you ready (to communicate)?

Statement
My position is
I am ready (to communicate)

9.1.4. Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet


In radio telephony difficult words, proper names and code and figure groups have to
be spelled in accordance with the International Phonetic Alphabet, which is defined in
the RRs and can be found in appendix 5 of this compendium.

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9.2. Details of a radio telegram


Although nowadays information can be exchanged by email or other media, radio
telegrams did not completely lose their importance in the maritime mobile service. A
radio telegram can consist of preamble, prefix, address, text and signature.
For radio telegrams a minimum charge for 7 chargeable words is essential
While conveying a radio telegram by radio telephony speaks slowly and clearly at all times
so that the receiving station is able to write the telegram without demand. The different
parts of a telegram should be announced as such before its transmission begins
To avoid unnecessary demands proper names, difficult words and code groups have
to be announced as repeated and spelled. Examples:
TEXASCON
AB12?

I repeat and spellTango Echo Xray Alpha


It follows a mixed group, I spell Alpha Bravo One .

Figure 126: Example of spelling

9.2.1. The preamble


The preamble is the official part of a telegram and contains ships name and call sign,
number of telegram, number of words, date of post, time of post (mostly in UTC) and
AAIC. The preamble is free of charge.

Ships name

Number

Time

Call sign

Moby Dick / TKFA

Date

13 / 12

Chargeable words

12

AAIC

0930

IS01

Counted words

Figure 127: Preamble of a radio telegram

Telegrams are numbered in a separate daily series to each station (Number). The
number of words indicates the number of chargeable and counted words or groups of
characters in the address, text and signature (chargeable/counted). Any word or
group with more than ten characters is charged as two words. The date indicates the
date of post in the current month, it needs not to be the date of transmission. The

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time of post is not absolutely the transmission time. The AAIC indicates the authority
which is responsible for the account of the telegram.
9.2.2. Prefix
The prefix can be used to indicate a special type of telegram or its treatment, e.g.

URGENT (conveyed with priority)


OBS (meteorological observation)
SLT (ship letter telegram)
FAX xxxx (telegram delivery by fax)
EMAIL xxxx (telegram delivery by email)

9.2.3. Different types of address


The address of a telegram indicates to whom it will be delivered. There are two
distinguished addresses:
Full address
Short address
The full address contains information which is necessary to deliver the telegram to its
consignee or addressee.
The short address contains two words only. To ensure the delivery to the addressee
an agreement between the appropriate administration and the addressee is
necessary.
9.2.4. The text
The text must consist of at least one word and can be composed in plain or coded
language.
9.2.5. The signature
A signature is voluntarily but it is required by some countries.
9.3.

Procedure of traffic charging

9.3.1. The international charging and accounting system


All public correspondence connected through terrestrial circuits or through satellite
networks must be charged for. Charges for calls via coast stations can be found in
the ITU List of Coast Stations or can be asked after finishing traffic exchange with a
coast station
Terrestrial charges may comprise:
the land-line charge
the Coast station Charge (CC)
the ship charge
any charges for special services
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any local taxes e.g., Value Added Tax (VAT)


In general, operator-connected calls have mostly a minimum 3 minutes charge and 1
minute incremental steps thereafter while automatic telephone and telex calls are
cheaper because no operator is involved.
A number of companies provide radio traffic accounting services worldwide. Shipping
companies which want to take part in an unlimited public correspondence need to
conclude an appropriate contract with one of the authorised accounting companies. It
is the task of an accounting authority to guarantee that the institutions involved in the
exchange of radio traffic get the charges they require.
9.3.2. The AAIC code and its use
The AAIC designates a certain authorised accounting authority. Before transmitting
chargeable radio traffic the ship station has to inform the coast station uncalled of its
AAIC so that the administration will know which institution is responsible for
accounting.
9.3.3. Coast station-, landline and ship station charge
The total amount of chargeable radio communication consist of coast station charge,
landline charge, and ship station charge (voluntarily by shipping companies)
The coast station charge arises for the chargeable connection between the ship
station and the coast station and it is due to the appropriate coast station.
The Land Line charge (LL) arises between the coast station and subscriber ashore
and is due to the land line administrations.
The ship station charge can arise on request of the ships owner.
9.3.4. Currencies used for the account of international radio communications
Different Administrations use different virtual currencies when dealing with radio
traffic charges. These currencies are usually the
Special Drawing Right (SDR) or
Goldfranc (Gfr).
The purpose of these virtual currencies is to avoid heavy loss or benefits when the
exchange rate of a national currency falls or rises.
9.3.5. Inmarsat communication charging systems
When an SES sends a message or makes a call via a Coast Earth Station Operator
(CESO), that CESO will invoice the total cost of the call to the company which has
been contracted to act as intermediary by the SES owner/shipping company. This
intermediary company can be either
an accounting authority or
an Inmarsat service provider (ISP).

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If an ISP is selected, the SES operated by the customer is only allowed to use the
CESs that have a contract with that ISP in the mobile to fixed direction. In the fixed to
mobile direction, all CESs will provide access to all SESs assigned with an ISP billing
arrangement.
An Inmarsat ISP is an entity which has established a contract with one or more
CESOs to promote and retail the services of the contracted CESO to end users. It
can be used as an alternative to an AA for all SESs that are intended solely for
commercial use and not to be used for distress and safety purposes. Inmarsat will
only accept ISPs that have been authorised by at least one CESO
If an AA is selected, the customer is allowed access to all CESs, and AAs are
required as a matter of procedure to pay all the CESs where the traffic was
generated. Maritime customers who intend to use the CES for distress and safety
must select an AA. Inmarsat accepts only those accounting authorities that have
been officially notified to the ITU for the country of registration of the SES. Normally
each country has an administrative body or licensing authority such as the Ministry of
Communications, which approves who can be an Accounting Authority and informs
the ITU of whom it has approved.
The ITU regularly publishes a List of Ship Stations and Maritime Mobile Service
Identity Assignments ( see 0) which lists the names and addresses of all approved
AAs.
The billing and settlement process in use today for a ship-to-shore call via the
Inmarsat system is described below and is also illustrated in Figure 128
When a ship makes a call via the Inmarsat network, routing through several different
stages is involved. These stages include the satellite link to a selected CESO (known
as the space segment), the coast earth station operated by an CESO and the
terrestrial lines (possibly in more than one country) to the final destination.
When a ship makes a call through a CESO, the CESO checks the SES in its
database to determine with which accounting company the SES has an agreement.
The CESO calculates the cost of the call including the space segment and landline
charges and then invoices that accounting company. The accounting company
invoices the SES owner for the total consolidated amount plus any handling charge
that has already been agreed with the owner. Details of the charges made by an
accounting company for its service may be obtained directly from the billing entity
(AA or ISP). The accounting company pays the individual amounts due to each
CESO and the owner must pay the billing entity.
Inmarsat separately invoices each CESO for the use of the space segment.

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Figure 128: Inmarsat billing

The Inmarsat network charges for calls made via the Inmarsat-B, -M and mini-M
services in a similar way to HF/MF radiotelephony, for which calls are charged by the
length of the call. The charging unit used by coast earth station operators is either six
seconds or one minute.
An Inmarsat-C message is charged by the size of the message and not the duration
and is charged in units of either 256 bits or 1,024 bits To find approximately how long
a data message will take to send using the American Standard Code for Information
Interchange (ASCII) 8 bit format, divide the total number of bits in the message by
the data transmitted through the Inmarsat service; this will give you the time in
seconds. This is valid only once the call has been established and the modems have
finished negotiating (approximately 20 seconds):
1 character = 8 bits = 1 byte.
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Computer data (for example, a message comprising text and numbers) is often
measured in kilobits, where:
1 kilobit (kbit) = 1,024 bits = 128 characters (bytes) = (approx) 25 words.
1 A4 page full of text = (approx) 2,500 characters = 20 kbits.
Telex communication uses a different set of character codes, known as ITA2
(International Telegraph Alphabet 2). Each ITA2 character consists of five data bits,
plus one start bit, and 1.5 stop bits (7.5 bits in all). At the standard rate of 50 bits per
second, this makes the speed of telex communication 400 characters per minute.
When a land-based subscriber makes a call to an Inmarsat SES, the call will be
routed via his or her local telecommunications supplier to a CESO with which the
supplier has an agreement.
If the local supplier is also a CES operator, the call will be directly connected through
its own CES. Unlike a ship-originated call, the local supplier to which the caller
subscribes is responsible for calculating and invoicing the total cost of the call.
The Inmarsat Fleet 77 offers a more convenient and cost-effective digital technology
for seafarers with the introduction of the Mobile Packet Data Service (MPDS). This
technology splits up data into small packets sent through channels shared by other
users. The users are charged by the amount of data sent not by the time they spend
online using the connection. In this way it is possible to be connected all the time and
pay only for the data transmitted.

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Appendix 1: Voice procedures

Urgent Call

Urgent message

Cancellation of an urgent
message

Safety Call

DSC
Voice Procedure

MAYDAY
Name / CS or MMSI des Havaristen
this is
Name / CS
received MAYDAY

MAYDAY
Unkas/dgku or MMSI
this is
Europa/dlal
received MAYDAY

MAYDAY RELAY MAYDAY RELAY


MAYDAY RELAY
Coast Station Name 3X
this is
Name Name Name /CS /MMSI
following received on ch 16 at 1530 UTC
or
following in position observerd

MAYDAY RELAY MAYDAY RELAY


MAYDAY RELAY
Lyngby Rdo Lyngby Rdo Lyngby Rdo
this is
Dakota Dakota Dakota/DCDL 211 231 450
following received on ch 16 at 1530 UTC
or
following in position observerd

Voice Procedure
Voice Procedure

all stations, all stations, all stations


this is
Name Name Name / CS /MMSI
please cancel my distress alert of today
time .... UTC

all stations, all stations, all stations


this is
Unkas Unkas Unkas /dgku 211 231 450
please cancel my distress alert of today
1700 UTC

MAYDAY
all stations, all stations, all stations
this is
Name Name Name /CS /MMSI
at time in UTC Name and CS
SILENCE FINI

MAYDAY
all stations, all stations, all stations
this is
Europa Europa Europa/dlal 211 321 560
at 1730 UTC Unkas/dgku
SILENCE FINI

PANPAN PANPAN PANPAN


all stations, all stations, all stations
this is
Name Name Name /CS /MMSI

PANPAN PANPAN PANPAN


all stations, all stations, all stations
this is
Unkas Unkas Unkas/dgku 211 231 450

TEXT

in position.

PANPAN PANPAN PANPAN


all stations, all stations, all stations
this is
Name Name Name /CS /MMSI
cancel my urgency message of day/time
master

PANPAN PANPAN PANPAN


all stations, all stations, all stations
this is
Unkas Unkas Unkas/dgku 211 231 450
cancel my urgency message of day/time
master

SECURITE SECURITE SECURITE


all stations, all stations, all stations
this is
Name Name Name /CS /MMSI

SECURITE SECURITE SECURITE


all stations, all stations, all stations
this is
Unkas Unkas Unkas/dgku 211 231 450

TEXT

TEXT
Europa/dlal 211 321 560
this is
Unkas/dgku 211 231 450
how do you read me?
Rogaland Rdo
this is
Unkas/dgku 211 231 450
how do you read me?

DSC
Voice Procedure

Neptun
SILENCE MAYDAY

Ship - Ship Calling

Name / CS / MMSI
this is
Name / CS / MMSI
Question

Ship - Coast Station Calling

Coast Station Name


this is
Name / CS / MMSI
Question

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MAYDAY Unkas/dgdu 211 231 450 Text

Name, CS or all stations


SILENCE MAYDAY

DSC
Voice Procedure

Safety message

DSC
Voice Procedure

End of Distress

Voice Procedure

Canellation of a false
distress alert

DSC
Voice Procedure

Imposing Silence

MAYDAY Unkas/dgdu 211 231 450


position - Text

MAYDAY Name / CS / MMSI Text


Voice
Procedure

Distress Message

MAYDAY Name / CS / MMSI


position - Text

CS = Callsign

Distress relay Call

Example

MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY


this is
Unkas Unkas Unkas /dgku 211 231 450

DSC = First alert or nnouncement via DSC

Acknowledgement

Voice Procedure

Distress Message

DSC
Voice Procedure

Distress Call

Procedure

MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY


this is
Name Name Name /CS /MMSI

Rdo = Radio

Distress-, Urgent-, Safety- and Routine Voice Procedure

Kind of calling

Appendix 2: Morse code table


Letters
A

._

_.

_...

___

_._.

.__.

_..

__._

._.

.._.

...

__.

....

.._

..

..._

.___

.__

_._

_.._

._..

_.__

__

__..

.____

_....

..___

__...

...__

___..

...._

____.

.....

_____

Numbers

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Appendix 3: Phonetic alphabet and figure code


When it is necessary to spell out call signs, service abbreviations and words, the
following letter spelling table shall be used:
Letter to be
transmitted
A

Code word to be used

Spoken as1

Alfa

AL FAH

Bravo

BRAH VOH

Charlie

Delta

CHAR LEE or
SHAR LEE
DELL TAH

Echo

ECK OH

Foxtrot

FOKS TROT

Golf

GOLF

Hotel

HOH TELL

India

IN DEE AH

Juliett

JEW LEE ETT

Kilo

KEY LOH

Lima

LEE MAH

Mike

MIKE

November

NO VEM BER

Oscar

OSS CAH

Papa

PAH PAH

Quebec

KEH BECK

Romeo

ROW ME OH

Sierra

SEE AIR RAH

Tango

TANG GO

Uniform

Victor

YOU NEE FORM or


OO NEE FORM
VIK TAH

Whiskey

WISS KEY

X-ray

ECKS RAY

Yankee

YANG KEY

Zulu

ZOO LOO

The syllables to be emphasized are underlined.

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When it is necessary to spell out figures or marks, the following table shall be used:
Figure or mark to
be transmitted
0

Code word to be used

Spoken as2

Nadazero

NAH-DAH-ZAY-ROH

Unaone

OO-NAH-WUN

Bissotwo

BEES-SOH-TOO

Terrathree

TAY-RAH-TREE

Kartefour

KAR-TAY-FOWER

Pantafive

PAN-TAH-FIVE

Soxisix

SOK-SEE-SIX

Setteseven

SAY-TAY-SEVEN

Oktoeight

OK-TOH-AIT

Novenine

NO-VAY-NINER

Decimal point

Decimal

DAY-SEE-MAL

Full stop

Stop

STOP

However, stations of the same country, when communicating between themselves,


may use any other table recognized by their administration.

Each syllable should be equally emphasized.

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Appendix 4: Q-Codes
Commercial working
Code Question

Answer/Advice

QOB Can you communicate on R/T (2182 I can communicate on R/T (2182 kHz)
kHz)?
QOC Can you
(channel 16)?

communicate

in

R/T I can communicate on R/T (channel 16)

QOD Can you communicate in ...

I can communicate in ....

0.
1.
2.
3.
4.

0.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Dutch
English
French
German
Greek

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Italian
Japanese
Norwegian
Russian
Spanish

Dutch
English
French
German
Greek

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Italian
Japanese
Norwegian
Russian
Spanish

QOL Is your vessel fitted for reception of My vessel is fitted for reception of selective
selective calls; if so, what is your selective calls; my selective call number/signal is ...
call number/signal?
QOM On what frequencies can your vessel My vessel can be reached by selective call
be reached by selective call?
on frequencies ... (at ... time) by elective
call
QOO Can you send on any working I can send on any working frequency. My
frequency? QRA What is your station station identification is ...
identification?
QRB What is the distance between our The distance between our stations is ... My
stations? QRC What is your accounting accounting authority is ...
authority?
QRD Where are you coming from and I am coming from ... and bound for ...
where are you bound for?
QRE What is your estimated time of My estimated time of arrival (ETA) is ...
arrival?
QRJ How many telephone calls have you I have ... telephone calls to book.
booked?
QRK What is the intelligibility of my signals The signal intelligibility is ...
(or those of another station)?
1. bad
4. good
2. poor
5. excellent
3. fair
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Code Question

Answer/Advice

QRL Are you busy

I am busy/I am busy with ... (NAME/CALL


SIGN). Please do not interfere.

QRM Is my transmission being interfered Your transmission is being interfered with...


with?
QRN Are you troubled by static (noise)?

