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Lund University Experience on

Technology Assessment for 2nd Generation


Bioethanol Production
Guido Zacchi,
Chemical Engineering
Lund University
www.chemeng.lth.se

Workshop
Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery
Campinas August 13-14

Schematic process
Steam pretreatment Acid hydrolysis
Fermentation of all sugars (incl. Pentoses)
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)
Energy integration
Integration with other processes
Biomass

Pretreatment

Enzymatic
hydrolysis

Fermentation

Distillation

SSF
Lignin

Ethanol

Steam pretreatment unit


10 litre reactor
160 - 230 C
Impregnation with
H2SO4 or SO2
Main purposes
Hydrolysis of hemicellulose
Improve the enzymatic
hydrolysis of cellulose

Equipment for enzymatic hydrolysis


and fermentation (SSF)

Techno-Economic Evaluation
Aspen Plus

Experimental
data

Mass & energy balances


Thermodynamic calculations
Vendor
quotations

Icarus Process Evaluator


Sizing & cost estimation of
process equipment

Swedish
conditions

Production
cost (SEK/L)

High quality data are crucial


Experimental data for all conversions
Physical data
Phase equilibria
Cost data
Etc
Rubish in = Rubish out
(Independent of how good the model is)

Useful for

Sensitivity analysis
(solid content in SSF)

Compare different process configurations


one versus two stage pretreatment
replace evaporation of stillage with biogas production

Internal process integration


recirculation of process streams

External process integration


with heat and power production
with 1G ethanol production

Overall process heat demand as function


of the WIS concentration in SSF
Heat duty (MJ/L ethanol)

28
26
Salix
Corn stover
Spruce

24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
7

10

11

12

13

WIS concentration in SSF (%)


Sassner, Thesis LU 2007

14

15

Ethanol production cost as function


of the WIS concentration in SSF
Ethanol production cost (SEK/L)

6,50 kr
Salix
Corn stover
Spruce

6,00 kr
5,50 kr
5,00 kr
4,50 kr
4,00 kr
3,50 kr
7

10

11

12

13

WIS concentration in SSF (%)


Sassner, Thesis LU 2007

14

15

Fed-batch SSF yeast cultivated on hydrolysate


Above 45 g/l etanol
2 g/l yeast

Concentrations (g/L)

12 % Fibres
Fed-Batch SSF
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Glucose
Ethanol

50

100

Time (h)

150

200

SSF of pretreated and delignified aspen


90

20% WIS

Ethanol concentration (g/l)

80

New reactor

70
60

15% WIS

50
40

Conventional
fermentor

10% WIS

30
20
10
0
0

24

48

72

Time (Hours)

96

120

144

2-step pretreatment
Experimental set-up
Raw material
Pretreatment
step 1

Pretreatment
step 2

solid
liquid

slurry

Fermentation
test

Enzymatic
hydrolysis

SSF

OS
TS+W
TS-W

Total

Mannose

Glucose

Total

Mannose

Glucose

Total

Mannose

Glucose

Recovery after pretreatment (%)

Comparison yields

100

Liquid
Solid
Total

80

60

40

20

Economic evaluation

Catalyst

HX2

Steam

HX6
Catalyst

77.0%
no flashing
No flashing
Cooling
noWIS
washing
50%
to 20C
50% WIS

HX1

Steam

HX5

HX3

HX7

HX4

Wood

To SSF

71.8%
First step

To SSF

HX8

74.6%
Optional second step

Ethanol cost (SEK/L)


4.3

Ethanol cost (SEK/L)

4.2
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5

BC one-step

BC two-step

Worst case

No flash case Optimistic case

The Process
Replacement of evaporation with Biogas production
Pellets

Steam

Raw material
SO2

Feedstock
handling

Pretreatment

Water &
base

Enzymes &
nutrients

Ethanol

SSF & yeast


cultivation

Distillation
& dehydr.

Drying

Process
steam

Stillage

Wastewater
treatment

Excess
solids
Condensates

Evaporation

Liquid
fraction

Filtration

Concentrated liquid
Biogas (methane)

Pellet
production

Electricty

Steam &
electr. gen.

The Process with biogas


Pellets

Steam

Raw material
SO2

Feedstock
handling

Water &
base

Pretreatment

Enzymes &
nutrients

Ethanol

SSF & yeast


cultivation

Distillation
& dehydr.

Drying

Process
steam

Stillage

Wastewater
treatment

Excess
solids
Liquid
fraction

Biogas (methane) & sludge

Pellet
production

Filtration

Electricty

Steam &
electr. gen.

The Process
Pellets

Raw material

Steam
SO2

Feedstock
handling

Water &
base

Pretreatment

Enzymes &
nutrients

Ethanol

SSF & yeast


cultivation

Distillation
& dehydr.

