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BFC 4043

2.0 SHALLOW FOUNDATION :


2.1 General Concept
A shallow foundation must :
-

be safe against overall shear failure in the soil


not undergo excessive settlement

Nature of bearing capacity failure are : (as shown in


Figure 2.1)
-

general shear failure (for stiff clay or dense sand)


local shear failure (for medium dense sand or
clayey soil)
punching shear failure(loose sand or soft clay)

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BFC 4043

Figure 2.1 Nature of bearing capacity failure : (a) general


shear (b) local shear (c) punching shear
Vesic (1973) proposed a relationship for the bearing
capacity failure on sands in terms of relative density, D r
depth of foundation, Df and B*, Figure 2.2
Where :

B*

foundation

2 BL
BL

and B width, L length of

NOTE : L IS ALWAYS GREATER THAN B


For square; B=L
and for circular; B=L=Diameter of
foundation and B* = B

Figure 2.2 Modes of foundation failure in sand, (Vesic, 1973)

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BFC 4043

2.2 Terzaghis Bearing Capacity

Terzaghi suggested for a continuous or strip foundation


with failure surface as in Figure 2.3

Figure 2.3 Bearing capacity failure in soil under rough rigid


continuous foundation

Soil above the bottom of foundation is surcharge, q =


Df
The failure zone under the foundation is separated into
three parts namely;
triangular ACD under the foundation
radial shear zones ADF and CDE with curves DE
and DF as arcs of logarithmic spiral
Rankine passive zones AFH and CEG
CAD and ACD are assume to equal friction angle,

Thus ultimate bearing capacity, qu for general shear


failure can be expressed as :

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BFC 4043

q u cN c qN q 0.5BN .......( strip. foundation )


q u 1.3cN c qN q 0.4BN ........( square. foundation )
q u 1.3cN c qN q 0.3BN .........(circular . foundation )

Where :

c cohesion of soil
- unit weight of soil
q = Df
Nc, Nq, N - bearing capacity factors

And

e 2 3 / 4 / 2 tan

N c cot
1 cot N q 1

2
2 cos 4 2

e 2 3 / 4 / 2 tan

2 cos 2 45
2

1 K p
N
1 tan
2
2 cos

Nq

where

K p

- passive pressure coefficient

Table 2.1 summarizes values for Nc, Nq, and N


Table 2.1 Terzaghis Bearing Capacitys Factors

Nc

Nq

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

5.70
6.00
6.30
6.62
6.97
7.34
7.73
8.15
8.60
9.09
9.61
10.16
10.76
11.41
12.11
12.86
13.68
14.60
15.12
16.56
17.69
18.92
20.27
21.75
23.36

1.00
1.10
1.22
1.35
1.49
1.64
1.81
2.00
2.21
2.44
2.69
2.98
3.29
3.63
4.02
4.45
4.92
5.45
6.04
6.70
7.44
8.26
9.19
10.23
11.40

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Nc

Nq

0.00
0.01
0.04
0.06
0.10
0.14
0.20
0.27
0.35
0.44
0.56
0.69
0.85
1.04
1.26
1.52
1.82
2.18
2.59
3.07
3.64
4.31
5.09
6.00
7.08

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

27.09
29.24
31.61
34.24
37.16
40.41
44.04
48.09
52.64
57.75
63.53
70.01
77.50
85.97
95.66
106.81
119.67
134.58
151.95
172.28
196.22
224.55
258.28
298.71
347.50

14.21
15.90
17.81
19.98
22.46
25.28
28.52
32.23
36.50
41.44
47.16
53.80
61.55
70.61
81.27
93.85
108.75
126.50
147.74
173.28
204.19
241.80
287.85
344.63
415.14

N
9.84
11.60
13.70
16.18
19.13
22.65
26.87
31.94
38.04
45.41
54.36
65.27
78.61
95.03
115.31
140.51
171.99
211.56
261.60
325.34
407.11
512.84
650.67
831.99
1072.80

BFC 4043

25
25.13
From Kumbhojkar (1993)

12.72

8.34

And ultimate bearing capacity, qu for local shear failure


can be expressed as :
2
cN ' c qN ' q 0.5BN ' .......( strip. foundation)
3
q u 0.867cN ' c qN ' q 0.4BN ' ........( square. foundation )
qu

q u 0.867cN ' c qN ' q 0.3BN ' .........(circular . foundation )