I am being troubled by static ...


1. nil 4. severely
2. slightly
5. extremely
3. moderately

QRT Shall I stop sending?

Stop sending.

QRU Do you have anything for me?

I have nothing for you.

QRV Are you ready?

I am ready.

QRX When will you call again?

I will call again at ... hours on ... KHz/ MHz.

QRY What is my turn (to send traffic)?


QRZ Who is calling me?

Your turn is number ...


You are called by ... (on ... KHz/MHz).

QSL Can you acknowledge receipt?

I am acknowledging receipt.

QSM Shall I repeat the last telegram(s)?

Repeat the last telegram(s) (give sequence


number)

QSP Will you relay to ... (NAME/CALL I will relay to (NAME/CALL SIGN) ... free of
SIGN)?
charge
QSW Will you send on this frequency/... I am going to send on this frequency/...
KHz/MHz (with class of emission ...)?
kHz/MHz (with class of emission ...)
QSQ Have you a doctor/other named I have a doctor/named person on board
person on board?
QSY Shall I transmit on another frequency?

Change transmission on another frequency


(or on ... KHz/MHz)

QTC How many telegrams do you have to I have ... telegrams for you (or NAME/
send?
CALL/SIGN)
QTH What is your exact position?

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My exact position is ... (latitude/lingituse,


etc.)

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Code Question

Answer/Advice

QTI* What is your TRUE course?

My TRUE course is ... degrees

QTJ* What is your speed?

My speed is ... knots

QTL* What is your TRUE heading?

My TRUE heading is ... degrees

QTQ Can you communicate with my station


by means of the International Code of
Signals (INTERCO)?
QTR What is the exact time?

I am going to communicate with your


station by means of the International Code
of Signals (INTERCO).
The exact time is ... hours

QUX Do you have any navigational I have the following


warnings or gale warnings in force?
warnings in force ...

navigational/gale

Q-Codes Distress & Safety/Search & Rescue


Code Question
Answer/Advice
QOE Have you received the Safety signal I have received the Safety signal sent by
sent by ... (NAME/CALL SIGN)?
(NAME/CALL SIGN)
QSE* What is the estimated drift of the The estimated drift of the survival craft is
survival craft?
(figures and units).
QSF* Have you effected rescue?

I have effected rescue and am proceeding


to ... base (with ... persons injured requiring
ambulance)

QTD* What has the rescue vessel/air-craft ... (NAME/CALL SIGN) has recovered ...
recovered?
1. ... (number) of survivors
2. wreckage
3. ... (number) of bodies
QTW* What
survivors?

is the condition

of

the Survivors are in .... condition and urgently


need

QTY* Are you proceeding to the position of I am proceeding to the position of the
the incident; if so, when will arrive?
incident and expect to arrive at (time/date)
QTZ* Are you continuing to search?

I am continuing the search for (aircraft,


ship, survival craft, survivors or wreckage.

QUD Have you received the Urgency signal I have received the Urgency signal sent by
sent by (NAME/CALL SIGN)?
.... (NAME/CALL SIGN) at ... hours.
QUE Have you received the Distress signal I have received the Distress signal sent by
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Code Question

Answer/Advice

sent by (NAME/CALL SIGN)?

.... (NAME/CALL SIGN) at ... hours.

QUM May I resume normal working?

Normal working may be resumed.

QUN To all stations:


Will vessels in my vicinity/in the vicinity of My position, TRUE course and speed are ...
.... /latitude/longitude, etc.) please indicate
their position, TRUE course and speed?
To single station:
Please indicate your position, TRUE course
and speed?
QUO* Shall I search for ...
1. aircraft
2. ship
3. survival craft
in the vicinity of ... (latitude/longitude etc.)?

Please search for ...


1. aircraft
2. ship
3. survival craft
in the vicinity of ... (latitude/longitude etc.)

QUP* Will you indicate your position by?


1. search light
2. black smoke trail
3. pyrotechnic lights

My position is indicated by
1. search light
2. black smoke trail
3. pyrotechnic lights

QUR* Have survivors ...


1. received survival equipment
2. been picked up by rescue vessel
3. been reached by ground rescue party?

Survivors ...
1. received survival equipment
2. been picked up by rescue vessel
3. been reached by ground rescue party?

QUS* Have you sighted survivors/wreck- Position of incidents is marked by ...


age; if so, in what position?
1. survivors in water
2. survivors in rafts
3. wreckage
QUT* Is position of incident marked?

Position of incident is marked by ...


1. flame or smoke float
2. sea marker
3. sea marker dye
4. other

QUU* Shall I home ship/aircraft to my Home ship/aircraft ... (NAME/CALL SIGN)


position?
By sending on ... KHz/MHz.
QUW* Are you in search area designated I am in the ... (designated) search area.
as ... (designator, latitude/longitude, etc.)?
QUY* Is position of survival draft marked?
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Position of survival draft was marked at ...

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Code Question

Answer/Advice
at hours by ...
1. flame or smoke float
2. sea marker
3. sea marker dye
4. other

QUZ* May I resume restricted working?

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Distress phase is still in force; restricted


working may be resumed.

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Appendix 5: Frequencies used for DSC


The frequencies used for distress, urgency, and safety purposes using DSC
are as follows (RR Appendix 15):
2 187.5

kHz

4 207.5

kHz

6 312

kHz

8 414.5

kHz

12 577

kHz

16 804.5

kHz

156.525

MHz (Note 1)

Note 1 The frequency 156.525 MHz may also be used for DSC purposes other than
distress, urgency, and safety.

The frequencies assignable on an international basis to ship and coast stations


for DSC, for purposes other than distress, urgency, and safety, are as follows
(see Note 2):
2.1

Ship stations (see Note 2)


458.5

2.2

kHz

2 177 (Note 3)

2 189.5

kHz

4 208

4 208.5

4 209

kHz

6 312.5

6 313

6 313.5

kHz

8 415

8 415.5

8 416

kHz

12 577.5

12 578

12 578.5

kHz

16 805

16 805.5

16 806

kHz

18 898.5

18 899

18 899.5

kHz

22 374.5

22 375

22 375.5

kHz

25 208.5

25 209

25 209.5

kHz

156.525

MHz

Coast stations (see Note 2)


455.5

kHz

2 177

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kHz

4 219.5

4 220

4 220.5

kHz

6 331

6 331.5

6 332

kHz

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Annex, page 298

8 436.5

8 437

8 437.5

kHz

12 657

12 657.5

12 658

kHz

16 903

16 903.5

16 904

kHz

19 703.5

19 704

19 704.5

kHz

22 444

22 444.5

22 445

kHz

26 121

26 121.5

26 122

kHz

156.525

MHz

Note 2 The following (kHz) paired frequencies (for ship/coast stations) 4 208/4 219.5,
6 312.5/6 331,
8 45/8 436.5,
12 577.5/12 657,
16 805/16 903,
18 898.5/19 703.5,
22 374.5/22 444 and 25 208.5/26 121 are the first choice international frequencies for DSC
(See RR Appendix 17, Part A, footnote j) and l)).
Note 3 The frequency 2 177 kHz is available to ship stations for intership calling only.

In addition to the frequencies listed in no. 2 above, appropriate working


frequencies in the following bands may be used for DSC (see RR Chapter II,
Article 5):

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415 - 526.5

kHz

(Regions 1 and 3)

415 - 525

kHz

(Region 2)

1 606.5 - 3 400 kHz

(Regions 1 and 3)

1 605.5 - 3 400 kHz

(Region 2) (For the band 1 605 1 625 kHz, see RR No. 5.89)

4 000 - 27 500

kHz

156 - 174

MHz

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Appendix 6: VHF frequencies


Channel
designator

60
01
61
02
62
03
63
04
64
05
65
06
2006
66
07
67

Notes

From ship
stations

From coast
stations

m)

156.025

m)

156.050

m)

160.625

160.650

156.075

160.675

m)

156.100

160.700

m)

156.125

160.725

m)

156.150

160.750

m)

156.175

160.775

m)

156.200

160.800

m)

156.225

160.825

m)

156.250

160.850

m)

156.275

160.875

f)

156.300

XXX)

160.900

160.900

m)

156.325

160.925

m)

156.350

160.950

h)

156.375

156.375

68

70

156.450

156.475

156.475

h), q)

156.500

156.500

f), j)

156.525

156.525

q)

156.550

156.550

156.575

156.575

156.600

156.600

12
13
73

75
76
17

Digital selective calling for distress, safety and calling

156.625

k)

156.650

156.650

h), i)

156.675

156.675

156.700

156.700

156.725

156.725

g)

156.750

156.750

n), X1)

156.775

156.775

f)

156.800

156.800

DISTRESS, SAFETY AND CALLING

n), X1)

156.825

156.825

g)

156.850

156.850

74

16

i)

14
15

x
156.425

71
72

156.450

69

11

156.425
i)

10

Public
correspondence

Two
frequency

156.400

09

Intership

Port operations
and ship movement
Single
frequency

08

77
18

Transmitting
Frequencies
(MHz)

156.875
m)

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

156.900

x
161.500

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 300

Channel
designator

Notes

Transmitting
Frequencies
(MHz)

161.525

156.925

156.925

161.525

161.525

156.950

161.550

156.950

156.950

161.550

161.550

156.975

161.575

156.975

156.975

161.575

161.575

157.000

161.600

157.000

157.000

161.600

161.600

B1), E1)

157.025

161.625

B1), E1)

157.050

161.650

B1), E1)

157.075

161.675

B1), E1)

157.100

161.700

B1), D1),
E1)

157.125

161.725

B1), D1),
E1)

157.150

161.750

B1), D1),
E1)

157.175

161.775

B1), C1),
D1), E1)

157.200

161.800

B1), C1),
D1), E1)

157.225

161.825

B1), C1),
D1), E1)

157.250

161.850

B1), C1),
D1), E1)

157.275

161.875

B1), C1),
D1), E1)

157.300

161.900

B1), C1),
D1), E1)

157.325

161.925

YYY)

157.350

161.950

YYY)

157.375

157.375

YYY)

157.400

162.000

YYY)

157.425

157.425

AIS 1

f), l), p)

161.975

161.975

AIS 2

f), l), p)

162.025

162.025

1078
2078
A1), A2),
A3)

19
1019
2019
79

A1), A2),
A3)

1079
2079
A1), A2),
A3)

20
1020
2020
80
21
81
22
82
23
83
24
84
25
85
26
86
27
87
28
88

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

156.925

Public
correspondence

Two
frequency

A1), A2),
A3)

From coast
stations

Port operations
and ship movement
Single
frequency

78

From ship
stations

Intership

x
x

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 301

Appendix 7: MF frequencies

495 1.800 kHz

Allocation to services
Region 1
495-505
505-526.5
MARITIME MOBILE 5.79
5.79A 5.84
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION

Region 2

Region 3

MARITIME MOBILE
505-510
MARITIME MOBILE 5.79
510-525
MARITIME MOBILE 5.79A
5.84
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION

505-526.5
MARITIME MOBILE 5.79
5.79A 5.84
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
Aeronautical mobile
Land mobile

525-535
526.5-1 606.5
BROADCASTING

5.87 5.87A

BROADCASTING 5.86
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION

526.5-535
BROADCASTING
Mobile
5.88

535-1 605
BROADCASTING

535-1 606.5
BROADCASTING

1 605-1 625

1 606.5-1 625
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE 5.90
LAND MOBILE

BROADCASTING 5.89

5.92

5.90

1 625-1 635
RADIOLOCATION

1 625-1 705
FIXED
MOBILE
BROADCASTING 5.89
Radiolocation

5.93
1 635-1 800
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE 5.90
LAND MOBILE

5.92 5.96

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

1 606.5-1 800
FIXED
MOBILE
RADIOLOCATION
RADIONAVIGATION

5.90
1 705-1 800
FIXED
MOBILE
RADIOLOCATION
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION

5.91

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 302
5.84

The conditions for the use of the frequency 518 kHz by the maritime mobile service are
prescribed in Articles 31 and 52. (WRC-07)

5.85

Not used.

5.86

In Region 2, in the band 525-535 kHz the carrier power of broadcasting stations shall not
exceed 1 kW during the day and 250 W at night.

5.87

Additional allocation: in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia,


Niger and Swaziland, the band 526.5-535 kHz is also allocated to the mobile service on a
secondary basis. (WRC-12)

5.87A Additional allocation: in Uzbekistan, the band 526.5-1 606.5 kHz is also allocated to the
radionavigation service on a primary basis. Such use is subject to agreement obtained
under No. 9.21 with administrations concerned and limited to ground-based radiobeacons
in operation on 27 October 1997 until the end of their lifetime. (WRC-97)
5.88

Additional allocation: in China, the band 526.5-535 kHz is also allocated to the
aeronautical radionavigation service on a secondary basis.

5.89

In Region 2, the use of the band 1 605-1 705 kHz by stations of the broadcasting service
is subject to the Plan established by the Regional Administrative Radio Conference (Rio
de Janeiro, 1988).
The examination of frequency assignments to stations of the fixed and mobile services in
the band 1 625-1 705 kHz shall take account of the allotments appearing in the Plan
established by the Regional Administrative Radio Conference (Rio de Janeiro, 1988).

5.90

In the band 1 605-1 705 kHz, in cases where a broadcasting station of Region 2 is
concerned, the service area of the maritime mobile stations in Region 1 shall be limited to
that provided by ground-wave propagation.

5.91

Additional allocation: in the Philippines and Sri Lanka, the band 1 606.5-1 705 kHz is also
allocated to the broadcasting service on a secondary basis. (WRC-97)

5.92

Some countries of Region 1 use radiodetermination systems in the bands


1 606.5-1 625 kHz, 1 635-1 800 kHz, 1 850-2 160 kHz, 2 194-2 300 kHz, 2 502-2 850 kHz
and 3 500-3 800 kHz, subject to agreement obtained under No. 9.21. The radiated mean
power of these stations shall not exceed 50 W.

5.93

Additional allocation: in Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, the Russian Federation,


Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Nigeria, Uzbekistan, Poland,
Kyrgyzstan, Slovakia, Tajikistan, Chad, Turkmenistan and Ukraine, the bands
1 625-1 635 kHz, 1 800-1 810 kHz and 2 160-2 170 kHz are also allocated to the fixed
and land mobile services on a primary basis, subject to agreement obtained
under No. 9.21. (WRC-12)

5.94 and 5.95 Not used.


5.96

In Germany, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Denmark, Estonia, the Russian


Federation, Finland, Georgia, Hungary, Ireland, Iceland, Israel, Kazakhstan, Latvia,
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Malta, Moldova, Norway, Uzbekistan, Poland, Kyrgyzstan,
Slovakia, the Czech Rep., the United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan and Ukraine, administrations may allocate up to 200 kHz to their amateur
service in the bands 1 715-1 800 kHz and 1 850-2 000 kHz. However, when allocating the
bands within this range to their amateur service, administrations shall, after prior
consultation with administrations of neighbouring countries, take such steps as may be
necessary to prevent harmful interference from their amateur service to the fixed and
mobile services of other countries. The mean power of any amateur station shall not
exceed 10 W. (WRC-03)

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1 800 - 2 194 kHz


Allocation to services
Region 1
1 800-1 810
RADIOLOCATION

Region 2
1 800-1 850
AMATEUR

5.93
1 810-1 850
AMATEUR
5.98 5.99 5.100 5.101
1 850-2 000
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical
mobile

1 850-2 000
AMATEUR
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical
mobile
RADIOLOCATION
RADIONAVIGATION

5.92 5.96 5.103

5.102

2 000-2 025
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical
mobile (R)
5.92 5.103

2 000-2 065
FIXED
MOBILE

2 025-2 045
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical
mobile (R)
Meteorological aids 5.104
5.92 5.103
2 045-2 160
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE
LAND MOBILE

2 065-2 107
MARITIME MOBILE 5.105
5.106

5.92

2 107-2 170
FIXED
MOBILE

2 160-2 170
RADIOLOCATION
5.93 5.107
2 170-2 173.5

MARITIME MOBILE

2 173.5-2 190.5

MOBILE (distress and calling)


5.108 5.109 5.110 5.111

2 190.5-2 194

MARITIME MOBILE

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

Region 3
1 800-2 000
AMATEUR
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical
mobile
RADIONAVIGATION
Radiolocation

5.97

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 304
5.97

In Region 3, the Loran system operates either on 1 850 kHz or 1 950 kHz, the bands
occupied being 1 825-1 875 kHz and 1 925-1 975 kHz respectively. Other services to
which the band 1 800-2 000 kHz is allocated may use any frequency therein on condition
that no harmful interference is caused to the Loran system operating on 1 850 kHz or
1 950 kHz.

