You are on page 1of 18

Energy Law & Policy

Section A
Short Notes:
1. Geothermal Energy:
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. The geothermal
energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet and from
radioactive decay of minerals. The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in
temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous
conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. The
adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots ge meaning earth, and thermos,
meaning hot.
From hot springs, geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times
and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for
electricity generation. Worldwide, 11,400 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is
online in 24 countries in 2012. Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable,
and environmentally friendly, but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate
boundaries. Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and
size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a
potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped
deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of
fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global
warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels.
Geothermal energy comes in either vapor-dominated or liquid-dominated forms.
Larderello and The Geysers are vapor-dominated. Vapor-dominated sites offer
temperatures from 240-300 C that produce superheated steam.
Liquid-dominated plants

Liquid-dominated reservoirs (LDRs) are more common with temperatures greater than
200 C (392 F) and are found near young volcanoes surrounding the Pacific Ocean and
in rift zones and hot spots. Flash plants are the most common way to generate electricity
from these sources. Pumps are generally not required, powered instead when the water
turns to steam. Most wells generate 2-10MWe. Steam is separated from liquid via cyclone
separators, while the liquid is returned to the reservoir for reheating/reuse. As of 2013,
the largest liquid system is Cerro Prieto in Mexico, which generates 750 MWe from
temperatures reaching 350 C (662 F). The Salton Sea field in Southern California offers
the potential of generating 2000 MWe.
Lower temperature LDRs (120-200 C) require pumping. They are common in extensional
terrains, where heating takes place via deep circulation along faults, such as in the
Western US and Turkey. Water passes through a heat exchanger in a Rankine cycle binary
plant. The water vaporizes an organic working fluid that drives a turbine. These binary
plants originated in the Soviet Union in the late 1960s and predominate in new US plants.
Binary plants have no emissions.
Thermal energy
Lower temperature sources produce the energy equivalent of 100M BBL per year.
Sources with temperatures from 30-150 C are used without conversion to electricity for
as district heating, greenhouses, fisheries, mineral recovery, industrial process heating
and bathing in 75 countries. Heat pumps extract energy from shallow sources at 10-20 C
in 43 countries for use in space heating and cooling. Home heating is the fastest-growing
means of exploiting geothermal energy, with global annual growth rate of 30% in 2005 [32]
and 20% in 2012.
Approximately 270 petajoules (PJ) of geothermal heating was used in 2004. More than
half went for space heating, and another third for heated pools. The remainder supported
industrial and agricultural applications. Global installed capacity was 28 GW, but
capacity factors tend to be low (30% on average) since heat is mostly needed in winter.

Some 88 PJ for space heating was extracted by an estimated 1.3 million geothermal heat
pumps with a total capacity of 15 GW.
Heat for these purposes may also be extracted from co-generation at a geothermal
electrical plant.
Heating is cost-effective at many more sites than electricity generation. At natural hot
springs or geysers, water can be piped directly into radiators. In hot, dry ground, earth
tubes or downhole heat exchangers can collect the heat. However, even in areas where
the ground is colder than room temperature, heat can often be extracted with a
geothermal heat pump more cost-effectively and cleanly than by conventional furnaces.
[33]

These devices draw on much shallower and colder resources than traditional

geothermal techniques. They frequently combine functions, including air conditioning,


seasonal thermal energy storage, solar energy collection, and electric heating. Heat
pumps can be used for space heating essentially anywhere.
Iceland is the world leader in direct applications. Some 93% of its homes are heated with
geothermal energy, saving Iceland over $100 million annually in avoided oil imports.
Reykjavk, Iceland has the world's biggest district heating system. Once known as the
most polluted city in the world, it is now one of the cleanest.
Enhanced geothermal
Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) actively inject water into wells to be heated and
pumped back out. The water is injected under high pressure to expand existing rock
fissures to enable the water to freely flow in and out. The technique was adapted from oil
and gas extraction techniques. However, the geologic formations are deeper and no toxic
chemicals are used, reducing the possibility of environmental damage. Drillers can
employ directional drilling to expand the size of the reservoir.
Small-scale EGS have been installed in the Rhine Graben at Soultz-sou-Forects in France
and at Landau and Insheim in Gremany.

