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798

CHAP TE R 14

DIFFERENT IATION IN SEVERAL VARIABLES

x 2 +2y 2 +6z2 =1

11. f(x ,y, z )=3x+2y+4z,


SOLUTION

6z 2 -

(LT CHAPTER 15)

We find the extreme values of f(x , y , z ) = 3x + 2y + 4z under the constraint g(x , y, z) = x 2 + 2y 2 t

I= 0.

Step 1. Write out the Lagrange Equations. The gradient vectors are 'V f = (3, 2, 4) and 'Vg = (2x , 4y , 12z), therefore
the Lagrange Condition 'V f = A'V g is:
(3 , 2, 4) =A (2x, 4y, 12z)

The Lagrange equations are, thus:

3
2

3 = A(2x)

-=AX
1

=> 2 =

2 = A(4y)

-3 = AZ

4 = A(l2z)
Step 2. Solve for A in terms of x, y , and
we get

AY

z. The Lagrange equations imply that x i=


3
2x '

i= 0, and z i= 0. Solving for!.

A=- ,
2y

A=-

0, y

A=-

3z

Step 3. Solve for x, y, and z using the constraint. Equating the expressions for A gives

3
2x
Substituting x =

2y

=>

3z

iz and y = i z in the equation of the constraint x


2

G z) +2G z)

+ 2y2 + 6z2 = I and solving for z we get

+6z =I

_!E z2 = 1 =>
4
Using the relations

Zl

2
2
= .jill ' Z2 =-.jill

x= iz, y = iz we get
9

X!

2 .jill=

9
-2
- 2 .jill -

9
.jill '

3
2
3
y, -- --'
2..jill
- .jill

9
.jill '

X2- - . - - -

---

-2

Z!

2
= .jill

Y2-- - - - - - -

- 2 .jill -

Z2

.jill '

=-.jill

We obtain the following critical points:


pI

9
3
2 )
= ( .jill' .jill' .jill

Critical points are also the points on the constraint where 'V g = 0. However, 'V g = (2x , 4y , 12z) = (0, 0, 0) only at the
origin, and this point does not lie on the constraint.
Step 4. Computing fat the critical points. We evaluate f (x, y, z) = 3x + 2y + 4z at the critical points:

27

41

{41

y3

(p,) = .jill+ .jill+ .jill= .jill=

(P2) = -.jill - .jill - .jill = - .jill =

27

41

~ 3.7

{41

-y 3

~ -3.7

Since f is continuous and the constraint is closed and bounded in R 3, f has global extrema under the constraint. We
conclude that the minimum value off under the constraint is about -3.7 and the maximum value is about 3.7.
12. f(x , y, z)

= x2 -

y-

z,

x2 - y2

+z= 0

We show that the function f(x , y, z ) = x 2 - y - z does not have minimum and maximum values subject
to the constraint x 2 - y 2 + z = 0. Notice that the curve (x , x , 0) lies on the constraint, since it satisfies the equation of
the constraint. On this curve we have

SOLUTION

f(x , y , z) = f(x , x , 0) = x 2 - x- 0 = x 2 - x

SEC T I 0 N 14.8

Since

li m (x 2

x-->oo

- x)

Lagrange Multipliers: Optimizing with a Constraint

(LT SECTION 15.8)

= oo, f does not have a maximum value subject to the constraint. Observe that the curve (0,

799

,JZ, z)

also lies on the constraint, and we have


f(x, y, z) = f (0,

Since lim z-->oo

(z + ,JZ)

= -oo,

,JZ, z) = 02

,JZ- z = -

(z +viz)

f does not attain a minimum val ue on the constraint either.

13. f(x, y , z) = xy + 3xz + 2yz,

5x + 9y + z = lO

We show that f(x , y, z) = x y + 3xz + 2yz does not have minimum and maximum values subject to the
constraint g (x, y, z) = 5x + 9y + z - 10 = 0. First notice that the curve c 1 : (x, x, I 0 - 14x) lies on the surface of the
constraint since it satisfies the equation of the constraint. On c 1 we have,

SO LUTION

f(x, y, z) = f(x, x, 10- 14x) = x 2 + 3x(IO- 14x) + 2x(10- 14x) = -69x 2 + 50x

Since lim (-69x 2 +Sox) = -oo, f does not have minimum value on the constraint. Notice that the curve c2
X-->00

(x , - x , 10 + 4x) also lies on the surface of the constraint. The values of f on c2 are
f(x, y, z) = f(x, -x, lO + 4x) = -x 2 + 3x(LO + 4x)- 2x(10 + 4x) = 3x 2 +lOx

The limit lim (3x 2 + lOx) = oo implies that f does not have a maximum value subject to the constraint.
X--+00

14.

~ Let
g(x, y)

= x3 -

xy

+ y3

(a) Show that there is a unique point P =(a , b) on g(x , y) = I where V fp = A.Vgp for some scalar A..

(b) Refer to Figure 12 to determine whether f(P) is a local minimum or a local maximum off subject to the constraint.
(c) Does Figure 12 suggest that f(P) is a global extremum subject to the constraint?

-2
-2

FIG URE 12 Contour map of f(x, y) = x 3 + xy + y 3 and graph of the constraint g(x, y) = x 3 - xy + y 3 = 1.

SOLUTION

(a) The gradients off and g are V f

= (3x 2 + y , x + 3y 2 ) and Vg = (3x 2 - y, -x + 3y 2 ). hence the Lagrange

Condition V f = A. V g is

or
3x 2 + y = A.(3x 2 - y)
(1)

x+3i =A.(-x+3i)

Notice that if 3x 2 - y = 0, the first equation implies that also 3x 2 + y = 0, hence y = 0 and x = 0. Since the point
(0, 0) does not satisfy the equation of the constraint, we may assume that 3x 2 - y =1= 0. Similarly, if- x + 3 y 2 = 0, the
second equation implies that also x + 3y 2 = 0, therefore x = y = 0. We thus may also assume that -x + 3y 2 =I= 0.
Using these assumptions, we have by (1):
3x 2 + y
A.---- 3x 2 - y'

X+ 3y 2
A.=---'-.,-x + 3y 2

SECT I 0 N 14.8

Lagrange Multipliers: Optimizing with a Constraint (LT SECTION 15.8)

801

Remark: Since the constraint is not bounded, we need to justify the existence of a minimum value. The values
f(x, y) = xy on the constraint y =ex are f(x, ex)= h(x) = xex. Since h(x) > 0 for x > 0, the minimum value (if it
exists) occurs at a point x < 0. Since

lim xex
x-+-oo

X
= x-+-oo
lim
e-x

lim

X--+-00 -e-X

lim -ex= 0,
x-+-oo

then for x <some negative number -R, we have lf(x)- 01 < 0.1, say. Thus, on the bounded region -R .:5 x .:50, f
has a minimum value of -e- 1 ~ -0.37, and this is thus a global minimum (for all x).

16. Find the rectangular box of maximum volume if the sum of the lengths of the edges is 300 em.
SOLUTION

We denote by

x, y, and z the dimensions of the rectangular box.

Then the volume of the box is xyz. We must find the values of x, y and z that maximize the volume f(x, y, z) = xyz,
subject to the constraint g (x, y, z) = x + y + z = 300, x 2: 0, y 2: 0, z 2: 0. (One could also argue that the sums of the
lengths of the edges is 4x + 4 y + 4z = 300, but that would give a different answer, of course. Instead, we will choose to
interpret the problem with the constraint x + y + z = 300).
Step 1. Write out the Lagrange Equations. The Lagrange Condition is
'Vf=).'V g
(yz, xz, xy) =).(I, I, 1)

We obtain the following equations:


yz

=).

xz

=).

xy

=).