Where : Nc, Nq, N (see Table 2.2) are reduced


bearing capacity factors can be calculated by
using Nc, Nq, N - bearing capacity factors with
2

tan
3

' tan 1

Table 2.2 Terzaghis Modified Bearing Capacitys Factors

Nc

Nq

Nc

Nq

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

5.70
5.90
6.10
6.30
6.51
6.74
6.97
7.22
7.47
7.74
8.02
8.32
8.63
8.96
9.31
9.67
10.06
10.47
10.90
11.36
11.85
12.37
12.92
13.51
14.14
14.80

1.00
1.07
1.14
1.22
1.30
1.39
1.49
1.59
1.70
1.82
1.94
2.08
2.22
2.38
2.55
2.73
2.92
3.13
3.36
3.61
3.88
4.17
4.48
4.82
5.20
5.60

0.00
0.005
0.02
0.04
0.055
0.074
0.10
0.128
0.16
0.20
0.24
0.30
0.35
0.42
0.48
0.57
0.67
0.76
0.88
1.03
1.12
1.35
1.55
1.74
1.97
2.25

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

15.53
16.30
17.13
18.03
18.99
20.03
21.16
22.39
23.72
25.18
26.77
28.51
30.43
32.53
34.87
37.45
40.33
43.54
47.13
51.17
55.73
60.91
66.80
73.55
81.31

6.05
6.54
7.07
7.66
8.31
9.03
9.82
10.69
11.67
12.75
13.97
15.32
16.85
18.56
20.50
22.70
25.21
28.06
31.34
35.11
39.48
44.45
50.46
57.41
65.60

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N
2.59
2.88
3.29
3.76
4.39
4.83
5.51
6.32
7.22
8.35
9.41
10.90
12.75
14.71
17.22
19.75
22.50
26.25
30.40
36.00
41.70
49.30
59.25
71.45
85.75

BFC 4043

Example 2.1
Given
view

A square foundation, 1.5m x 1.5m in plan

Assume
Df = 1 m
Find

Soil parameters :
= 20, c = 15.2 kN/m2, =17.8 kN/m3
FS = 4, general shear failure condition and

Allowable gross load on the foundation

Solution

qu 1.3c' N c qN q 0.4BN ........( square. foundation )

For = 20, (Table 2.1); Nc = 17.69, Nq = 7.44, N =


3.64
Thus

qu 1.3cN c qN q 0.4BN 1.315.2 17.69 1 17.8 7.44 (0.4)(17.8)(1.5)(3.64)

349.55 132.43 38.87 521kN / m 2

Allowable bearing capacity : qall

qu 521

130kN / m 2
FS
4

Thus total allowable gross load, Q


Qall qall A 130 B 2 130(1.5 1.5) 292.5kN

Example 2.2
Given
Assume
Solution

:
:
:

Repeat example 2.1


Local shear failure condition

qu 0.867 cN 'c qN 'q 0.4BN ' ........( square. foundation)

For = 20, (Table 2.2); Nc = 11.85, Nq = 3.88, N =


1.12

qu 0.867c' N 'c qN 'q 0.4BN ' 0.86715.2 11.85 1 17.8 3.88 (0.4)(17.8)(1.5)(1.

156.2 69.1 12.0 237.3kN / m 2

Allowable load :

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BFC 4043

qall

qu
237.3

59.3kN / m 2 ; Qall qall A 59.3(1.5 1.5) 133.4kN


FS
4

2.3 Effect of Water Table on Bearing Capacity

All equations mentioned before are based on the


location of water table well below the foundation; if
otherwise, some modification should be made
according to the location of the water table, see Figure
2.4

Figure 2.4 Modification of bearing capacity for water table

Case I : 0 D1 Df

q(effective surcharge) = D1 D2 '


where :
' - effective unit weight = sat w
sat - saturated unit weight of soil
w - unit weight of water = 9.81kN/m3 or 62.4 lb/ft3
' in the last term of the equation
Case II : 0 d B
-

the value

'

q D f

d
'
B

Case III : d B
water has no effect on the qu

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BFC 4043

Note : the values of bearing capacity factors used strictly depending


on whether the condition is general or local shear failure.