5.98

Alternative allocation: in Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Cameroon,


Congo (Rep. of the), Denmark, Egypt, Eritrea, Spain, Ethiopia, the Russian Federation,
Georgia, Greece, Italy, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Lithuania, the Syrian Arab Republic,
Kyrgyzstan, Somalia, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Turkey and Ukraine, the band
1 810-1 830 kHz is allocated to the fixed and mobile, except aeronautical mobile, services
on a primary basis. (WRC-12)

5.99

Additional allocation: in Saudi Arabia, Austria, Iraq, Libya, Uzbekistan, Slovakia,


Romania, Slovenia, Chad, and Togo, the band 1 810-1 830 kHz is also allocated to the
fixed and mobile, except aeronautical mobile, services on a primary basis. (WRC-12)

5.100 In Region 1, the authorization to use the band 1 810-1 830 kHz by the amateur service in
countries situated totally or partially north of 40 N shall be given only after consultation
with the countries mentioned in Nos. 5.98 and 5.99 to define the necessary steps to be
taken to prevent harmful interference between amateur stations and stations of other
services operating in accordance with Nos. 5.98 and 5.99.
5.102 Alternative allocation: in Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay, the band
1 850-2 000 kHz is allocated to the fixed, mobile except aeronautical mobile, radiolocation
and radionavigation services on a primary basis. (WRC-07)
5.103 In Region 1, in making assignments to stations in the fixed and mobile services in the
bands 1 850-2 045 kHz, 2 194-2 498 kHz, 2 502-2 625 kHz and 2 650-2 850 kHz,
administrations should bear in mind the special requirements of the maritime mobile
service.
5.104 In Region 1, the use of the band 2 025-2 045 kHz by the meteorological aids service is
limited to oceanographic buoy stations.
5.105 In Region 2, except in Greenland, coast stations and ship stations using radiotelephony in
the band 2 065-2 107 kHz shall be limited to class J3E emissions and to a peak envelope
power not exceeding 1 kW. Preferably, the following carrier frequencies should be used:
2 065.0 kHz, 2 079.0 kHz, 2 082.5 kHz, 2 086.0 kHz, 2 093.0 kHz, 2 096.5 kHz, 2 100.0
kHz and 2 103.5 kHz. In Argentina and Uruguay, the carrier frequencies 2 068.5 kHz and
2 075.5 kHz are also used for this purpose, while the frequencies within the band 2 0722 075.5 kHz are used as provided in No. 52.165.
5.106 In Regions 2 and 3, provided no harmful interference is caused to the maritime mobile
service, the frequencies between 2 065 kHz and 2 107 kHz may be used by stations of
the fixed service communicating only within national borders and whose mean power
does not exceed 50 W. In notifying the frequencies, the attention of the Bureau should be
drawn to these provisions.
5.107 Additional allocation: in Saudi Arabia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Libya, Somalia and
Swaziland, the band 2 160-2 170 kHz is also allocated to the fixed and mobile, except
aeronautical mobile (R), services on a primary basis. The mean power of stations in these
services shall not exceed 50 W. (WRC-12)
5.108 The carrier frequency 2 182 kHz is an international distress and calling frequency for
radiotelephony. The conditions for the use of the band 2 173.5-2 190.5 kHz are
prescribed in Articles 31 and 52. (WRC-07)
5.109 The frequencies 2 187.5 kHz, 4 207.5 kHz, 6 312 kHz, 8 414.5 kHz, 12 577 kHz and
16 804.5 kHz are international distress frequencies for digital selective calling. The
conditions for the use of these frequencies are prescribed in Article 31.

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5.110 The frequencies 2 174.5 kHz, 4 177.5 kHz, 6 268 kHz, 8 376.5 kHz, 12 520 kHz and
16 695 kHz are international distress frequencies for narrow-band direct-printing
telegraphy. The conditions for the use of these frequencies are prescribed in Article 31.
5.111 The carrier frequencies 2 182 kHz, 3 023 kHz, 5 680 kHz, 8 364 kHz and the frequencies
121.5 MHz, 156.525 MHz, 156.8 MHz and 243 MHz may also be used, in accordance
with the procedures in force for terrestrial radiocommunication services, for search and
rescue operations concerning manned space vehicles. The conditions for the use of the
frequencies are prescribed in Article 31.
The same applies to the frequencies 10 003 kHz, 14 993 kHz and 19 993 kHz, but in each
of these cases emissions mus
3 kHz about the frequency.
(WRC-07)

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2 194-3 230 kHz


Allocation to services
Region 1
2 194-2 300
FIXED
MOBILE
except aeronautical mobile (R)
5.92 5.103 5.112
2 300-2 498
FIXED
MOBILE
except aeronautical mobile (R)
BROADCASTING 5.113 5.103
2 498-2 501
STANDARD FREQUENCY
AND TIME SIGNAL
(2 500 kHz)
2 501-2 502
2 502-2 625
FIXED
MOBILE
except aeronautical mobile (R)
5.92 5.103 5.114

Region 2
2 194-2 300
FIXED
MOBILE
5.112
2 300-2 495
FIXED
MOBILE
BROADCASTING 5.113

2 495-2 501
STANDARD FREQUENCY AND TIME SIGNAL (2 500 kHz)

STANDARD FREQUENCY AND TIME SIGNAL


Space Research
2 502-2 505
STANDARD FREQUENCY AND TIME SIGNAL
2 505-2 850
FIXED
MOBILE

2 625-2 650
MARITIME MOBILE
MARITIME RADIONAVIGATION
5.92
2 650-2 850
FIXED
MOBILE
except aeronautical mobile (R)
5.92 5.103
2 850-3 025

AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)


5.111 5.115

3 025-3 155

AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (OR)

3 155-3 200

FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)
5.116 5.117

3 200-3 230

FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (R)
BROADCASTING 5.113
5.116

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

Region 3

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Annex, page 307
5.112 Alternative allocation: in Denmark and Sri Lanka, the band 2 194-2 300 kHz is allocated
to the fixed and mobile, except aeronautical mobile, services on a primary basis. (WRC-12)
5.113 For the conditions for the use of the bands 2 300-2 495 kHz (2 498 kHz in Region 1),
3 200-3 400 kHz, 4 750-4 995 kHz and 5 005-5 060 kHz by the broadcasting service, see
Nos. 5.16 to 5.20, 5.21 and 23.3 to 23.10.
5.114 Alternative allocation: in Denmark and Iraq, the band 2 502-2 625 kHz is allocated to the
fixed and mobile, except aeronautical mobile, services on a primary basis. (WRC-12)
5.115 The carrier (reference) frequencies 3 023 kHz and 5 680 kHz may also be used, in
accordance with Article 31, by stations of the maritime mobile service engaged in
coordinated search and rescue operations. (WRC-07)
5.116 Administrations are urged to authorize the use of the band 3 155-3 195 kHz to provide a
common worldwide channel for low power wireless hearing aids. Additional channels for
these devices may be assigned by administrations in the bands between 3 155 kHz and
3 400 kHz to suit local needs.
It should be noted that frequencies in the range 3 000 kHz to 4 000 kHz are suitable for
hearing aid devices which are designed to operate over short distances within the
induction field.
5.117 Alternative allocation: in Cte d'Ivoire, Denmark, Egypt, Liberia, Sri Lanka and Togo, the
band 3 155-3 200 kHz is allocated to the fixed and mobile, except aeronautical mobile,
services on a primary basis. (WRC-12)

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3 230-5 003 kHz


Allocation to services
Region 1
3 230-3 400

3 400-3 500
3 500-3 800
AMATEUR
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical
mobile
5.92
3 800-3 900
FIXED
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (OR)
LAND MOBILE
3 900-3 950
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (OR)
5.123
3 950-4 000
FIXED
BROADCASTING

Region 2
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile
BROADCASTING 5.113
5.116 5.118
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
3 500-3 750
AMATEUR

Region 3

3 500-3 900
AMATEUR
FIXED
MOBILE

5.119
3 750-4 000
AMATEUR
FIXED
MOBILE except aeronautical
mobile (R)

5.122 5.125

3 900-3 950
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE
BROADCASTING
3 950-4 000
FIXED
BROADCASTING
5.126

5.118 Additional allocation: in the United States, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, the band 3 2303 400 kHz is also allocated to the radiolocation service on a secondary basis. (WRC-03)
5.119 Additional allocation: in Honduras, Mexico and Peru, the band 3 500-3 750 kHz is also
allocated to the fixed and mobile services on a primary basis. (WRC-07)
5.121 Not used.
5.122 Alternative allocation: in Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay, the band
3 750-4 000 kHz is allocated to the fixed and mobile, except aeronautical mobile, services
on a primary basis. (WRC-07)
5.123 Additional allocation: in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa,
Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe, the band 3 900-3 950 kHz is also allocated to the
broadcasting service on a primary basis, subject to agreement obtained under No. 9.21.
5.125 Additional allocation: in Greenland, the band 3 950-4 000 kHz is also allocated to the
broadcasting service on a primary basis. The power of the broadcasting stations
operating in this band shall not exceed that necessary for a national service and shall in
no case exceed 5 kW.
5.126 In Region 3, the stations of those services to which the band 3 995-4 005 kHz is allocated
may transmit standard frequency and time signals.
5.127 The use of the band 4 000-4 063 kHz by the maritime mobile service is limited to ship
stations using radiotelephony (see No. 52.220 and Appendix 17).
5.128 Frequencies in the bands 4 063-4 123 kHz and 4 130-4 438 kHz may be used
exceptionally by stations in the fixed service, communicating only within the boundary of
I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

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the country in which they are located, with a mean power not exceeding 50 W, on
condition that harmful interference is not caused to the maritime mobile service. In
addition, in Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Botswana, Burkina
Faso, the Central African Rep., China, the Russian Federation, Georgia, India,
Kazakhstan, Mali, Niger, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Chad, Turkmenistan and
Ukraine, in the bands 4 063-4 123 kHz, 4 130-4 133 kHz and 4 408-4 438 kHz, stations in
the fixed service, with a mean power not exceeding 1 kW, can be operated on condition
that they are situated at least 600 km from the coast and that harmful interference is not
caused to the maritime mobile service. (WRC-12)
5.130 The conditions for the use of the carrier frequencies 4 125 kHz and 6 215 kHz are
prescribed in Articles 31 and 52. (WRC-07)
5.131 The frequency 4 209.5 kHz is used exclusively for the transmission by coast stations of
meteorological and navigational warnings and urgent information to ships by means of
narrow-band direct-printing techniques. (WRC-97)
5.132 The frequencies 4 210 kHz, 6 314 kHz, 8 416.5 kHz, 12 579 kHz, 16 806.5 kHz, 19 680.5
kHz, 22 376 kHz and 26 100.5 kHz are the international frequencies for the transmission
of maritime safety information (MSI) (see Appendix 17).
5.132A Stations in the radiolocation service shall not cause harmful interference to, or claim
protection from, stations operating in the fixed or mobile services. Applications of the
radiolocation service are limited to oceanographic radars operating in accordance with
Resolution 612 (Rev.WRC-12). (WRC-12)
5.132B Alternative allocation: in Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Moldova, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan,
the frequency band 4 438-4 488 kHz is allocated to the fixed and mobile, except
aeronautical mobile (R), services on a primary basis. (WRC-12)

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

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Appendix 8: HF Duplex Channels


Coast Station Ship Station
4 MHz band
Channel
No.

Coast stations

Ship stations

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

401
402

4 357
4 360

4 358.4
4 361.4

4 065
4 068

4 066.4
4 069.4

403

4 363

4 364.4

4 071

4 072.4

404

4 366

4 367.4

4 074

4 075.4

405

4 369

4 370.4

4 077

4 078.4

406

4 372

4 373.4

4 080

4 081.4

407

4 375

4 376.4

4 083

4 084.4

408

4 378

4 379.4

4 086

4 087.4

409

4 381

4 382.4

4 089

4 090.4

410

4 384

4 385.4

4 092

4 093.4

411

4 387

4 388.4

4 095

4 096.4

412

4 390

4 391.4

4 098

4 099.4

413

4 393

4 394.4

4 101

4 102.4

414

4 396

4 397.4

4 104

4 105.4

415

4 399

4 400.4

4 107

4 108.4

416

4 402

4 403.4

4 110

4 111.4

417

4 405

4 406.4

4 113

4 114.4

418

4 408

4 409.4

4 116

4 117.4

419

4 411

4 412.4

4 119

4 120.4

420

4 414

4 415.4

4 122

4 123.4

421

4 417

4 418.4

4 125

4 126.4

422

4 420

4 421.4

4 128

4 129.4

423

4 423

4 424.4

4 131

4 132.4

424

4 426

4 427.4

4 134

4 135.4

425

4 429

4 430.4

4 137

4 138.4

426

4 432

4 433.4

4 140

4 141.4

427

4 435

4 436.4

4 143

4 144.4

428

4 351

4 352.4

429

4 354

4 355.4

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

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6 MHz band
Channel
No.

Coast stations

Ship stations

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

601
602

6 501
6 504

6 502.4
6 505.4

6 200
6 203

6 201.4
6 204.4

603

6 507

6 508.4

6 206

6 207.4

604

6 510

6 511.4

6 209

6 210.4

605

6 513

6 514.4

6 212

6 213.4

606

6 516

6 517.4

6 215

6 216.4

607

6 519

6 520.4

6 218

6 219.4

608

6 522

6 523.4

6 221

6 222.4

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8 MHz band
Channel
No.