Step 2. Solve for). in terms of x, y, and z. The Lagrange equations already_give). in terms of x, y, and z. Equating the
expressions for). we get yz = xz = xy.
Step 3. Solve for x, y, and z using the constraint. We have
yz

=0
x(z- y) = 0

= xz

z(x- y)

xy =xz

If x = 0, y = 0, or z = 0, the volume has the minimum value 0. We thus may assume that x f 0, y f 0, and z f 0.
The first equation implies that x = y and the second equation gives z = y. We now substitute x = y and z = y in the
constraint x + y + z = 300 and solve for y:

y+y+y =300

3y

= 300

::::}

= 100

Therefore, x = 100 and z = 100. The critical point is (100, 100, 100).
Step 4. Conclusions. The value of f(x, y, z) = xyz at the critical point is

= 1003 = 106 cm 3
2: 0, z 2: 0 is the part of the plane x + y + z =

f(IOO, 100, 100)

The constraint x + y + z = 300, x 2: 0, y


300 that lies in the first octant.
This is a bounded and closed set in R 3. Since f is continuous on this set, f has global extreme values on this set. The
minimum value is zero (obtained if one of the variables is zero), hence the value 106 is the maximum value. We conclude
that the box with maximum value is a cube of edge 100 em.

sEcT I 0 N 14.8

Lagrange Multipliers: Optimizing with a Constraint

(LT SECTION 15.8)

811

27. Show that the minimum distance from the origin to a point on the plane ax+ by+ cz =dis

ldl
We want to minimize the distance P = )x 2 + y 2 + z 2 subject to ax+ by + cz = d . Since the square
function u 2 is increasing for u :::: 0, the square P 2 attains its minimum at the same point where the distance P attains
its minimum. Thus, we may minimize the function f(x, y , z) = x 2 + y2 + z 2 subject to the constraint g(x , y, z) =
ax+ by+ cz =d.
Step 1. WriteouttheLagrangeEquations. We have "\1 f = (2x , 2y, 2z ) and 'Vg = (a , b , c), hencetheLagrangeCondition
"\1 f = A'V g gives the following equations:

SOLUTION

2x

= Aa

2y

= Ab

2z = AC

Assume for now that a :/= 0, b :/= 0, c :/= 0.


Step 2. Solve for A in terms of x, y, and z. The Lagrange Equations imply that
2y
A=b '

2x
A=-,

2z
A=-

Step 3. Solve for x, y, and z using the constraint. Equating the expressions for A give the following equations:
2x
a
2y
b

2z
c
2z
c

a
x = - z
c
b
Y = -z
c

::::}

We now substitute x = ~ z and y = ~ z in the equation of the constraint ax +by


a(

~ z ) + b ( ~ z)

( 1)

+ cz =

d and solve for z. This gives

+ cz = d

a2
b2
- z + - z + cz =d

Since a2 + b 2 + c2

:/= 0, we get z =
a
c

X=- .

~~

a2+ +c2

de
a 2 + b 2 + c2 - a2

We now use (1) to compute y and x:


ad

+ b2 + c2 '

We obtain the critical point:

(2)
Step 4. Conclusions. It is clear geometrically that f has a minimum value subject to the constraint, hence the minimum
value occurs at the point P. We conclude that the point P is the point on the plane closest to the origin. We now consider
the case where a = 0. We consider the planes ax +by + cz = d , where a :/= 0 and a ---+ 0. A continuous change in
a causes a continuous change in the closest point P. Therefore, the point P closest to the origin in case of a = 0 can
be obtained by computing the limit of P in (2) as a ---+ 0, that is, by substituting a = 0. Similar considerations hold for
b = 0 or c = 0. We conclude that the closest point P in (2) holds also for the planes with a = 0, b = 0, or c = 0 (but not
all of them 0). The distance P of that point to the origin is

P=

+ b2 + c2
(a2 + b2 + c2)2
a2

ldl

28. Antonio has $5.00 to spend on a lunch consisting of hamburgers ($1.50 each) and French fries ($1.00 per order).
Antonio's satisfaction from eating x 1 hamburgers and x 2 orders of French fries is measured by a function U(x, , x2) =
JXIX2. How much of each type of food should he purchase to maximize his satisfaction? (Assume that fractional amounts
of each food can be purchased.)

sEcT I 0 N 14.8

Lagrange Multipliers: Optimizing with a Constraint

(LT SECTION 15.8)

815

Increasing S
Level curves of S

I
Critical point P = (r, h)
Level curve of V

~7reasingV
FIGURE 17

SOLUTION

To minimize surface areaS= 2nrh + 2nr 2 for a fixed volume (subject to the constraint c(r, h)= nr 2h- V) we
use the Lagrange equations. Then using '\1 S = A'\1 c, we see

or

2nh +4nr

= 2nArh,

2nr

nr(2- Ar)

=0

= Anr 2

Consider the second equation, rewriting we have:

2nr- Anr 2

=0

=}

=}

r = O,A =r

Since this is a question about surface area, we are not interested in the point when r = 0.
Using the first equation, rewriting we have:

2nh

+ 4nr = 2nArh

2nh + 4nr
h + 2r
=-2nrh
rh

A=

Now to solve for r, h using the constraint to determine the critical point. Using the two derived equations for A we
have:

2
r

h +2r
rh

=}

2rh = hr

+ 2r 2

r(2h - h- 2r) = 0

=}

h = 2r

Therefore, we see that the critical point is (r, h) where h = 2r.


To maximize the volume V = nr 2 h for a fixed surface area (subject to the constraint c(r, h) = 2nrh
we use the Lagrange equations. Then using '\lV =A '\lc we see

(2nrh, nr 2 } =A (2nh

+ 2nr 2 -

S)

+ 4nr, 2nr)

or

A(2nh

+ 4nr) = 2nrh,
rh
A=-h +2r '

A(2nr)

= nr 2

r
A=2

Using these two derived equations for A, we have:


r

rh
h +2r

=}

= 2r

Therefore, we see that the critical point is (r, h) where h = 2r.


Using the contour plots in the figure, we can see that S has a minimum for a fixed value of V, but no maximum because
it increases without an upper bound, whereas has V has a maximum for a fixed value of S, but no minimum because it
decreases without a lower bound.
33. A plane with equation:::_ + ~ + ~ = I (a, b, c > 0) together with the positive coordinate planes forms a tetrahedron
a
b
c
of volume V = ~abc (Figure 18). Find the minimum value of V among all planes passing through the point P = (1, 1, I).

JC= (0, 0, c)
= (0, b, 0)

~=(a, O, O)
X

FIGURE 18

The plane is constrained to pass through the point P = (1, 1, I), hence this point must satisfy the equation
of the plane. That is,

SOLUTION

I
I
I
-+-+-=1
a
b
c

We thus must minimize the function V(a, b, c)= ~abc subject to the constraint g(a, b, c)= ~ +
b > 0, c > 0.

t+ ~=

Step 1. Write out the Lagrange Equations. We have V' V = (~be,


Lagrange Condition V' V = AV' g yields the following equations:

tr, - ~ ), hence the

~ac, ~ab}

and V' g = (- ~, -

l, a> 0,

l
l
-be= --A

a2

l
l
-ac =--A
6
b2
l

c2

-ab = - -A
Step 2. Solve for A in terms of a, b, and c. The Lagrange equations imply that

bca 2

acb 2

A=---

A=---

6 '

6 '

abc 2

A=--6

Step 3. Solve for a, b, and c using the constraint. Equating the expressions for A, we obtain the following equations:

bca 2

= acb 2

abc(a- b)= 0

abc(c- b)= 0

abc

= acb

Since a, b, care positive numbers, we conclude that a = band c = b. We now substitute a = band c = bin the equation
of the constraint ~ + + ~ = l and solve for b. This gives

l
l
l
-+-+-=1
b
b
b

3
-=1
b

::::}

b=3

Therefore also a = b = 3 and c = b = 3. We obtain the critical point (3, 3, 3).


Step 4. Conclusions. If V has a minimum value subject to the constraint then it occurs at the point (3, 3, 3). That is, the
plane that minimizes V is
X

3 3 3=

or

x+

y +

z=

Remark: Since the constraint is not bounded, we need to justify the existence of a minimum value of V = !abc under

the constraint ~ + + ~ = 1. First notice that since a, b, care nonnegative and the sum of their reciprocals is l, none of
them can tend to zero. In fact, none of a, b, c can be less than 1. Therefore, if a --+ oo, b --+ oo, or c --+ oo, then V --t oo.
This means that we can find a cube that includes the point ( ~,
the cube, it holds that V > V ( ~,

~, ~) =

~, ~) such that, on the part of the constraint that is outside

Tk.On the part of the constraint inside the cube, V has a minimum value m,

since it is a closed and bounded set. Clearly m is the minimum of V on the whole constraint.

866

CHAP TE R 15

MULTIPLE I NTEGRATION

(LTCHAPTER16)

The double integral is the signed volume of the region between the graph of f(x, y) and the xy-plane over
R. In (b) and (c) the function satisfies f (-x, y) = - f (x, y ), hence the region below the xy -plane, where -1 ~ x ~ 0
cancels with the region above the xy- plane, where 0 ~ x ~ l. Therefore, the double integral is zero. In (a) and (d), the
function f(x, y) is always positive on the rectangle, so the double integral is greater than zero.