2.4 Factor of Safety, FS

q all
-

qu
FS

, where :

qall - gross allowable load-bearing capacity,


qu gross ultimate bearing capacity,
FS factor of safety

Values of FS against bearing capacity failure is 2.5 to


3.0.
Net stress increase on soil = net ultimate bearing
capacity/FS
q all ( net )

qu q
,
FS

and : qu ( net )

qu q

q D f

Where : qall(net) net allowable bearing capacity


qu(net) net ultimate bearing capacity

Procedure for FSshear


a. Find developed cohesion,cd and angle of friction,d;
tan
c

.......and ...... d tan 1


FS shear
FS shear
q u cN c qN q 0.5BN .......( strip. foundation )

cd

q u 1.3cN c qN q 0.4BN ........( square. foundation )


q u 1.3cN c qN q 0.3BN .........(circular . foundation )

b. Terzaghis equations become (with cd and d):


q u c d N c qN q 0.5BN .......( strip. foundation )
q u 1.3c d N c qN q 0.4BN ........( square. foundation )
q u 1.3c d N c qN q 0.3BN .........(circular . foundation )

With : Nc, Nq, N - bearing capacity factors for d


c. Thus, the net allowable bearing capacity :
q all ( net ) q all q c d N c q N q 1

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1
BN
2

BFC 4043

Example 2.3
Using q all ( net )

qu q
;
FS

and FS = 5; find net allowable load for the

foundation in example 2.1 with qu = 521 kN/m2


With qu = 521 kN/m2; q = 1(17.8) = 17.8 kN/m2
q all ( net )

qu q 521 17.8

100.64kN / m 2
FS
5

Hence

Qall(net) = 100.64(1.5x1.5) = 226.4 kN

Example 2.4
Using Example 3.1, and Terzaghis equation
q u 1.3cN c qN q 0.4BN ........( square. foundation ) with

FSshear = 1.5;

Find net allowable load for the foundation


For c=15.2 kN/m2, = 20 and
tan
c

.......and ...... d tan 1


FS shear
FS shear
c
15.2

10.13kN / m 2
cd = FS
1
.
5
shear
tan
tan 20
d = tan-1[ FS
] = tan-1[ 1.5 ] =
shear
cd

With :

q all ( net ) 1.3c d N c q N q 1 0.4BN

From Table 2.1 : =13.6 ;


(estimation)
Hence :

13.64

N 1.2

; Nq

3 .8

; Nc

12

q all ( net ) 1.310.1312 17.8 3.8 1 0.417.81.51.2


158.0 49.8 12.2 220kN / m 2
Qall ( net ) 2201.51.5 495kN

2.5 The General Bearing Capacity Equation


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BFC 4043

The need to address for rectangular shape foundation


where :
(0<B/L<1)
Meyerhof (1963) suggest :
q u cN c Fcs Fcd Fci qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi

1
BN Fs Fd Fi
2

Where :
c cohesion
q effective stress at the level of the bottom of
foundation
- unit weight of soil
B width (or diameter) of foundation
Nc, Nq, N - bearing capacity factors
Fcs , Fqs , Fs - shape factors
Fcd , Fqd , Fd - depth factors
Fci , Fqi , Fi - load inclination factors

Values
-

bearing capacity factors :


N c N q 1 cot

N q tan 2 45 e tan
2

N 2 N q 1 tan

shape, depth and inclination factors :


shape
Fcs 1

B Nq
L Nc

Fqs 1

B
tan
L

Fs 1 0.4

B
L

Where : L length of the foundation and (L>B)


depth
if Df/B 1
-

Fcd 1 0.4

Df
B

Fqd 1 2 tan 1 sin

Df

Fd 1

if Df/B > 1
Df
B

Fcd 1 0.4 tan 1

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Df
B

Fqd 1 2 tan 1 sin tan 1

Fd 1

10

BFC 4043

NOTE : tan-1(Df/B) is in radian


-

inclination


Fci Fqi 1

90

Fi 1

Where : inclination of load from vertical

For undrained condition ( = 0)


q u cu N c Fcs Fcd q
q net ( u ) qu q cu N c Fcs Fcd

Skemptons :
Df

q net ( u ) 5c 1 0.2
B

B
1 0.2 L

Table 2.3
Vesics Bearing Capacity Factors for General Equation (1973)

Nc

Nq

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

5.14
5.38
5.63
5.90
6.19
6.49
6.81
7.16
7.53
7.92
8.35
8.80
9.28
9.81
10.37
10.98
11.63
12.34
13.10
13.93
14.83
15.82
16.88
18.05
19.32
20.72