Coast stations

Ship stations

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

801

8 719

8 720.4

8 195

8 196.4

802

8 722

8 723.4

8 198

8 199.4

803

8 725

8 726.4

8 201

8 202.4

804

8 728

8 729.4

8 204

8 205.4

805

8 731

8 732.4

8 207

8 208.4

806

8 734

8 735.4

8 210

8 211.4

807

8 737

8 738.4

8 213

8 214.4

808

8 740

8 741.4

8 216

8 217.4

809

8 743

8 744.4

8 219

8 220.4

810

8 746

8 747.4

8 222

8 223.4

811

8 749

8 750.4

8 225

8 226.4

812

8 752

8 753.4

8 228

8 229.4

813

8 755

8 756.4

8 231

8 232.4

814

8 758

8 759.4

8 234

8 235.4

815

8 761

8 762.4

8 237

8 238.4

816

8 764

8 765.4

8 240

8 241.4

817

8 767

8 768.4

8 243

8 244.4

818

8 770

8 771.4

8 246

8 247.4

819

8 773

8 774.4

8 249

8 250.4

820

8 776

8 777.4

8 252

8 253.4

821

8 779

8 780.4

8 255

8 256.4

822

8 782

8 783.4

8 258

8 259.4

823

8 785

8 786.4

8 261

8 262.4

824

8 788

8 789.4

8 264

8 265.4

825

8 791

8 792.4

8 267

8 268.4

826

8 794

8 795.4

8 270

8 271.4

827

8 797

8 798.4

8 273

8 274.4

828

8 800

8 801.4

8 276

8 277.4

829

8 803

8 804.4

8 279

8 280.4

830

8 806

8 807.4

8 282

8 283.4

831

8 809

8 810.4

8 285

8 286.4

832

8 812

8 813.4

8 288

8 289.4

833

8 291

8 292.4

8 291

8 292.4

834

8 707

8 708.4

835

8 710

8 711.4

836

8 713

8 714.4

837

8 716

8 717.4

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 313

12 MHz band
Channel
No.

Coast stations

Ship stations

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

1201

13 077

13 078.4

12 230

12 231.4

1202

13 080

13 081.4

12 233

12 234.4

1203

13 083

13 084.4

12 236

12 237.4

1204

13 086

13 087.4

12 239

12 240.4

1205

13 089

13 090.4

12 242

12 243.4

1206

13 092

13 093.4

12 245

12 246.4

1207

13 095

13 096.4

12 248

12 249.4

1208

13 098

13 099.4

12 251

12 252.4

1209

13 101

13 102.4

12 254

12 255.4

1210

13 104

13 105.4

12 257

12 258.4

1211

13 107

13 108.4

12 260

12 261.4

1212

13 110

13 111.4

12 263

12 264.4

1213

13 113

13 114.4

12 266

12 267.4

1214

13 116

13 117.4

12 269

12 270.4

1215

13 119

13 120.4

12 272

12 273.4

1216

13 122

13 123.4

12 275

12 276.4

1217

13 125

13 126.4

12 278

12 279.4

1218

13 128

13 129.4

12 281

12 282.4

1219

13 131

13 132.4

12 284

12 285.4

1220

13 134

13 135.4

12 287

12 288.4

1221

13 137

13 138.4

12 290

12 291.4

1222

13 140

13 141.4

12 293

12 294.4

1223

13 143

13 144.4

12 296

12 297.4

1224

13 146

13 147.4

12 299

12 300.4

1225

13 149

13 150.4

12 302

12 303.4

1226

13 152

13 153.4

12 305

12 306.4

1227

13 155

13 156.4

12 308

12 309.4

1228

13 158

13 159.4

12 311

12 312.4

1229

13 161

13 162.4

12 314

12 315.4

1230

13 164

13 165.4

12 317

12 318.4

1231

13 167

13 168.4

12 320

12 321.4

1232

13 170

13 171.4

12 323

12 324.4

1233

13 173

13 174.4

12 326

12 327.4

1234

13 176

13 177.4

12 329

12 330.4

1235

13 179

13 180.4

12 332

12 333.4

1236

13 182

13 183.4

12 335

12 336.4

1237

13 185

13 186.4

12 338

12 339.4

1238

13 188

13 189.4

12 341

12 342.4

1239

13 191

13 192.4

12 344

12 345.4

1240

13 194

13 195.4

12 347

12 348.4

1241

13 197

13 198.4

12 350

12 351.4

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 314

16 MHz band
Channel
No.

Coast stations

Ship stations

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

1601

17 242

17 243.4

16 360

16 361.4

1602

17 245

17 246.4

16 363

16 364.4

1603

17 248

17 249.4

16 366

16 367.4

1604

17 251

17 252.4

16 369

16 370.4

1605

17 254

17 255.4

16 372

16 373.4

1606

17 257

17 258.4

16 375

16 376.4

1607

17 260

17 261.4

16 378

16 379.4

1608

17 263

17 264.4

16 381

16 382.4

1609

17 266

17 267.4

16 384

16 385.4

1610

17 269

17 270.4

16 387

16 388.4

1611

17 272

17 273.4

16 390

16 391.4

1612

17 275

17 276.4

16 393

16 394.4

1613

17 278

17 279.4

16 396

16 397.4

1614

17 281

17 282.4

16 399

16 400.4

1615

17 284

17 285.4

16 402

16 403.4

1616

17 287

17 288.4

16 405

16 406.4

1617

17 290

17 291.4

16 408

16 409.4

1618

17 293

17 294.4

16 411

16 412.4

1619

17 296

17 297.4

16 414

16 415.4

1620

17 299

17 300.4

16 417

16 418.4

1621

17 302

17 303.4

16 420

16 421.4

1622

17 305

17 306.4

16 423

16 424.4

1623

17 308

17 309.4

16 426

16 427.4

1624

17 311

17 312.4

16 429

16 430.4

1625

17 314

17 315.4

16 432

16 433.4

1626

17 317

17 318.4

16 435

16 436.4

1627

17 320

17 321.4

16 438

16 439.4

1628

17 323

17 324.4

16 441

16 442.4

1629

17 326

17 327.4

16 444

16 445.4

1630

17 329

17 330.4

16 447

16 448.4

1631

17 332

17 333.4

16 450

16 451.4

1632

17 335

17 336.4

16 453

16 454.4

1633

17 338

17 339.4

16 456

16 457.4

1634

17 341

17 342.4

16 459

16 460.4

1635

17 344

17 345.4

16 462

16 463.4

1636

17 347

17 348.4

16 465

16 466.4

1637

17 350

17 351.4

16 468

16 469.4

1638

17 353

17 354.4

16 471

16 472.4

1639

17 356

17 357.4

16 474

16 475.4

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 315
16 MHz band
Channel
No.

Coast stations

Ship stations

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

1640

17 359

17 360.4

16 477

16 478.4

1641

17 362

17 363.4

16 480

16 481.4

1642

17 365

17 366.4

16 483

16 484.4

1643

17 368

17 369.4

16 486

16 487.4

1644

17 371

17 372.4

16 489

16 490.4

1645

17 374

17 375.4

16 492

16 493.4

1646

17 377

17 378.4

16 495

16 496.4

1647

17 380

17 381.4

16 498

16 499.4

1648

17 383

17 384.4

16 501

16 502.4

1649

17 386

17 387.4

16 504

16 505.4

1650

17 389

17 390.4

16 507

16 508.4

1651

17 392

17 393.4

16 510

16 511.4

1652

17 395

17 396.4

16 513

16 514.4

1653

17 398

17 399.4

16 516

16 517.4

1654

17 401

17 402.4

16 519

16 520.4

1655

17 404

17 405.4

16 522

16 523.4

1656

17 407

17 408.4

16 525

16 526.4

18/19 MHz band


Channel
No.

Coast stations

Ship stations

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

1801
1802

19 755
19 758

19 756.4
19 759.4

18 780
18 783

18 781.4
18 784.4

1803

19 761

19 762.4

18 786

18 787.4

1804

19 764

19 765.4

18 789

18 790.4

1805

19 767

19 768.4

18 792

18 793.4

1806

19 770

19 771.4

18 795

18 796.4

1807

19 773

19 774.4

18 798

18 799.4

1808

19 776

19 777.4

18 801

18 802.4

1809

19 779

19 780.4

18 804

18 805.4

1810

19 782

19 783.4

18 807

18 808.4

1811

19 785

19 786.4

18 810

18 811.4

1812

19 788

19 789.4

18 813

18 814.4

1813

19 791

19 792.4

18 816

18 817.4

1814

19 794

19 795.4

18 819

18 820.4

1815

19 797

19 798.4

18 822

18 823.4

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 316

22 MHz band
Channel
No.

Coast stations

Ship stations

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249

22 696
22 699
22 702
22 705
22 708
22 711
22 714
22 717
22 720
22 723
22 726
22 729
22 732
22 735
22 738
22 741
22 744
22 747
22 750
22 753
22 756
22 759
22 762
22 765
22 768
22 771
22 774
22 777
22 780
22 783
22 786
22 789
22 792
22 795
22 798
22 801
22 804
22 807
22 810
22 813
22 816
22 819
22 822
22 825
22 828
22 831
22 834
22 837
22 840

22 697.4
22 700.4
22 703.4
22 706.4
22 709.4
22 712.4
22 715.4
22 718.4
22 721.4
22 724.4
22 727.4
22 730.4
22 733.4
22 736.4
22 739.4
22 742.4
22 745.4
22 748.4
22 751.4
22 754.4
22 757.4
22 760.4
22 763.4
22 766.4
22 769.4
22 772.4
22 775.4
22 778.4
22 781.4
22 784.4
22 787.4
22 790.4
22 793.4
22 796.4
22 799.4
22 802.4
22 805.4
22 808.4
22 811.4
22 814.4
22 817.4
22 820.4
22 823.4
22 826.4
22 829.4
22 832.4
22 835.4
22 838.4
22 841.4

22 000
22 003
22 006
22 009
22 012
22 015
22 018
22 021
22 024
22 027
22 030
22 033
22 036
22 039
22 042
22 045
22 048
22 051
22 054
22 057
22 060
22 063
22 066
22 069
22 072
22 075
22 078
22 081
22 084
22 087
22 090
22 093
22 096
22 099
22 102
22 105
22 108
22 111
22 114
22 117
22 120
22 123
22 126
22 129
22 132
22 135
22 138
22 141
22 144

22 001.4
22 004.4
22 007.4
22 010.4
22 013.4
22 016.4
22 019.4
22 022.4
22 025.4
22 028.4
22 031.4
22 034.4
22 037.4
22 040.4
22 043.4
22 046.4
22 049.4
22 052.4
22 055.4
22 058.4
22 061.4
22 064.4
22 067.4
22 070.4
22 073.4
22 076.4
22 079.4
22 082.4
22 085.4
22 088.4
22 091.4
22 094.4
22 097.4
22 100.4
22 103.4
22 106.4
22 109.4
22 112.4
22 115.4
22 118.4
22 121.4
22 124.4
22 127.4
22 130.4
22 133.4
22 136.4
22 139.4
22 142.4
22 145.4

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 317
22 MHz band
Channel
No.

Coast stations

Ship stations

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

2250
2251
2252
2253

22 843
22 846
22 849
22 852

22 844.4
22 847.4
22 850.4
22 853.4

22 147
22 150
22 153
22 156

22 148.4
22 151.4
22 154.4
22 157.4

25/26 MHz band


Channel
No.

Coast stations

Ship stations

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510

26 145
26 148
26 151
26 154
26 157
26 160
26 163
26 166
26 169
26 172

26 146.4
26 149.4
26 152.4
26 155.4
26 158.4
26 161.4
26 164.4
26 167.4
26 170.4
26 173.4

25 070
25 073
25 076
25 079
25 082
25 085
25 088
25 091
25 094
25 097

25 071.4
25 074.4
25 077.4
25 080.4
25 083.4
25 086.4
25 089.4
25 092.4
25 095.4
25 098.4

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex 2, page 318

Appendix 9: Voice Ship Ship frequencies


Table of single-sideband transmitting frequencies (kHz) for simplex
(single-frequency) operation and for intership cross-band (two-frequency) operation
(See 4 of Section I)

4 MHz band1

6 MHz band

8 MHz band2

12 MHz band3

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

4 146
4 149

4 147.4
4 150.4

6 224
6 227
6 230

6 225.4
6 228.4
6 231.4

8 294
8 297

8 295.4
8 298.4

12 353
12 356
12 362
12 365

12 354.4
12 357.4
12 363.4
12 366.4

These frequencies may be used for duplex operation with coast stations operating on Channel Nos. 428
and 429 (see Sub-Section A).
2

These frequencies may be used for duplex operation with coast stations operating on Channel Nos. 834 up
to and including 837 (see Sub-Section A).
3

For use of frequencies 12 359 kHz and 16 537 kHz, see Nos. 52.221A and 52.222A.
16 MHz band3

18/19 MHz band

(WRC-2000)

22 MHz band

25/26 MHz band

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

Carrier
frequency

Assigned
frequency

16 528
16 531
16 534

16 529.4
16 532.4
16 535.4

16 540
16 543
16 546

16 541.4
16 544.4
16 547.4

18 825
18 828
18 831
18 834
18 837
18 840
18 843

18 826.4
18 829.4
18 832.4
18 835.4
18 838.4
18 841.4
18 844.4

22 159
22 162
22 165
22 168
22 171
22 174
22 177

22 160.4
22 163.4
22 166.4
22 169.4
22 172.4
22 175.4
22 178.4

25 100
25 103
25 106
25 109
25 112
25 115
25 118

25 101.4
25 104.4
25 107.4
25 110.4
25 113.4
25 116.4
25 119.4

For use of frequencies 12 359 kHz and 16 537 kHz, see Nos. 52.221A and 52.222A.

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

(WRC 2000)

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 319

Appendix 10: Frequencies for Data Transmission


Channel
No.

4 MHz band
Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

6 MHz band

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

8 MHz band

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

1
2
3
4
5

4 153.5
3, 4
4 156.5
3, 4
4 159.5
3, 4
4 162.5
3, 4
4 165.5

3, 4

6 234.5
3, 4
6 237.5
3, 4
6 240.5
3, 4
6 243.5
3, 4
6 246.5

3, 4

8 301.5
3, 4
8 304.5
3, 4
8 307.5
3, 4
8 310.5
3, 4
8 313.5

6
7
8
9
10

4 168.5
4 181.75
4 184.75
4 187.75
2, 3
4 190.75

3, 4

3, 4

6 323.25

6 249.5
3, 4
6 252.5
3, 4
6 255.5
3, 4
6 258.5
6 271.25

8 316.5
3, 4
8 319.5
3, 4
8 322.5
3, 4
8 325.5
3, 4
8 328.5

6 326.25
6 329.25
2, 3
6 280.25
2, 3
6 283.25
2, 3
6 286.25

6 274.25
6 277.25
2, 3
6 280.25
2, 3
6 283.25
2, 3
6 286.25

8 409.5
8 412.5

8 331.5
3, 4
8 334.5
3, 4
8 337.5
8 343.25
8 346.25

11
12
13
14
15

4 199.75
4 202.75
4 205.75
2, 3
4 190.75
2, 3

4 193.75
2, 3
4 196.75
2
4 217.75

2, 3

4 193.75
2, 3
4 196.75
2
4 217.75

3, 4

3, 4

3, 4

16
17
18
19
20

6 289.25
2, 3
6 292.25
2, 3
6 295.25
2, 3
6 298.25
2, 3
6 301.25

2, 3

6 289.25
2, 3
6 292.25
2, 3
6 295.25
2, 3
6 298.25
2, 3
6 301.25

2, 3

8 425.5
3
8 428.5
3
8 431.5
3
8 434.5
2, 3
8 361.25

8 349.25
3
8 352.25
3
8 355.25
3
8 358.25
2, 3
8 361.25

21
22
23
24
25

6 304.25
2, 3
6 307.25
2, 3
6 310.25

2, 3

6 304.25
2, 3
6 307.25
2, 3
6 310.25

2, 3

8 364.25
2, 3
8 367.25
2, 3
8 370.25
2, 3
8 373.25
2, 3
8 385.5

2, 3

8 364.25
2, 3
8 367.25
2, 3
8 370.25
2, 3
8 373.25
2, 3
8 385.5

2, 3

26
27
28
29
30

8 388.5
2, 3
8 391.5
2, 3
8 394.5
2, 3
8 397.5
2, 3
8 400.5

2, 3

8 388.5
2, 3
8 391.5
2, 3
8 394.5
2, 3
8 397.5
2, 3
8 400.5

31
32

8 403.5
2, 3
8 406.5

2, 3

8 403.5
2, 3
8 406.5

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

2, 3

2, 3

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 320

Channel
No.