SOLUTION

Exercises
1. Compute the Riemann sum S4 ,3 to estimate the double integral off (x, y) = xy over R
regular partition and upper-right vertices of the subrectangles as sample points.
SOLUTION

= [l, 3]

x [I, 2.5]. Use the

The rectangle Rand the subrectangles are shown in the following figure:
y
2.5
2

1.5

Pn

p 22

Pn

p42

p"

p21

PJI

p41

L----+--~~-+--~ X

1.5

2.5

The subrectangles have sides of length


/::;.x

3- l
= - - = 0.5,
4

L:;.y

2.5- I
= - = 0.5
3

t:;.A = 0.5 0.5 = 0.25

=}

The upper right vertices are the following points:


pll

p21 = (2, 1.5)


p22 = (2, 2)
p23 = (2, 2.5)

= (1.5, 1.5)

p12 = (1.5, 2)

pl3 = (1.5, 2.5)

We compute f(x , y)

p31 = (2.5, 1.5)


p32 = (2.5, 2)
p33 = (2.5, 2.5)

p4l = (3, 1.5)


p42 = (3, 2)
p43 = (3, 2.5)

= xy at these points:
f(Pll) = 1.5 1.5 = 2.25
f(P2J)=2 1.5= 3
j(P31) = 2.5 1.5 = 3.75
j(P41) = 3 1.5 = 4.5

j(P12) = 1.5 2 = 3
j(P22) = 2 2 = 4
j(P32) = 2.5 2 = 5
f(P42) = 3 2 = 6

j(P13) = 3.75
j(P23) = 5
j(P33) = 6.25
j(P43) = 7.5

Hence, S4,3 is the following sum :


4

s4,3 =

"L "L f(P;j)t:;.A = o.25(2.25 + 3 + 3.75 + 4.5 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 3.75 + 5 + 6.25 + 7.5) = 13.5
i=lj=l

2. Compute the Riemann sum with N = M = 2 to estimate the integral of .jx


regular partition and midpoints of the subrectangles as sample points.
SOLUTION

+ y over R

= [0, I] x [0, 1]. Use the

The rectangle Rand the subintervals are shown in the following figure:
y

0.75

pl2

I
I
I

0.5
0.25

---

p22

-- ~ --

I
I
I

I
I

--+ -- ----+
Pill

1P21
I
X

The subrectangles have sides of length


midpoints of the subrectangles are:

/::;.x

pll

i=

0.25

0.75

0.5

0.5 and

= (0.25, 0.25) ,

p\2 = (0.25, 0.75),

L:;.y

p21

i=

0.5 and area t:;.A = 0.5 0.5 = 0.25. The

= (0.75, 0.25),

p22 = (0.75, 0.75)

SECTION 15.1

We compute the values of f(x, y)

lntegrationinTwoVariables

(LTSECTION 16.1)

867

= -Jx + y at the sample points:


f(PII) = ./0.25 + 0.25 = 0.707
f(P21)

= ./0.75 + 0.25 =

f(PI2)

= ./0.25 + 0.75 =

f(P22)

= ./0.75 + 0.75 =

1.225

Hence, Sn is the following sum:


2

s22

=L

(Pij) ~A= 0.25(0.707

+ 1 + 1 + 1.225) = 0.983

)=I

i=l

In Exercises 3-6, compute the Riemann sums for the double integral

Jfn

f(x, y) dA, where R

= [1, 4]

x [1 , 3], for

the grid and two choices of sample points shown in Figure /6.

:Lg_
. ....
y

:3L
: :Q
:
.

(B)

(A)

FIGURE 16

3. f(x,y)=2x+y
The subrectangles have sides of length ~x
We find the sample points in (A) and (B):
(A)
SOLUTION

= (1.5, 1.5)
pl2 = (1.5, 2.5)

= 4 31 = 1 and ~y = y = 1, and area ~A = ~x ~y = I.

= (2.5, 1.5)
p22 = (2.5, 2.5)

Pu

= (3.5, 1.5)
p32 = (3.5, 2.5)

P21

P31

2
(A)

(B)
pll
p21

= (1.5, 1.5) p21 = (2, 1)


= (2, 3) p22 = (2.5, 2.5)

= (3.5, 1.5)
p23 = (4, 3)
p31

y
4

~31
p 21
X

2
(B)

The Riemann Sum S32 is the following estimation of the double integral:
3

~~ fCx,y)dA~s32=LLf(P;J)~A=LLf(P;J)
R

i=l )=I

i=l )=I

872

CHAPTER 15

MULTIPLEINTEGRATION

(LTCHAPTER16)

12. Use the following table to compute a Riemann sum S3,3 for f(x, y) on the squareR= [0, 1.5] x [0.5, 2] . Use the
regular partition and sample points of your choosing.

Values of f(x, y)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

SOLUTION

2.6
2.2
1.8
1.4
I

2.17
1.83
1.5
1.17
0.83

0.5

1.86
1.57
1.29
I

0.71

1.62
1.37
1.12
0.87
0.62

1.44
1.22
0.78
0.56

1.5

The subrectangles and our choice of sample points are shown in the figure:
y

1.5

Pn

PJJ

pl2

Pn

p22
p32
p31

pll

0.5
p21
X

1.5

0.5

Each subrectangle is a square of side 0.5, hence the area of each subrectangle is L'.A = 0.5 2 = 0.25 . By the given data,
the sample points are:
(Pll) = /(0.5, I)
f (P21) = f(l, 0.5)
j(P3J) = /(1.5,1)

f (P12)

f(O, 1.5)

f (P22) = /(1, 1.5)


f (P32) = /(1, 1)

(P13)
f (P23)
f (P33)

= /(0.5, 2)
=

f(l, 2)

= /(1.5, 2)

The Riemann sum S33 that corresponds to these sample points is the following sum:
3

S33 =

L L t (PiJ) L'.A = 0.25(1.5 + 1 + 1.12 + 2.2 + 1.57 + 1.29 + 2.11 + 1.86 + 1.62) ~ 3.58
i=lj=l

13. CR 5

Let SN ,N be the Riemann sum for

Jo{I Jot

ex

-y 3 dy dx using the regular partition and the lower left-hand

vertex of each subrectangle as sample points. Use a computer algebra system to calculate SN ,N for N = 25, 50, 100.
SOLUTION

Using a computer algebra system, we compute SN ,N to be 1.0731 , 1.0783 , and 1.0809.

14. CR 5

Let SN ,M be the Riemann sum for

using the regular partition and the upper right-hand vertex of each subrectangle as sample points. Use a computer algebra
system to calculate S2N,N for N = 25 , 50, 100.
SOLUTION

Using a computer algebra system, we compute S2N ,N to be 14.632, 14.486, and 14.413.

In Exercises 15-18, use symmetry to evaluate the double integral.

15.

jJn

3
x dA ,

= [-4, 4]

x [0, 5]

The double integral is the signed volume of the region between the graph of f(x, y) = x3 and the xy-plane.
However, f(x, y) takes opposite values at (x, y) and ( -x, y):

SOLUTION

f(-x, y) = (-x) 3 = -x 3 =- f(x, y)

874

CHAPTER 15

MULTIPLE INTEGRATION

20.

fo

(LTCHAPTER 16)

x ydxdy

SOLUTION

(y22

= fo2 x3
= 4

fo

dy

23

x dx

= 4. x441:
9
21. [

14

16

I dx dy

-3

SOLUTION

1
9

11dx

= llxl:
= 99-44 =55
22.

-118

-4

(-5) dx dy

SOLUTION

[~ 1 (-5)dxdy = L~ (1 (-5)dx) dy
1

(-5xl:)

= L~l

1-l
= 1-l
=

dy

(-40 + 20)dy

-4

(-20)dy

-4

-1

= -20y
-4

1-do

= 20 -

23.

frr

SOLUTION

x 2 sin

(80)

= -60

y dy dx

We first evaluate the inner integral, treating x as a constant, then integrate the result with respect to x. This

gives
1

1 lo
-I

frr x 2 sinydydx

1
1

-I

x 2 (-cosy)lrr
y=O

dx

1
1

-1

x 2 (-cosn +cosO)dx

SECTION 15.1
2

32.1

lntegrationinTwoVariables

e 3x-y dydx

SOLUTION

1 2 ~4 e3x-y dydx

= 12 ~4 e3x. e-y dydx


= 12 e3x dx. ~4 e-y dy

33.

lo

1o 5 dydx
o .Jx + Y

SOLUTION

{4 {5 dydx

1o 1o

{4({5

.Jx + y

dy )
,Jx + Y dx

= 1o 1o
= fo4

(2,Jx + YI:=O) dx

= 2 fo\.Jx + 5- ../X) dx
= 2 G<x + 5)3/2- ~x3f2) 1:
=2

G.

