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J. Dowson, "Translations of Three Copper Plate Inscriptions of the Fourth Century, A.D.

,
and Notices of the Chlukya and Gurjjara Dynasties," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society
X.?Translations
Art.Britain
of
of Three
Inscriptions
Copper
of Great
and Ireland, N.S., Vol.
1, No. 1/2
(1865),Plate
pp. 247-286.
and
and Notices
the
theFourth Century, A.D.,
Chalukya
of
Staff College,
Ourjjara Dynasties.
By Professor J. Dowson,
Sandhurst.
[Read March

21, 1864.]

to Mr. James
the year 1837, Dr. A. Burn transmitted
of Bengal,
then Secretary
of the Asiatic
Society
Prinsep,
transcripts and facsimiles of four Copper Plate Inscriptions.
"
"
These plates," he said, were found in the town of Kaira,
runs close to the
The river Watrua
about ten years ago.
walls on the north-west
side, and was the cause of the dis
covery, by washing down the walls and earth. They had been
In

the country among the natives for translation,


supposed they were connected with some deposit of
of
to me by a fakir,
At last they were brought
l
whom I purchased them."
These plates proved to be of great archaeological value, for
handed

about

it being
treasure.

of them being dated both in words and figures, they


a key to the value of the old Sanskrit numerals.
furnished
of this fact, Mr. Prinsep
Much
pleased with the discovery
of the dates,2 and fol
published fac-similes and explanations
lowed up the clue thus placed in his hands with characteristic
three

ardour.

In October, 1838,
script and a partial

after Mr. Prinsep had left India, a tran


of one plate was published,
translation

1 Journal
Thomas's
Beng. As. Soc. vol. vii. p. 908.
2
Thomas, vol. ii., p. 70.
Beng. J. vol. vii. p. 348.
vol.

i.?[new

semes].

17

Prinsep,

vol.

i. p. 262.

the series.

Fac-similes
plates
: but no one having up to the present time
lithographed
I
translations,
unpublished.
they have remained
prepared
now propose to offer transliterations
and translations
of the

wards

three

records.

the one which is here numbered


the three inscriptions,
is that of which a transcript and a partial translation have
as above stated;
the other two have
been already published
no
of their
notice beyond Mr. Prinsep's
received
explanation
Of

"2"

in the refer
Much
confusion has hitherto prevailed
ences to the numbers of these plates, from two different series
in the Journal of the
been employed
of numbers
having
to the
The
numbers
Asiatic
of
appended
Society
Bengal.
now published
accord entirely with the numbers
fac-similcs
in his first paper, that on the dates (vol.
used by Mr. Prinsep
came out subsequently
The translation which
vii. p. 348).
"
be
is
said
to
of
No. 4," is in reality
and
which
(ib. p. 908),
"No. 2," and that at p. 966, which is called "No. 1," ought
"
in
to have been numbered
4," for it had not been noticed
dates.

is
is the one which
This last, moreover,
first paper.
absent from the present series.
The three plates now published were, as it would
seem,
are
records
of
and although
found together;
grants
they
made by kings of different dynasties, they appear to have had
a common object, and present some curious points of similarity
Their dates are included within a period of
and connection.
fourteen years (Samvat 380 to 394), and they are grants made,
of the Bali, Charu,
like many others, for the due performance
and
So far,
five
the
Vaiswadeva,
great sacrifices.
Agnihotra,
the

then,

much

the}r

are

closer
1 Ben

iu

agreement.

identity

of origin.

. J. vol. vii. p. 908, 9GG.

closer

No.
Thoma*,

examination

1 is a grant
vol.

proves

by a Cha

i. pp, 257, 2G3.

or some other

reason the number of gran teen is


later document, which can only
reduced
in
the
considerably
be looked upon as a cancel of the original grant.
No. 1 is
the latest in date, and is a palimpsest.
Traces of engraving on
the backs of its plates are visible, and many of the letters aro
legible, but no complete word has been read with the excep
tion of the date.
The original record has been so hammered

From

death

as to leave
more
The words
nothing
intelligible.
numerals
and
the
Vaisdkha,
Samvatsara,
(94),
7h orj) X, 394, somewhat
formed
from
those in
differently

and filed

Chaturnnavati

be confidently
the reproduced
record, may however
picked
out the date, I was dis
I succeeded
in making
Until
posed to think that the first copy had been cancelled with the
same object as that which
led to the supersession
of the

out.

earlier

of

the

above

noticed

grants,

viz.,

change

in

the

names

It is just possible, but scarcely pro


of the grantees.
no hint
been the reason. With
that
such
have
bable,
may
to guide us, it is futile to form any conjectures as to the cause
of the first document.
of the abrogation
We
may assume
to be a rectification
of its predecessor,
the later document
but such rectification may have been rendered necessary by
a great variety of reasons?from
the blundering
of a con
a
veyancer or engraver to the death of
king.
seems clear that ihe
it
these
documents
together,
Taking
favoured
the same individuals
and
Ohfilukya
Gurjjara dynasties
The inference may
and were actuated by the same objects.
therefore
and

that

be fairly drawn
their dominions

that amity existed between


them,
were contiguous.
The locality of

1 There arc some variations in the


the Tiivitura
orthography of the names?thus,
of the other.
Such uncertainty
of one is doubtless the Tupimra
in the spelling cf
common
names
in
is
vernacular
inscriptions.

plates
or that of Ballabhi?
these two eras
Between
are
so
374
the
that
if
of
years,
period
inscriptions
dated in the former they belong to the middle
of the fourth
century a.d., but if in the latter they will come down to the

Vikramaditya
there is a

of the eighth century.


The grants are certainly
beginning
so
era
to
that
of one is to settle that
decide
the
contemporary,
of all. This may be satisfactorily
done by means of grant
No. 1. There is good evidence, as will be presently
shown,
a
a
successor
that Pulakest,
and
of the
Chfilukya monarch,
Jaya Sinha of this grant, was reigning
era entirely aside.
fact puts the Ballabhi
Grant

No.

1.?Chalukya

in a.d.

489.

This

Dynasty.

The first grant was made, as has been stated, by a Chfilukya


come
king, and is the earliest of that dynasty which has yet
to light.
The history of this djnasty has hitherto been almost
the exclusive
Civil

Elliot,
property of Mr. Walter
some hundreds
who collected

of the Madras

of inscriptions
Service,
of which he
to
of
the
the
south,
transcripts
relating
dynasties
re
The
historical
the
in
the
of
deposited
Society.2
Library
in a
he published
sults deducible
from these Inscriptions
valuable paper printed in vol. iv. of the Journal.
Returning
to India he still prosecuted
and in 1858 he
bis researches,
Journal a paper of "Numismatic
put forth in the Madras
to the
which
contains some important additions
Gleanings,"
our
are
so
for
These
of the Chalukyas.
necessary
history
to
no
present purpose that
apology is needed for transferring
to
the
our columns that
portion of the paper which relates
1 Sec Table of
in the Iinlex of the Jour, of the Ben. A. S. p. 200.
Inscriptions
2 There are sonic
notices of the Clialukyas
Inscriptions,
nmoug Mr. Watlicn's
in vols. ii. iii. iv. and v. of tho Journal;
but these in all probability
See
before he published his memoir.
ad come under the notice of Mr. Elliot
Eublishcd
vol. ii. p. 380, and vol. v. p. 343.
particularly

the Nerbudda,
but failed to obtain a permanent
footing.
seems
to have lost his life in the attempt, for his
Sinha
Jaya
as
is described
queen, then pregnant,
flying after his death
and taking refuge with a Brahmin
called Vishnu
Somayaji,
in whose house she gave birth to a son named Ilaja Sinha,
and Vishnu
the titles of Ilana-raga
man.
to
renewed
he
the
estate,
attaining
contest with the Pallavas,
in which he was finally successful,
-cementing his power by a marriage with a princess of that
to his
the kingdom
thus founded
race, and transmitting
son
was
successor
His
and
named
and
Pulakesi,
posterity.
his son was Vijayaditya
II. A copper sasanam, recording a
grant made by Pulakesi which bears date s.s. 411 or a.d. 489,
is extant in the British Museum.
The next prince was Kirtti

who

subsequently
On
Vardhana.

