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Errors

Florence A. Galeon

Assistant Professor

U.P. College of Engineering

Outline

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

Introduction

Error and Mistake/Blunder

Sources of Error

Kinds of Error

Accuracy and Precision

Theory of Probability

Most Probable Value

Illustrative Problems

2

Introduction

80

8001

800101

4

Error is defined as the difference between the

true or established value and the measured

value.

the problem, poor judgment, confusion on the

part of the observer, or careless procedures,

and are indications of incompetence.

5

Sources of Error

1. Personal Errors these arise because of the

limitations of the human senses of sight, touch or

hearing.

2. Instrumental Errors these are due to

imperfections in the instruments or accessories

with which measurements are taken.

3. Natural Errors these are caused by variations in

the phenomena of nature.

6

Refraction illustration

Kinds of Errors

Systematic Errors

Systematic errors always follow some definite

mathematical or physical law.

They can be computed and their effects reduced

or eliminated by applying corrections.

Accidental Errors

These are the errors which remain after mistakes

and systematic errors have been eliminated.

10

Accidental Errors

They are caused by factors beyond the control of

the observer, obey the laws of probability, and

are sometimes called random errors.

11

correct and eliminate them.

Accidental errors are also called compensating errors and are

those which are as likely to be positive as they are to be

negative, that is, they tend to balance or to compensate one

another in a series of measurements.

12

Discrepancy

It is the difference between two measured values of the same

quantity.

Accuracy

It is the degree of conformity with a standard (the "truth").

It relates to the quality of a result.

13

Precision

It is the degree of refinement in the performance of an

operation, or the degree of perfection in the instruments

and methods used to obtain a result.

It is an indication of the uniformity or reproducibility of a

result.

It relates to the quality of an operation by which a result is

obtained.

14

15

Accuracy

Versus

Precision

16

For Example: Target Distance Value = 100.000 meters

Values

100.5

100.0

100.555

100.001

Accurate?

Precise?

no

yes

no

yes

no

no

yes

yes

17

For Example: Target Angle Value = 1000000

Values

10030

10000

1003030

1000001

Accurate?

Precise?

no

yes

no

yes

no

no

yes

yes

18

Theory of Probability

It is based on the following assumptions

relative to the occurrences of errors:

1.

and that they are more probable.

19

Theory of Probability

2.

therefore less probable; for normally distributed

errors, unusually large ones may be mistakes

rather than accidental errors.

20

Theory of Probability

3.

happen with equal frequency; that is, they are

equally probable.

4.

observations is the most probable value.

21

Definition:

available data, has more chances of being

correct than has any other.

22

Illustrative Problems

1.A UP Engineering professor sent out six groups of GE

10 students to measure a distance between two

points marked on the ground. The students came up

with the following six different values: 250.25, 250.15,

249.90, 251.04, 250.50, and 251.22 meters. Assuming

these values are equally reliable and that variations

result from accidental errors, determine the most

probable value of the distance measured.

23

Illustrative Problem

A

of a triangle are:

A = 351437,

B = 963009, and

C = 481505.

Determine the discrepancy

for the given observation

and the most probable value

of each angle.

24

Illustrative Problem

3. The angles about a point Q have

the following observed values:

1301520, 1423730, and

870740. Determine the most

probable value of each angle.

870740

25

Illustrative Problem

4. Measurement of three horizontal

angles about a point are:

APB = 123150,

BPC = 372920, and

CPD = 473630. If the

measurement of the single

P

angle APD is 973700,

determine the most probable

values of the angles.

A

B

D

26

Basic Statistics

Definition of Terms:

1. Probable Error

a mathematical quantity giving an indication of

precision

2.Residuals or Deviations

The difference between each of the individual

measurements from the mean value

v = (x-)

where v = residual or deviation

x = an observed value

= mean of the observed values

A measure of the amount of variation in the data

= v / (n-1)

Where = standard deviation

v = sum of the squares of the residuals

n = number of observations

Indicates the degree of precision which may be

expected in any single observation made under

the same conditions

Es = 0.6745()

Where Es = probable error of a single observation

= standard deviation

Em = Es/ n

Where Em = probable error of the mean

Es = probable error of a single observation

n = number of observations

The ratio of the error in a measurement to the

whole measurement

The ratio of the error to the most probable value

RP or ER = e/MV or Em/MPV

Where e = error in a measurement

MV = value of the whole measurement

Em = probable error of the mean

MPV = most probable value

33

34

35

36

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