= 36-

1
lo
8

34.

~.

27 _

8) _ G.

32
20
- - -./5
3
3

53/2 _

76
3

20
3

= - - -./5 ~

o)
10.426

xdxdy
Jx2 + y

SOLUTION

{8 [ 2 xdxdy

1o 1t

Jx2+y

[2 (

{8

= 1o

1t

xdx )
Jx2+y dy

= fo\J4 + y- Jl+Y)dy
2 + y)3/2- -(1
2 + y)3/2 18
= -(4
3

= ~(12 3 1 2 - 27)- ~(83

68

= -3 + 16.J3 ~ 5.047
35

[ 2 [ 3 ln(xy) dy dx

11 11

SOLUTIO

1)

(LTSECTION 16.1)

877

878

CHAPTER 15

MULTIPLEIN T EGRATION

(LTCHAPTER16)

= -112 [ln(3x)] 2 - [ln(x)] 2 dx

~ [2(1n6) 2 -

=(In 6)2= (In 6) 2 = (In 6) 2 = (In 6) 2 -

36.

ll3

loo

1
(x

+ 4y) 3

2
(ln3) ] -

ln(3x)dx -

~ [2(1n2) 2 - o] +

lnxdx

~(In 3) 2 - [xln(3x)- xl~] -(In 2) 2 + [x ln x - xl~]


l

(In 3) 2 - (In 2) 2 - (21n 6 - 2 - In 3 + I) + (2ln 2 - 2 - 0 + 1)

2
1

(In 3) 2 - (In 2) 2 - 21n 6 + In 3 + 1 + 2ln 2 - 2 + 1

2
1

(In 3) 2 - (In 2) 2 - 21n 6 + In 3 + 21n 2 ~ 1.028

dxdy

We calculate the inner integral with respect to x, then we compute the resulting integral with respect to y.

SOLUTION

This gives
1
f'f
dxdy=f'(f (x+4y)- 3 dx)dy=f'_~(x+4y)- 2 1 dy
1o 12 (x + 4y) 3
1o 12
1o 2
x=2

=-~fo' (<3+4y)- 2 -(2+4y)- 2)

dy=-/4 (-(3+4y)-l

-~ (2;4y- 3 ; 4 J I~=-~ ( G- D- G- D)

G-~ + ~ - D s
=

1
6

In Exercises 37-42, use Eq. (1) to evaluate the integral.

37.

JJn ~dA,

R= [-2,4] x [1,3]

We compute the double integral as the product of two single integrals:

SOLUTION

!"{1n ~dA=1

{ ~dydx= 1 xdx { ~dy


-2 1, Y
-2
1, y

2
= Ox [

) (In y O=
2

~(16-4)-(ln3-ln1)

= 61n3

38.

Jfn x ydA, n=

SOLUTION

[-1, I]

[0, 2]

We compute the double integral as the product of two single integrals:

+(2+4y)-')l~

SECTION 15.1

39.

JJR cosxsin2ydA,

R= [0,

If]

x [0,

lntegrationinTwoVariables (LTSECTION 16.1)

879

If]

Since the integrand has the form f(x, y) = g(x)h(y), we may compute the double integral as the product
of two single integrals. That is,

SOLUTION

12
12
12
12
r
r
r
r
r
Jn cosxsin2ydA = Jo
Jo
cosxsin2ydxdy = ( Jo
cosxdx ) ( Jo
sin2ydy )
f
=

=(sin n -sino) ( - 1 cosrr+ 1 cos0)


(sinx l0rr/2) (- 21 cos2y lrr/2)
2
2
2
0

= (I -

0)

G D=
+

1lnr

_Y_ dA. n = [o. 21 x [o. 4]


x +1
SOLUTION We evaluate the integral as the product of two single integrals. This can be done since the function has the
form f(x, y ) = g(x)h(y).
40.

fh

y dA-nx+l

!o4o !o2ox+l
y
(!o2ox+I
--dxdy-dx- ) (!o4 ydy )
o

1)0

= (ln(x +

41. ffn exsinydA,

2
(y
2

1:) = (ln3 -In I) ( ~- O:) = 8ln3 ~ 8.79

R=[0, 2]x[O.i]

We compute the double integral as the product of two single integrals. This can be done since the integrand
has the form f(x, y) = g(x)h(y). We get

SOLUTION

ffn ex sinydA

42.

fn e 3x+ 4Y dA,

SOLUTION

= forr/

fo ex sinydxdy

= [0, I] x

= (fo

ex dx) (forr /\inydy)

[1, 2]

We can compute this double integral as the product of two single integrals:

f fn e3x+4y dA

12

fo I

fo e3x dx

1
2

!3

e3x+4y dy dx

ce -I)

e4y dy

lg

4(e

- e )

fo 1

12

e3x e4y dy dx

= ( ~e3x

0(~e Y 0

13

12

(e - 1)(e -e)

43. Let f(x,y) = mxy 2 , where m is a constant. Find a value of m such that ffn f(x,y)dA = 1, where R
(Q, 1]

(Q, 2].

Since f(x, y) = mxy 2 is a product of a function of x and a function of y, we may compute the double
integral as the product of two single integrals. That is,

SOLUTION

We compute each integral:

2 1 =~(I 2 -o 2 )=~
lof xdx=~x
2
2
2
1

2
!o0 i

12
8
dy = - Y3 = - (23 - o3) = 3
0
3
3

sEcT I 0 N 15.2

Double Integrals over More General Regions

(LT SECTION

16.2)

887

Exercises
1. Calculate the Riemann sum for f (x, y) = x - y and the shaded domain D in Figure 19 with two choices of sample
points, and o. Which do you think is a better approximation to the integral off over D? Why?

The subrectangles in Figure 17 have sides of length D.x = D.y = I and area D. A = 1 1 = 1.
(a) Sample points There are six sample points that lie in the domain D . We compute the values off (x, y)
these points:

SOLUTION

f(J, 1) = 0,
/(2 , I)= I ,

/(1,2)=-1,
/(2 , 2)

/(1, 3)

= 0,

/(2,3)

=x -

y at

= -2,
=- 1

The Riemann sum is

S3,4

= (0-

I -2 +I+ 0- 1) 1 = -3

(b) Sample points o. We compute the values of f(x , y)


/(1.5 , 0.5)
/(1.5, 3.5)

1,

= -2,

= x- y at the eight sample points that lie in D :

/(0.5, l.5)
/(1.5 , 1.5)
/(2.5 , 1.5)

= -1,
= 0,
= 1,

/(0.5, 2.5)
/( 1.5 , 2.5)
/(2.5, 2.5)

= -2,
= -1 ,
= 0.

The corresponding Riemann sum is thus

S34

= (1- 1-2 + 0- I- 2 +

1 + 0) I

= -4.

2. Approximate values of f(x, y) at sample points on a grid are given in Figure 20. Estimate

jfv

f(x, y) dx dy for

the shaded domain by computing the Riemann sum with the given sample points.
y

FIGURE 20
The subrectangles have sides of length D.x = 0.5 and D. y = 0.25, so the area is D. A = 0.5 0.25 = 0.125.
Only nine of the sample points lie in D , hence the corresponding Riemann sum is

SOLUTION

s5,4 = (2.5 + 3.3 + 2 + 2.3 + 3 + 3 + 2.9 + 3.5 + 3.5) . 0.125 = 3.25


3. Express the domain Din Figure 21 as both a vertically simple region and a horizontally simple region, and evaluate
the integral of f( x , y) = xy over D as an iterated integral in two ways.
y

FIGURE 21

888

CHAPTER 15

MULTIPLE INTEGRATION
SOLUTION

(LTCHAPTER 16)

The domain V can be described as a vertically simple region as follows:


0 ~ x ~ I,

0 ~ y ~ 1 - x2

(I)

x=O

x=l

Vertically simple region

The domain V can also be described as a horizontally simple region. To do this, we must express x in terms of y, for
nonnegative values of x. This gives
y

= I-

x2

x2 = 1- y

::::}

::::}

jl"=Y

y=l
OsxsvT=Y

Horizontally simple region

Therefore, we can describe V by the following inequalities:

O~y~1,
We now compute the integral off (x, y)

!~

= xy over V

xydA

la0

llal-x

xydydx

O~x~jl"=Y

first using definition ( 1) and then using definition (2). We obtain

lal -xy2~ l -x
0

2 }0

dx

y=O

=~ {I(x-2x3+x5)dx=~ (x2
2

(2)

_x4
2

Ia! -x ( (l-x 2)2 -02) dx = Ia! x(1 - x2) 2 dx


0 2

+x6)11
6

=~(~-~+~)=_!_
2

12

Using definition (2) gives

!'Jv{

{I

xydA

= Jo
=

{~

Jo

xydxdy

{I yx2~~
{I y (
2
)
= Jo 2 x=O dy = Jo 2 (!l"=Y) -02

{I~(I- y)dy= t( ~-y2 )dy=y2 _Y311=~-~=_!_

}0

}0

The answers agree as expected.