Varma,

who

left

assumed

two

sons,

the

elder

of

whom,

Satyasraya,

of Kuntala-desa,
the capital
succeeded him in the kingdom
a city still
under
the same
of which was Kalyan,
existing
a
one
west
and
hundred miles
little north of
name, about
or
Vardhana
the
Vishnu
while
younger,
Kubja
Hyderabad;
a
new
seat for him
the Little,1 established
Vishnu Vardhana
the capital
self in Telingana
by the conquest of Vcngipuram,
the districts between
which comprised
the Vengi-desam,
This event
and the Krishna
below the Ghats.
the Godavery
or the
of
end
the
the
sixth
about
to
taken
have
appears
place
tho
of
seventh
century.
beginning
"
The two families ruled over the whole of the table-land

of

^between the Nerbudda

and

the Krishna,
from Ganjam

coast of the Bay of Bengal


The power of the Kalyan
five centuries.2

together
to Nellore,
dynasty

with

the

for about
was sub

"
" hunch-backed."
1 The word
crooked" or
kubja properly signifies
2
the
the whole
first
of
from
Sinha,
period Mould be
conquest
Kaja
Dating
seven centuries;
but there is some chronological
obscurity about the earlier princes
<if the series which we hope to clear up hereafter.

till
extinction
in
1189 by Bijjala
splendour
Deva, the founder of the Kalabhuriya
dynasty.2
"
The junior branch extended
their territories northwards
to the frontiers of Cuttack, and ultimately
from Vengi
fixed
their capital at Rajamahendri,
the modern Rajahmunclry.
More
than one revolution
appears to havo occurred in the
course of their
but
the
old family always contrived to
history,
to
its power, until the kingdom
passed by marriage
the
then
dominant
of
Southern
India,
sovereign
Rajcndra Chola,
in whose person the power of the Cholas had reached its zenith.
regain

the acquisition of Telingana was due entirely to in


or to the joint influence of force cemented by matrix
monial
is not clear.
is certain,
The fact, however,
alliance,
that the Chola power was established
in the eastern Chalukya
territories for upwards of a century and a half, and has left per

Whether
heritance

manent

traces of its existence.


Rajendra Chola was succeeded
son
his
Vikrama
surnamed
On
Chola.
Deva,
by
Kulottunga
the death of his uncle Vij ay aditya, who had been viceroy of
the king deputed his son Raja Raja to assume
Vcngi-desara,
the oflice; but after holding
it for one year, a.d. 1078, he re
of
it
in
favour
his
younger brother, Vira Deva Chola,.
signed
who assumed the title of Kulottunga
Chola.
His grants are
found in great numbers from a.d. 1079 up to the year 1135,
when a partial restoration of the Chalukya lino appears to have
a feeble and divided influence
taken place, and they maintained
till the latter part of the twelfth century, when the country fell
under the sway of the Kakatiya
dynasty ofWarangal.3
the coins of tho
"To assist future inquiries in assigning
1 Tod Ann.
Rajastban, where
pp. 80 and 97.
Chalukya,
2 Joiirn. R.A.S. vol.
iv., p. 17
3 Tbe earliest
inscription of
now tbe Northern
Circars, bears

tho Annulwura

family

is styled

both

Solanki

and

; and Madras Journ. Lit. and Sc. vol. vii. p. 209.


that has been met in Veiigide?am,,
the Kakativas
date a.d. 1175, the latest 1336.

6. Mangalisa.
had two sons, of whom the former, Satyasraya,
succeeded his father and uncle (who seems for a time to have
as the representative
of the Kalyan branch,
usurped his rights)
and from him that line has been called the Satyasraya Kula,

Kirtti

Varma

while

the latter Vishnu

founder

of the Rajahniundry

7. Satyasraya

(Kubja) was

the

dynasty.
LINE.

WESTERN

8.

the Little

Vardhana

to reign a.d. 609.

began

Amara.

9. Aditya.
I.
10. Vikramaditya
Yuddha Malla, began to reign a.d. 680.
11. Vinayaditya,
12. Vijayaditya
III. began to reign a.d. 695.
II. began to reign a.d. 733.
13. Vikramaditya
14. Kirtti

Varma

II.

15. Kirtti

Varma

III.,

16. Tailapa.
17. Bhirna Rtlja.
18. Ayya or Kirtti

cousin of the last, a.d. 799.

Varma

IV.

19. Vijayaditya
IV.
20. Taila Bhupa
in a.d. 973
II. or Vikramaditya
III.,
restored the monarchy which had been for some time
He died a.d. 997.
usurped by the Ratta Kula.
21. Satyasraya
II. Irivi Bhujiinga Deva, a.d. 997.
V. began to reign about a.d. 1008 (?)
22. Vikramaditya
23. Jaya Sinha Deva, Jagadcka Malla, about a.d. 1018 (?)
24. Someswara Deva
I., Trailokya
Malla, Ahawa Malla,
about a.d. 1040:
25.

Someswara Deva
by h.8 brother.

II., Bhuneka

Malla,

a.d. 10C9, expelled

by Bijjala

Kalabhuriya

EASTERN

1. Vishnu

LINE.

II., or Kubja
a.d. 605.

Vardhana

Vishnu

Vardhana,

conquered Vengi
2. Jaya Sinha I.
3. Indra R&ja, his brother.
4. Vishnu Vardhana
III.
5. Manga Yuva Raja.
6. Jaya Sinha III.

>Brothers.
7. Kokkili.
8. Vishnu Vardhana
IV. )
9. Vija} ?ditjTa I.
10. Vishnu Vardhana V.
11. Narendra Mriga Raja.
or Kali Vishnu Vardhana.
12. Vishnu Vardhana VI.,
or
13. Vijayaditya
Guna
Gunanka Vijay&ditya,
IT,
quered Kalinga.
14. Chalukya Bhima
15. Vijayaditya
III.,
16. Arama Raja.

I., his brother.


or Kollabhiganda

con

Vijaya.

17. Vijayaditya
IV., or Kandagachita
Vijaya.
18. Talapa.
Usurper.
19. Vikramaditya
V., the son of a brother of Amma Raja I.
20. Yuddha Malla.1
21. Raja Bhima II.
22. Amma Raja
23. Dhanarnava.

II.

of twenty-seven
Interregnum
son of Dhanarnava.
24. Kirtti Varma,
25. Vimaladitya,
his brother.
26. Raja Raja Narendra.
1 Some

expelled

accounts

make Yuddha
V.

by Vikramaditya

Malla

the

son and' successor

years.

of T&lapa,

and

having
Raja
a Vaishnava
Brahmin,
by Vishnu Bhatta Somayaji,
of the family to
probably tended to confirm the attachment
this creed.
Their style and titles are as follows: Chalukya
whose
kula; Manavj'asa-gotra;
Hariti-putra,
royal power
seven mothers;
was the gift of Kausika;
nourished
by the
shippers
educated

Swami Mahasena;
the
(lanchhana)
gift of Bhagavan
of royalty are elsewhere described

worshipping

The white
The

conch

The

naubat

canopy
shell

boar

spear

The

throne
royal
golden

signet
insignia

of

Ilak\kctana.
Dhakka.
Varaha-lanchhana.

signet

The

The

Narayana.
as consisting
Swetatapatra.
Sankha.

ensign

The peacock

The

boar
The

Pancha-maha-sabda.

The plough
The drum
The

the

having

fan

Mayura-pinchha.

or mace

Kunta.

arch

Makara-toranam.

Sinhasana.
Kanaka-dandam.

sceptre

in the inscriptions recorded when they were at the height


of their power, the white canopy, the boar signet, the peacock
fan, the royal mace, and the golden sceptre only are men
Of these, the boar ensign was the most celebrated,
tioned.
and was tho symbol invariably represented
on their money
and on their seals, sometimes in the latter accompanied
by the
conch shell, the drum, the peacock fan, and other insignia not

But

enumerated

above,

as

lotus,

an

ankus

or

elephant

candelabra, a seat or stool (?) the swastika cross, etc.;


those of later date a sword.1
1 It is not clear
whether the sword was ever assumed
a succeeding
by
dynasty.

only adopted

goad,

and on

by the true Chalukyas

or

my

eye."

It thus appears that the earliest date known to Mr. Elliot


was that of Pulakesi
This date was
in Saka 411 (a.d. 489).
obtained
of Captain
in the possession
from a copper-plate
Jervis, and of which a transcript and abstract translation was
published
by Mr. Wathen
and
the inscription
grant
at length2 are the most

Journal.1
in the Society's
which Mr. Elliot

This

from Ye-ur

gives
The
important of his authorities.
was found upon an upright
latter inscription
stono in a
and the ge
in the Nizam's
territories,
temple at Ye-ur
a
to
it
have
contains
been
nealogy
copied from
professes
The last name it records is that of Tribhuvana
copper plate.
in a.d.
Malla, No. 26 in tho above list, who was reigning
1076.
line
the rise of the Chfilukya
the above authority,
Upon
has hitherto been placed in the early part of the fifth cen
tury ; but the inscription now translated, being dated in 394
Samvat, or 338 a.d., and being a grant made by the third of
the line, the origin of the Chfilukya dynasty must be referred
to the very beginning
of the fourth century after Christ,
even
it
may be carried back to the third century.
perhaps
Jaya Sinha, the first named in this grant, is always recog
nized as the founder of the dynasty.
The grant of Pulakesi
and the inscription of Ye-ur both declare the fact, and it may
be considered certain. The names of his two successors, Buddha
Varma
(sou), and Vijaya Raja Sarvva
(grandson), which we
find in this grant, have not been met with in any other record,
unless indeed the latter can be identified with the Vijaya
list. The date of this grant
ditya No. 3 of Mr. Elliot's
a
a.d.
two hundred years intervenes
338
of
about
being
period
in 489, and
between Jaya Sinha and the grant of Pulakesi
1 Vol.

v. 313.

