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Name: Tatiana Alvarez

Reading Assignment #2
Leave the questions typed just as they are. Then type in your responses and print. All answers should come from
or relate directly to the material in the textbook.
Chapter 3
Define timbre: tone quality
Using the descriptive words on page 16, describe the voice of a famous singer of your choice: Sutton
Foster- strong, clear, free, bright, and even
Your voice- strong, sometimes forced, bright, clear
The kind of tone youd like to develop- stronger, velvety, even, free voice
using the list of tonal goals on page 17:
Rate your singing on a scale of 1 to 10 for each characteristic.
Audibility= 8, Resonance=7, Clarity=6, Intelligibility=8, Pure Intonation=7, Dynamic Variety=7,
Timbre=7, Vibrato=8, Range=9, Ease=7
Based on your ratings, answer the following questions:
Which qualities does your voice already have? -My voice has most of the tonal goal quality, some
stronger then others.
Which qualities in particular do you want to develop?-I want to develop more freedom and ease when I
sing.
Define onset: the start of a musical tone
Define release: the ending of a musical tone
Describe how airflow acts on the vocal folds to produce tone.
-Moving air causes a tone by vibrating the vocal folds.
What does a hoarse or raspy tone tell you about the condition of the vocal folds?
-They can be infected or abused, the healing process makes them swell temporarily so that the edges do
not meet smoothly.
List and describe the three methods of onset.
-Glottal onset: occurs when the goal folds are held closed and air pressure pushes them apart to start the
tone.
-Breathy onset: occurs when air passes between the vocal folds before they meet and begin vibrating.
-Clean onset: occurs when the movement of air and the closure of the vocal folds are practically
simultaneous.

List and describe the three methods of release.


-Stopped release: The vocal folds close together tightly to stop both the tone and the breath.
-Breathy release: The vocal folds separate and stop the tone, but air is still flowing out.
Clean release: The diaphragm drops, the vocal folds separate, and air flows into the lungs
simultaneously.

Define resonation: the intensification of a tone by sympathetic vibration


List the parts of the body which act as resonators in singing. -throat, mouth, and other spaces of neck
and head.
What does the author recommend for vocalizing with regard to:
Dynamic level- you should vocalize both loud and soft
Pitch level- explore all different parts of your range
Amount of time per day- 2 hours per day
Chapter 4
Our high and low registers are commonly called what? How did they come to be called by these names?

-Head voice and chest voice, because these terms describe the sensations that accompany our low and
high registers.
According to Manuel Garcia II, what is a register? - A register is a series of consecutive homogeneous
sounds produced by one mechanism
What is the goal in classical singing with regard to registers?- to have all registers strong
The author lists three primary registers. Name them. -chest, mix, and head
Investigate the pitch level of your speaking voice by using one or more of the methods suggested by the
author. Describe your experience in detail. What did you conclude? -I notice that I speak lower than
suggested.
What effect do you think your own personal speaking habits may have on your singing voice (for
example, is one register weaker than the other)?- I believe you can tire out your voice quickly by
speaking in an unhealthy range
Name the different voice types, from highest to lowest, for each vocal style:
Choral- soprano, alto, tenor, bass
Opera- mezzo-sopranos, contraltos, baritones, bass baritones, basses
Pop/Broadway- belt, legit
Define belt.- is a high-energy way or singing
Define vibrato.- is a gentle, regular pulsation that is heard in both the intensity and the pitch of a tone.
Chapter 12
Most people who think they are tone-deaf simply need to develop what?- The ear to brain to throat
coordination necessary for singing in tune
Define downbeat.- the downward movement of a conductor's arm to start a measure
Define upbeat- which consists of one or two or more notes that prepare for the downbeat
What is the most common duration of each of the following types of notes:
Whole note-4 beats
Half note-2 beats
Quarter note- 1 beat
How does the addition of a flag change the duration of a note? -It makes it half a beat
What does a tie do? -It combines the notes
How does adding a dot to a note change its duration?- it add one half to a beat
List and describe the two types of scale steps.
whole steps- which is the distance between two keys that have another one between them.
half steps- is the distance between adjacent keys
What does it mean to say that a song is in the key of C? -the foundation note is C
What is range?- the distance between lowest and highest notes of a song
Define transpose.- to change the key of a song to fit your range
What does a flat sign do?- the note goes one half step down
What does a sharp sign do?- the note goes one half step up
Photocopy the first page from one of the Unit 2 songs. Label one example of each of the following:

Bar line
Measure
Whole note
Half note
Quarter note
System
Piano part
Voice part
G clef
F clef
Key signature (if present)
Time signature