4. Sketch the domain


V : 0 ~ x ~ 1,

x2 ~ y ~ 4 - x2

and evaluate

Jfv y

SOLUTION

The domain V is shown in the following figure:

dA as an iterated integral.

x= I

6 0

12

dy

890

CHAPTER 15

MULTIPLE INTEGRATION

(LTCH APTER 16)


y

We use Theorem 2 to evaluate the double integral as follow s:

!~

x 2 ydA =

'D

2 2y 2
2 x3y 12y
1 2y (
x ydx d y =
dy=
- (2y) 3
10 10
1 0 3 x=O
0 3

= { 2 8y4 d = ~
]0

d y=

1 2y
-8y 3 dy
0 3

= 256 ~ 17.07

512
15 Y 0

-o3 )

15

7. (C)
SOLUTION

The domain in (C) is a horizontally simple region, described by the inequalities


0 _:::: y _:::: 2,

y _::::

X _::::

-7.,

i-

----------

-!"-+---+--+---+-X
I 2 3 4

Using Theorem 2 we obtain the following integral:

!'{lv

x2y dA

{ 2 { 4 x2ydxdy
]y

lo

= 32 Y2 3

Ysj2
15 0

8. Sketch the domain V defined by x


SOLUTION

The domain V

= [(x, y)

{ 2 x3y lx=4 dy
3 x=y

lo

= 32. 22

- 2s
15

+ y_: :
:x

+y

12, x

{2

lo

~ (43- Y3 )
3

{ 2 (64 y- Y4 ) dy
3
3

lo

= 608 ~ 40.53
15

~ 4, y~ 4 and compute

_:::: 12, x

dy

4, y

jfv ex+y dA.

4} is shown in the following figure:

x+y=l2

To compute the integral we described Vas a vertically simple region by the following inequalities (see figure):
y

4SySI2-x

~----+---~--~- X

4 _:: :

X _::::

8,

4 _:: : y _:::: 12 -

sECT 10 N 15.2

Double Integrals over More General Regions

(LT SECTION 16.2)

891

Using Theorem 2, we obtain the following integral:

9. Integrate f(x, y) = x over the region bounded by y = x 2 andy= x + 2.


The domain of integration is shown in the following figure:

SOLUTION

-2

To find the inequalities defining the domain as a vertically simple region we first must find the x-coordinates of the two
points where the line y = x + 2 and the parabola y = x 2 intersect. That is,
x + 2 = x2

::::}

x 2 - x- 2 = (x- 2)(x +I}= 0

::::}

1 = -1,

xz = 2

We describe the domain by the following inequalities:


-]

~X ~ 2,

x 2 ~ y ~X+ 2

-2

We now evaluate the integral of f(x, y) = x over the vertically simple region D:

fl

xdA=

2
1 1x2

x+2

- 1

1
2

-1

x d ydx=

12 lx+2
xy

-1

y=x2

dx=

12

x(x+2-x )dx

-1

x3
x412 =
2
( x 2 +2x-x 3 )dx=-+x
-3
4 -1

(8

) ( 1 1) I

-+4-43

--+1-3
4

=24

10. Sketch the region D between y = x 2 andy = x(l - x). Express D as a simple region and calculate the integral of
f(x, y) = 2y over D.
SOLUTION

The region D between y = x 2 andy= x( l - x) is shown in the following figure:


y

sEcT I 0 N 15.2

12. Calculate the double integral of f(x, y)

Double Integrals over More General Regions

= y 2 over the rhombus R

(LT SECTION 16.2)

893

in Figure 24.

-4

FIGURE 24

lxl + 11YI :S

Since f (x, - y) = f (x, y) and since the rhombus is symmetric with respect to the x-axis, the double integral
equals twice the integral over the upper half of the rhombus. Moreover, since f (- x, y) = f (x, y) and R is symmetric
with respect to they-axis, the double integral over R equals twice the integral over the right half of the rhombus. Therefore,
denoting by D the part of the rhombus in the first quadrant, we have

SOLUTION

(l)

We now compute the double integral over D . We express D as a vertically simple region. The line connecting the point
(0, 4) and (2, 0) has the equation
Y- 4 =

4-0
0

(x - 0)

=}

y - 4 = -2x

=}

y = 4- 2x

Thus, D is defined by the following inequalities:

0 :::: x :::: 2,

0 :::: y :::: 4 - 2x

0:Sy:S4- 2x

We now compute the integral over Dusing Theorem 2:

!~

2
!o2 !o4-2x 2
!o2 y3~4-2x
!o2 (4- 2x)3
(4- 2x)412
44
32
y dA=
y dydx=
dx=
dx=
=0+-=o o
o 3 y=O
o
3
12(-2) 0
24
3

Combining with (1) we get

Jfn i
13. Calculate the double integral of f(x, y)

dA

=4 .

32
""' 42.67
3

= x + y over the domain D = {(x , y): x 2 + y 2 :::: 4, y :=: 0} .

SOLUTION
y

Osysv'4-x 2

-2

2
The domain V

The semicircle can be described as a vertically simple region, by the following inequalities:

-2:::: x :::: 2,

0:::: y ::::

J4- x2

898

CHAPTE R 15

MULT IPLE INTEGRATION

(LTCHAPTER 16)

19. f(x, y)

= x;

SOLUTION

We compute the double integral of f(x, y) = x over the vertically simple region D, as the following iterated

0::;: x ::;: I,

integral:

11
o

11

xex dx -

x dx =

11
o

2
xex dx - -x211 =

2o

11
o

2
xex dx - -1

(I)

OL---------~----x

The resulting integral can be computed using the substitution u = x 2 . The value of this integral is
[ 1

Jo

xex dx

e- I

= -2-

Combining with (1) we get

flv
20. f(x, y) = cos(2x + y);
SOLUTION

! S x S If,

e- 1
1
e-2
xdA = - - - = - - ~ 0.359
2
2
2

1 S y S 2x

The vertically simple region D defined by the given inequalities is shown in the figure:
y

We compute the double integral of f(x , y) = cos(2x + y) over D as an iterated integral, as stated in Theorem 2. This
gives

!~

12x dx
sin(2x +
f1/2 f2x cos(2x + dy dx = frr/2
1/2
2
= r / (sin(2x + 2x)- sin(2x + 1)) dx = {n / (sin(4x)- sin(2x + I)) dx
11 /2
11 /2

cos(2x + y) dA =

n /2

y)

y)

y= l

lrr/

2
= _ cos4x + cos(2x +I)
4
2
x=l/2

=_cos~ +cos(~+ I) _(- cos2 +


4

cos2)
2

= -~ + cos(rr +I) _ cos2 = -0.4 16


4
2
4
21. f(x, y) = 2xy; bounded by x = y, x = y 2

The intersection points of the graphs x = y and x = y 2 are (0, 0) (I, 1). The horizontally simple region 'D
is shown in the figure:

SOLUTION

906

CHAPTER 15

M ULT IPLE INTEGRATION

(LTCHAPTER 16)

The domain 1) is a horizontally simple region, as shown in the figure.


y

From the sketch of TJ , we see that 1) can be expressed as a vertically simple region. Rewriting the equation of the curve
x = ,JY as y = x 2 , we obtain the following inequalities for TJ:
0 :::: y :::: x 2

0 :S x :S 2,
y

The integral in reversed order of integration is thus

!o

2!ox2 JxJ+ldydx= !o2 Jx3+1y lx

dx=

This integral is easy to compute using the substitution u

!o

2!ox2Jx3+l dydx = !o2JxJ+l. x

00

= x 3 + 1,

dx =

!o2Jx3+1(x -o) dx= !o2Jx3+l-x 2 dx


0

y=O

du

= 3x 2 dx. This gives

19
l ../U -

du = -u 312 19 =
3

2 312 - I)=-~
52 5.78
-(9

19

Trying to compute the double integral in the original order we find that the inner integral is impossible to compute:

35.