3 Vol.

iv. 38.

better
records,
or unenterprising

authority.
soon fade from the
kings
meinor}', and among a people so devoid of the true historic
they easily fall into utter oblivion.
feeling as the Hindus,
The names
Such will be found to bo the fact as we proceed.
of Pulakesi
and other favourites are frequently
cited, while
unfortunate

are as
over.
the
is this all;
Nor
frequently passed
found inverted, and other
of the names is sometimes
are met with which
show that the Chalukyas
discrepancies
were but
poorly informed about the history of their line.
In addition
to the inscriptions
above noticed, several be
others
order

to this dynasty have appeared


in the pages of the
of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.
in
The earliest1 of these is without
date, but the character
our plates, and
that
which
of
it is written
resembles
closely
to them.
cannot be very long posterior
The names also in
longing
Journal

dicate the period to which it belongs.


Raja. Sri Naga Var
dhana makes the grant which the inscription records, and the
is thus stated :
genealogy
1 Kirtti

Varma

Raja.

_l_.

3 Jaya Sinha.
i
4 Raj& Sri Naga Vardhana.

2 Pulakesi.

to Mr.
Even thus early wc find discrepancies.
According
Elliot's
received genealogy, Pulakesi
table, and the generally
was the father, not the son, of Kirtti Varma,
and it seems
names
error.
of Ja}ra
this
to
understand
The
impossible
Sinha and of his son Naga Vardhana
also present great diffi
culties.

Mr.

Elliot's

list

gives

1 Vol.

us Vishnu

ii. p. 4.

Vardhana,

the

grantor's

uncle

and

to have

the

grandfather,

been

error

same

himself

made

cannot

be

and his
name
of

supposed
respecting
next relative?it
that the
is utterly
incredible
The
his son should have been given as that of his father.
has placed Jaya Sinha
evidence
upon which Mr. Elliot
it was no doubt
after Vishnu Vardhana
does not appear;

cogent, and the result ought not to be lightly disturbed.


the names of Vishnu
The alternatives,
then, are these?shall
to the same
Vardhana
be
and
Vardhana
assigned
Naga
before
name
Sinha
be
of Jaya
and the
person,
placed
of
succession ? or
in the order
instead
of after,
him,
and Jaj^a Sinha be intro
shall the names of Naga Vardhana
In favour of the
list?
to Mr. Elliot's
duced as additions
but the partial and unsatisfactory
former there is nothing
of what has been
of the names.
resemblance
Independent
are reasons in favour
there
the
first
alternative,
urged against
of the names.
of the opposite course and for the interpolation
is 338 a.d., and, as
The date of the inscription now published
in which it is written and that of
above stated, the character
are very similar.
This should
the grant under discussion
lead us to place the two as near together in point of time as
and Vishnu
Vardhana
if Naga Vardhana
But
possible.
must
have
same
three
centuries
names
were
of the
monarch,
for Vishnu Vardhana
the two inscriptions,
passed between
This is a longer interval than the
was reigning
in 605 a.d.
seem to warrant.
the
Again,
similarity of the writing would
is 489 a.d., and Satyasraya, who stands third
date of Pulakesi
after him in the list, began to reign in 609 a.d., thus leaving
a period of one hundred and twenty years occupied by only
two

names.

There

appears

also

to have

been

some

interrup

tion of the regular order or succession about this time. The


of the
then is all in favour of the introduction
evidence

Pandya;"
"gained
lord of the northern
of Sriharsha,
seems to come next
The grant which

defeat

by
countries.,,
in order

of time is

without date.2 It contains only three names?Rana


Vikrama,
his son Kirtti Varma, and his son Vishnu Vardhana.
The
was
Bal
G.
translated
who
conceives
Shastrce,
inscription
by
to be represented
II.,
by Vikramaditya
13 of the list, who was succeeded by a Kirtti Varma.
If this were correct, the name of Vishnu Vardhana
would
this Rana Vikrama

No.

have

to be inserted

in the abovo

list, between the two Kirtti


different appropriation
of the

(Nos. 14 and 15). A


names, however, seems preferable.
tated greatly in his identification,

Varm&s

in which
centuries

The Shastree

indeed hesi
that
the
character
observing
the grant is written might
"make it two or three
a hearty assent may
to which observation
older;"

be given.
The loose and varying nature of the genealogies
in these grants has already been commented
It would
upon.
"
"
son meant nothing more than
seem, indeed, that the word
"
in many
descendant"
either
cases, and that the writers,
to the truth, fre
from ignorance, or from utter indifference
to the recital of some of the
confined themselves
quently
names.
more prominent and best-remembered
The writing of
as
as
far
the document should carry it back
It may
possible.
the founder of the
therefore bo assigned to Vishnu Vardhana,
in a.d. 605. His father
Eastern
line, who conquered Vengi
as stated in the inscription, but to find a
was Kirtti Varma,
name at all in consonance with that of Rana Vikrama
it is
necessary to go back three steps to Rana Raga, No. 2 of Mr.
Elliot's
list, and to get at this name the renowned and often
is passed over.
There
is a difficulty
cited Pulakesi
about
a
be
in
found
but
solution
the
fact
that
this,
may possibly
1 Jo urn. iv.
p.

8.

2 Journ.

Bomb.

R.

V.S. ii p. 1.

kingdom
regularly
The
Kirtti Varma, Satyasraya, and Vikramaditya.
"
Pula-.
is peculiar.
After naming
wording of the genealogy
"
kesi Vallabha
the ornament of the race," it goes on:
his
of
the
the
Kirtti
Varma,
great grandson,
great grandson
beloved son of Satyasraya,
the unconquerable Vikramaditya."
Pulakesi,

elder
grants are made
by the wife of Chandradit3ra,
but no mention
brother of this Vikramaditya,
is made of his
ever
have next a grant by
having sat upon the throne. We
to
be the son of Vina
who declares himself
Vijayaditya,2
son of Vikramaditya,
and so on upwards to Pulakesi,
yaditya,
The

in

exact

accordance

with

its

fact,

predecessor?in

the wording

This grant is
of the two grants is to a great extent identical.
dated Saka 627 (a.d. 705) and agrees with Mr. Elliot's
table
which makes this king to have reigned from 695 to 733 ad.
Two points in these records are worthy of observation.
They
have
Satyfisrayato
of
Harsha
Sri
his
"defeat
by
a victory which
countries;"
to Pulakesi,
who also bore

all declare

gained the title of Parameswara


lord of the northern
Vardhana,
a
ascribed
previous
inscription
the appellation of Satyasraj^a or

Sri, and who has the best title to the honour of the
This is another instance of the very vague and
conquest.

Satya

imperfect knowledge which the Chfilukya monarchs possessed


The last-named grant (dated
of the history of their dynasty.
"made the rulers of Kumara,
705 a.d.) states that Vinaj'aditya
and Sinhaha pay him tribute, and gradually acquired
Parasika,
the full symbol of supremacy by the overthrow of the kings
countries."
is evidently
Kumara
intended
of the northern
or Kumarika,
that is, the most southern of the
for Kumar!
iivijms or divisions
our Cape Comorin.
1 Journ.

Bomb.

R.A.S.,

of Jambudwipa,
from which we derive
Parasika
is Persia,
and Sinhaha
is a
iii. 205,

211.

Ibid, p, 206.

homage
The next
the Rashtra
of
Teilapa
Kuta
became

to the Chalukyas
is made in a grant of
1008
dated
a.d., which says that
dynasty,1
a Rashtra
defeated
the Chalukya
race, having
"
came to the throne, and that
his son Satyasraya

king,
after

reference

KCita

him

the master

of the earth."

This

confirms

that the Rattas gained the ascendancy


were
they
finally reduced to subjection by
The
date
also
agrees, as Satyasraya
Teilapa."2
reigned from
This grant being dated in 1008 may jus
997 to 1008 a.d.
his reign a little longer.
tify us in extending
the
There are two other grants3 of a later period, when
name
had
but
when
the
the
of
power
passed away,
Chalukyas
a
of the dynasty was still maintained
family reigning or
by
a
corner
the
in
of
to
old
These
kingdom.
reign
pretending
come
one
from
the
is
dated
1182
Saka,
Konkan;
inscriptions
or 1260 a.d., the other bears no date.
They profess to belong
to the Ch&lukya family, but they bear none of the charac

Mr. Elliot's
for a time,

statement
till

of the Chalukya
The family is
inscriptions.
said to be descended
from Karna, not from Hariti
like the
The dated inscription gives only one name,
old Ch&lukyas.
that of Kanwa-deva,
surnaraed
Kesava,
by whose minister
was
names
the
made.
other
The
the
grant
gives
Mah&jani,
teristic marks

of this dynasty who


flourished at Sanga
of some "kings
meswar
in
the
Konkan."
Somes
war)
(or
They are Karna, his
"
son
son Soraadeva, who
his
repaired to heaven,
Vegutideva,
but finding a vacuity on the earth returned to it." Lastly,
his

son

This

who

Someswara,

closes

made

the record

grant.

of the remains

If the facts and speculations


1 Journ. Bomb.
R.A.S.,
9 Journ. Bomb. R.A.S.

the

above

i., 210, 220.


ii. 270; iv. 105.

of

set forth
2

the Chalukyas.
are correct, the
Journ.

iv., 11.