1.00
1.09
1.20
1.31
1.43
1.57
1.72
1.88
2.06
2.25
2.47
2.71
2.97
3.26
3.59
3.94
4.34
4.77
5.26
5.80
6.40
7.07
7.82
8.66
9.60
10.66

N
0.00
0.07
0.15
0.24
0.34
0.45
0.57
0.71
0.86
1.03
1.22
1.44
1.69
1.97
2.29
2.65
3.06
3.53
4.07
4.68
5.39
6.20
7.13
8.20
9.44
10.88

Nq/ Nc

Tan

Nc

Nq

0.20
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.30
0.31
0.32
0.33
0.35
0.36
0.37
0.39
0.40
0.42
0.43
0.45
0.46
0.48
0.50
0.51

0.00
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.25
0.27
0.29
0.31
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.38
0.40
0.42
0.45
0.47

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

22.25
23.94
25.80
27.86
30.14
32.67
35.49
38.64
42.16
46.12
50.59
55.63
61.35
67.87
75.31
83.86
93.71
105.1
1
118.3
7
133.8
8
152.1
0
173.6
4
199.2
6
229.9
3
266.8
9

11.85
13.20
14.72
16.44
18.40
20.67
23.18
26.09
29.44
33.30
37.75
42.92
48.93
55.96
64.20
73.90
85.38
99.02
115.3
1
134.8
8
158.5
1
187.2
1
222.3
1
265.5
1
319.0
7

AKS & PM IR AZIZAN SEM 2 200910

N
12.54
14.47
16.72
19.34
22.40
25.99
30.22
35.19
41.06
48.03
56.31
66.19
78.03
92.25
109.4
1
130.2
2
155.5
5
186.5
4
224.6
4
271.7
6
330.3
5
403.6
7
496.0
1
613.1

Nq/ Nc

Tan

0.53
0.55
0.57
0.59
0.61
0.63
0.65
0.68
0.70
0.72
0.75
0.77
0.80
0.82
0.85
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.97
1.01
1.04
1.08
1.12
1.15
1.20

0.49
0.51
0.53
0.55
0.58
0.60
0.62
0.65
0.67
0.70
0.73
0.75
0.78
0.81
0.84
0.87
0.90
0.93
0.97
1.00
1.04
1.07
1.11
1.15
1.19

11

BFC 4043

6
762.8
9

Example 2.5

Figure 2.5
Given

: A square foundation (B x B), Figure 2.5, Q=150


kN.
Df = 0.7m, load is inclined at 20 from vertical, FS
= 3.
Use general bearing capacity factors

Find

: The width of foundation B


qu ( qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi

1
' BN Fs Fd Fi ) ; q 0.7 18 12.6kN / m 2
2

From Table 2.3 : For =30: Nq = 18.4, N = 22.4, Nq/ Nc =


0.61, Tan = 0.58
Fqs 1

B
B
B
B
tan 1 0.58 1.58 ; Fs 1 0.4 1 0.4
0.6
L
L
B
B

Fqd 1 2 tan 1 sin



Fci Fqi 1

90

So

Df
0.202 F 1
2 0.7
1 2 0.581 sin 30
1
; d
B
B
B

20
1

90

0.605 ;

Fi 1

20

30

0.11

1
' BN Fs Fd Fi )
2
12.618.41.58 1 0.202 0.605 1 18 B 22.4 0.61 0.11 221.2 44.68 13.3B
B
2
B

qu ( qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi

qall

qu
3

thus set :

150
14.89
73.73
4.43B
2
B
B

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12

BFC 4043

By trial and error : B=1.3m


2.6 Eccentrically Loaded Foundations

Eccentrically loaded foundations give non-uniform


distribution of pressure, Figure 2.6

Figure 2.6 Eccentrically loaded foundations


Eccentricity,

M
Q

qmax and qmin is given by :


q max

Q
6e
1

BL
B

and

q min

Q
6e
1

BL
B

if e > B/6, and qmin becomes negative then :


q max

4Q
3L B 2e

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BFC 4043

Factor of safety against bearing capacity failure;


effective area method, by Meyerhof (1953)
a. Find effective dimensions of the dimensions
the smaller of B and L is the width
effective width, B = B 2e
effective length, L = L
if e is in the direction of L than L = L 2e
b. Find the ultimate bearing capacity, qu :
q ' u cN c Fcs Fcd Fci qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi
-