!o0

l1l

xeY 3 dydx

y=x

SOLUTION

The limits of integration define a vertically simple region 1) by the following inequalities:
0 :S

:S 1,

:S y :S 1

This region can also be described as a horizontally simple region by the following inequalities (see figure):
y

y=x

O:Sy:SI,

O:sx:sy

SECT I 0 N 15.2

Double Integrals over More General Regions

(LT SECTION 16.2)

907

We thus can rewrite the given integral in reversed order of integration as follows:

We compute this integral using the substitution u

l l y xeY 3 dx dy

loo

= y 3 , du = 3y 2 dy. This gives

!o'l2

- eY 3 y 2 dy

!o'o 61

eu - du

e-1
= -euil = -

6 0

~ 0.286

Trying to evaluate the double integral in the original order of integration, we find that the inner integral is impossible to
compute:

36.

lo0

'j'y=x2f3 xeY dydx

SOLUTION

The limits of integration define a vertically simple region D by the following inequalities :
0 ::; x ::; 1,

x 213 ::; y ::; 1

The region D shown in the figure can also be described as a horizontally simple region.
y

We rewrite the equation of the curve y = x 213 as x = y 312 and express the domain D as a horizontally simple region by
the following inequalities:
0 ::: y ::: I ,
y

0 :::

X :::

y 312

912

CHAPTER 15

MULTIPLEINTEGRATION

(LTCHAPTER16)

Finally we substitute the results above to obtain the following solution:

Jfv

(x + 1)dA

J!v,

(x + 1)dA +

Jfv

~ny

(x + 1)dA = 10+ 14

= 24

43. Calculate the double mtegral of f(x, y) =--over the regwn V m F1gure 26.
y

FIGURE 26

To describe V as a horizontally simple region, we rewrite the equations of the lines with x as a function of
y, that is, x = y and x = 2y. The inequalities for V are

SOLUTION

I .:::: y .:::: 2,

y .::::

2y

X .::::

x=y

We now compute the double integral of f(x, y) =

!~

sind
yA
'D Y

44. Evaluate

Jfv

i 2j
fI

o/ over V by the following iterated integral:

2
sin y
Y -dxdy

i2

12

-sin y x Y dy
I
Y
x=y

=f

2sin y

- ( 2 y - y)dy
Y

2-sin-y y dy = f2 sin y dy = -cosy 12 =cos I -cos 2


Y

0.956

x dA for V in Figure 27.


y

FIGURE 27

We compute the integral usi ng decomposition of a domain into smaller domains. We denote by 'D2 and 'D1
the right semicircles of radius 2 and 1, respectively.

SOLUTION

SECT I 0 N 15.2

Double Integrals over More General Regions

(LT SECTION 16.2)

913

Then V2 is the union of Vt and V, which do not overlap except on a boundary curve. Therefore,

Jfv2

xdA

Jfvl

xdA

Jfv

xdA

Jfvl

xdA

or

Jfv

xdA

Jfv2

xdA-

(1)

To express Vt and V2 as horizontally simple regions, we write the equations of the circles in the form x =
x = J 4 - y2, respectively. The equations describing the regions V1 and V2 are

JI=Y2 and

-+--+-- x

-2

y::: 2,
0 :'::X:':: j4- y2

y::: 1,
O::=x::=Jl=Y2

v2

VI

-2:::

-1 :::

We compute the double integrals over V2:

fh

dA =

!oy4-Yi x dx dy =

-2 0

'D2

[2

lo

2 x21v4-?
dy =
-2 2 x=O

2 (

J4="?)

-2

2
-

dy =

2 (

-2

y2 )
2- dy
2

2
y312
8
16
(4- Y ) dy = 4y - 3 o = 8- 3 = 3

(2)

The integral over Vt is

fh

dA =

'D1

1loy'~=?
1
-1

r (l -

lo

dx dy =

11
-1

x21v'l=?
dy =
2 x=O

1(JI=Y2)
1

-1

2
y311
1
2
Y ) dy = Y - 3
= 1- 3 = 3

dy =

11(
-1

1
Y2)
- - dy
2
2

(3)

We now combine (1), (2), and (3) to obtain the following solution:

!'lv{ xdA=~-~=
3

45. Find the volume of the region bounded by

14

::::::4.67

z = 40- lOy, z = 0, y = 0, y = 4- x 2.

The volume of the region is the double integral off (x, y) = 40 - IOy over the domain V in the xy-plane
between the curves y = 0 andy = 4 - x 2 . This is a vertically simple region described by the inequalities:

SOLUTION

926

CHAPTER 15

(LT CHAPTER 16)

M ULTIPLE INTEGRATI ON

4. f(x,y,z) =

(y

+ z) 2

[0,2] x [2,4] x [-1,1]

We write the triple integral as an iterated integral in any order we choose, and then evaluate the resulting
integrals successively. We get:

SOLUTION

ffla

.f f(x,y,z)dx=1

2
4
x
dxdydz=1' f ( f
x
dx)dydz
(y+z) 2
-Ih lo (y+z) 2

-1l2 lo

=
=

1 14 (
1
1
1
-I

-1

1
!a2 xdx ) dydz
(y+z) 2 0

14
2
dydz =
2 (y+z) 2

1' (14
-1

11 14

1
-x212 dydz
2 (y+z) 2 2 x=O

-1

2
dy ) dz
(y+z) 2

I'

2 4 dz= 1 ( - 2 + -2- ) dz=-21n(4+z)+21n(2+z)


-y + z 1y=2
-1 4 + z
2+ z
z=-1

-I

= -21n5 +21n3- (-21n3 + 2ln 1) = -21n5 +41n3 =In


5. f(x, y, z) = (x- y)(y- z);

34

52

1.176

[0, I] x [0, 3] x [0, 3]

We write the triple integral as an iterated integral and evaluate the inner, middle, and outer integrals successively. This gives

SOLUTION

Jjfa

(x- y)(y- z)dV =

fo' fo

=fa'
=

fo (x- y)(y- z)dzdydx =

fo\x- y) (y z-

~z 2 )

C
0

dydx

=fo'

dydx
3

f ((3x+~)
y-~x-3i)dydx=
f'(~x+~)i-~xyy 3 1 y=O dx
lo lo
2
2
lo 2 4
2
1

+ ~) 9- ~x 3- 27) dx =
lo ((~x
2
4
2

fo\x- y) (3y-

1 27
27
= -6.75
f dx =}0
4
4

= f

6.f(x,y ,z) =-;

fo' fo (fo (x- y)(y- z)dz ) dydx

l:Sx:s3,

O:s y:s2,

0:Sz:S4

SOLUTION

We write the triple integral as an iterated integral and evaluate it using iterated integral of a product function.

We get

Jjfa

i fo
3

f(x, y, z) dV

= U z

7. f(x, y, z) = (x + z) 3 ;
SOLUTION

fo

~ dzdydx = (fo\d z) (fo

(i ~
3

1 dy)

dx)

1:) ( yl:) (In xi:) =82(1n3-lnl)= J6ln3

[0, a] x [0, b] x [0, c)

We write the triple integral as an iterated integral and evaluate it to obtain

ffi

f(x,y,z)dV=

lo0

alab lac(x+z)
0

f a fb (<x

Jo

dzdydx=

+ c)44

x4) dydx
4

~ [ (x + c)4- x4]
4

-b4 (a + c)

loa lab (x + z)41c


0

lo lo

= fa

dx =

5
5
- a - c

fa (x

lo

~ [ (x + c)S
4

dydx

z=O

+ c)4- x4 ylb
4
- xs] Ia
5
x=O

b [
s
s
= -20
(a +c) -a -

s]
c

y=O

dx

SEC T I 0 N 15.3

8. f(x, y, z)
SOLUTION

= (x +

y-

d;

Triple Integrals

(LT SECTION 16.3)

927

[0, a] x [0, b] x [0, c]

We evaluate the triple integral usi ng Theorem I. This gives

(x

+y -

c) 3

= {a (
]0

(x

+ y)3
3

dydx

(x + y- c)4 + (x + y)4lb ) dx
12
12
y=O

{a_ (x

+ b- c) 4
12

]0

(x

+ b) 4
12

(x- c) 4 _ x dx
12
12

5
5
5
5
(x+b-c)
..:._
____:_ + (x+b) + (x-c) - x- la

60

60

60

60 x=O

(a+ b- c) 5
(a+ b) 5
(a- c) 5
a5
(b- c) 5
b5
(-c) 5
60
+
60
+
60
-60+
60
-60+~

In Exercises 9-14, evaluate

9. f(x, y, z)

=x +

JJfw f(x, y, z) dV for the function f and region W specified.

y; W: y ::5 z ::5 x, 0 ::5 y ::5 x, 0 ::5 x ::5 I

W is the region between the planes


the inequalities 0 ::5 y ::5 x, 0 ::5 x ::5 1.