Raga,
Raja Sinha,
5. Vijayaditya
II.
a.d. 489.
6. Pulakesi,
7. Kirtti Varma.
8. Mangaltsa.

9. Jaya Sinha.
10. Raja Sri Naga Vardhana.
names are still required
Additional
between No. 3 and No 6.

to fill

up

the

interval

names may be added


the following
of kings bearing the appellation of Chalukya and reigning in
It is unknown whether Kanwa Deva, whose
the Konkan.
to the others.
Pos
date is given, was prior or subsequent
At

the end of the lists

same as Karna.
sibly he may be the
Kanwa Deva, 1260 a.d.

Karna.
Vetugideva.
Somadeva.
Someswara.

2. The
These

Gurjjara

Plate3.

for all practical


purposes at the
Tho earlier is dated
duplicates.
full moon Samvat
the later, Kartik

two plates may,


day, be considered

present
15 Kartik

Samvat 380,
385, and as before observed the last differs from tho first only
tho grantees.
in the dates, and in a few particulars
respecting
In the later grant the grantees aro reduced in number, and

as in the first grant, under the Vedas


they are not classified,
but the dif
which
taught and studied;
they respectively
to
ferences are so trifling as to render it quite unnecessary
both
documents.
of
translations
and
give separate transcripts
Where
passages are placed in
they differ the corresponding
means
the
will be
variations
which
columns, by
parallel

other;

no alterations

but

the introduction

or emendations
of the

beyond
the originals.

*, which

have

been made

is always

absent

in

now published differs occasionally


from that
of
the
Asiatic
in
tho
of
Journal
Society
appeared
seem
to
have
been
rather
would
which
hastily pre
Bengal,1
are but of slight
im
The differences,
however,
pared.
one
and
is
the only
that in the
notice
portance,
deserving
The

transcript

which

title

of the grantor, which


name Sridatta Kusali

His

but his assumed

not Prasanga-raga.
in the body of the deed,
is employed in the attes

is Prasanta
is used

title Prasanta

Raga
the title has
the Bengal
transcript
been substituted
for the name in the body of the deed, for
which
is
the original
the name
There
gives no warrant.
and
Kusali.
Sridatta
unequivocally
clearly
"
The original of this grant," says the article before referred
to, "is in the character of the fourth line of the alphabet plates
from in
of this volume, corresponding
with that ascertained
use
to
in
and
have
in
been
coins
scriptions
Gujarat at the
tation

at

In

the end.

period of the date of


assured, but part of
in the style
consists
ancestors who made

these grants.
the singularity

Their
of

is thus
antiquity
one
this particular

of the raja and his


the eulogium
the grant, every word of which has a
double meaning.
The grant is in Sanskrit prose upon the
model
of the Kadambari,
and has been
by Bana Bhatta,
at
and
commented
upon
explained
length by the Pandit
a
as
it
who
wonderful
Kamalakanta,
composition.
regards
It is impossible to give this explanation
in these pages, for
the eulogistic part of the grant, being in this double-meaning
style,

cannot

be

of

translated,
1

vol.

i.?[new

series].

Vol.

18

the English
vii. p. 908.

language

not

ad

led to the use of epithets and qualities


for the raj fitwhich
as
to the
different
with
equally
meanings,
applicable
ocean.
ocean
out
the
After
Gajjara
amphibology,
wearing
tire pressed
and women
into the service
serpents, elephants,
who drew this deed; and it is
by the ingenious conveyancer
a pity that such a happ)r device for multiplying
mystifying
words cannot be more fully explained for the benefit of the
hold

who might
find their ad
in Chancery-lane,
practitioners
it."
in
vantage
imitating
The account thus given of the composition of this grant is
too broadly stated.
correct in the main,
though somewhat
in tho style
The opening of the grant is certainly written
occur; but there
described, and similar passages subsequently
seems to bear only one signification.
This
is much which
"
uncommon
not
in
similar
is
grants
style
amphibological"
of land, but the writer of the present document was certainly
an adept in the art, and far transcends his cotemporary
the
com
is
whose
itself
conve3rancer,
style
simplicity
Chfilukya
Ihe nature of this "amphibology"
has been
pared with this.
by the specimen given relating
pretty accurately exemplified
The royal family is compared to the
to the Gurjjara ocean.
as sthairyya,
ocean, and such qualities
gdmbhiryya,
stability;
or
are attributed to
saltness
and
lavanya,
beauty,
profundity;
a natural
as a simi
it. And so whenever
object is employed
are
are
to
used
both
which
litude, epithets
type
applicable
to reproduce this
to
be impossible
suc
if
appreciated
is if possible to pick out a

and antitype.
No attempt has been made
in
the
for it would
translation,
equivoque
follow it up completely, nor would
it be
rendered.
Our object
cessfully
few grains of history,
and so the whole
1 This
Gurjjara,

is a curious blunder persistently


aud so it is rendered in the Bengal

of the eulogy

The
repeated.
transliteration.

original

has

is cleaily

grant.
the

document,

similar

himself

calls

grantor

in signification

"Prasanta-raga,"

the name borne

to VIta-raga,

title

by his

father.

This

or note

attestation

at

of especial notice.

worthy
of

hand

worship
swa-hasto,

son

Prasanta-raga,

of

the Sun."
"own

the

hand,"

is
end of the document
arc : " This is the own

The words
The
is

of

own

to

devoted

VIta-raga,

natural

interpretation

hand-writing,

of

the

the

"autograph;"

the words must be looked


if this is the real meaning,
as
an
the
added
attestation
upon
by
grantor himself, or some
one
to
him.
In the earlier grant
for
authorized
sign
specially
this attestation
is remarkably clear, in the later one many of
the letters are defaced ; but there is no doubt about the two
the same. When
the writing
of this attes
being identically
tation is compared with that of the body of the grant, a very
is apparent.
The general style of the
considerable difference
individual
letters, present a
whole, and the forms of many
and

much

more

modern

appearance.

of the writing
alone,
to belong to a period
character and the date
letters, indeed, bear a

Judging

from

the

character

it would seem
by Prinsep's Alphabets,
at least three centuries
later than tho
One or two of tho
of the grant itself.
it
still more modern appearance.
And

is by the later forms that the age of an inscription must be*


mere fashions of writing.
New
judged, if judged at all by
forms have to battle long against old habits of writing?and
in favour of antiquity
hence old forms should have less weight
a
more
on
recent date.
the side of
than later ones
table of alphabets dates are affixed
In Prinsep's well-known
from which
to the several lines, and the inscriptions
they
were derived are stated.
Conclusive
evidence is thus afforded
at the period in
of the use of a particular
form of writing

but

date ought
precision
assigned
the tabulated and dated forms of Mr. Prinsep's
alpha
bets have been considered to authorize.

which

which has elicited these obser


it furnish any evidence as to the time when the
was written.
from tho style of the
Apart
in
the
there
is
character,
appearance of it to suggest
nothing
its having been written
and if the grantor
subsequently;
new
it for him, some
or
hand
added
wrote
if
it,
any
really
of
be
difference of style might
expected, though not perhaps
to
On the other side, it is difficult
the kind observable.
of
trouble
believe that the royal grantor would thus take the
or that he or
the letters with his "own hand;"
engraving
the
any other than a regular engraver should have executed
is fully equal, perhaps superior,
the writing
work so well?for
to that of the deed.
There is one fact, however, which seems
Returning
vations, does
"attestation"

decisive.

to the document

The

is Prasanta-raga.

given to the grantor by the attestation


This, as before observed, is a title similar
real
whose
to that of his father Vita-raga,
name
was
true
The
Bhata.
grantor's

name

in signification
name was Jaya
Sridatta Kusali, and that namo alono appears in tho body of
the grant.
So that, if what we have called the attestation
name
was added after any considerable
lapse of time, the
in the document
itself would doubtless have been
employed
This fact, and that of the attestation
and used.
extracted
on both grants, leave littlo or no room for doubting
appearing
it purports, an attestation written by the hand
it to be what
Satisfac
or by the direct authority of tho grantor himself.
were
used
two
of
sorts
that
thus
afforded
is
writing
tory proof
mere
from
appearances,
which,
judging
cotemporaneously,
would seem to belong to periods two or three centuries apart.
is found at
A somewhat
similar attestation
by the writer

of the
grantor and his ancestors were declared worshippers
sun. The
of
India
in
this
this
of
part
worship
prevalence
about the time of these grants has already excited attention,
and one of the kings recorded in the Vallabhi Grants was a
"
l This
worship, however, must
great adorer of the sun."
not be understood as a worship, pure and simple, of the great
to him over the other
given
luminary, but as a preference
"
deities of the Hindu Pantheon.
This fact of Sun-worship"
entirely escaped notice in the account of the grants which
was published
in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,
of the
but stress has since been laid upon the circumstance
not
their
and
of
in
the
Vedas
unmentioned
grants,
being
or Brahmans."2
one
of
Brahmanical
word
gods
"containing
to be
A perusal of tho translation will show this statement
Hindu
to
unfounded.
There
is, perhaps, less reference
gods
than is usual in these documents;
but the grant is distinctly
for encouraging
the study of the Vedas, to Brahmans
names and gotras are specified ; and in the first or can
in distinct classes as
celled grant the grantees arc arranged
The objects for which
teachers and students of the four Vedas.
of the Agnihotra,
the perpetuation
the grant was made,
etc.,
the "five great sacrifices," are also clearly indicative of the

made,
whose

The whole
bias of the grantor.
document,
and
the
of the
is
with
Hinduism,
indeed,
worship
pervaded
must
there
his
and
the
which
sun,
family professed,
grantor
as a development
of one of the wide
fore bo considered