1
B ' N Fs Fd Fi
2

use L and B to find Fcs , Fqs .and .Fs


use B to find Fcd , Fqd .and .Fd

c. Total ultimate load,


effective area
d. Factor of safety,

Qult q u' A' q u' B ' L'

FS

; where A

Qult
Q

e. Check FS against qmax

; FS

q u'
q max

Example 2.6
Given : A square foundation as shown in Figure 2.7. Using
general bearing capacity factors, (table 2.3)

Sand :
18kN / m 3
30
c0

0.7 m

1.5m x 1.5 m

Figure 2.7
Find :
Ultimate load, Qult,
assume one way load eccentricity, e = 0.15m

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14

BFC 4043

Solution : with c = 0;

q 'u qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi

1
B ' N Fs Fd Fi
2

Where :
q = 0.7(18) = 12.6 kN/m2
for = 30, from Table 2.3 : Nq=18.4 and N =22.4
B = 1.5 2(0.15) = 1.2m
L = 1.5m
Thus values for general bering capacity equations : (using B
and L)
Fqs 1

B'
1.2
tan 1
tan 30 1.462
L'
1.5

Fqd 1 2 tan 1 sin

Df
B

0.289 0.7
1.5

1.135

B'
1 .2
Fs 1 0.4
1 0.4
0.68
L'
1 .5
Fd 1

q ' u 12.618.41.462 1.135

1
2

181.2 22.4 0.681

384.7 164.5 549.2kN / m 2

Qult = qu X A = 549.2 X (1.5X1.2) = 988kN


Qall = 988/3 = 330kN with FS=3

2.7 Load on strip footing


Example 2.7 :
AKS & PM IR AZIZAN SEM 2 200910

15

BFC 4043

Given : The strip footing shown below is to be constructed in


a uniform deposit of stiff clay and must support a wall that
imposes a loading of 152 kN/m of wall length. Use general
bearing capacity factors.
Find : The width of footing with FS of 3.

Figure 2.8
Solution :
q u cN c qN q 0.5BN .......( strip. foundation
with; c

qu
145.8kN / m 2

72.9kN / m 2
2
2

And =0; from the Table 2.3 Nc = 5.14, Nq = 1.0 and N =0


q ult (72.9kN / m 2 )(5.14) (18.82kN / m 3 )(1.2m)(1.0) 0.5(18.82kN / m 3 )( B )(0) 397.3kN / m 2
397.3kN / m 2
132.4kN / m 2
3
152.0kN / m
requiredwi dthofwall
1.15m
132.4kN / m 2
q all

B required is 1.5 meter to be conservative

2.8 Dimension of loaded square pad footing


Example 2.8 :
Soil deposit has the following ; =20.44 kN/m3, =30,
c=38.3kN/m2

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Square footing located 1.52 m below surface, carries 2670


kN and groundwater is negligible. Use Terzaghis values,
(Table 2.1).
2670 kN

1.52m

= 20.44 kN/m3
=30
c = 38.3 kN/m2

Figure
2.9

Find : The right dimension B. Use Terzaghis equation


qu 1.3cN c qN q 0.4BN ........( square. foundation )

With =30; Nc=37.16, Nq=22.46, N =19.13


Assume B=3 m;
q ult 1.3(38.3kN / m 2 )(37.16) ( 20.44kN / m 3 )(1.52m)(22.46) 0.4( 20.44kN / m 3 )(3m)(19.13)
1850 698 469kN / m 2 3017 kN / m 2
3017 kN / m 2
1005.7 kN / m 2
3
2670kN
required width of wall
2.65m 2 B 2 B 1.63m
1005.7 kN / m 2
q all

Assume B=1 m;
q ult 1.3(38.3kN / m 2 )(37.16) ( 20.44kN / m 3 )(1.52m)(22.46) 0.4(20.44kN / m 3 )(1m)(19.13)
1850 698 391kN / m 2 2939kN / m 2
2939kN / m 2
980kN / m 2
3
2670 kN
required width of wall
2.72m 2 B 2 B 1.65m
980kN / m 2
q all

Assume B=2m;

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q ult 1.3(38.3kN / m 2 )(37.16) (20.44kN / m 3 )(1.52m)(22.46) 0.4(20.44kN / m 3 )(2m)(19.13)


