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# Introduction

The purpose of this surveying activity is to introduce our group about circular
curve.We have included the following data,autocad draw and calculation.In the
geometric design of motorways, railways and pipelines, the design and setting
out of curves is an important aspect of an engineers work.That was importance
to use to know the curve some place before constructing a road,tunnel or
pipeline.

Objective
1. To know the usage of the equipment for finding the curve.
2. To find a value of subtangent from T starting point to PI.
3. To determine the length of curve at T1 the site from point to .

Apparatus
1. Electroninc Distance Measurement (EDM)
2. Prism
3. 2 of Tripod
4. Hammer
5. 7 of Picket
6. 5 of Arrow

7. Measuring Tape

Theory
Horizontal, circular or simple curves are curves of constant radius required to
connect two straights set out on the ground. Such curves are required for roads,
railways, kerb lines, pipe lines and may be set out in several ways, depending on
their length and radius. Figure 4.1 illustrates how two tangents are joined by a
circular curve and shows some related circular curve terminology. The point at
which the alignment changes from straight to circular is known as the BC
(beginning of curve).The BC is located at a distance T (sub tangent) from PI
(Point of tangent intersection).
The length of a circular curve (L) is dependent on the central angle () and the
value of R (radius). The tangent deflection angle () is equal to the curves
central angle (Figure 4.2). The point at which the alignment changes from circular
back to tangent is known as the EC (end of curve). Since the curve is
symmetrical about the PI, the EC is also located at distance T from the PI. From
a study of geometry, we recall that the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the
tangent at the point of tangency. Therefore, the radius is perpendicular to the
back tangent at the BC and to the forward tangent at the EC. The terms BC and
EC are also referred to by some agencies as PC (point of curve) and PT (point of
tangency) and by others as TC(tangent to curve) and CT(curve to tangent)

## Figure 4.1 Circular Curve Terminologies

(Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)

Table
R = 600m
Chainage = 461.34m
Point

Chainage

1428'26"
Chord (C)

Change

Deflection
Angle ()

T
A
B
C
D
T1

348.54
C1
360.00()
C2
380.00()
C3
400.00()
C4
420.00()
421.67

0
11.46

0
11.46

0
0143

20.00

31.46

1255

20.00

51.46

3435

20.00

71.46

10641

1.67

73.13

11950

Calculation
To find the value of subtangent,

2
1428'26"
600 tan
2
76.19m
T R tan

## To find the value of length of curve,

L R x x

2
360

600 x 1428'26" x
151.57m

2
360

Procedure
1. Calculate the setting out data of curve by angle and distance method from
the data provided.
2. Observation of the area.
3. Mark the intersection point IP and T1 use EDM to set the angle of

## intersection to determine the point and .

T
4. Transfer the EDM to point .
5. Open the first deflection angle ()
C
1 and determined the distance
C
22

## according to the Table.Mark point A with the arrow.

6. Open the deflection angle () and determined the distance .Mark the point B
with arrow.
7. Repeat step 6 until work up to the point last.

Result

## A curve line on a standing men from no. 1 until no. 6.

Discussion
1. The usage of Curve in surveying ?
The design and setting out of curves is an important aspect of an engineers
work. The initial design is usually based on a series of straight sections whose
positions are defined largely by the topography of the area. The intersections of
pairs of straights are then connected by horizontal curves. In the vertical design,
intersecting gradients are connected by curves in the vertical plane.

Conclusion
This report introduced usage of
T1 Circular Curve on site.We present
apparatus that use on the site.We also
provide a picture and autocad draw to make it more easier to understand about
this surveying activity.Understand about usage of formula for finding distance
from to and distance from to PI.We also can see the curve in the end of
surveying activity with a same distance that we calculation earlier.
Attachment
1.

Setup EDM

2.

Setu
p

Prism

3.

Measuring

4.