2. Solar Energy:
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, is harnessed using a range of everevolving technologies such as solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity,
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar
depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar
techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness
the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting
materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces
that naturally circulate air.
Major use of solar energy is to generate electricity. Solar power is the conversion of
sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using
concentrated solar power (CSP). CSP systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems
to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. PV converts light into electric current
using the photoelectric effect.
Concentrated solar power/ Solar Thermal
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to
focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. The concentrated heat is then used as a
heat source for a conventional power plant. A wide range of concentrating technologies
exists; the most developed are the parabolic trough, the concentrating linear fresnel
reflector, the Stirling dish and the solar power tower. Various techniques are used to track
the Sun and focus light. In all of these systems a working fluid is heated by the
concentrated sunlight, and is then used for power generation or energy storage.

Solar Photovoltaics
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell (PV), is a device that converts light into electric current
using the photoelectric effect. The first solar cell was constructed by Charles Fritts in the
1880s. The eeifiency of solar photovoltaics is less compared to conventional sources. By
2012 available efficiencies of solar photvoltaics exceed 20% and the maximum efficiency
of research photovoltaics is over 40%.

3. Urban Energy Planning:


The use of energy, the types of energy used and the lack ofaccess to sufficient energy
have far reaching implicationsfor economic development of urban area, its environmental
healthand for the poor. The burning of fossil fuels to provideenergy is the major
contributor to excess carbon in theatmosphere which is the cause of global warming.
Citieswhich implement sustainable energy and climate actionplans reduce their
vulnerability to energy scarcity and toenergy price rises, they have less traffic congestion
and lowerenergy input costs, they have cleaner air and their low-carboneconomies can
afford them a competitive economic edgeglobally. And, specifically for cities in
developing countries, asustainable urban energy planning should consider. The aims of
sustainable energy planning are optimalenergy-efficiency, low- or no-carbon energy
supply andaccessible, equitable and good energy service provision tousers. Urban Energy
Planning is based on consideration of the broaderconcerns of the whole economy,
environment (particularlycarbon mitigation) and society, not just a least financialcost
focus. And, it is led by the demand for energy services.
These are the key characteristics of sustainable energy andclimate planning:

All energy sources and energy-related activities areconsidered as a whole system

Carbon mitigation is a key determinant in the developmentof the plan and choice
of project options

The demand for energy services, rather than what energycan be supplied, is the
basis for planning

Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand-sidemanagement are


considered prior to supply-side solutions

Environmental and social costs are clearly considered

Energy sector linkages with the economy are included

Ehe plan is flexible and can anticipate and respondto change

Path towards sustainable urban energy planning:

Reduce carbon emissions

Reduce dependence on fossil fuels

Introduce cleaner fuels

Increase use of renewable energy

Promote diversification of energy sources

Support local and decentralised power supply

Focus on energy efficiency and provide supportand information to users

Make efficient resource use the basis of economicdevelopment

Ensure that citizens have appropriate access to energyservices and information on


best energy use practises toreduce poverty

Plan for efficient spatial development

Develop efficient and accessible public transport usingcleaner fuels

Communicate! Create a sustainable and low-carbon energyvision for the future.

4. Finance, Account and Audit of Bureau (Chapter - VII):


This is part of Energy Conservation Act 2001 enacted by Parliament in the Fifty second
Year of the Republic of Indiato provide for efficient use of energy and its conservation
and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The Chapter VII of the act talks
about Finance, Account and Audit of Bureau as follows:
Grants
loans

and 19. The Central Government may, after due appropriation made by
by

Parliament by law in this behalf, make to the Bureau or to the State

Central

Government grants and loans of such sums or money as the Central

Government

Government may consider necessary.