1850 698 313kN / m 2 2861kN / m 2
2861kN / m 2
954kN / m 2
3
2670 kN
required width of wall
2.80m 2 B 2 B 1.67 m
2
954kN / m
q all

Assume B=1.8m;
q ult 1.3(38.3kN / m 2 )(37.16) (20.44kN / m 3 )(1.52m)(22.46) 0.4( 20.44kN / m 3 )(1.8m)(19.13)
1850 698 282kN / m 2 2830kN / m 2
2830kN / m 2
943kN / m 2
3
2670kN
required width of wall
2.83m 2 B 2 B 1.68m
2
943kN / m
q all

Assume B=1.7m;

q ult 1.3(38.3kN / m 2 )(37.16) ( 20.44kN / m 3 )(1.52m)(22.46) 0.4( 20.44kN / m 3 )(1.7 m)(19.13)


1850 698 266kN / m 2 2814kN / m 2
2814kN / m 2
938kN / m 2
3
2670 kN
required width of wall
2.85m 2 B 2 B 1.7 m
938kN / m 2
q all

Therefore use 1.7m x 1.7m

2.9 Contact Pressure and stability check.


Can be computed by using flexural formula of :
q

Q Mxy Myx

A
Ix
Iy

Where :
q contact pressure
Q total axial vertical load
A area of footing
Mx, My total moment about respective x and y axes
Ix, Iy moment of inertia about respective x and y
axes

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x, y distance from centroid to the outer most point


at which the contact pressure is computed along
respective x and
y axes.
Example 2.9
A pad footing with dimension of 1.52 x 1.52m acted upon by
the load of 222.4kN. Estimate soil contact pressure and FS
against bearing capacity.
222.4KN

Figure 2.10

0.91m

0.14m2

1.22m

1.52m

0.31m

Given :
1.52m by 1.52m square footing; P=222.4kN; soil
=18.85kN/m3
concrete =24 kN/m3; qu = 143.64 kN/m2
Find :
a. Soil contact pressure
b. FS against bearing capacity pressure
Solution :
a.

Q Mxy Myx

A
Ix
Iy

; Mx=My=0; since load on centroid

Total load calculation, Q :


Column load, P = 222.4kN
Weight of footing base
= (1.52m)(1.52m)0.31m(24kN/m3) = 17.19 kN
Weight of footing pedestal
= (0.14m)(0.14m)(0.91m)(24kN/m3) = 0.43 kN
Weight of backfill soil
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= [(1.52m)(1.52m)-(0.14m)(0.14m)](0.91m) x
18.85kN/m3
= 39.3kN
Q = 222.4 + 17.19 + 0.43 + 39.3 = 279.32kN
Area, A = 1.52mx1.52m = 2.31m2
Soil contact pressure or Stress, q = Q/A = 120.9 kN/m2
qult 1.2cN c D f N q 0.4BN

b.

qu 143.64kN / m 2

71.82kN / m 2
2
2

Assuming cohesive soil has : =0 and c>0; thus :


Nc=5.14, Nq=1.0, N =0, Df=1.22m
q ult 1.2cN c D f N q 0.4BN 1.2(71.82)(5.14) 18.85(1.22)(1.0) 0
465.98kN / m 2
q
465.98
FS ult
3.85
q
120.9

Since FS > 3.0; thus ok.

Example 2.10
Draw soil contact pressure
for footing in Figure 2.11
Conversion to SI unit
P=222.4 kN;
H=88.96 kN;
M=81.35kN.m;
W=88.96 kN
Df=1.22m;
B=2.29m (7.5ft);
L=1.52m (5ft)

Given : 2.29m by 1.52m rectangularFigure


footing
2.11
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Find : Contact pressure and soil pressure diagram


Solution :
q

Using flexural formula;

Q Mxy Myx

A
Ix
Iy

Q = P + W = 222.4 kN + 88.96 kN = 311.36 kN.