Brahmanical

of the Hindu faith.


it may be stated that each grant consists of two
Lastly,
a
ring of copper fastened
plates, which were held together by
spreading

ramifications

1 Thomas's
vol. i. p. 255.
Prinsep,
2 Table of
This
in Index to the Journ. of the As. Soc. of Bengal.
Inscriptions
on
was
the few passages which had been translated in vol. vii.
statement
based

5
ft?T: wnrg^eiisncil

7 ^fam-riV

. .

<HAif>:

^*?f^rnraiit

^tarar ?*

Trrrrnnfri^*HmmrrarosRinOTi^sr:

^fa^TI^t^
f^ff^rTXRWTI^t
^TTrTft^T^TgWIr!:

*#r

4 l*UH4|4i<!?l
^Ixt (?i^^g^i^nftfii
iRuit ** 1h i Im
,|1*33?4ls1gH

13^<^|v5xrPrRnf

^THTO trpfl^T^mn^^Mfri^T

^r^r^T

1 The
cither ob
plate is much abraded in these places, aud the characters
literated or very indistinct.
2 Here there is a
cannot
written
character
which
I
decipher.
clearly
3 Here the letter v has been
supplied.
4 The
seems
The superscribed
text is very doubtful here.
clear.
Sandhiya
in the usual
mark over the last letter may be anuswara,
although it is not written
is not fully war
letter 'ra, which appears in the lithograph,
The following
way.
Whatever
The next two characters may be prithvi.
ranted by the plate.
may
be the right reading, it is clear that the doubtful word cousists of some name or
descriptive title of the village granted.

.^n"^f^^rr ^rip^

.PrTWTii^.r

19 srt T.TJTT. tlf^T ?T xn^Wr^rfrTWI

_i .qpfraT ttaropfoPrT

^WT^^lfrT^T

^pTT

^^faffraiT ^ITf^fT^.T^5Mpri^l^Twf5|*vhrfrT3rr
^TiTOwfSl
20^qprT^T IIITf^rl^^R^^TT^rf^^f^I^
ll
^TcfH*?R
^f|^.PfraiTH*ft?T.*nft.^TRn^^qffrar^wrr^faPrr

2i
^^^^^qfrroiiinf^^'ffa^

3 WT I[^% ^tffflcjrr

^r^^U^rpSHpri^i
cg^TfTPn^MpHchl

^*W

.J^rll^^MM,^4^*TT^ f%J*JcRgfaHfil0 M
$*P*I?_'

C 1TT4 ^

^ffa^JTT^iW&l ^^m^H^T^ft

'

p^rT^i:

xn^f if ,rI?M^4

7 *ft^TsTT^frlfa
f^TTTR THTOl^cl *?
<Md^T^rT?rfrITTf^^?
8

^fg^^rf^Tfi. ^f

^^fri *|fa^: i

fHinTH-Riirf^mfiT *fft^m *n*j:2 MM<i<f0fi ii

TRANSLATION.

. . . .5 extensive
In that royal capital, the city of victor}',
clear from clouds at the
the expanse of the sky when
for the numerous
approach of summer, illustrious
gem-like

as

virtues

of

its various

men,

solace

to

the

sorrows

of

kings

who sought its refuge, and, like the great ocean, intent upon
the maintenance
of its depth and permanence,
thero was in
were
the family ofthe Chalukyas, who
ofthe M&navya stock,
sons of Hfiriti,
and worshippers
of the feet of Swami Maha
sena, a king named Jaya Sinha, whose fame was purer than
a lotus under the beams of the moon when it comes forth to
the sky from behind a mass of rain clouds.
His son was Sri
Buddha Varmma Raja, heroic in battle, dear as the sun, whose
might

....

who

was

continuous

current

of

prosperity,

and a thunderbolt
the dark clouds of his powerful
piercing
foes. His son was Sri Vijaya Raja Sarvva, a hero unequalled
in the earth, whose fame had tasted the waters of the.four
oceans, who was equal in dignity with Kuvera, Varuna,
Indrar
a fortunate monarch who with his own arm (had
and Yama,
1 The other
2 Here there is an
upadhmaniya.
grants bave nirbhukta.
3 These anuswuras
are clear in the plate, thougb not reproduced
in tho litho
graph.
4 These words run on in the
are
in rather larger letters.
but
written
5 The letters in the first line plate,
arc much defaced, and the reading is consequently
a proper name.
be
A few
doubtful.
"the
of
Vijayapura,
city
victory/' may
doubtful words occur afterwards,
but as they are in the eulogistic
portion of the
grant, they are of little or no importance.

reverenced
desired, and respectfully
announces
to all
lie
Sarvva)
(Sri Vijaya
Ptaja
of provinces,
chief men of districts, heads of vil
governors
we
lages, and others (as follows): Be it known to you that
have granted, with the pouring out of water, in the full moon
of Vaisakha,
for the increase of the merit and fame of ourself
to the general body of priests and students
and our parents,
they

parents.

to the Kanwa
school of the Vajasaneya
(division of
belonging
in the town of Jainbusara,2 for the performance
the Yajur-veda)
of the Bali, Charu, Vaiswadeva, Agnihotra,
and other rites, the
. . .
to
the
of
province of Kasa
village
belonging
Pariyachasa
and all things standing thereon,3
kula, with the water-courses
free from all rights to forced labour for cutting and hewing
....
and into which
the entrance of cheats and outcasts is
as
as the sun,
to
be
interdicted,
enjoyed for all time,
long
moon,

sea,

and

earth

shall

endure,

by

the

sons,

grandsons,

the stock
(of the following Brahmans):?Of
a
two shares;4 Indrasura,
of Bharadwaja:
Aditya Ravi,
share; Tavisura, No. 2, half a share; lswara, half a share;
half a share;
Dama, a share ; Drona, half a share ;Attaswaini,
a
half a
a
half
half
Soma,
share;
Ila,
share; Shashthidcva,
and descendants

half a share;
half a share; Bhayyu,
Rfima-sarmma,
:
a
Dhijmrayana
Of
stock
the
of
half
share.
Dronadhara,
a
a
the
Of
share.
share; Sura, half
Abuka, No. 2,5 half
a share; Sainudra, No. 2, half a
stock: Bhatti,
DaundakIya
share;

share; Drona,

three shares;

Tavisarmma,

two shares;

Bhatti,

2 The modern " Jumboseer."


1 Dhnrmmdrtha-k&ma.
3 S(!0
Note.
"
4 The Supplementary
I have rendered
word paltika, which
share," is not given in the dic
in
the patti of the joint-tenancy
Has it any connection with
tionaries.
villages
used for share in an
found the word padam
the N.W.
? Prof. Hall
Provinces
other grant.?See
Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. vol. vi. p. 546.
6 The word which
is evidently
is here and in other places written
f|[,
fcpf
and is so written afterwards.

Visfikha,

Bhayi-swami,
a

share;

Dhara,

share;

Nandi,

a share;

Kumara,

share;

Kama, a share; Pasra, half a share; Gana, half a share;


half a share; Bhfiyivatta,
half a share; Narmma,
Korttuva,
half a share; Hama-sarmmfi,
a
half
share.
Of the IIarita
stock:

the second, half a share.


Of the
Dharmmadhara
a share.
stock : Bhatti,
Of
the Gotama
half a share; Amma-dhara,
half a share ;
Dhara,

Vaishnava
stock:

: Dasha, half
Of the stock of Sandila
Sela, half a share.
a share.
a share.
: Karku,
Of the stock of Lakshmana
a share; Visakha,
: Gopaditya,
Of the stock of Vatsa
half
a share;
a
a
half
half
share;
Sura,
share; Bhayiswarai,
Yasha-sarma,

half

share

; Tavisura,

share

; Karkri,

a share; Tavi-sarmma,
half a share;
Sarma, half a
a
half
half a share ;
share; Kumara,
share; Mantriswara,
a
all theso (is tho grant made).
half
Batala,
share,?to
reflected
that the world
is (as frail)
Wherefore,
having
as the
or
a
of
bamboo
reed,
pith
plantain?that
enjoyment
as a wave of the ocean,
is as transitory
that fortune
is
as
as the leaves of the holy-fig
tree
agitated
by
unsteady
a strong wind, and youth liko water on the flowers of the
future proprietors
of our own or any
blooming mimosa?let
other race who are desirous of reaping the rewards of gifts of
confer a general benefit, respect and maintain
land, which
our
this
That
grant.
ignorant man, with a mind shrouded
half

of darkness, who shall seize it, or shall abet


the seizure of it, shaU be guilty of the five great sins. And
the compiler
of the
it has been said by the holy Vyasa,
in thick masses

Vedas:?