Establishment 20. (1) There shall be constituted a Fund to be called as the Central
of

Fund

by

Central
Government

Energy Conservation Fund and there shall be credited thereto a. any grants and loans made to the Bureau by the Central
Government under section 19;
b. all fees received by the Bureau under this Act;
c. all sums received by the Bureau from such other sources as
may be decided upon by the Central Government.
(2) The Fund shall be applied for meeting a. the salary, allowances and other remuneration of DirectorGeneral, Secretary officers and other employees of the
Bureau,
b. expenses of the Bureau in the discharge of its functions under
section 13;
c. fee and allowances to be paid to the members of the
Governing Council under sub-section (5) or section 4;

d. expenses on objects and for purposes authorised by this Act


Borrowing
powers

21.
of

1. The Bureau may, with the consent of the Central Government


or in accordance with the terms of any general or special

Bureau

authority given to it by the Central Government borrow


money from any source as it may deem fit for discharging all
or any of its functions under this Act.
2. The Central Government may guarantee, in such manner as it
thinks fit, the repayment of the principle and the payment of
interest thereon with respect to the loans borrowed by the
Bureau under sub-section (l).
22. The Bureau shall prepare, in such form and at such time in each
financial year as may be prescribed, its budget for the next financial
year, showing the estimated receipts and expenditure of the Bureau
and forward the same to the Central Government.
23. The Bureau shall prepare, in such form and at such time in each
financial year as may be prescribed, its annual report, giving full
account of its activities during the previous financial year, and submit
a copy thereof to the Central Government.
24. The Central Government shall cause the annual report referred to in
section 23 to be laid, as soon as may be after it is received, before
each House of Parliament.
25.

1. The Bureau shall maintain proper accounts and other relevant


records and prepare an annual statement of accounts in such
form as may be prescribed by the Central Government in
consultation with the Comptroller and Auditor-General of
India.
2. The accounts of the Bureau shall be audited by the
Comptroller and Auditor-General of India at such intervals as
may be specified by him and any expenditure incurred in
connection with such audit shall be payable by the Bureau to

the Comptroller and Auditor-General.


3. The Comptroller and Auditor-General of India and any other
person appointed by him in connection with the audit of the
accounts of the Bureau shall have the same rights and
privileges and authority in connection with such audit as the
Comptroller and Auditor-General generally has in connection
with the audit of the Government accounts and in particular,
shall have the right to demand the production of books,
accounts, connected vouchers and other documents and
papers and to inspect any of the offices of the Bureau.
4. The accounts of the Bureau as certified by the Comptroller
and Auditor-General of India or any other person appointed
by him in this behalf together with the audit report thereon
shall forward annually to the Central Government and that
Government shall cause the same to be laid before each
House of Parliament.

Section B
1. Define Energy Demand. How energy is demanded due to population growth and
industrialization?
Energy demand is the energy required for livelihood of population, for industrial and
commercial activities. Electricity/power is a form of energy, whose demand is the amount
of electricity being consumed at any given time. It rises and falls throughout the day in
response to a number of things, including the time and environmental factors. Managing
demand is key for utilities, and this became an increasing issue at the end of the 20th
century, as utilities struggled to balance electricity needs with aging electrical grids.
Energy Demand due to Population Growth:

Population growth is one of the factors, which drive the worldwide energy demand,
especially the demand of electricity. The two main factors which will greatly increase
worldwide energy (electricity in particular) during the next century are: population
growth and per capita economic growth in developing countries.
To address the issue of the effect of population size and growth on energy demand, the
fact that the link between population and energy involves two intermediate connecting
elements must be recognized. The first link relates to levels and changes in economic
development, approximated by income or gross domestic product (GDP) per capita.
Typically, the greater a regions per capita income, the greater its per capita consumption
of energy: The average per capita GDP and energy consumption of the worlds
developing countries are, respectively, only about one-seventh and one-eighth those of
industrial areas/ developed countries. Notwithstanding this marked per capita disparity,
given the sheer population size of developing regionsover three-quarters of the world
totalthe absolute amount of energy consumption and of GDP are relatively large: onethird of world energy use and about two-fifths of world GDP. Even though income and
energy use are conspicuously correlated, the degree of the relationship is by no means
perfect and unvarying, which raises the second point to consider in linking population
and energy. Even at comparable levels of per capita GDP, the volume of energy use will
differ among countries and regions, depending on structural characteristics of the
economy, spatial features, climate, fuel and power prices, government conservation
policies, and other factors. Actually, The change in energy use is the multiplicative
product of the three factors Population, GDP per capita, Energy per unit of GDP. The
decade of the 1990s saw economic growth (i.e., GDP per capita) dominating population
growth as a factor in energy consumption growth in both industrialized and developing
regions/countries, which will go on happening in developed countries. However,
population growth has been dominating factor for energy demand for last decade and will
be dominating the decade coming in the less developed and developing countries.
Doubling of per capita energy consumption in the less developed countries over the next
50 years would correspond to only a very modest degree of economic development. Yet,
combined with the predicted population growth, it would lead to two to three times
increase of world energy consumption. For example, there will be increased demand from