12 MHz
Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

16 MHz

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

18/19 MHz

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

1
2
3
4
5

12 369.5
3, 4
12 372.5
3, 4
12 375.5
3, 4
12 378.5
3, 4
12 381.5

3, 4

16 550.5
3, 4
16 553.5
3, 4
16 556.5
3, 4
16 559.5
3, 4
16 562.5

3, 4

18 847.5
3, 4
18 850.5
3, 4
18 853.5
3, 4
18 856.5
3, 4
18 859.5

6
7
8
9
10

12 384.5
3, 4
12 387.5
3, 4
12 390.5
3, 4
12 393.5
3, 4
12 396.5

3, 4

16 565.5
3, 4
16 568.5
3, 4
16 571.5
3, 4
16 574.5
3, 4
16 577.5

3, 4

19 682.25

18 862.5
3, 4
18 865.5
3, 4
18 868.5
3, 4
18 871.5
18 881.75

11
12
13
14
15

3, 4

12 399.5
3, 4
12 402.5
3, 4
12 405.5
3, 4
12 408.5
3, 4
12 411.5

3, 4

16 580.5
3, 4
16 583.5
3, 4
16 586.5
3, 4
16 589.5
3, 4
16 592.5

19 692.75
3
19 695.75
3
19 698.75
3
19 701.75
2
18 896.75

18 884.75
3
18 887.75
3
18 890.75
3
18 893.75
2
18 896.75

16
17
18
19
20

3, 4

12 626.25
12 629.25
12 632.25

12 414.5
3, 4
12 417.5
12 423.75
12 426.75
12 429.75

16 595.5
3, 4
16 598.5
3, 4
16 601.5
3, 4
16 604.5
3, 4
16 607.5

21
22
23
24
25

12 635.25
3
12 638.25
3
12 641.25
3
12 644.25
3
12 647.25

12 432.75
3
12 435.75
3
12 438.75
3
12 441.75
3
12 444.75

16 841.25
16 844.25
16 847.25

16 610.5
3, 4
16 613.5
16 620.25
16 623.25
16 626.25

26
27
28
29
30

12 650.25
3
12 653.25
2, 3
12 453.75
2, 3
12 456.75
2, 3
12 459.75

12 447.75
3
12 450.75
2, 3
12 453.75
2, 3
12 456.75
2, 3
12 459.75

16 850.25
16 853.25
16 856.25
16 859.25
16 862.25

16 629.25
16 632.25
16 635.25
16 638.25
16 641.25

31
32
33
34
35

12 462.75
2, 3
12 465.75
2, 3
12 468.75
2, 3
12 471.75
2, 3
12 474.75

2, 3

12 462.75
2, 3
12 465.75
2, 3
12 468.75
2, 3
12 471.75
2, 3
12 474.75

2, 3

16 865.25
3
16 868.25
3
16 871.25
3
16 874.25
3
16 877.25

16 644.25
3
16 647.25
3
16 650.25
3
16 653.25
3
16 656.25

36
37
38
39
40

12 524.25
2, 3
12 527.25
2, 3
12 530.25
2, 3
12 533.25
2, 3
12 536.25

2, 3

12 524.25
2, 3
12 527.25
2, 3
12 530.25
2, 3
12 533.25
2, 3
12 536.25

2, 3

16 880.25
3
16 883.25
3
16 886.25
3
16 889.25
3
16 892.25

16 659.25
3
16 662.25
3
16 665.25
3
16 668.25
3
16 671.25

41
42
43
44
45

12 539.25
2, 3
12 542.25
2, 3
12 545.25
2, 3
12 548.25
2, 3
12 551.25

2, 3

12 539.25
2, 3
12 542.25
2, 3
12 545.25
2, 3
12 548.25
2, 3
12 551.25

2, 3

16 895.25
3
16 898.25
3
16 901.25
2, 3
16 700.5
2, 3
16 703.5

16 674.25
3
16 677.25
3
16 680.25
2, 3
16 700.5
2, 3
16 703.5

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

3, 4

3, 4

3, 4

3, 4

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 321
Channel
No.

12 MHz
Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

16 MHz

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

18/19 MHz

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

46
47
48
49
50

12 554.25
2, 3
12 557.25
2, 3
12 560.25
2, 3
12 563.25
2, 3
12 566.25

2, 3

12 554.25
2, 3
12 557.25
2, 3
12 560.25
2, 3
12 563.25
2, 3
12 566.25

2, 3

16 706.5
2, 3
16 709.5
2, 3
16 712.5
2, 3
16 715.5
2, 3
16 718.5

2, 3

16 706.5
2, 3
16 709.5
2, 3
16 712.5
2, 3
16 715.5
2, 3
16 718.5

2, 3

51
52
53
54
55

12 569.25
2, 3
12 572.25
2, 3
12 575.25

2, 3

12 569.25
2, 3
12 572.25
2, 3
12 575.25

2, 3

16 721.5
2, 3
16 724.5
2, 3
16 727.5
2, 3
16 730.5
2, 3
16 733.5

2, 3

16 721.5
2, 3
16 724.5
2, 3
16 727.5
2, 3
16 730.5
2, 3
16 733.5

2, 3

56
57
58
59
60

16 736.5
2, 3
16 739.5
2, 3
16 742.5
2, 3
16 745.5
2, 3
16 748.5

2, 3

16 736.5
2, 3
16 739.5
2, 3
16 742.5
2, 3
16 745.5
2, 3
16 748.5

61
62
63
64
65

16 751.5
2, 3
16 754.5
2, 3
16 757.5
2, 3
16 760.5
2, 3
16 763.5

2, 3

16 751.5
2, 3
16 754.5
2, 3
16 757.5
2, 3
16 760.5
2, 3
16 763.5

66
67
68
69
70

16 766.5
2, 3
16 769.5
2, 3
16 772.5
2, 3
16 775.5
2, 3
16 778.5

2, 3

16 766.5
2, 3
16 769.5
2, 3
16 772.5
2, 3
16 775.5
2, 3
16 778.5

71
72
73
74
75

16 781.5
2, 3
16 784.5
2, 3
16 787.5
2, 3
16 790.5
2, 3
16 793.5

2, 3

16 781.5
2, 3
16 784.5
2, 3
16 787.5
2, 3
16 790.5
2, 3
16 793.5

76
77
78
79
80

16 796.5
2, 3
16 799.5
2, 3
16 802.5
2, 3
16 823.25
2, 3
16 826.25

2, 3

16 796.5
2, 3
16 799.5
2, 3
16 802.5
2, 3
16 823.25
2, 3
16 826.25

81
82
83
84

16 829.25
2, 3
16 832.25
2, 3
16 835.25
2, 3
16 838.25

2, 3

16 829.25
2, 3
16 832.25
2, 3
16 835.25
2, 3
16 838.25

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

2, 3

2, 3

2, 3

2, 3

2, 3

2, 3

Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 322

Channel
No.

22 MHz
Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

25/26 MHz

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

1
2
3
4
5

22 181.5
3, 4
22 184.5
3, 4
22 187.5
3, 4
22 190.5
3, 4
22 193.5

3, 4

25 122.5
3, 4
25 125.5
3, 4
25 128.5
3, 4
25 131.5
3, 4
25 134.5

6
7
8
9
10

22 196.5
3, 4
22 199.5
3, 4
22 202.5
3, 4
22 205.5
3, 4
22 208.5

3, 4

25 137.5
3, 4
25 140.5
3, 4
25 143.5
3, 4
25 146.5
3, 4
25 149.5

11
12
13
14
15

22 211.5
3, 4
22 214.5
3, 4
22 217.5
3, 4
22 220.5
3, 4
22 223.5

3, 4

26 104.25
26 107.25

25 152.5
3, 4
25 155.5
3, 4
25 158.5
25 161.5
25 164.5

16
17
18
19
20

22 226.5
3, 4
22 229.5
3, 4
22 232.5
3, 4
22 235.5
3, 4
22 238.5

26 110.25
3
26 113.25
3
26 116.25
3
26 119.25
2, 3
25 179.5

25 167.5
3
25 170.5
3
25 173.5
3
25 176.5
2, 3
25 179.5

3, 4

3, 4

3, 4

3, 4

21
22
23
24
25

22 390.75
22 393.75
22 396.75
22 399.75
22 402.75

22 243.25
22 246.25
22 249.25
22 252.25
22 255.25

25 182.5
2, 3
25 185.5
2, 3
25 188.5
2, 3
25 191.5
2, 3
25 194.5

2, 3

25 182.5
2, 3
25 185.5
2, 3
25 188.5
2, 3
25 191.5
2, 3
25 194.5

26
27
28
29
30

22 405.75
3
22 408.75
3
22 411.75
3
22 414.75
3
22 417.75

22 258.25
3
22 261.25
3
22 264.25
3
22 267.25
3
22 270.25

25 197.5
2, 3
25 200.5
2, 3
25 203.5
2, 3
25 206.5

2, 3

25 197.5
2, 3
25 200.5
2, 3
25 203.5
2, 3
25 206.5

31
32
33
34
35

22 420.75
3
22 423.75
3
22 426.75
3
22 429.75
3
22 432.75

22 273.25
3
22 276.25
3
22 279.25
3
22 282.25
3
22 285.25

36
37
38
39
40

22 435.75
2, 3
22 300.75
2, 3
22 303.75
2, 3
22 306.75
2, 3
22 309.75

22 288.25
2, 3
22 300.75
2, 3
22 303.75
2, 3
22 306.75
2, 3
22 309.75

41
42
43
44
45

22 312.75
2, 3
22 315.75
2, 3
22 318.75
2, 3
22 321.75
2, 3
22 324.75

2, 3

22 312.75
2, 3
22 315.75
2, 3
22 318.75
2, 3
22 321.75
2, 3
22 324.75

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

2, 3

2, 3

2, 3

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 323
Channel
No.

1
2
3
4

22 MHz
Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

25/26 MHz

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

46
47
48
49
50

22 327.75
2, 3
22 330.75
2, 3
22 333.75
2, 3
22 336.75
2, 3
22 339.75

2, 3

22 327.75
2, 3
22 330.75
2, 3
22 333.75
2, 3
22 336.75
2, 3
22 339.75

51
52
53
54
55

22 342.75
2, 3
22 345.75
2, 3
22 348.75
2, 3
22 351.75
2, 3
22 354.75

2, 3

22 342.75
2, 3
22 345.75
2, 3
22 348.75
2, 3
22 351.75
2, 3
22 354.75

56
57
58
59
60

22 357.75
2, 3
22 360.75
2, 3
22 363.75
2, 3
22 366.75
2, 3
22 369.75

2, 3

22 357.75
2, 3
22 360.75
2, 3
22 363.75
2, 3
22 366.75
2, 3
22 369.75

61
62
63

22 372.75
22 438.75
22 441.75

2, 3

22 372.75
22 377.75
22 380.75

Coast Tx
(ship Rx)

Ship Tx/Rx
(coast Rx)

2, 3

2, 3

2, 3

2, 3

The data transmission should be in accordance with the most recent version of
Recommendation ITU R M.1798.
Non-paired (simplex) operations only.
Assignable for wide-band operation using multiple 3 kHz contiguous channels.
Channels may be paired with wide-band coast station channels in the same band.

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 324

Appendix 11: Telex Ship Coast frequencies

Table of frequencies for two-frequency operation by coast stations (kHz)


4 MHz band 1

Channel
No.

Transmit

Receive

6 MHz band 3
Transmit

Receive

8 MHz band 4
Transmit

Receive

1
2
3
4
5

4 210.5
4 211
4 211.5
4 212
4 212.5

4 172.5
4 173
4 173.5
4 174
4 174.5

6 314.5
6 315
6 315.5
6 316
6 316.5

6 263
6 263.5
6 264
6 264.5
6 265

8 376.5 2
8 417
8 417.5
8 418
8 418.5

8 376.5 2
8 377
8 377.5
8 378
8 378.5

6
7
8
9
10

4 213
4 213.5
4 214
4 214.5
4 215

4 175
4 175.5
4 176
4 176.5
4 177

6 317
6 317.5
6 318
6 318.5
6 319

6 265.5
6 266
6 266.5
6 267
6 267.5

8 419
8 419.5
8 420
8 420.5
8 421

8 379
8 379.5
8 380
8 380.5
8 381

11
12
13
14
15

4 177.5 2
4 215.5
4 216
4 216.5
4 217

4 177.5 2
4 178
4 178.5
4 179
4 179.5

6 268 2
6 319.5
6 320
6 320.5
6 321

6 268 2
6 268.5
6 269
6 269.5
6 270

8 421.5
8 422
8 422.5
8 423
8 423.5

8 381.5
8 382
8 382.5
8 383
8 383.5

16
17
18
19
20

4 217.5
4 218
4 218.5
4 219

4 180
4 180.5
4 181
4 181.5

6 321.5
6 322
6 322.5
6 323
6 323.5

6 270.5
6 271
6 271.5
6 272
6 272.5

8 424
8 424.5
8 425
8 425.5
8 426

8 384
8 384.5
8 385
8 385.5
8 386

21
22
23
24
25

6 324
6 324.5
6 325
6 325.5
6 326

6 273
6 273.5
6 274
6 274.5
6 275

8 426.5
8 427
8 427.5
8 428
8 428.5

8 386.5
8 387
8 387.5
8 388
8 388.5

26
27
28
29
30

6 326.5
6 327
6 327.5
6 328
6 328.5

6 275.5
6 281
6 281.5
6 282
6 282.5

8 429
8 429.5
8 430
8 430.5
8 431

8 389
8 389.5
8 390
8 390.5
8 391

31
32
33
34
35

6 329
6 329.5
6 330
6 330.5

6 283
6 283.5
6 284
6 284.5

8 431.5
8 432
8 432.5
8 433
8 433.5

8 391.5
8 392
8 392.5
8 393
8 393.5

8 434
8 434.5
8 435
8 435.5
8 436

8 394
8 394.5
8 395
8 395.5
8 396

36
37
38
39
40

1 Ship stations may use the coast station receiving frequencies for transmitting A1A or A1B Morse telegraphy (working),
with the exception of channel No. 11 (see Appendix 15).
2 For the conditions of use of this frequency, see Article 31.
3 Ship stations may use the coast station receiving frequencies of channel Nos. 25 up to and including 34 for transmitting
A1A or A1B Morse telegraphy (working).
4 Ship stations may use the coast station receiving frequencies of channel Nos. 29 up to and including 40 for transmitting
A1A or A1B Morse telegraphy (working).

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 325
Table of frequencies for two-frequency operation by coast stations (kHz)
Channel
No.

12 MHz band 5
Transmit

Receive

16 MHz band 6
Transmit

Receive

18/19 MHz band


Transmit

Receive

1
2
3
4
5

12 579.5
12 580
12 580.5
12 581
12 581.5

12 477
12 477.5
12 478
12 478.5
12 479

16 807
16 807.5
16 808
16 808.5
16 809

16 683.5
16 684
16 684.5
16 685
16 685.5

19 681
19 681.5
19 682
19 682.5
19 683

18 870.5
18 871
18 871.5
18 872
18 872.5

6
7
8
9
10

12 582
12 582.5
12 583
12 583.5
12 584

12 479.5
12 480
12 480.5
12 481
12 481.5

16 809.5
16 810
16 810.5
16 811
16 811.5

16 686
16 686.5
16 687
16 687.5
16 688

19 683.5
19 684
19 684.5
19 685
19 685.5

18 873
18 873.5
18 874
18 874.5
18 875

11
12
13
14
15

12 584.5
12 585
12 585.5
12 586
12 586.5

12 482
12 482.5
12 483
12 483.5
12 484

16 812
16 812.5
16 813
16 813.5
16 814

16 688.5
16 689
16 689.5
16 690
16 690.5

19 686
19 686.5
19 687
19 687.5
19 688

18 875.5
18 876
18 876.5
18 877
18 877.5

16
17
18
19
20

12 587
12 587.5
12 588
12 588.5
12 589

12 484.5
12 485
12 485.5
12 486
12 486.5

16 814.5
16 815
16 815.5
16 816
16 816.5

16 691
16 691.5
16 692
16 692.5
16 693

19 688.5
19 689
19 689.5
19 690
19 690.5

18 878
18 878.5
18 879
18 879.5
18 880

21
22
23
24
25

12 589.5
12 590
12 590.5
12 591
12 591.5

12 487
12 487.5
12 488
12 488.5
12 489

16 817
16 817.5
16 818
16 695 2
16 818.5

16 693.5
16 694
16 694.5
16 695 2
16 695.5

19 691
19 691.5
19 692
19 692.5
19 693

18 880.5
18 881
18 881.5
18 882
18 882.5

26
27
28
29
30

12 592
12 592.5
12 593
12 593.5
12 594

12 489.5
12 490
12 490.5
12 491
12 491.5

16 819
16 819.5
16 820
16 820.5
16 821

16 696
16 696.5
16 697
16 697.5
16 698

19 693.5
19 694
19 694.5
19 695
19 695.5

18 883
18 883.5
18 884
18 884.5
18 885

31
32
33
34
35

12 594.5
12 595
12 595.5
12 596
12 596.5

12 492
12 492.5
12 493
12 493.5
12 494

16 821.5
16 822
16 822.5
16 823
16 823.5

16 698.5
16 699
16 699.5
16 700
16 700.5

19 696
19 696.5
19 697
19 697.5
19 698

18 885.5
18 886
18 886.5
18 887
18 887.5

36
37
38
39
40

12 597
12 597.5
12 598
12 598.5
12 599

12 494.5
12 495
12 495.5
12 496
12 496.5

16 824
16 824.5
16 825
16 825.5
16 826

16 701
16 701.5
16 702
16 702.5
16 703

19 698.5
19 699
19 699.5
19 700
19 700.5

18 888
18 888.5
18 889
18 889.5
18 890

41
42
43
44
45

12 599.5
12 600
12 600.5
12 601
12 601.5

12 497
12 497.5
12 498
12 498.5
12 499

16 826.5
16 827
16 827.5
16 828
16 828.5

16 703.5
16 704
16 704.5
16 705
16 705.5

19 701
19 701.5
19 702
19 702.5
19 703

18 890.5
18 891
18 891.5
18 892
18 892.5

Ship stations may use the coast station receiving frequencies of channel Nos. 58 up to and including 156 for
transmitting A1A or A1B Morse telegraphy (working), with the exception of channel No. 87 (see Appendix 15).
6

Ship stations may use the coast station receiving frequencies of channel Nos. 71 up to and including 193 for
transmitting A1A or A1B Morse telegraphy (working).