1. Sixt)' thousand years the giver of land dwells in heaven,


but he who resumes or approves the resumption
shall dwell
the same number of 3 _ars in hell.

guard,
Strenuously
granted
time to the twice-born;
for better than the gift (itself)
conservation
thereof, 0 best of rulers.

is the

5. Gifts, productive
of fame, have been granted
in this
arc like
world by former rulers for the sake of religion?these
the unconsumed flowers of an offering?what
honest man then
would take them back again ?
on the full moon of Vaisakha,
in the year three
and ninety-four,
tinder the direction of Nanna Vasa
the minister
paka, by Khuddaswftmi,
charged with the affairs
of peace and war.
Samvatsara
Vaisfikha-suddha.
394,
by Kshatriya Matr-sinha.
Engraved
Written

hundred

Nos.
Gurjjara
Grants.
2, 3. The
numbers
to
2.
refer
in
Where
the
Plate
the text is divided
lines
[The
two columns, the left column
gives the version of Plato 2, the right column
of Plate 3.]

^f
*^l*ifa*r^fa<jU*IM^Id*ft *TlftHHtl4i: M*m*a
1 Both
2 Here

plates agree in writing


I have inserted * .

this word janmu,

with

the final

long.

into
that

^T

^rr?nfa?f ?^^- i ^^\f^^ci^^i^y^^ivi_r:mrT^^^u^c*ci*ii


12 ch*l^|eh<:
.
^ M^<*|d _l I
*gTT
^TFft^Tff^lfg^t^jt
13 ^trrjctot
.
mmP<Kd
14

.t i ,^i^wt.:

I*TCI

^l^MT^RTjt

rTTft^rTjfh.,:

% . iit^cbi .n

10

f?*T*r% _*a
^-TT.^%^ fwsrf^w*rftni

i^cwz^rgMrTf%^^^Tr^^^n

.i iiiwnTrftjrfw?H

.SfiTOcT*Trpf

1jft

i*

i .fttPmvj

.fanfa
<*^d^P< .iPHd
.m^rn^: *r?ra*i
f.<?M?hM4W
4Hn\H
.*_M$H
W*Hl*I*fl
g^IHT%^
Uftsfifa.fat^l^^dd^

17 ^,wt*t:

*rr*r^

?*n?rfa*r?%r

.*raft3f:

18
.: .f^T ^W^
^rT^^^^cj|?n:W^Tf.^irHT
-t ^^%^
ft*TWt
4lrMMf?lR*n
ftH*T?^

iret*ft

*nuft

TTH^T ,1%^
*1kJ*.?fccft|\

19 ig^faiwr.: wirT^ WP*:


^rfa'T<<u .^?wto^ ft
20
|d*H$K*3<T:TOsrftmlwofa VJ .<d:nwt^^P,:u?ra
^Wcra^n^nTTT'iT :?ffa~
fr^^^^A^u^iHPw^'V
21 *roz:

^fa^frixi^R

.rn_Hmir.?v

22 tut:
^r<dR4jH^fritf\<mfain
23 iRm^twr:
24
^:

*ft*rarTg

.
^ ^*r^^

_^^*t

*rsr ijrt *ft ^rTH^^ftHt^^

M^<rMMiMr<.i<?Pi^nMW5^:*r?3r

25 rrei TTHc4^T%: ^fa^TWt

20^fa

T^ ^rrfam:

gnnifTfafrT

-^cT?^fa^^^Pa^^tf.rTf fl^l.

ff^f
^

*ft g
, .ftttfV^q
*_?r_*ni

,*Hi:Tim^T^ftrft

30

^fwrif^fta^iiwra^

1fw^
vrf^m \jmvlfpm
^frrrf^ i *mi if*rcrnwi ^r
7 i^ifaip^ i sftm 13iTiiiTO*ft-ftnj^ i *jf?*wi i sftnj i *rm

uct^^^i^irism^iuifiiniw^i

d *fr^*rreiiHf if^

i*ftm *-

f^riifMii^ i^t*n iHf|

^T^i^iO^^iy^vn;!^

1No. 3 reads
^Tl^ T. 44^jll^.

ift

^n^^sm^i^ir^^ii^uj^.^

i^r

^r4lsOli!^lfal^^Tf^o5II
12 TnsNrrf. in*i ^fj^^^nr
^^l^lr|^^MpQ^S^clin^
.
.
PK
^ I ^. lfi[fti^tc^^fWT^ ^RTrTTft
^^^iftft^TW^
14 eft

TR^T^ifflf^f^f^gr^er.

'^T^^^tl'rrf^^r'I^frlfa:

10
^iTfrTfa<M^^^HfrTTrf^'^Kl^^^m^

2
*rf^cpfo?^fa w5f
18

fcT^fci*rfa^:i
^^^RlZT^Tfa^: I

fa^U^MdUll*}

^fa#*pCT *$mTrafa:*wf^fa
lo *p$ ^^^i*re[T
Hfa^ra
20

,TgJ?t^fT*C

fi^r?i^t *g*t ii

^:jplTR[^?f
ft^W^TRllrfrWTfa cllf. ^t MT,

<tilPd4iUNMy^ . ifafa
21 f^Wf^WfWr!^I!r

11

,^T- f^^^TfrC ?.t#m^tfafa*f

1 The words in brackets are omitted


2 Number
3 reads shashtim.

^rf^ftWltMch^lf^im^
from No.

3.

! Filled with
! Salutation
race
of Gurjjara, a
ocean the royal
virtue for its stability, depth, and
cherishes
never be passed, which
Om

! In that great
prosperity
vast bathing-place1
of great
saltness,2 whose bounds can

the great earth and all its


faces every quarter of the world,
brilliant vir
the rich jewels of manifold
a
was
there
Samanta-datta
that
tues, (in
king named)
family
the multitudinous
rays of whose brilliant fame, resem
?by
on the
jewel placed along with Fortune
bling the Kaustubha
darkness
of the
heart of Krshna at his birth, the accumulated
like the good bird Vaina
Kali age was dispelled?by
whom,
of his enemies was up
cruel
families
the
of
the
progeny
tcya,3
sin
had been removed by
whole
collective
and
whose
rooted,
Sun?who
adoration of the lotus feet of the (sin-)destroying
mane
a
with
a
like
lion's,
of) mani
(a
body adorned,
having
protected adherents,
and is adorned with

which

tho doubt which sprung up


daily dispelled
was spread as it were with
of
fame
whose
bright canopy
of
his
the
from
fallen
slaughtered
temples
elephantine
pearls
foes4?and
who, like a young lion, constantly upheld truth in
fold stable virtues

?the

its real nature over the kings of the earth.


a daily contest with
of the moon maintain

5Like as the digits


the darkness of the

so his assemblage
of digit-like
virtues,
a con
and
indolence,
desire,
up
kept
pride,
having
of
his
tinuous struggle with the elephantine
troops
pleasures.
To him came swarms of loving friends, like bees, attracted by
His bright
flow of his unceasing
the delightful
liberality.
of men who were not his
renown secured the submission
tenebrous

Kali

age,

subdued

1
The context would seem to imply some other meaning,
VayAha, a bath.
about which the lexicons are silent.
3 Garuda.
2
This word also signifies "beauty."
IAvanya.
4
to the juico which exudes from the elephant's
Alluding
temples when in rut.
5 This and the
passages which follow are obscure, and are ditlicult to translate
intelligibly.