economic growth. Improvements will occur undoubtly in the efficiency of energy


utilization, but in the face of excepted increase of demand due to the extent of population
growth, these will only have relatively minor impact.
Energy Demand due to Industrialization:
Industrialization in its path has a grave impact on energy demand during transition period
of industrialization as well as post-industrialization. As an economy develops, it
undergoes a series of structural changes. During initial stages of economic growth, the
share of agriculture in the total output falls and the share of industry rises. This is the
industrialization phase of development. In the later stages of development, the demand
for services begins to increase rapidly, increasing its share to GDP. This latter stage is
referred to as post-industrialized society. The growth of heavy industry & infrastructure
development during the industrialization phase leads to enormous increase in energy
consumption.
Accordingly, the energy intensity of GDP increases as the share of industry in GDP
increases. As development continues, however, the demand of financial services,
communication, transportation and consumer goods grows rapidly. As a result, the share
of services and consumer goods increases. Light industry (e.g., involved in production of
consumer goods) and services require less energy per unit output than heavy industry.
This leads to a reduction of overall energy intensity, i.e., energy input per out. Although
economic development leads to declining growth rates of per capita energy demand in the
industrial sector, substantial overall growth of energy demand will go on with the growth
of light industry, services sector, transportation, residential and commercial sectors.
2. What is energy planning? Describe the aims and benefits of energy planning.
Energy planning is the process of envisioning a desired future state of sustainable
energy supply and consumption based on existing concerns and realilities, and designing
the appropriate measures to implement that energy future. It offers a number of
opportunities and tools for nations and communities to deal with energy issues related to
development. Energy planning is not a one-time exercise, but a continuous, iterative
process in which the results are continuously reviewed and new information leads to new
analyses.

Aims of Energy Planning:


The broad aims of macro-level enrgy planning are:

To provide the basis for the policy framework and assist state agencies and other
energy related organizations in setting the energy goals and making enrgy decisions
that will contribute to a growing economy in a sustainable and environmentally sound

manner.
To help in finding and allocating the resources (funds, technologies, skilled workforce,
etc.) for meeting the specific energy requirements of all sectors in an optimal manner.
This includes minimization of total costs energy, minimization of non-local resources,

and maximization of overall system efficiency.


To increase the use of design philosophies and features that improves enrgy
performance, and enhances the quality of life. To develop compact and complete

resource use patterns to increase the availability of alternatives.


To promote the development and use of new, high efficiency and cleaner supply

option.
To promote energy efficient technologies or service options in infrastructure and to
increase the production of energy from local or regional distributed facilities.

More specific goals of local levels or project based energy planning may include:

Encouraging reductions in energy consumption and cost through energy audits and

investments in efficiency opportunities.


Encouraging the planning, design and construction of energy efficient neighbourhoods

and buildings in urban areas.


Assessing the scope and extent of energy use efficiency so that both energy and money

are saved.
Exploring local renewable energy development potential.
Improving community livelihood by reducing local sources of pollution, reducing he

need for transportation through proper urban design.


Increasing the use of cleaner energy alternatives.
Providing information and help the users to implement local energy plans.

Benefits of Energy Planning:


Energy planning has many benefits, some of which are outlined below:

GIS supported energy plan serves as demographic database, natural resource database

and energy database.