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 326
Table of frequencies for two-frequency operation by coast stations (kHz)
Channel
No.

12 MHz band 5 (cont.)


Transmit

Receive

16 MHz band 6 (cont.)


Transmit

Receive

46
47
48
49
50

12 602
12 602.5
12 603
12 603.5
12 604

12 499.5
12 500
12 500.5
12 501
12 501.5

16 829
16 829.5
16 830
16 830.5
16 831

16 706
16 706.5
16 707
16 707.5
16 708

51
52
53
54
55

12 604.5
12 605
12 605.5
12 606
12 606.5

12 502
12 502.5
12 503
12 503.5
12 504

16 831.5
16 832
16 832.5
16 833
16 833.5

16 708.5
16 709
16 709.5
16 710
16 710.5

56
57
58
59
60

12 607
12 607.5
12 608
12 608.5
12 609

12 504.5
12 505
12 505.5
12 506
12 506.5

16 834
16 834.5
16 835
16 835.5
16 836

16 711
16 711.5
16 712
16 712.5
16 713

61
62
63
64
65

12 609.5
12 610
12 610.5
12 611
12 611.5

12 507
12 507.5
12 508
12 508.5
12 509

16 836.5
16 837
16 837.5
16 838
16 838.5

16 713.5
16 714
16 714.5
16 715
16 715.5

66
67
68
69
70

12 612
12 612.5
12 613
12 613.5
12 614

12 509.5
12 510
12 510.5
12 511
12 511.5

16 839
16 839.5
16 840
16 840.5
16 841

16 716
16 716.5
16 717
16 717.5
16 718

71
72
73
74
75

12 614.5
12 615
12 615.5
12 616
12 616.5

12 512
12 512.5
12 513
12 513.5
12 514

16 841.5
16 842
16 842.5
16 843
16 843.5

16 718.5
16 719
16 719.5
16 720
16 720.5

76
77
78
79
80

12 617
12 617.5
12 618
12 618.5
12 619

12 514.5
12 515
12 515.5
12 516
12 516.5

16 844
16 844.5
16 845
16 845.5
16 846

16 721
16 721.5
16 722
16 722.5
16 723

81
82
83
84
85

12 619.5
12 620
12 620.5
12 621
12 621.5

12 517
12 517.5
12 518
12 518.5
12 519

16 846.5
16 847
16 847.5
16 848
16 848.5

16 723.5
16 724
16 724.5
16 725
16 725.5

86
87
88
89
90

12 622
12 520 2
12 622.5
12 623
12 623.5

12 519.5
12 520 2
12 520.5
12 521
12 521.5

16 849
16 849.5
16 850
16 850.5
16 851

16 726
16 726.5
16 727
16 727.5
16 728

91
92
93
94
95

12 624
12 624.5
12 625
12 625.5
12 626

12 522
12 522.5
12 523
12 523.5
12 524

16 851.5
16 852
16 852.5
16 853
16 853.5

16 728.5
16 729
16 729.5
16 730
16 730.5

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 327
Table of frequencies for two-frequency operation by coast stations (kHz)
Channel
No.

12 MHz band 5 (cont.)


Transmit

Receive

16 MHz band 6 (cont.)


Transmit

Receive

96
97
98
99
100

12 626.5
12 627
12 627.5
12 628
12 628.5

12 524.5
12 525
12 525.5
12 526
12 526.5

16 854
16 854.5
16 855
16 855.5
16 856

16 731
16 731.5
16 732
16 732.5
16 733

101
102
103
104
105

12 629
12 629.5
12 630
12 630.5
12 631

12 527
12 527.5
12 528
12 528.5
12 529

16 856.5
16 857
16 857.5
16 858
16 858.5

16 733.5
16 739
16 739.5
16 740
16 740.5

106
107
108
109
110

12 631.5
12 632
12 632.5
12 633
12 633.5

12 529.5
12 530
12 530.5
12 531
12 531.5

16 859
16 859.5
16 860
16 860.5
16 861

16 741
16 741.5
16 742
16 742.5
16 743

111
112
113
114
115

12 634
12 634.5
12 635
12 635.5
12 636

12 532
12 532.5
12 533
12 533.5
12 534

16 861.5
16 862
16 862.5
16 863
16 863.5

16 743.5
16 744
16 744.5
16 745
16 745.5

116
117
118
119
120

12 636.5
12 637
12 637.5
12 638
12 638.5

12 534.5
12 535
12 535.5
12 536
12 536.5

16 864
16 864.5
16 865
16 865.5
16 866

16 746
16 746.5
16 747
16 747.5
16 748

121
122
123
124
125

12 639
12 639.5
12 640
12 640.5
12 641

12 537
12 537.5
12 538
12 538.5
12 539

16 866.5
16 867
16 867.5
16 868
16 868.5

16 748.5
16 749
16 749.5
16 750
16 750.5

126
127
128
129
130

12 641.5
12 642
12 642.5
12 643
12 643.5

12 539.5
12 540
12 540.5
12 541
12 541.5

16 869
16 869.5
16 870
16 870.5
16 871

16 751
16 751.5
16 752
16 752.5
16 753

131
132
133
134
135

12 644
12 644.5
12 645
12 645.5
12 646

12 542
12 542.5
12 543
12 543.5
12 544

16 871.5
16 872
16 872.5
16 873
16 873.5

16 753.5
16 754
16 754.5
16 755
16 755.5

136
137
138
139
140

12 646.5
12 647
12 647.5
12 648
12 648.5

12 544.5
12 545
12 545.5
12 546
12 546.5

16 874
16 874.5
16 875
16 875.5
16 876

16 756
16 756.5
16 757
16 757.5
16 758

141
142
143
144
145

12 649
12 649.5
12 650
12 650.5
12 651

12 547
12 547.5
12 548
12 548.5
12 549

16 876.5
16 877
16 877.5
16 878
16 878.5

16 758.5
16 759
16 759.5
16 760
16 760.5

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 328
Table of frequencies for two-frequency operation by coast stations (kHz)
Channel
No.

12 MHz band 5 (end )


Transmit

Receive

16 MHz band 6 (end )


Transmit

Receive

146
147
148
149
150

12 651.5
12 652
12 652.5
12 653
12 653.5

12 549.5
12 555
12 555.5
12 556
12 556.5

16 879
16 879.5
16 880
16 880.5
16 881

16 761
16 761.5
16 762
16 762.5
16 763

151
152
153
154
155

12 654
12 654.5
12 655
12 655.5
12 656

12 557
12 557.5
12 558
12 558.5
12 559

16 881.5
16 882
16 882.5
16 883
16 883.5

16 763.5
16 764
16 764.5
16 765
16 765.5

156
157
158
159
160

12 656.5

12 559.5

16 884
16 884.5
16 885
16 885.5
16 886

16 766
16 766.5
16 767
16 767.5
16 768

161
162
163
164
165

16 886.5
16 887
16 887.5
16 888
16 888.5

16 768.5
16 769
16 769.5
16 770
16 770.5

166
167
168
169
170

16 889
16 889.5
16 890
16 890.5
16 891

16 771
16 771.5
16 772
16 772.5
16 773

171
172
173
174
175

16 891.5
16 892
16 892.5
16 893
16 893.5

16 773.5
16 774
16 774.5
16 775
16 775.5

176
177
178
179
180

16 894
16 894.5
16 895
16 895.5
16 896

16 776
16 776.5
16 777
16 777.5
16 778

181
182
183
184
185

16 896.5
16 897
16 897.5
16 898
16 898.5

16 778.5
16 779
16 779.5
16 780
16 780.5

186
187
188
189
190

16 899
16 899.5
16 900
16 900.5
16 901

16 781
16 781.5
16 782
16 782.5
16 783

191
192
193

16 901.5
16 902
16 902.5

16 783.5
16 784
16 784.5

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 329
Table of frequencies for two-frequency operation by coast stations (kHz)
Channel
No.

22 MHz band 7
Transmit

Receive

25/26 MHz band


Transmit

Receive

1
2
3
4
5

22 376.5
22 377
22 377.5
22 378
22 378.5

22 284.5
22 285
22 285.5
22 286
22 286.5

26 101
26 101.5
26 102
26 102.5
26 103

25 173
25 173.5
25 174
25 174.5
25 175

6
7
8
9
10

22 379
22 379.5
22 380
22 380.5
22 381

22 287
22 287.5
22 288
22 288.5
22 289

26 103.5
26 104
26 104.5
26 105
26 105.5

25 175.5
25 176
25 176.5
25 177
25 177.5

11
12
13
14
15

22 381.5
22 382
22 382.5
22 383
22 383.5

22 289.5
22 290
22 290.5
22 291
22 291.5

26 106
26 106.5
26 107
26 107.5
26 108

25 178
25 178.5
25 179
25 179.5
25 180

16
17
18
19
20

22 384
22 384.5
22 385
22 385.5
22 386

22 292
22 292.5
22 293
22 293.5
22 294

26 108.5
26 109
26 109.5
26 110
26 110.5

25 180.5
25 181
25 181.5
25 182
25 182.5

21
22
23
24
25

22 386.5
22 387
22 387.5
22 388
22 388.5

22 294.5
22 295
22 295.5
22 296
22 296.5

26 111
26 111.5
26 112
26 112.5
26 113

25 183
25 183.5
25 184
25 184.5
25 185

26
27
28
29
30

22 389
22 389.5
22 390
22 390.5
22 391

22 297
22 297.5
22 298
22 298.5
22 299

26 113.5
26 114
26 114.5
26 115
26 115.5

25 185.5
25 186
25 186.5
25 187
25 187.5

31
32
33
34
35

22 391.5
22 392
22 392.5
22 393
22 393.5

22 299.5
22 300
22 300.5
22 301
22 301.5

26 116
26 116.5
26 117
26 117.5
26 118

25 188
25 188.5
25 189
25 189.5
25 190

36
37
38
39
40

22 394
22 394.5
22 395
22 395.5
22 396

22 302
22 302.5
22 303
22 303.5
22 304

26 118.5
26 119
26 119.5
26 120
26 120.5

25 190.5
25 191
25 191.5
25 192
25 192.5

41
42
43
44
45

22 396.5
22 397
22 397.5
22 398
22 398.5

22 304.5
22 305
22 305.5
22 306
22 306.5

46
47
48
49
50

22 399
22 399.5
22 400
22 400.5
22 401

22 307
22 307.5
22 308
22 308.5
22 309

Ship stations may use the coast station receiving frequencies of channels
No. 68 up to and including 135 for transmitting A1A or A1B Morse telegraphy
(working).
I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 330
Table of frequencies for two-frequency operation by coast stations (kHz)
Channel
No.

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

22 MHz band 7 (cont.)


Transmit

Receive

51
52
53
54
55

22 401.5
22 402
22 402.5
22 403
22 403.5

22 309.5
22 310
22 310.5
22 311
22 311.5

56
57
58
59
60

22 404
22 404.5
22 405
22 405.5
22 406

22 312
22 312.5
22 313
22 313.5
22 314

61
62
63
64
65

22 406.5
22 407
22 407.5
22 408
22 408.5

22 314.5
22 315
22 315.5
22 316
22 316.5

66
67
68
69
70

22 409
22 409.5
22 410
22 410.5
22 411

22 317
22 317.5
22 318
22 318.5
22 319

71
72
73
74
75

22 411.5
22 412
22 412.5
22 413
22 413.5

22 319.5
22 320
22 320.5
22 321
22 321.5

76
77
78
79
80

22 414
22 414.5
22 415
22 415.5
22 416

22 322
22 322.5
22 323
22 323.5
22 324

81
82
83
84
85

22 416.5
22 417
22 417.5
22 418
22 418.5

22 324.5
22 325
22 325.5
22 326
22 326.5

86
87
88
89
90

22 419
22 419.5
22 420
22 420.5
22 421

22 327
22 327.5
22 328
22 328.5
22 329

91
92
93
94
95

22 421.5
22 422
22 422.5
22 423
22 423.5

22 329.5
22 330
22 330.5
22 331
22 331.5

96
97
98
99
100

22 424
22 424.5
22 425
22 425.5
22 426

22 332
22 332.5
22 333
22 333.5
22 334

101
102
103
104
105

22 426.5
22 427
22 427.5
22 428
22 428.5

22 334.5
22 335
22 335.5
22 336
22 336.5

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 331
Table of frequencies for two-frequency operation by coast stations (kHz)
Channel
No.

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

22 MHz band 7 (end )


Transmit

Receive

106
107
108
109
110

22 429
22 429.5
22 430
22 430.5
22 431

22 337
22 337.5
22 338
22 338.5
22 339

111
112
113
114
115

22 431.5
22 432
22 432.5
22 433
22 433.5

22 339.5
22 340
22 340.5
22 341
22 341.5

116
117
118
119
120

22 434
22 434.5
22 435
22 435.5
22 436

22 342
22 342.5
22 343
22 343.5
22 344

121
122
123
124
125

22 436.5
22 437
22 437.5
22 438
22 438.5

22 344.5
22 345
22 345.5
22 346
22 346.5

126
127
128
129
130

22 439
22 439.5
22 440
22 440.5
22 441

22 347
22 347.5
22 348
22 348.5
22 349

131
132
133
134
135

22 441.5
22 442
22 442.5
22 443
22 443.5

22 349.5
22 350
22 350.5
22 351
22 351.5

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 332

Appendix 12: Telex Ship Ship frequencies


Table of ship station transmitting frequencies (kHz)
Frequency bands
Channel
No.

4 MHz

6 MHz

8 MHz

12 MHz

16 MHz

18/19
MHz

22 MHz

25/26
MHz

1
2
3
4
5

4 202.5
4 203
4 203.5
4 204
4 204.5

6 300.5
6 301
6 301.5
6 302
6 302.5

8 396.5
8 397
8 397.5
8 398
8 398.5

12 560
12 560.5
12 561
12 561.5
12 562

16 785
16 785.5
16 786
16 786.5
16 787

18 893
18 893.5
18 894
18 894.5
18 895

22 352
22 352.5
22 353
22 353.5
22 354

25 193
25 193.5
25 194
25 194.5
25 195

6
7
8
9
10

4 205
4 205.5
4 206
4 206.5
4 207

6 303
6 303.5
6 304
6 304.5
6 305

8 399
8 399.5
8 400
8 400.5
8 401

12 562.5
12 563
12 563.5
12 564
12 564.5

16 787.5
16 788
16 788.5
16 789
16 789.5

18 895.5
18 896
18 896.5
18 897
18 897.5

22 354.5
22 355
22 355.5
22 356
22 356.5

25 195.5
25 196
25 196.5
25 197
25 197.5

11
12
13
14
15

6 305.5
6 306
6 306.5
6 307
6 307.5

8 401.5
8 402
8 402.5
8 403
8 403.5

12 565
12 565.5
12 566
12 566.5
12 567

16 790
16 790.5
16 791
16 791.5
16 792

18 898

22 357
22 357.5
22 358
22 358.5
22 359

25 198
25 198.5
25 199
25 199.5
25 200

16
17
18
19
20

6 308
6 308.5
6 309
6 309.5
6 310

8 404
8 404.5
8 405
8 405.5
8 406

12 567.5
12 568
12 568.5
12 569
12 569.5

16 792.5
16 793
16 793.5
16 794
16 794.5

22 359.5
22 360
22 360.5
22 361
22 361.5

25 200.5
25 201
25 201.5
25 202
25 202.5

21
22
23
24
25

6 310.5
6 311
6 311.5

8 406.5
8 407
8 407.5
8 408
8 408.5

12 570
12 570.5
12 571
12 571.5
12 572

16 795
16 795.5
16 796
16 796.5
16 797

22 362
22 362.5
22 363
22 363.5
22 364

25 203
25 203.5
25 204
25 204.5
25 205

26
27
28
29
30

8 409
8 409.5
8 410
8 410.5
8 411

12 572.5
12 573
12 573.5
12 574
12 574.5

16 797.5
16 798
16 798.5
16 799
16 799.5

22 364.5
22 365
22 365.5
22 366
22 366.5

25 205.5
25 206
25 206.5
25 207
25 207.5

31
32
33
34
35

8 411.5
8 412
8 412.5
8 413
8 413.5

12 575
12 575.5
12 576
12 576.5

16 800
16 800.5
16 801
16 801.5
16 802

22 367
22 367.5
22 368
22 368.5
22 369

25 208

36
37
38
39
40

8 414

16 802.5
16 803
16 803.5
16 804

22 369.5
22 370
22 370.5
22 371
22 371.5

41
42
43
44
45

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

22 372
22 372.5
22 373
22 373.5
22 374

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 333

Appendix 13: Telex command codes


Code

Description

AMV

Message to be sent to AMVER (see pages 8-9) BRK

DATA [number]