SOLUTION

z= y

and

z = x lying over the triangle D

in the xy-plane defined by

We compute the integral, using Theorem 2, by evaluating the following iterated integral:

10. f(x, y, z)
SOLUTION

= ex+y+z; W: 0::5 z

::5 l , 0::5 y ::5 x, 0::5 x ::5 I

W is the region between the planes

Exercise 9.
y

z = 0 and z =

l lying over the triangle D in the xy-plane described in

928

CHAPTE R 15

MULTIPLE INTEGRATION

(LTCHAPTER 16)

We compute the triple integral as the following iterated integral:

=fa' (e2x+l -e2x -ex+! +ex) dx =~e2x+l _ ~e2x -ex+! +ex~~


3 - ~e 2 = ~e
2
2

1
3
2e 3 - 2e 2

e2 + e-

0 - e + e0 )
(~e~e
2
2

+ 2 e- 2 = 2 ce 3 -

3e2 + 3e- I)

= xyz; W: 0 ~ z ~ 1, 0 ~ y ~ ~. 0 ~ x ~ 1
W is the region between the planes z = 0 and z = 1, lying over the part D of the disk in the first quadrant.

11. f(x, y, z)
SOLUTION

y=~
1J

OL--------4-----x

Using Theorem 2, we compute the triple integral as the following iterated integral:

Jffw xyzdV =Jfv (fa' xyzdz) dA =JJv x~z2 C/A =JJv x; dA

=11 (!o~ -xy dy ) dx =!o' -xy2,~


dx =!o'
y=O
0

x(1-x2) dx
4

=fa x ~ x3 dx = ~: ~~ =~ - =
x82 -

12. f(x, y, z)

= x;

116

/6

W: x 2 + y 2 ~ z ~ 4

Here, W is the upper half of the solid cone underneath the plane z = 4. First we must determine the projection
D of W onto the xy-plane. First considering the intersection of the cone and the plane z = 4 we have:

SOLUTION

x2

+ y2 = 4

which is a circle centered at the origin with radius 2. The projection into the xy-plane is still x 2
The triple integral can be written as the following iterated integral:

+ y 2 = 4.

ffrlw xdV = j'flv (1x2+y2 xdz) dA = j'flv xzj z=x2+y2 dA


4

2
rr

=ffv x(4- x 2 - y 2)dA =fa fa


2rr 4 3
-r cos I}
0 3

!o
=!o =

2rr 64

15

cos 0 dO

1 5
12
cos 0 dO
5
0

-r

=-

64

15

sin 0

12rr

rcos0(4- r 2 cos 2 0- r 2 sin 2 0)rdrd0

930

CHAPTER 15

MULTIPLE INTEGRATION

(LTCHAPTER16)

IS. Calculate the integral of f(x, y, z) = z over the region Win Figure 10 below the hemisphere of radius 3 and lying
over the triangle Din the xy-plane bounded by x = 1, y = 0, and x = y.

FIGURE 10
SOLUTION

The upper surface is the hemisphere z = j9- x2 - y2 and the lower surface is the xy-plane z
onto the xy-plane is the triangle D shown in the figure.

= 0. The projection ofV

We compute the triple integral as the following iterated integral:

Iff.v

zdV=

./9-xLy2

fhv (loo

zdz

dA=

fh

z21./9-xLy

v2o

dA=

r'([X9-X2 -y2dy)dx= f'9y-X2y- fiX

2
= 9:2 - x64~~ = 2/2
lo lo

16. Calculate the integral of f(x, y, z)

lo

FIGURE 11

I l.

9 _ x2 _

v
dx=

y=O

= e2Z over the tetrahedron Win Figure

fh

y2

dA

r'(9x_2X3)dX
2 3

lo

SECT I 0 N 15.3

21. Find the volume of the solid in the octant x


SOLUTION

Triple Integrals

0, y ~ 0 , z ~ 0 bounded by x

(LT SECTION 16.3)

935

+ y + z = 1 and x + y + 2z = 1.

The solid W is shown in the figure:

~
The upper and lower surfaces are the planes x + y + z = 1 (or z = I - x- y) and x + y + 2z = 1 (or z = ------z-),
respectively. The projection of W onto the xy-plane is the triangle enclosed by the line A B : y = 1 - x and the positive
x and y-axes.
y

Using the volume of a solid as a triple integral, we have


Volume(W)

=
=

!!'{lw
fr (
Jv

l dV

= j"f

Jv

( 1- x- y)-

(ll -x-y I dz) dA


(l-x-y)/2
1 -x-y)
2
dA =

= j"f

j"Jvf

Jv

zll-x-y
dA
z=( l-x-y)/2

1-x-y
2

dA

r'(rl -x l- x-ydy )dx= r' y-xy-fll-xdx


2
lo
2
y=O

lo lo

I !a' ( x2
dx = - - x + -1) dx
2 0
2
2
Ia
= ~ ( x:- x: +~X) I~=~(~-~+ D = /2
2

22. Calculate

1-x -x(l-x)0
2
!

JJfw y dV, where W

(17)

is the region above z

= x 2 + y 2 and below z = 5, and bounded by y = 0 and

y = l.
SOLUTION

The region W is shown in the figure:

936

CHAPTER

15

(LTCH APTER 16)

MULTIPLE INTEGRATION

The upper surface is the plane z = 5 and the lower surface is the paraboloid z = x 2
xy-plane is the part of the disk x 2 + y 2 ~ 5 between the lines y = 0 and y = I.

+ y2. The projection of W

onto the

The triple integral of j(x, y, z)

=y

over W is equal to the following iterated integral:

ffJw

r ydv =j"f ({

Jv

Jo

Jv

1x2+y2

l(l~
y (5- x 2 -~
3

= 2 lo[
{l

Y (5- i ) X -

4(5- i

= lo 3

)3/2

x
3

!!!.

+ y 2 + z2

Jffw xzdV,
=

y 2 ) dx

dy

3 ix )I~dy
= 2!ol y (5x- ::.._o

x=O

~~
t (
3/2
x=O
dy = 2 lo y (5- i )
-

31 (5- y 2) 3/2)

dy
(I)

= 5- y 2, du = -2y dy:

14

15

5
4
2) 3/2 y dy =
2 312 du=
2 312 du=-u51
4
21
-(5-y
--u
-u
0 3
5
3
4 3
15
4

!o

= ~~
23. Evaluate

Jv

z=x2+y2

y dy

We compute the integral using the substitution u

ydV=

dA=Jr y (5-x 2 -i)dA

ydz)dA=j"f yzl

(55 /2- 45!2)

~ 6.37
2

where W is the domain bounded by the elliptic cylinder x

16 in the first octant x 2: 0, y 2: 0,

z 2: 0 (Figure

2
Y
9

1 and the sphere

13).

FIGURE

13

SOLUTION

y
X

The upper surface is the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 16, or z = J 16 - x2 - y2, and the lower surface is the xy-plane, z =0.
The projection of W onto the xy-plane is the region in the first quadrant bounded by the ellipse (x /2) 2 + (y /3) 2 = 1,11

y=~J4-x2.