Narmada;
high
for his pleasure,
like as the valleys of the
have lofty clouds to make them agreeable.1
Vindhya mountains
moon in respect of its soft, pure,
was
He
comparable with the
bright digits, but not for its spots *.with the lotus from the
thorniness
of its tribe being blunted2
by the overflowing
not
of
for its growing
in
the
of
but
abode
Fortune,3
beauty
swelling

breasts

with the lion for excellence,


energy, and prowess, not
for being the abode of cruelty :?with the ocean for its main
tenance of its saltness,
stabilitjr, depth, and fixity, not for
ferocious animals: with the Hima
the
of
being
dwelling-place
for
their
the
dwellings of the proud Vidyadharas
layas
having
on their fine declivities,
but not for being surrounded by hilly
His
like that of the serpent
excellent wealth,
countries.4
its vastness displayed
Sesha, having
by hundreds of bright
common
was
to
The excellence
all the world.
rayed jewels,
was
of his family
shown by his virtuous character?his
supre

mud:

macy by his habit


of his enemies?his

skill by defeat
military
aversion?his
by
by
generosity
by reverence of the gods, brahmans,

of command?his
wrath

his religion
gifts?and
and spiritual teachers.
son was Sri Vita
His

named Sri Jaya


otherwise
Raga,
as
was
hot
who
burnished
Like the
beautiful
Bhata,
gold.
was
of
he
most
the
desirable
bestower
kalpa tree,
unceasing
In the cjxle of the seasons, he was always like the
benefits.
as in tho
a grove of
spring season; and
spring season is
1 In tbis
seems to be used in the double sense of
passage tbe word payodhara
" a woman's breast" and " a cloud."
"
2
turned down."
Adhah-krita,
5 Sri
or Fortune,
is fabled to dwell in the lotus flower,
in
Laksluni,
especially
the red lotus which lias thorns.
4 This last clause is doubtful.
The word in the original
is khash a, which
is
I have read it as kha*a, " a mountainous
not to be found in the dictionaries.
country to the north of India."

was
like those of a voluptuary.
His favour to the meritorious
that of magnanimity.
He was as a sacrifice to his duty,, and
as of a sacrifice were his settled times for
bestowing
gifts
His good nature was like that of affection.
upon Brahmans.
In him was an assemblage
of qualities brilliant as the digits
In the use of ornaments he was moderate.
of the moon.
His
face was

like unto

the full moon.

and fortunate

in victories

was

courteous

and

obtained

in battle

over

He

generous,
the hosts of his powerful enemies.
The virtues seeking refuge
in dread of their enemy, the Kali age, humbly
resorted to
a
him as to Yama (the god of justice).
As
black rain, cloud
its thunderings
with
so he,
and plenty,
brings fertility
by
the lightning
of his bright glittering
fame, drove away the
evils of heat and thirst from his friends.
he was a
Although
hero, he was fearful for his surpassing
fame;
though his
desires were extinguished,
he was desirous of sharing
in the
of
in
charac
merit;
acquisition
though thoroughly generous
the hearts of damsels upon
ter, he was averse to bestowing
was dull-witted
and.
he
in calling
strangers;
though eloquent,
names and casting abuse upon opponents.
In him beauty
was no obstacle to good nature, nor
youth to good conduct,
nor wealth

to liberality, nor pursuit of the tri-varga (love,


to abstinence from harm ofhis fellows, nor
and
wealth)
duty,
to
forbearance, nor the Kali age to all virtues.
power
son
was Sri Datta Kusali, whoso
His
fame is as pure as a
water-lily
expanding under the rays of the moon as it emerges
from a mass of rain clouds, and who is like the firmament
when unconcealed
by spreading clouds; whose brilliant mer
ciless valour is unintentionally
extolled by the weeping
at
morn
women
of
the
of
the
of
families
his
early
neighbouring
foes encountered
in many battles;
who rever
slaughtered
YOI* I.?[new

berieb].

19

in heaven.
In his character
the astuteness
of the
hopes
courtier is manifested
in
the
he
which
by
gentleness
displays
soft words and
women
are
to
who
angry
courtesy
respectful
about his love. The rays of whose brilliant virtues form as
it were a cage into which the thick darkness of the Kali age
is cast, and who has obtained the five
great titles.1 He (Sri
Datta Kusali) announces
to all Rajas, neighbouring
proprie
the chief men of districts, heads
tors, governors of provinces,
of villages, and others (as
it known to you that
follows):?Be
we have
granted, with the pouring out of water in the month
of Karttika,
for the increase of the merit and fame of ourself
and our parents, and for the performance
of the Bali, Charu,
the Pancha-maha-yajnas
(five great
Agnihotra,
a
and
other
the village of Sirisha-padraka,
rites,
sacrifices),
in
the
of
included
with
Akr&reswara,
lasha-grfuna2
province
the water courses3 and all things standing thereon, including

Vaiswadeva,

every variety of income, free of any rights to forced labour


for cutting and hewing, and into which the entrance of cheats
and outcasts is interdicted,
to be enjoyed for all time as
long
as the sun, moon,
sea, and earth shall endure by the sons,
grandsons,
following
having

and descendants

of the

Brahmans
who,
left the town of Jam-

who are
following Brahmans
to dwell in the town of Jam

1Pancha-mahtisabda.
Here I follow Prof. V. E. nail,
who has a learned note
upon the phrase in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. vi., p. 610.
and
He was, howcYcr, confessedly
doubtful
and I cannot but share
dissatisfied,
4<
to propose.
his doubts,
I have no better interpretation
Sabda,
sound,
though
" title."
Mr. \v. Elliot
considers
the phrase equiva
word/* can hardly signify
" a
of the prcseut day, that is,
hand of music."
lent to the Naubat
(Sec supra,
I am inclined to believe it must mean a series of mystical words or
page 2.55.)
such as cited by Prof. Hall in tho note referred to.
invocations,
2 This
but
is clearly a descriptive
term, not part of the name of the village;
is not discoverable.
ite meaning
3 See
note at the end, upon the meanings
of the technical term*
supplementary
employed to designate the rights conferred.

s&kha,

Agnisarmma,

I) rona,

associate

and

Brahmans

of

Brahmacharis

Vatsa

stock

school?and
and Vatra
stock.

of
To

the

Datta-swami,

and llama, of
Dhara, Nandi,
the Mathara
stock?to
Tapi

the Kasyapa
sarmma,
Tapi

Tapi-sarmma

second,

Bhagi-swami,
and

Bhatti,

Pitri-sarmina,
Drona,

associate

and

Brahmacharis

Kanwa

the

and Aswalayana
to Bhattidama

Brahmans

of

the

(of the Yajur),


and of the stock of Dundaki,
adhwaryyu of the Vajasaneya
To
(portion of the Yajur).

Karkka

the Adhyapaka,
and
to Abuka,
both of the Dhu

mrayana
sarmma,

to

Saila,
and

Mahadova,

the

stock?to
Dhara,
Kaundinya
Visakha, Nandi, and Ilamila,
of the Mathara
stock, and to

Iswara,
and

Tapisura,
Dhara,
Iswara

and

stock?to

Lakshman}Ta

ciate Brahmans

of

the

Bava,

of the
Saila,
stock?to
Bhatti
Kaundinya
dfurii and Vatra, of the Kas
yapa

stock

to

Dharmma

dhara, of the Ilfirita


and to the Adhyapaka
to Abuka
of

stock.
Brahmans
granted).

and Brahma
Jambosir

or Jumboseer.

these
(is

stock?
Kark

and Indra
I )h aum

the

To

asso

1 The modern

Dama

and

Ghosha,

Indrasura,

second,

the Daun

Dhara,
lswara,

Damadhara,
the

and

of

Drattaswami,
daki stock?to

Se

Pitr

Bhagiswami,

of the IIArita
Dharmniadhara,
n
stock. To I drasarmma, Adit
yaravi,

Bhatti,

Drona,

sarrama,

sura,

Ghosha,
Bava,

cond,

the

Tapisarmma

ka and

Vata

of

sarmma,

dhara,

school

stock

Vfiha, Visakha,
Agnisarm
and Drona of
ma, Bhattijana
the Vatsa
Visakha
stock?to

ray

an a

thirt3r-four
the village

dra,

Dronaswa

Vasusarmma,

mi,

and Purna

Rudraditya,

Brahmans

associate

swami,

and Brahmacharis

of the Su

dharmmana-chaulisa

stock,

school
and of the Pippalada
To
(of the Atharva-veda.)
Brahmans of these four schools
is the village granted with the
especial object of promoting
the study of the four Vedas.2
reflected that this world is as unstable as
"Wherefore having
a wave of the ocean driven by a powerful wind, that riches
no

have

whilst
of

our

own

existence,

lasting

virtues
or

endure
any

other

but

race,

away

pass

for a long
who

time,
are

and

aro

worthless,

let future proprietors3


desirous

of

reaping

the

of gifts of land which confer a general benefit, and


a
for themselves
who wish to gather
fame,
long-enduring
our
as
this
the
and
of
the
moon,
preserve
respect
rays
bright
That ignorant man, with a mind shrouded in thick
grant.
masses of darkness, who shall seize it, or shall abet the seizure
rewards

of it, shall be guilty of the five great crimes (and the minor
the com
it has been said by the holy Vyasa,
sins).4 And
Vedas.
the
of
piler
1 Broach?
* So I understand

chatur
tbe passage "Ebhyaf chatus-charana-br&hmanebhyat
The word charana evidently signifies in this placo
purvvam.'"
9idya-parikalpana
arc
those of Aswala
The four schools specified
a school or sect of Vedic learning.
or White Yajush, Kuthnmi
for the
for the
yana for the Rig, Kanwa
Vajasaneyi
further
Saman
is
marked
for the Atharvau.
The
the
Saman, and Pippalada
by
of
i.e.
stock
ot the
the
of
the Chhandogya
Brahmans
stock,
being
Bharadwaja
as
more
the
or
from
Sama-vcda
celebrated
Chhandoga
Bharadwaja,
distinguished
of tho Rig-Yeda.
Bharadwaja
*
*
This is found only in No. 2.
Upa-p&taka.
Bhoga-pati.

war,
peace
the (King's) own order.
suddha.
380, Karttika
This

peace
own order.
(King's)
. . .
385, Karttika-su

Sam.

son of Vita-raga,

is the autograph
of Pras&nta-raga,
to the worship of the Sun.

devoted

Sam.

