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REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

Systems Analysis Tools

Data Flow Diagram


a graphical tool that depicts the flow of data in an information
systems, the relationship among the data flows and how data come
to be stored at specific location

represents the functions or processes which capture, manipulate,


store and distribute data between a system and its environment
and between components within a system

Data Flow Diagramming Tool

Context Diagram

Data Flow Diagram

A fast food restaurant customer order


information system depicted in a data flow
diagram

Data Flow Diagram

A fast food restaurant customer order


information system depicted in a data flow
diagram

Data Flow Diagram

Level 1 diagram showing the decomposition of


Process 1.0 from the level 0 diagram

Data Flow Diagram

Level 1 diagram showing the decomposition of


Process 4.0 from the level 0 diagram

Flowchart

is a clear presentation of the flow of control in the algorithm, i.e.,


is a sequence in which operations are performed.

Program - shows the logical relationship between successive steps in


a computer program
System - shows the logical relationship between successive events in
a data processing system. (e.g. clerical and manual procedures
involved, data collections and data preparation, computer runs...)

Program Flowchart Symbol


- Terminal Symbol

- Preparation Symbol

- Process Symbol

- Decision Symbol

- Predefined Symbol

- On-page Connector
- Off-page Connector
System Flowchart Symbol

- Manual Input

- Punch Card(obsolete)

- Magnetic Tape

- Manual Operation

- Input / Output

- Printed Document

- Magnetic Disk

- Magnetic Drum
SYSTEM FLOWCHART EXAMPLE

HIPO Charts (Hierarchy plus Input-Process-Output


Charts)

Developed by IBM as a tool and documentation technique


which attempts to:
Provide a structure by which the function of a system can be
understood
State the functions to be accomplished
Provide a visual description of the input, process and output for
each function

Purpose:
to define procedures and operations in a hierarchical manner,
correlating input, processing, and output steps with the
integrated whole expressed in the hierarchy diagram

A HIPO package consists of a hierarchy chart and IPO


overview diagram and IPO detail diagram
Hierarchy Chart

acts as a hierarchical chart for the function performed by the


system

IPO overview diagram

shows a general sequence of inputs, major processing functions,


and outputs

IPO detail diagram

shows a detailed sequence of inputs, major processing functions,


and outputs
HIPO DIAGRAM

PARETO ANALYSIS
A pareto chart is used to graphically summarize and display the
relative importance of the differences between groups of data.

It is a special form of a bar graph and is used to display the


relative importance of problems or conditions.

A Pareto Chart is used for:


1. Focusing on critical issues by ranking them in terms of importance
and frequency.
2. Prioritizing problems or causes to efficiently initiate problem solving.
3. Analyzing problems or causes by different groupings of data.
4. Analyzing the before and after impact of changes made in a process.

Percentage
of totals
20%

Computatio
n
0 + 20%

Comulative
percent
20%

18%

20% + 18%

38%

15%

38% + 15%

53%

11%

53% + 11%

64%

Causes

The Pareto Diagram


displays, in decreasing
order, the relative
contribution of each cause
to the total problem.
Relative contribution may
be based on the number of
occurrences, the cost
associated with each
cause, or another measure
of impact on the problem.

ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM

also known as Fishbone Diagram, Cause and Effect Diagram or Root


Cause Analysis

How to Construct:
1. Place the main problem under investigation in a box on the right.
2. Have the team generates and clarifies all the potential sources of
variation.
3. Use an affinity diagram to sort the process variables into naturally
related groups. The labels of these groups are the names for the major
bones on the Ishikawa diagram.
4. Place the process variables on the appropriate bones of the Ishikawa
diagram.
5. Combine each bone in turn, insuring that the process variables are
specific, measurable, and controllable.

EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES
OUTSOURCING
is having a firm develop or run your application on their
computers

all you do is supply input and take output

REASONS FOR USING OUTSOURCE:


1.
2.

cost-effective
overcome operating problems the organization faces in its
information system unit
3.
can achieve more effective computing by turning over all
operations to a more experienced, computer-oriented company

SOURCES OF SOFTWARE

Hardware Manufacturers
Packaged Software Producers
Custom Software Producers
In-House Development

HARDWARE AND SYSTEM SOFTWARE ISSUES


The advantages to running your new system on the existing platform :
1. Lower costs as little, if any, new hardware and system software has
to be purchased and installed.
2. Your information systems staff is quite familiar with the existing
platform and how to operate and maintain it.
3. The odds of integrating your new application system with existing
applications are enhanced.
4. No added costs of converting old systems to a new platform, if
necessary, or of translating existing data between current technology
and the new hardware and system software you have to acquire for
your system.

HARDWARE AND SYSTEM SOFTWARE ISSUES


Reasons for acquiring new hardware or system software:
1. Some software components of your new system will only run on
particular platforms with particular operating systems.
2. Developing your system for a new platform gives your organization
the opportunity to upgrade or expand its current technology holdings.
3. New platform requirements may allow your organization to radically
change its computing operations, as in moving from mainframe
centered processing to a database machine or a client-server
architecture.