Energy plans can be used as forecasting tools to make projections of energy supply
and demand at intervals of 5 years and as policy analysis tools that stimulate and
assess the technical economic, environmental effects of alternative energy

programmes.
Energy planning helps to reduce energy expenditure of governments and taxpayers and

saves non-energy capital and operating expenditures.


Energy Planning helps increase land values in urban areas through better land use

planning.
Good energy planning can reduce cost for infrastructure.
Energy planning helps in cleaning up the environment through preservation of green
spaces. It reduces climate change due to green house gas emission by reducing

exclusive dependence on fossil fuel combustion.


Energy planning achieves many socio-economic objectives , such as increased local
employment and the creation jobs through investments in energy, lower annual energy
bills, better indoor working conditions with advanced building, heating, cooling and

lighting technologies.
Sustainable energy planning and practices can directly or indirectly generate new jobs
and business. For example, they require investment in new technologies, insulation,
light bulbs, energy efficient machineries, solar water heater, energy efficient windows,
etc.

3. Elaborate the steps taken by India to promote non- conventional energy.


Followings are the steps taken for promoting non-conventional energy in India:
a) Awareness Creation: Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) has
been creating awareness through electronic and print media including newspaper,
booklets, leaflets, brochures, newsletters, exhibitions, fairs on various renewable
technologies in Hindi, English and regional languages all over the country. District
advisory committees on renewable energy have also been constituted in 540 districts

for co-ordination and awareness creation of renewable energy systems/programmmes


at district levels.
b) Solar Energy:
Sagar Island is hailed as one of the first successful initiative of distributed generation
utilizing non-conventional/ renewable sources, and received Ashden Award 2003 for
its great work. PV and Wind Systems put in place by the West Bengal Renewable
Energy Development Agency (WBREDA) have benefitted the islands residents
The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, also known as National Solar
Mission, is one of the eight key National Missions which comprise Indias National
Action Plan on Climate Change(NAPCC). NAPCC was launched on 30th June
2008 which identified development of solar energy technologies in the country as a
National Mission to fulfill the objective of long term energy security and ecological
security.
Government of India launched the 'Akshay Urja' project to encourage usage of solar
energy. Under the rural electrification programme, as many as 349 non-electrified
villages of UP state have been given solar home-lighting and solar street-lighting
systems. The government is also providing subsidy to encourage the use of solar
water heaters and other equipments working on solar power. In order to make the
solar equipments easily available, 'Akshay Urja' shops are being set up in every
district, where such equipments will also be repaired. In Chhattisgarh also, roof
mounted solar panels are distributed to villagers at almost no price towards homesolar lighting initiative.
One of the biggest hurdle for development of solar energy is the solar panels are very
costly and silicon (which is raw material for solar PV cells) production worldwide is
low. At the moment, the effort is on by MNES, Govt. of India to promote silicon
production units in India. Again, as the capital investment for setting up of solar
power plant is very high, the generation tariff is high (Rs. 15 per unit). But to
encourage the grid connected solar power generation, Govt. of India subsidies the
solar power generation. The govt. of Gujarat and Rajasthan, specially encouraged
solar PV power plants.
c) Wind Power Generation: India has great potential of wind power generation as it is
blessed with long coast line. Government of India as well as different state

government encouraged wind power generation through build, operate and transfer
concept to attract private invest in wind power.
d) Electricity Generation from Biomass: Government encourages small scale
initiative for electricity generation from biomass.
e) Minimizing Import of Fossil Fuel like coal as low as practicable.
f) Hydel Capacity: Planned to increase hydel power generation through inter-linking of
rivers, expected to contribute additional 50,000 MW of power. Also, helps initiative
to build small hydropower plants to electrify adjacent villages. Chhattisgarh has many
such small hydro-projects.

Section C (50 marks)


(Attempt all questions. Every question carries 10 marks)
Read the case Restoring Angolas Electricity Network and answer the following questions:
Case Study: Restoring Angolas Electricity Network

Highlights

Electricity planning moves forward with the updating of 20-year-old maps.

Improved information leads to electricity service for more than 6,500 households.

GIS improves transparency and stakeholder participation in municipal planning.