Message to be forwarded by the coast station, using


data facilities, to the PSTN Subscriber number indicated

DIRTLX [number]

Direct telex connection to the indicated telex subscriber


number is required

FAX [number]

Message to be forwarded as facsimile, via the PSTN, to


the subscriber telephone number indicated

FREQ

Message contains the frequency on which the ship is


keeping watch

HELP

List of the available system facilities is required


immediately

INF

Information is immediately required from the coast


stations data base

KKKK

Network connection should be cleared whilst maintaining


the radio path; further message/communications should
follow immediately

MAN

Message is to be stored and forwarded manually to a


country where an automatic telex connection is not
available

MED

An URGENT medical message follows

MSG

Messages held by the coast station need to be sent


immediately

MULTLX [number1] Direct telex connection to multiple (i.e., at least 2) telex


[number2]
subscribers numbers as required
MULTLXA

As MULTLX, but advice of delivery also required

NAV

Current navigational warning messages required

OBS

Meteorological message to be sent to the appropriate


meteorological organization(s)

OPR

Connection through a manual assistance operator


required

POS

Message contains the ships position: assists automatic


transmission and reception of messages by the coast
station

RDL

Redial the last telex number indicated by DIRTLX

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 334

Code

Description

RPT [identifier]

Retransmission of an earlier broadcast message, sent in


FEC mode, is required in ARQ mode; the specific
message must be referenced using the appropriate
message identifier

RTL

Message is to be forwarded as radiotelex letter

STA

Ship station requires an immediate status report of the


store-and forward messages it has sent; individual
messages may be referenced by adding the appropriate
message identifier

STS[SELCALL/MMSI] Message is to sent via the coast station store-and


forward facility to a specific ship identified by a
SELCALL or MMSI number
SVC

Service message intended for subsequent manual


attention

TEL [number]

Message to be relayed by voice from the coast station to


the telephone number indicated

TGM

Message to be forwarded as radio telegram

TLC [number]

Message is for immediate connection to a store-andforward facility at the coast station

TLXA [number]

As TLX, but with advice of delivery to the indicated telex


number using normal shore-to-ship procedures

TRF

Information on current traffic applied by the coast station


is required (automatic service only)

TST

A test message text (e.g., quick brown fox jumps over


the lazy dog)

URG

Emergency use only :the ship station needs to be


connected to a manual assistance operator urgently(an
audible alarm may be activated at the coast station

VBTLX [number]

Message is to be dictated by the coast station to a voice


bank (voice messaging) telephone number for
subsequent retrievably the addressee and duplicated by
telex to the telex subscriber number following the
command code; the telephone number of the voice bank
telephone is included in the first line of the message text
of the message.

WX

Weather information is required immediately

I:\HTW\1\3-4 Annex.doc

HTW 1/3/4
Annex, page 335

Appendix 14: Table of Maritime Identification Digits


Country/Region

MID

Adelie Land - France

501

Afghanistan

401

Alaska (State of) - United States of America

303

Albania (Republic of)

201

Algeria (People's Democratic Republic of)

605

American Samoa - United States of America

559

Andorra (Principality of)

202

Angola (Republic of)

603

Anguilla - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

301

Antigua and Barbuda

304, 305

Argentine Republic

701

Armenia (Republic of)

216

Aruba - Netherlands (Kingdom of the)

307

Ascension Island - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern


Ireland

608

Australia

503

Austria

203

Azerbaijani Republic

423

Azores - Portugal

204

Bahamas (Commonwealth of the)

308, 309, 311

Bahrain (Kingdom of)

408

Bangladesh (People's Republic of)

405

Barbados

314

Belarus (Republic of)

206

Belgium

205

Belize

312

Benin (Republic of)

610

Bermuda - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

310

Bhutan (Kingdom of)

410

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

720

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba - Netherlands (Kingdom of the)

306

Bosnia and Herzegovina

478

Botswana (Republic of)

611

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Country/Region

MID

Brazil (Federative Republic of)

710

British Virgin Islands - United Kingdom of Great Britain and


Northern Ireland

378

Brunei Darussalam

508

Bulgaria (Republic of)

207

Burkina Faso

633

Burundi (Republic of)

609

Cambodia (Kingdom of)

514, 515

Cameroon (Republic of)

613

Canada

316

Cape Verde (Republic of)

617

Cayman Islands - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern


Ireland

319

Central African Republic

612

Chad (Republic of)

670

Chile

725

China (People's Republic of)

412, 413, 414

Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) - Australia

516

Cocos (Keeling) Islands - Australia

523

Colombia (Republic of)

730

Comoros (Union of the)

616

Congo (Republic of the)

615

Cook Islands - New Zealand

518

Costa Rica

321

Cte d'Ivoire (Republic of)

619

Croatia (Republic of)

238

Crozet Archipelago - France

618

Cuba

323

Curaao - Netherlands (Kingdom of the)

306

Cyprus (Republic of)

209, 210, 212

Czech Republic

270

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

445

Democratic Republic of the Congo

676

Denmark

219, 220

Djibouti (Republic of)

621

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Country/Region

MID

Dominica (Commonwealth of)

325

Dominican Republic

327

Ecuador

735

Egypt (Arab Republic of)

622

El Salvador (Republic of)

359

Equatorial Guinea (Republic of)

631

Eritrea

625

Estonia (Republic of)

276

Ethiopia (Federal Democratic Republic of)

624

Falkland Islands (Malvinas) - United Kingdom of Great Britain and


Northern Ireland

740

Faroe Islands - Denmark

231

Fiji (Republic of)

520

Finland

230

France

226, 227, 228

French Polynesia - France

546

Gabonese Republic

626

Gambia (Republic of the)

629

Georgia

213

Germany (Federal Republic of)

211, 218

Ghana

627

Gibraltar - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

236

Greece

237, 239, 240, 241

Greenland - Denmark

331

Grenada

330

Guadeloupe (French Department of) - France

329

Guatemala (Republic of)

332

Guiana (French Department of) - France

745

Guinea (Republic of)

632

Guinea-Bissau (Republic of)

630

Guyana

750

Haiti (Republic of)

336

Honduras (Republic of)

334

Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region of China) - China


(People's Republic of)

477

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Country/Region

MID

Hungary

243

Iceland

251

India (Republic of)

419

Indonesia (Republic of)

525

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

422

Iraq (Republic of)

425

Ireland

250

Israel (State of)

428

Italy

247

Jamaica

339

Japan

431, 432

Jordan (Hashemite Kingdom of)

438

Kazakhstan (Republic of)

436

Kenya (Republic of)

634

Kerguelen Islands - France

635

Kiribati (Republic of)

529

Korea (Republic of)

440, 441

Kuwait (State of)

447

Kyrgyz Republic

451

Lao People's Democratic Republic

531

Latvia (Republic of)

275

Lebanon

450

Lesotho (Kingdom of)

644

Liberia (Republic of)

636, 637

Libya

642

Liechtenstein (Principality of)

252

Lithuania (Republic of)

277

Luxembourg

253

Macao (Special Administrative Region of China) - China (People's


Republic of)

453

Madagascar (Republic of)

647

Madeira - Portugal

255

Malawi

655

Malaysia

533

Maldives (Republic of)

455

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Country/Region

MID

Mali (Republic of)

649

Malta

215, 229, 248, 249,


256

Marshall Islands (Republic of the)

538

Martinique (French Department of) - France

347

Mauritania (Islamic Republic of)

654

Mauritius (Republic of)

645

Mexico

345

Micronesia (Federated States of)

510

Moldova (Republic of)

214

Monaco (Principality of)

254

Mongolia

457

Montenegro

262

Montserrat - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

348

Morocco (Kingdom of)

242

Mozambique (Republic of)

650

Myanmar (Union of)

506

Namibia (Republic of)

659

Nauru (Republic of)

544

Nepal (Federal Democratic Republic of)

459

Netherlands (Kingdom of the)

244, 245, 246

New Caledonia - France

540

New Zealand

512

Nicaragua

350

Niger (Republic of the)

656

Nigeria (Federal Republic of)

657

Niue - New Zealand

542

Northern Mariana Islands (Commonwealth of the) - United States


of America

536

Norway

257, 258, 259

Oman (Sultanate of)

461

Pakistan (Islamic Republic of)

463

Palau (Republic of)

511

Palestine (In accordance with Resolution 99 Rev. Guadalajara, 2010)

443

Panama (Republic of)

351, 352, 353, 354,


355, 356, 357, 370,

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Country/Region

MID
371, 372, 373

Papua New Guinea

553

Paraguay (Republic of)

755

Peru

760

Philippines (Republic of the)

548

Pitcairn Island - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

555

Poland (Republic of)

261

Portugal

263

Puerto Rico - United States of America

358

Qatar (State of)

466

Reunion (French Department of) - France

660

Romania

264

Russian Federation

273

Rwanda (Republic of)

661

Saint Helena - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern


Ireland

665

Saint Kitts and Nevis (Federation of)

341

Saint Lucia

343

Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands - France

607

Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Territorial Collectivity of) - France

361

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

375, 376, 377

Samoa (Independent State of)

561

San Marino (Republic of)

268

Sao Tome and Principe (Democratic Republic of)

668

Saudi Arabia (Kingdom of)

403

Senegal (Republic of)

663

Serbia (Republic of)

279

Seychelles (Republic of)

664

Sierra Leone

667

Singapore (Republic of)

563, 564, 565, 566

Sint Maarten (Dutch part) - Netherlands (Kingdom of the)

306

Slovak Republic

267

Slovenia (Republic of)

278

Solomon Islands

557

Somali Democratic Republic

666

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Country/Region

MID

South Africa (Republic of)

601

Spain

224, 225

Sri Lanka (Democratic Socialist Republic of)

417

Sudan (Republic of the)

662

Suriname (Republic of)

765

Swaziland (Kingdom of)

669

Sweden

265, 266

Switzerland (Confederation of)

269

Syrian Arab Republic

468

Taiwan (Province of China) - China (People's Republic of)

416

Tajikistan (Republic of)

472

Tanzania (United Republic of)

674, 677

Thailand

567

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

274

Togolese Republic

671

Tonga (Kingdom of)

570

Trinidad and Tobago

362

Tunisia

672

Turkey

271

Turkmenistan

434

Turks and Caicos Islands - United Kingdom of Great Britain and


Northern Ireland

364

Tuvalu

572

Uganda (Republic of)

675

Ukraine

272

United Arab Emirates

470

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

232, 233, 234, 235

United States Virgin Islands - United States of America

379

United States of America

338, 366, 367, 368,


369

Uruguay (Eastern Republic of)

770

Uzbekistan (Republic of)

437

Vanuatu (Republic of)

576, 577

Vatican City State

208

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

775

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Country/Region

MID

Viet Nam (Socialist Republic of)

574

Wallis and Futuna Islands - France

578

Yemen (Republic of)

473, 475

Zambia (Republic of)

678

Zimbabwe (Republic of)

679

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Appendix 15: List of Call Signs


Call sign series

Allocated to

AAA-ALZ

United States of America

AMA-AOZ

Spain

APA-ASZ

Pakistan (Islamic Republic of)

ATA-AWZ

India (Republic of)

AXA-AXZ

Australia

AYA-AZZ

Argentine Republic

A2A-A2Z

Botswana (Republic of)

A3A-A3Z

Tonga (Kingdom of)

A4A-A4Z

Oman (Sultanate of)

A5A-A5Z

Bhutan (Kingdom of)

A6A-A6Z

United Arab Emirates

A7A-A7Z

Qatar (State of)

A8A-A8Z

Liberia (Republic of)

A9A-A9Z

Bahrain (Kingdom of)

BAA-BZZ

China (Peoples Republic of)

CAA-CEZ

Chile

CFA-CKZ

Canada

CLA-CMZ

Cuba

CNA-CNZ

Morocco (Kingdom of)

COA-COZ

Cuba

CPA-CPZ

Bolivia (Republic of)

CQA-CUZ

Portugal

CVA-CXZ

Uruguay (Eastern Republic of)

CYA-CZZ

Canada

C2A-C2Z

Nauru (Republic of)

C3A-C3Z

Andorra (Principality of)

C4A-C4Z

Cyprus (Republic of)

C5A-C5Z

Gambia (Republic of the)

C6A-C6Z

Bahamas (Commonwealth of the)

*C7A-C7Z

World Meteorological Organization

C8A-C9Z

Mozambique (Republic of)

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Call sign series

Allocated to

DAA-DRZ

Germany (Federal Republic of)

DSA-DTZ

Korea (Republic of)

DUA-DZZ

Philippines (Republic of the)

D2A-D3Z

Angola (Republic of)

D4A-D4Z

Cape Verde (Republic of)

D5A-D5Z

Liberia (Republic of)

D6A-D6Z

Comoros (Union of)

D7A-D9Z

Korea (Republic of)

EAA-EHZ

Spain

EIA-EJZ

Ireland

EKA-EKZ

Armenia (Republic of)

ELA-ELZ

Liberia (Republic of)

EMA-EOZ

Ukraine

EPA-EQZ

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

ERA-ERZ

Moldova (Republic of)

ESA-ESZ

Estonia (Republic of)

ETA-ETZ

Ethiopia (Federal Democratic Republic of)

EUA-EWZ

Belarus (Republic of)

EXA-EXZ

Kyrgyz Republic

EYA-EYZ

Tajikistan (Republic of)

EZA-EZZ

Turkmenistan

E2A-E2Z

Thailand

E3A-E3Z

Eritrea

E4A-E4Z

Palestinian Authority1

E5A-E5Z

New Zealand Cook Islands

E7A-E7Z

Bosnia and Herzegovina

FAA-FZZ

France

GAA-GZZ

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern


Ireland

HAA-HAZ

Hungary (Republic of)

HBA-HBZ

Switzerland (Confederation of)

HCA-HDZ

Ecuador

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Call sign series

Allocated to

HEA-HEZ

Switzerland (Confederation of)

HFA-HFZ

Poland (Republic of)

HGA-HGZ

Hungary (Republic of)

HHA-HHZ

Haiti (Republic of)

HIA-HIZ

Dominican Republic

HJA-HKZ

Colombia (Republic of)

HLA-HLZ

Korea (Republic of)

HMA-HMZ

Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea

HNA-HNZ

Iraq (Republic of)

HOA-HPZ

Panama (Republic of)

HQA-HRZ

Honduras (Republic of)

HSA-HSZ

Thailand

HTA-HTZ

Nicaragua

HUA-HUZ

El Salvador (Republic of)

HVA-HVZ

Vatican City State

HWA-HYZ

France

HZA-HZZ

Saudi Arabia (Kingdom of)

H2A-H2Z

Cyprus (Republic of)

H3A-H3Z

Panama (Republic of)

H4A-H4Z

Solomon Islands

H6A-H7Z

Nicaragua

H8A-H9Z

Panama (Republic of)

IAA-IZZ

Italy

JAA-JSZ

Japan

JTA-JVZ

Mongolia

JWA-JXZ

Norway

JYA-JYZ

Jordan (Hashemite Kingdom of)

JZA-JZZ

Indonesia (Republic of)

J2A-J2Z

Djibouti (Republic of)

J3A-J3Z

Grenada

J4A-J4Z

Greece

J5A-J5Z

Guinea-Bissau (Republic of)

J6A-J6Z

Saint Lucia

J7A-J7Z

Dominica (Commonwealth of)

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Call sign series

Allocated to

J8A-J8Z

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

KAA-KZZ

United States of America

LAA-LNZ

Norway

LOA-LWZ

Argentine Republic

LXA-LXZ

Luxembourg

LYA-LYZ

Lithuania (Republic of)