SUPPLEMENTARYNOTE.
in grants of land by conveyancers to

Tho legal terms employed


the

express

on

imposed
serve.

and,

bestowed,
privileges
the grantees,
have
in

not

the

some

attention

words

ago
long
Prinsep
disparaging
For many
of them
the dictionaries
obscurity.1
ance.
Prof. F. E. Hall,
in his notes upon
the grants
to some
of these
has lately
called
attention
terms,
"

there

terms

is something
in the

identical.

three

grants

terms
never

found

duce
been

its

without

"superior
very

G.

taxes;"8

tenances."
tions

are

In

Colebrooke

some

generally

rendered

terms

The
exception
: Sarva

found

together.
is occasionally
as

Soparikara

in conjunction
arc
they

Grant5

and other things pertaining

other
and

two

The

In Wathen's

translates

too vague

arc

but Soparikara

alone,

granted."*
rendered.

variously

Shastrec*

laudably

and Colonel G. Le Grand Jacob as "all the pro

lated as " the hamlets


Ball

Sarvdddnasanjrdhya

Soparikara

Sodranga

companion.

tho village

of

and

Sodranga
met with

Hastin,3

Bhumichhidranyayena: Aehatabha\a

dityaviihtiprdtibludikdparihina:

I have

assist

but he says,

before

Soparikara:

Sodranga:

prdvesya.
The

of King
and has

in the meanings
attached."
one
us are with

of experiment

used

upon

no

afford

to throw some light upon their meaning;

de

they

remarked

their

endeavoured

limitations

the

also,

perhaps,
received

them
instances

loose

to admit

1 Journ.
Beng. A. S. vol. v. p. 728.
8 Trans. A.
S. vol i. p. 465.
6 Journ.
Beng. A. S. vol. iv, p. 477.

"

as

buildings

of

public
their employment
of the original

have
trans

to the village."
and

appur

the

transla

terms

and

the

* Ibid.
1861, p. 9.
* Journ. Bom. R. A. S. vol. iv.
p. 106.
Journ. Bom. R. A. S. vol. ii. p. 6.

word

an

udranya,

one

city,

imaginary

in mid-air."

floating

It

is

true tbat grants occasionally^ convey tho land with all that is above
it to dkdsa or the sky, and below it to pdtdla the infernal regions;
but this supposed reference to the mythic aerial city of king Ilaris
is, as its proposer
I am about

chandra
tions

The

felt, very unsatisfactory.


to offer may
be equally

which

at least,
us down
they,
bring
to be a derivative
from udra,
"
from upari,
above,
upon."

to things
"
water,"
As

and

such

they

the technical
terms jalkar
presentatives
water
and wood,"
which
appear
constantly
for the
vey ance and agreements
occupation

re
the ancient
"
over
and bankar,
rights
of con
in modern
deeds
may

bo

of

land.

apparent objection to tbis interpretation, which


soparikara

This,
to

however,
the

must

proposed
to4 has

referred

not

even
"

used

is occasionally
other words;

thus,

by

be

looked

interpretation,
the following

when

trees

tho

the

as an
grant

is ono

There

is, that the term


are

Savrkshamdldkida

upon

for
"

but

I take
ITdranga2
a formation
uparikara,

terrestrial.

of

conveyed

interpreta

unconvincing,

distinctly

soparikara.*1*

insuperable
the

following

objection
one last

savrkshamd

trnakdshfhodakopetah

Idkulah," where the kdshflia (wood) is conveyed by one phrase and


the rrksha (trees) by the following one.
The
of all

meaning
receipts"

of

the next

or sources

term,

Sarvdddnasangrdliya,
of revenue,
and this presents

is
no

"

inclusive
difficulty.

The phrase Sarvadityavishtiprdtibhedikd parihtna is less common;


"
forced labour,
Ftshti,
indeed, I bave not met with it elsewhere.
is common
The words
corvee,"
enough.
not given
in the dictionaries,
but
their
"
to some connection
with
cutting
points

the root dt, signifies


derivative

of

the

'cutting,

common

root

and
ditya
derivation
and

splitting;"
bhid,

to

"

and

Diti,

from

hewing."

and prdtibhedikd
break,

aro

prdtibhedikd
is manifest,

tear."

Tho

is a
exact

signification of the phrase is not apparent, but there can be no doubt


1 Journ.
R. A. S. 1861, p. 9.
* In GrantBeng.
No. 1 the word is written
sodraga, but tho nasal is too regularly
inserted in other places to allow of this being deemed other than an error.
8 Trans. R. A. S. vol. i.
Journal, vol. v. p. 176. Grant No. 8.
p. 465.
4 Ibid.
Grant No. 9. See also Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. vol. vi. p. 643.

The next term, Bhrimichhidranydyena, is the most puzzling of aU.


The meaning of the words forming the compound is obvious enough;
but what the whole signifies, or how it is to be taken as an instru
mental

clear.
is by no means
in different
combinations.

case,
and

places

The

phrase

In

is found

in

other

Grant

we

have

AVathen's

samastardjaklydndm ahastaprekshaniyam bhumichhidranydyena isham


eva cha;l and in the Samangarh plate we find bh&yachchhidranyd
udaka

yena

pdrvvo

dattah.2

in

Thus,

each

the words

instance,

in

immediate conjunction with the phrase are different, so that it would


seem
be
has

a distinct

to havo

connected

with

hitherto

been

of its own,
and not to
independent
meaning
form of words
No
it.
accompanying
attempt
made
to assign
to the phrase,
and I
any meaning
the

am forced to content myself with


its use

of

as a

bringing

together these instances

to future

help
inquirers.
is one that occurs
last phrase,
ver)r fre
achdlabhataprdvesya,
is
last
word
This
The
phrase
frequently
writtenpravesya.
quently.
to the passage
or billeting
to relate
of
has generally
been
considered
in the first
volume
of the Asiatic
"VVilkins,
Researches,
troops.
"
be no passage
for troops."
to render
there shall
Ball
it,
appears
"
a former
of
the
translation
I
G. Shastree,
says,
amending
phrase,
The

'

have been satisfied that it means


into

by

translates

and

the
it,

troops
"
exempt

of

followers
from

the

the village
the

ingress

soldiers/' referring to Colebrooke's Digest


to chdta*
published.8

this rendering
and he repeats
is a similar
There
phrase

chhatraprdvesya,

which

is rendered

is not to be entered

Professor
king.'"3
of fortune
tellers

for the meaning

in another

grant

in the Seoni
'free

from

and

assigned

subsequently

grant,6

military

Hall

abhafach
billeting."
the render

of opinion,
this concurrence
and weight
Notwithstanding
me
seems
to
of chdta
The
is cheat,
ing
meaning
unsatisfactory.
1 Journ.
v.
A.
S.
vol.
477.
p.
2 Journ. Bcng.
The composition
of this grant, as also
Bom. R. A. S. vol. ii. p. 371.
all appear to be very faulty.
The
and transcription,
the
reproduction
transcrip
There can be no douot
tion gives bhuya, but the fac-simile may be read bhuma.
thai bhumi was intended.
l Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. vol. vi,
3 Journ. Bom. R. A. S. vol. ii.
p. 541.
p. 6.
* Journ.
Ibid., vol. v. p. 728.
Beng. A. S. 1861, p. 9.

same category with cheats (or fortuno tellers) and usurers.


the

is

phrase

certainly

used

in a baso

sense;

similar

Part of
meaning

ought therefore to be given to bhafa if the word will bear it, and its
of "outcast,

signification

seems

barbarian,"

quite

in accordance

with

its associates. Taking this view, then, tho village is to bo free from
the entry of cheats and outcasts; but is this a privilege conferred
by the grantor or a duty imposed upon the grantee ? It is difficult
to conceive that a king should profess to grant such an immunity
in perpetuity; while the imposition of such a restriction on the
grantees would be for the general benefit of society, and a very
proper provision. There can be no doubt that the majority of these
terms

conveyancing
that a former

one

tion

grantees.

upon

the

denote

may

seen
but we have
conferred;
privileges
as a limitation
be taken
or restric
possibly
If conclusive
reason
is found
for consider

ing any of the terms to express restrictions I should be disposed to


class

this

lost one

among

them.
1 Grant No.

1.

Vol.

ii.

For

su/u/ts

o//

oFIrtscrihtii'pS
(/;

:I,tar'i

For

su/u/ts

or^Insrritjfh'rS

on

onrm/t?

Tutu

to

l\cfraj.

or

(>/cutts

or

<

opptr

/n/>a

Pafraj.

7an

<'^(f/XLc/<'r.

or

OrasttJ

<>pper

N":

1 .A.

N":

l. A.

'

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