SECT I 0 N 15.3

Triple Integrals

(LT SECTION 16.3)

937

L---+---~--~--- x

Therefore, the triple integral over W is equal to the following iterated integral :

Jf

j'f (

[./16 -xLyz

lw xzdV = lv lo

xzdz

dA

j'f

= lv 2xz

2 ./ 16-xLyz
z=O

dA

=~j'f
x( 16- x 2 -i)dA=~2 lo{ lo[ i~ l6x-x 3 - xidydx
2 lv
2

1 3
= -1lo2 16xy- x 3 y- -xy

2 0

li~

y=O

~ 3 3 ~ 9
2 3/ 2 dx
= -1 lo 2 24xv4-x~--xv4-x~--x(4-x)
2

The first and third integrals are simple u-substitution problems. For the second integral, let us use u
du = -2x dx and x 2 = 4- u. Thus, we can write

=4-

3lo2 x 3 )4-x2dx=-3 lo 2 x x 2 )4-x2dx


-4 0
4 0

310

(4- u).,fii du

= -

8 u=4

Therefore we have:

!!.[
lw

xzdV= 12

f xJ4- x2dx-~ f x 3 )4-x2dx-.2_ f


lo
4 lo
16 lo

=12

lo0

x(4-x 2) 312

2 xv~
16
9 lo2 x(4 -x)
2 3/2 dx
4 -x~dx---5
16 0
2

= -6 -2

( (4- X 2) 3/21 )
3
0

= -4 (0 -

8) -

16

5 + 80 (0 -

-16

+ -9 -2

32)

32

( (4- X 2) 5/21 )
5
0

126

=5

24. Describe the domain of integration and evaluate:

SOLUTION

The domai n of integration W is defined by the fo llowing inequalities:

x 2 and thus

428

C HAPTER 12

VECTOR GEOMETRY

(LTCHAPTER 13)

Exercises
In Exercises 1-4, convert from cylindrical to rectangular coordinates.

1. (4,rr,4)
SOLUTION

By the given data r = 4, () = rr and z = 4. Hence,


X

= r COS () = 4 COS 11' = 4 (- 1) = -4

=>

y = r sine = 4 sin 11' = 4 0

(x, y, z)

= (-4, 0, 4)

z =4

2. (2, ~ -8)
SOLUTION

We are given that (r, (), z) = (2,


X

r COS()

= 2 COS

2f, -8) . Hence,

11'
-

= 2- = 1
2

y = r sine = 2 sin ::_ = 2 .J3 =


3
2

.J3 =>

(x' Y' z) = ( 1,

.J3, - 8)

z = -8
3.

(o.~ D

SOLUTION

We haver= 0, () = }-, Z =

i Thus,

x =rcose =O cos::_ =0

y = r sine = 0 sin

11' =
S

=>

(x, y, z) = ( 0, 0,

1)

z= 2

SOLUTION

Conversion to rectangular coordinates gives


x = r cos() = 1 cos ::_ = 1 0 = 0

y = rsin e = I sin ::_ = 1 . 1 = 1

=>

(x , Y, z) = (0, 1, - 2)

z = -2
In Exercises 5-10, convert from rectangular to cylindrical coordinates.
5. ( 1, -1, 1)
SOLUTION

We are given that x = 1, y = -1, z = 1. We find r:


r =

x2

+ y2 =

12

+ (-1 )2 = Jz

Next we find () . The point (x, y) = ( 1, -1) lies in the fourth quadrant, hence,
y
-I
tan e = - = - = -1,
X

3rr
<() <2rr
2 -

7rr
B=4

sECT I 0 N 12.7

Cylindrical and Sphertcal Coordinates

(LT SECTION 13.7)

We conclude that the cylindrical coordinates of the point are


(r,

e, z) =

(h.7:, 1).

6. (2, 2, I)
SOLUTION

We are given that (x, y, z) = (2, 2, 1). We first find r:

r =

Next we find

x2

+ y2 =

)22

+ 22 = .J8 =

2v'2

!f. Therefore,

e. The point (x, y) = (2, 2) lies in the first quadrant hence 0 ~ e ~


y
2
tanB=-=-=1,

0<8 < ::_

- 2

The cylindrical coordinates of the point are


(r,B,z) = (2v'2,

~ 1).

7. (1, v'3, 7)
SOLUTION

We have X = 1, y = ../3,

= 7. We first find r :
r =

x2

+ y2 =

Since the point (x, y) = ( 1, ../3) lies in the first quadrant, 0

tanB=~=
X

../3 =v'3
1
'

12 + (

J3) 2 = 2

~ e~

!f. Hence,

0 <8< ::_

- 2

7r

8=-

The cylindrical coordinates are thus


(r,

8. 0 3:.9)
SOLUTION

We are given that (x, y, z) =

Since the point (x, y) =

e, z) = (2, ~ , 7) .

G,, 9). Hence,

G ) is in the first quadrant, 0 ~ e ~ !f. Therefore,


tane =-Xy =

3../3/2
- - = v'3
3/2
'

o <- e -<7r-2

7r

8=-

The cylindrical coordinates are thus

9. (~ . ~ . 2)
SOLUTION

We have x =

Since the point (x, y) = (

h' y = h' z = 2. We find r:

h, h) is in the first quadrant, 0 ~ e ~ !f, therefore,


tane =-y =
X

5/../2

-- = 1
5j../2

'

o -< e <-

7r

The corresponding cylindrical coordinates are


(r, e, z)

= (5, ~ 2) .

7r

8=-

429

430

CHAPTER 12

VECTOR GEOMETRY

(LT CHAPTER 13)

10. (3, 3.J3, 2)


SOLUTION

We have x

= 3, y = 3.J3, and Z = 2, hence,

= (3, 3.J3) is in the first quadrant hence 0 ~ 8 ~

The point (x, y)

tane

~.Therefore,

= ~ = 3.J3 = .J3, o -< e -<7f-2

e =7f-3

The cylindrical coordinates of the given point are


(r,

e, z) = (6, ~ , 2) .

In Exercises 11-16, describe the set in cylindrical coordinates.


11. x 2

+ y2 ~

The inequality describes a solid cylinder of radius I centered on the z-axis. Since x 2
inequality can be written as r 2 ~ I .

SOLUTION

12. x2

+ y2 + z2

SOLUTION

y2 + z2 ~ 4,

= r 2, this

~ I

Since x 2 + y2

= r 2 , this inequality can be written as


r

13.

+ y2

2 + z2 ~ I

or

2 ~ I - z2

=0

The projection of the points in this set onto the xy-plane are points on they axis, thus 8 = ~ or 8 = ~
Therefore, y = r sin ~ = r 1 = r or y = r sin (
= -r. In both cases, y 2 = r 2, thus the inequality y2 + z2 ~ 4
becomes r 2 + z2 ~ 4. In cylindrical coordinates, we obtain the following inequality
SOLUTION

*)

37r

7f

8=2
14. x 2 + y 2 + z2
SOLUTION

or

e=T

= 4, x :::: 0,

We express

y :::: 0, z :::: 0
z in terms of x and y. Since z :::: 0 we get

x2 +

+ z2 =

The cylindrical coordinates are (r,

z2 = 4 - (x 2 +

=>

il

=>

4 - (x 2

+ y2 )

(I)

e, z) where x 2 + y2 = r 2. Substituting into (I) gives


z = )4- r 2

(2)

We find the interval for 8. The given set is the part of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z2 = 4 in the first octant.
Hence, the angle e is changing between 0 and

7f

i .

(3)

We combine (2) and (3) to obtain the following representation:

z = )4- r 2 ,
15. x 2

+ y 2 ~ 9,

o -< e -< ~2

x :::: y

The equation x 2 + y2 ~ 9 in cylindrical coordinates becomes r 2 ~ 9, which becomes r ~ 3. However, we


also have the restriction that x :::: y. This means that the projection of our set onto the xy plane is below and to the right
of the line y = x. In other words, our e is restricted to - 3rr I 4 ~ e ~ rr I 4. In conclusion, the answer is:

SOLUTION

3,

-3rrl4

e ~ rrl4

SECT I 0 N 12.7

16. y 2 + z2

9,

Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates

(LT SECTION 13.7)

431

2: y

SOLUTION The region X 2: y in the xy-plane is determined by the inequalities


origin). Since y = r sin e, the region y 2 + z2 :5 9 can be written as

4 :5 8

:5 2rr, 0 :5 8 <

(and the

We obtain the following description in cylindrical coordinates:

o -< e -<

:!'._

or

5rr

-4 -<B -<2rr.

In Exercises 17-24, sketch the set (described in cylindrical coordinates).

17.

r =

SOLUTION The surface r = 4 consists of all points located at a distance 4 from the z-axis. It is a cylinder of radius 4
whose axis is the z-axis. The cylinder is shown in the following figure:

1s. e =

71'

SOLUTION The equation 8 = ~ defines the half plane of all points that project onto the ray 8
half plane is shown in the following figure:

19.

z = -2

SOLUTION

z = -2 is the horizontal plane at height -2, shown in the following figure:

= ~ in the xy-plane. This