LZA-LZZ

Bulgaria (Republic of)

L2A-L9Z

Argentine Republic

MAA-MZZ

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern


Ireland

NAA-NZZ

United States of America

OAA-OCZ

Peru

ODA-ODZ

Lebanon

OEA-OEZ

Austria

OFA-OJZ

Finland

OKA-OLZ

Czech Republic

OMA-OMZ

Slovak Republic

ONA-OTZ

Belgium

OUA-OZZ

Denmark

PAA-PIZ

Netherlands (Kingdom of the)

PJA-PJZ

Netherlands (Kingdom of the) Netherlands


Antilles

PKA-POZ

Indonesia (Republic of)

PPA-PYZ

Brazil (Federative Republic of)

PZA-PZZ

Suriname (Republic of)

P2A-P2Z

Papua New Guinea

P3A-P3Z

Cyprus (Republic of)

P4A-P4Z

Netherlands (Kingdom of the) Aruba

P5A-P9Z

Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea

RAA-RZZ

Russian Federation

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Call sign series

Allocated to

SAA-SMZ

Sweden

SNA-SRZ

Poland (Republic of)

SSA-SSM

Egypt (Arab Republic of)

SSN-STZ

Sudan (Republic of the)

SUA-SUZ

Egypt (Arab Republic of)

SVA-SZZ

Greece

S2A-S3Z

Bangladesh (Peoples Republic of)

S5A-S5Z

Slovenia (Republic of)

S6A-S6Z

Singapore (Republic of)

S7A-S7Z

Seychelles (Republic of)

S8A-S8Z

South Africa (Republic of)

S9A-S9Z

Sao Tome and Principe (Democratic Republic of)

TAA-TCZ

Turkey

TDA-TDZ

Guatemala (Republic of)

TEA-TEZ

Costa Rica

TFA-TFZ

Iceland

TGA-TGZ

Guatemala (Republic of)

THA-THZ

France

TIA-TIZ

Costa Rica

TJA-TJZ

Cameroon (Republic of)

TKA-TKZ

France

TLA-TLZ

Central African Republic

TMA-TMZ

France

TNA-TNZ

Congo (Republic of the)

TOA-TQZ

France

TRA-TRZ

Gabonese Republic

TSA-TSZ

Tunisia

TTA-TTZ

Chad (Republic of)

TUA-TUZ

Cte d'Ivoire (Republic of)

TVA-TXZ

France

TYA-TYZ

Benin (Republic of)

TZA-TZZ

Mali (Republic of)

T2A-T2Z

Tuvalu

T3A-T3Z

Kiribati (Republic of)

T4A-T4Z

Cuba

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Call sign series

Allocated to

T5A-T5Z

Somali Democratic Republic

T6A-T6Z

Afghanistan

T7A-T7Z

San Marino (Republic of)

T8A-T8Z

Palau (Republic of)

UAA-UIZ

Russian Federation

UJA-UMZ

Uzbekistan (Republic of)

UNA-UQZ

Kazakhstan (Republic of)

URA-UZZ

Ukraine

VAA-VGZ

Canada

VHA-VNZ

Australia

VOA-VOZ

Canada

VPA-VQZ

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern


Ireland

VRA-VRZ

China (Peoples Republic of) Hong Kong

VSA-VSZ

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern


Ireland

VTA-VWZ

India (Republic of)

VXA-VYZ

Canada

VZA-VZZ

Australia

V2A-V2Z

Antigua and Barbuda

V3A-V3Z

Belize

V4A-V4Z

Saint Kitts and Nevis

V5A-V5Z

Namibia (Republic of)

V6A-V6Z

Micronesia (Federated States of)

V7A-V7Z

Marshall Islands (Republic of the)

V8A-V8Z

Brunei Darussalam

WAA-WZZ

United States of America

XAA-XIZ

Mexico

XJA-XOZ

Canada

XPA-XPZ

Denmark

XQA-XRZ

Chile

XSA-XSZ

China (Peoples Republic of)

XTA-XTZ

Burkina Faso

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Call sign series

Allocated to

XUA-XUZ

Cambodia (Kingdom of)

XVA-XVZ

Viet Nam (Socialist Republic of)

XXA-XXZ

China (Peoples Republic of) Macao

XWA-XWZ

Lao Peoples Democratic Republic

XYA-XZZ

Myanmar (Union of)

YAA-YAZ

Afghanistan

YBA-YHZ

Indonesia (Republic of)

YIA-YIZ

Iraq (Republic of)

YJA-YJZ

Vanuatu (Republic of)

YKA-YKZ

Syrian Arab Republic

YLA-YLZ

Latvia (Republic of)

YMA-YMZ

Turkey

YNA-YNZ

Nicaragua

YOA-YRZ

Romania

YSA-YSZ

El Salvador (Republic of)

YTA-YUZ

Serbia (Republic of)

YVA-YYZ

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Y2A-Y9Z

Germany (Federal Republic of)

ZAA-ZAZ

Albania (Republic of)

ZBA-ZJZ

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern


Ireland

ZKA-ZMZ

New Zealand

ZNA-ZOZ

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern


Ireland

ZPA-ZPZ

Paraguay (Republic of)

ZQA-ZQZ

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern


Ireland

ZRA-ZUZ

South Africa (Republic of)

ZVA-ZZZ

Brazil (Federative Republic of)

Z2A-Z2Z

Zimbabwe (Republic of)

Z3A-Z3Z

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

2AA-2ZZ

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern


Ireland

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Call sign series

Allocated to

3AA-3AZ

Monaco (Principality of)

3BA-3BZ

Mauritius (Republic of)

3CA-3CZ

Equatorial Guinea (Republic of)

3DA-3DM

Swaziland (Kingdom of)

3DN-3DZ

Fiji (Republic of)

3EA-3FZ

Panama (Republic of)

3GA-3GZ

Chile

3HA-3UZ

China (Peoples Republic of)

3VA-3VZ

Tunisia

3WA-3WZ

Viet Nam (Socialist Republic of)

3XA-3XZ

Guinea (Republic of)

3YA-3YZ

Norway

3ZA-3ZZ

Poland (Republic of)

4AA-4CZ

Mexico

4DA-4IZ

Philippines (Republic of the)

4JA-4KZ

Azerbaijani Republic

4LA-4LZ

Georgia

4MA-4MZ

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

4OA-4OZ

Montenegro (Republic of)

4PA-4SZ

Sri Lanka (Democratic Socialist Republic of)

4TA-4TZ

Peru

*4UA-4UZ

United Nations

4VA-4VZ

Haiti (Republic of)

4WA-4WZ

Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste

4XA-4XZ

Israel (State of)

*4YA-4YZ

International Civil Aviation Organization

4ZA-4ZZ

Israel (State of)

5AA-5AZ

Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

5BA-5BZ

Cyprus (Republic of)

5CA-5GZ

Morocco (Kingdom of)

5HA-5IZ

Tanzania (United Republic of)

5JA-5KZ

Colombia (Republic of)

5LA-5MZ

Liberia (Republic of)

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Call sign series

Allocated to

5NA-5OZ

Nigeria (Federal Republic of)

5PA-5QZ

Denmark

5RA-5SZ

Madagascar (Republic of)

5TA-5TZ

Mauritania (Islamic Republic of)

5UA-5UZ

Niger (Republic of the)

5VA-5VZ

Togolese Republic

5WA-5WZ

Samoa (Independent State of)

5XA-5XZ

Uganda (Republic of)

5YA-5ZZ

Kenya (Republic of)

6AA-6BZ

Egypt (Arab Republic of)

6CA-6CZ

Syrian Arab Republic

6DA-6JZ

Mexico

6KA-6NZ

Korea (Republic of)

6OA-6OZ

Somali Democratic Republic

6PA-6SZ

Pakistan (Islamic Republic of)

6TA-6UZ

Sudan (Republic of the)

6VA-6WZ

Senegal (Republic of)

6XA-6XZ

Madagascar (Republic of)

6YA-6YZ

Jamaica

6ZA-6ZZ

Liberia (Republic of)

7AA-7IZ

Indonesia (Republic of)

7JA-7NZ

Japan

7OA-7OZ

Yemen (Republic of)

7PA-7PZ

Lesotho (Kingdom of)

7QA-7QZ

Malawi

7RA-7RZ

Algeria (Peoples Democratic Republic of)

7SA-7SZ

Sweden

7TA-7YZ

Algeria (Peoples Democratic Republic of)

7ZA-7ZZ

Saudi Arabia (Kingdom of)

8AA-8IZ

Indonesia (Republic of)

8JA-8NZ

Japan

8OA-8OZ

Botswana (Republic of)

8PA-8PZ

Barbados

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Call sign series

Allocated to

8QA-8QZ

Maldives (Republic of)

8RA-8RZ

Guyana

8SA-8SZ

Sweden

8TA-8YZ

India (Republic of)

8ZA-8ZZ

Saudi Arabia (Kingdom of)

9AA-9AZ

Croatia (Republic of)

9BA-9DZ

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

9EA-9FZ

Ethiopia (Federal Democratic Republic of)

9GA-9GZ

Ghana

9HA-9HZ

Malta

9IA-9JZ

Zambia (Republic of)

9KA-9KZ

Kuwait (State of)

9LA-9LZ

Sierra Leone

9MA-9MZ

Malaysia

9NA-9NZ

Nepal

9OA-9TZ

Democratic Republic of the Congo

9UA-9UZ

Burundi (Republic of)

9VA-9VZ

Singapore (Republic of)

9WA-9WZ

Malaysia

9XA-9XZ

Rwandese Republic

9YA-9ZZ

Trinidad and Tobago

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Appendix 16: Two Digit Access Codes


Access
Service
Code

Remarks

00

Automatic

Use this code to make automatic telephone, facsimile


and voice-band data calls using international direct dial
(IDD) codes.

11

International
operator

Use this code to obtain information from the


international operator of the country where the LESO is
located.

12

International
information

Use this code to obtain information about subscribers


in countries other than that where the LESO is located.

13

National operator

Use this code to obtain assistance to connect to


subscribers in the country where the LESO is located.
In countries which do not have an international
operator, use this instead of Code 11.

14

National information

Use this code to obtain information about subscribers


in the country where the LESO is located.

17

Telephone call
booking

This code may be used via some LESOs to book


telephone calls, although normally it is used via the
telex service.

20

Access to a
maritime PAD

This code is used when using a voice-band data


modem
to
access
a
maritime
packet
assembly/disassembly (PAD) facility in a packet
switched public data network (PSDN). The PAD is
accessed via telephone circuits and two additional
digits indicating the required data rate should follow the
prefix 20.

23

Abbreviated
dialling (short
code selection)

This code is used by some LESOs to allow Inmarsat-A


equipped subscribers to use abbreviated dialling codes
for their regularly dialled numbers.

28

Internet access

This code is used by some LESOs to allow InmarsatA/B/M/mini-M to access the Internet. The terminals
must generally first be registered with the LESO before
this service can be used.

31

Maritime enquiries

This code may be used for special enquiries such as


ship location, authorisation, etc.

32

Medical advice

Use this code to obtain medical advice. Some LESOs


have direct connections with local hospitals for use
with this code.

33

Technical
assistance

Use this code if you are having technical problems with


your Inmarsat terminal. Technical staff at the LESO
should be able to assist you.

34

Person-to-person
call

Use this code to contact the operator for a person-toperson call.

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Access
Service
Code

Remarks

35

Collect call

Use this code to contact the operator for a collect call


(charge payable by the recipient of the call).

36

Credit card call

Use this code to charge a telephone call to a credit or


charge card.

Time and duration

This code should be dialled at the start of a call instead


of Code 00 for an automatic call. With this service, the
MES operator is advised of the time and duration of
the call being set up, either by a telephone call back
from the LESO or, more usually, by a short telex
message giving the time and duration of the call. (Note
that Code 37 cannot work with a second IMN on
Inmarsat-A or an Inmarsat-M/mini-M MES, as there is
no associated telex line).

38

Medical assistance

This code should be used if the condition of an ill or


injured person on board the vessel requires urgent
evacuation ashore or the services of a doctor aboard
the vessel. This code will ensure that the call is routed
to the appropriate agency or authority ashore to deal
with the situation.

39

Maritime assistance

This code should be used to obtain maritime


assistance if the vessel requires assistance or a tow or
has encountered oil pollution, etc.

Meteorological
reports

This code should be used by weather-observing


vessels to send their observations. In most cases
where this service is available the service is free of
charge to the vessel, the National Weather Authority
paying the relevant charges.

42

Navigational
hazards and
warnings

This code provides a connection to a navigational


office for transmission of information from the vessel
about any hazards which could endanger the safety of
navigation (e.g. wrecks, derelicts, floating obstructions,
defective radio beacons or light vessels, icebergs,
floating mines etc.).

43

This code provides a connection to an appropriate


national or international centre collecting ship
Ship position reports
movement information for search and rescue (or other)
purposes e.g. AMVER or AUSREP, etc.

37

41

6(x)

Administration
specialised use

For use by administrations for specialised use. Often


used for leased lines, etc. The x digit following the 6 is
allocated on a national basis and is usually not used
for the same service/leased line for more than one
LESO.

70

Databases

The LESO will normally use this code, if it is available,


to allow automatic access to its information retrieval
database.

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Access
Service
Code

Remarks

90

Automatic line test

This code should be used to obtain test levels and


tones when setting up a modem or voice-band data
equipment.

Commissioning
tests

This code should be used when a vessel is ready to


commence
its Inmarsat-A commissioning tests. The code should
be used for this purpose only and then solely via the
LESO through which the commissioning has been
arranged.

92

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Appendix 17: Non Delivery Codes Notification (NDN)


NDN
code
ABS
ACB
ADR
ANU
ATD
BK
BUS
CCD
CI
CIE
CNS
DTE
ERR
FAU
FMT
FSA
IAB
IAM
IDS
IDT
IFR
IMS
IND
INH
INV
ISR
LDE
LEF
LPE
MBB
MCC
MCF
MKO
MSO
NA
NAL
NC
NCH
NDA

Meaning
Absent subscriber. The mobile terminal is not logged in to the ocean
region.
Access barred.
Addressee refuses to accept message.
Deleted. The message has not been delivered within an hour and is
therefore deleted.
Attempting to deliver the message.
Message aborted. Is used when a fax or PSTN-connection is cleared
abnormally.
Busy.
Call cut or disconnected.
Conversation impossible.
The LESO ran out of processing/communications capacity to process
the message.
Call not started.
Data terminal equipment. Used when an X.25 subscriber has cleared
the connection during the call attempt.
Error.
Faulty.
Format error.
Fast select acceptance not subscribed.
Invalid answer-back from destination.
Was unable to process the address information in the following
message:
Invalid data from ship.
Input data time-out.
Invalid facility request.
Message size is invalid; 7,932 characters maximum.
Incompatible destination.
Was unable to establish the type of message from the following header:
Invalid.
Invalid ship request.
Maximum acceptable message length or duration has been exceeded.
Local equipment failure.
Local procedure error.
Message broken by higher priority
Message channel congestion.
Message channel failure.
Message killed by operator.
Machine switched off.
Correspondence with this subscriber is not permitted.
No address line is present.
No circuits.
Subscribers number has changed.
No delivery was attempted.

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NFA
NIA
NOB
NOC
NP
NTC
OAB
OCC
OOO
PAD
PRC
PRF
RCA
REF
RLE
RPE
RPO
SCC
SHE
SNF
SPE
SUC
TBY
TGR
TIM
TMD
UNK
WFA
WIA

No final answer-back.
No initial answer-back.
Not obtainable.
No connection.
No party. The called party is not, or is no longer, a subscriber.
Network congestion/
Operator aborted.
Subscriber is occupied.
Out of order.
Packet assembler/disassembler.
Premature clearing.
Protocol failure.
Reverse charging acceptance not subscribed.
There was a failure in the remote equipment.
Resource limit exceeded.
Remote procedure error.
RPOA out of order.
Call completed successfully.
MES hardware error.
The satellite network has failed.
MES protocol error.
Test results being delivered.
Trunks busy.
TDM group reset.
Time-out.
Too many destinations.
Unknown. Is used when no other failure codes are suitable.
Wrong final answer-back.
Wrong initial answer-back.
___________

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