Angolans have suffered three decades of civil war, and only in recent years have they been able
to begin the slow process of reclaiming their nation by rebuilding both the physical and social

infrastructure necessary for peace, security and economic growth. A critical component of this
progress is the restoration of the electricity network. The government of Angola has set a goal to
provide
100
per
cent
electrification
in
urban
areas
and
60 per cent electrification in adjoining areas by 2012. The U.S. Agency for International
Development (USAID) is assisting Angolas government in reaching this target. A pilot project is
under way to address the electrification goals, piloting innovative methods to improve
electrification in the adjoining areas.
Electricity network in the municipality of Kilamba Kiaxi, Luanda, created in GIS
To address this need, the Academy for Educational Development (AED), a leading nonprofit
organization working globally to improve education, health, civil society, and economic
development, is working with Empresa Distribuidor de Electricidade (EDEL), Angolas national
electricity distribution company and two municipal governments to provide training in urban
planning, engineering, and capacity building through the USAID-funded Angola Electricity
Support Program (AESP).
Closing Information Gaps
Up-to-date maps are essential for planning and managing municipal infrastructure. Cadastral
maps are critical for granting land titles and acquiring data necessary to establish an electricity
connection. Prior to the launch of AESP, the most recent cadastral maps available in Angola
dated back to 1989, a serious barrier to the design and implementation of electricity access
programs.
Providing electricity to homes and businesses requires more than just installing poles and
stringing cable, says Joao Baptista Borges, the chief executive officer of EDEL, which provides
service to more than seven million people in and around Luanda. Maps, census, customer, and
infrastructure datawhich are outdated or nonexistent in Angolaare fundamental in planning
for and providing electricity.
One of the first activities under AESP was the systematic gathering of information about
community resources, households, and infrastructure already in place in the pilot areas. AESP
employed ArcView software to introduce its Angolan counterparts to GIS in order to develop
accurate baseline information on residences and businesses in the municipalities of Kilamba
Kiaxi and Viana. The information collected through surveys and site visits was added to
geographic data and maps to create the most up-to-date geographic information systems for the
two municipalities.
AED selected ArcView based on Esris reputation and because the software is easy to use for
inputting and manipulating data for utility, governmental and community use.

The newly created maps contain information on land plots and existing electric networks and are
providing EDEL with vital information, such as street addresses, meter numbers, and where
houses are connected to the electrical system. That information will help EDEL deliver more
accurate electricity bills, provide better customer service, and extend the network.

Surveyors in Kilamba Kiaxi map the municipality


A further breakdown of the layered datasets provides information detailing the extent of
electrical infrastructure. With this information, AED and local stakeholders were able to gather
and analyze trend information and establish a concrete understanding of who was benefiting
from electricity, differentiating between legal and illegal connections and identifying which
households were not electrified.
A Sustainable Intervention
In addition to upgrading the quality and type of information available, there is a capacitybuilding component to AESP. To date, EDEL and municipal government staff have been trained
on the use and application of ArcView software and GIS principles. The training was so
successfuland the software so usefulthat EDEL has secured its own ArcView software
licenses.
As this project continues, training has been expanded to local stakeholders, including small
businesses, civil servants, and residents. Within a forum of open dialog and transparency,
municipal governments will have increased opportunities for iterative planning, flexibility, and
adjustment. This will lead not only to improved electrical infrastructure but also to increased
capacity through collective engagement, planning, and improved governance practices.
Community members in the AESP pilot areas place a high value on the information that has
become available to them through the application of GIS. Equipped with information,
community groups and individual households are better able to communicate their needs to
EDEL and advocate improved service.
GIS has forged new paths and shed new light on underutilized power sources, forecasting, and
long-term capital planning. AESP has increased access to electricity or improved electricity
service for more than 6,500 households. Another 25,000 households will be supplied with
electricity in 2009.

Question:

1. What do you mean by closing information gaps? How it inputs and manipulate
data for utility, government and community use.
2. How can planning help in improving electricity service of any nation?
3. Discuss the Angola Electricity Support Program (AESP). Explain the
interventions by AESP.
4. How the surveyors in Kilamba Kiaxi map the municipality? What was the
analysis after mapping?
5. Analyze the case study by using SWOT analysis and write down the case facts.