Drying

Process
steam

Stillage
Excess
solids

Wastewater
treatment

Liquid
fraction

Filtration
Sludge

Biogas

Biogas
upgrading

Vehicle
fuel

Pellet
production

Electricty

Steam &
electr. gen.

Minimum EtOH selling price


5.00
4.53 kr

4.50

4.27 kr

MESP (SEK/L)

4.00
3.42 kr

3.50
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00

Base case

No Evap - Pellets

No Evap - Biogas

Biogas production
Two key issues:
-

Biogas conversion:
-

Yield? Rate? Concentration?

Sludge handling:
-

Fuel properties? Level of dewatering?

Recycling of process streams


SSF

Overall production cost (SEK/L)

Recirculation of process
streams in SSF
4,80
4,60

Maximum
Experimental value

4,40

Before
After

4,20
4,00
3,80
0

20

40

60

% recycling of stream

Evaporation condensate up to 100%

80

Integration with heat and power


Schematic flowsheet
Pellets

Steam

Raw material
SO2

Feedstock
handling

Pretreatment

Water &
base

Enzymes &
nutrients

Ethanol

SSF & yeast


cultivation

Distillation
& dehydr.

Drying

Process
steam

Stillage

Wastewater
treatment

Excess
solids
Condensates

Evaporation

Liquid
fraction

Filtration

Concentrated liquid
Biogas (methane)

Pellet
production

Steam
generation

No pellet production
Pellets

Steam

Raw material
SO2

Feedstock
handling

Pretreatment

Water &
base

Enzymes &
nutrients

Ethanol

SSF & yeast


cultivation

Distillation
& dehydr.

Drying

Process
steam

Stillage

Wastewater
treatment

Excess
solids
Condensates

Evaporation

Liquid
fraction

Filtration

Concentrated liquid
Biogas (methane)

Pellet
production

Electricty

Steam &
electr. gen.

5 Scenarios
Ethanol
Pellets
Electricity
District heating
BC: base case
LO: lower yield
HI: higher yield

A
X
X

B
X
X

C
X
X
X

D
X

E
X

X
X

X
X

WIS: reduced energy demand


HI&WIS: combined case

Energy efficiency
100%

92%
76%

80%
60%

70%

70%

70%

Heat
Electricity
Pellets
Ethanol

53%

50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

LO
BC
HI
WIS
HI&WIS
LO
BC
HI
WIS
HI&WIS
LO
BC
HI
WIS
HI&WIS
LO
BC
HI
WIS
HI&WIS
LO
BC
HI
WIS
HI&WIS

Energy efficiencyLHV

90%

Min. EtOH selling price


4.80

4.73
4.65
4.56

4.40
4.20

4.20
4.00

3.87

3.80
3.60
3.40
3.20
3.00

LO
BC
HI
WIS
HI&WIS
LO
BC
HI
WIS
HI&WIS
LO
BC
HI
WIS
HI&WIS
LO
BC
HI
WIS
HI&WIS
LO
BC
HI
WIS
HI&WIS

MESP (SEK/L)

4.60

Effect of feedstock cost


5,75
5,50

MESP (kr/L)

5,25
5,00

4,75

4,50

4,25

4,00

3,75
3,50
3,25
3,00
100

120

140

160

Feedstock cost (kr/MWh)

180

200

Effect of electricity spot price


5,00
4,75

MESP (kr/L)

4,50

A
B

4,25

4,00

3,75

3,50
3,25
3,00
200

250

300

350

400

Electricity spot price (kr/MWh)

450

500

Effect of district heat credit


5,00
4,75

MESP (kr/L)

4,50

A
B

4,25

4,00

3,75

3,50
3,25
3,00
100

150

200

250

Credit, district heat (kr/MWh)

300

Integration of 1st and 2nd generation ethanol


Starch based process
Solid material
water &
steam

Raw
material

Enzymes

Wat er

Liquefaction

Enzymes

Yeast

Saccharification

Fermentation

Ethanol

Distillation

Solid material

Centrifugation

SSF
Liquid

1
Steam

Raw
material

Pretreatment

Wat er

Enzymes

Yeast

Enzymatic
hydrolysis

Fermentation

Ethanol

Distillation

Solid material

Filtration

SSF
Solid material

Cellulose based process

Liquid

SSF of wheat straw wheat meal (5% WIS)


60

2.5% straw + 2.5% meal

Yield
92%

Ethanol concentration [g/l]

50
40
30

5% straw

81%

20
10
0
0

20

40

60

Time [hour]

80

100

Powerful tool

Assessment of improvements
What if - studies
Sensitivity analysis
Give guidelines for experimental work
Give data for LCA
Basic data for process design

Thanks for your attention!