A = 2.29m x 1.52m = 3.48 m2;
Mx=0; My=88.96(1.22)+81.35=189.88kN.m (Moment about
point C)
1.52m( 2.29m) 3
1.52m 4
x = 2.29/2 = 1.145m;
12
311.36kN (189.88kN m)(1.145m)
q

89.47kN / m 2 143kN / m 2
2
4
3.48m
1.52m
2
q right 232.47kN / m and .....qleft 53.53kN / m 2
Iy

Take V = 0 and Mc = 0 will produce :


q
qd

(d )( L) P W 0...and ...
(1.52m) 311.36kN ........( A)
2
2

V = 0 :

Mc = 0 : see Figure 2.12 (b) and (c)


d
q

( d )( L) x 0
3
2

M ( H )( S )

2.29m d
81.35kN .m 88.96kN 1.22m 311.36
0..... B
2
3

81.35 108.53 356.51 103.79d 0 d 1.61m


.substitue int o ( A) :
q
2

(1.61m)(1.52m) 311.36kN ., q 254.46kN / m


2

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254.46kN/m2
1.61m
2.29m

2.29m

Figure 2.12 (a) and (b)

Example 2.11 Checking stability on shallow foundation

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Figure 2.13

Given : A 6 ft x 6 ft footing as shown; load P=60kips; weight


of concrete footing including pedestal + base pad,
W1=9.3kips; backfill, W2=11.2kips; horizontal load = 4kips;
qall for soil = 3.0 kips/ft2.
Find :
1. Contact pressure and soil pressure diagram.
2. Shear and moment at section A-A (in the Figure E3.14)
3. FS against sliding if coefficient of friction, = 0.40
4. FS against overturning.
Solution :
1.

Q Mxy Myx

A
Ix
Iy

Q=P+W1+W2=60+9.3+11.2=80.5kips
A=6ftx6ft=36ft2
My=4kipsx4.5ft=18kip-ft (about point C)
x=6ft/2=3ft
Iy=6ft(6ft)3/12=108ft4;
Mx=0;
Mxy/Ix=0
q

Q M x y M y x 80.5kips 18kip. ft (3 ft )

2.24kips / ft 2 0.50kip / ft 2
A
Ix
Iy
36 ft 2
108 ft 4

So : qright = 2.74 kips/ft2 < 3.0 kips/ft2 ; OK


qleft = 1.74 kips/ft2 < 3.0 kips/ft2 ; OK

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Pressure
diagram

2. FDG and EDH are similar triangles; so

DE
EH
6 ft 1.5 ft

;.....DF 2.74 1.74 1.0kips / ft 2 ;...EH

2.25 ft
DF
FG
2
2
DE
2.25 ft
FG 6 ft ;...

;..DE 0.375kip / ft 2
1 .0
6 ft
Shear.at .. A A : 2.25 ft ( 2.74 0.375kips / ft 2 )(6 ft )

1
2

(2.25 ft )(0.375kip / ft 2 )(6 ft )

31.93kips 2.53kips 34.46kips


2.25 ft
2.53kips 2 3 2.25 ft 39.7 kips. ft
2

Moment.at .. A A : 31.93kips

3.
FS .against.sliding

Total .vertical.load coefficient.of . friction.betweenbaseandsoil


Horizontal.. forces

60kips 9.3kips 11.2kips (0.40)

4.

4kips

FS .against .overturning

8.05

Re sisting .moment 80.5kips (6 ft / 2)

13.4
Turning .moment
4kips ( 4.5 ft )

2.10 Settlement of shallow foundation


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Foundation settlement under load can be classified


according to two major types :
(a)
(b)

immediate or elastic settlement, Se


consolidation settlement, Sc

Elastic settlement, Se takes place immediately during or after


construction of structure.
Consolidation settlement, Sc is time dependent comprises of
two phases; namely, primary and secondary consolidation
settlement.
2.10.1 Elastic settlement of foundations on saturated
clay
Elastic settlement of foundations on saturated clay is given
by Janbu et al., (1956) using the equation :
S e A1 A2

q0 B
Es

where :
A1 is a function of H/B and L/B and A2 is a function of
Df/B
All parameters of H, B and Df (with L into the paper) are
as
shown in Figure 2.14.

Figure 2.14 : Parameters

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Figure 2.15 : A2 Versus Df/B

Figure 2.16 : A1 Versus H/B and L/B

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Elastic settlement of foundation on sand based on


SPT N- value
By Meyerhof
Refer section 5.13 page 263 Equations 5.61 and 5.62

2.10.2 Elastic settlement of foundations on sandy soil:


use of strain influence factor
Schmertmann, (1978) proposed that the elastic settlement in
sandy soil as :

z2

S e C1C 2 q q
0

Iz
z
Es

where :
Iz strain influence factor
C1 correction factor due to depth =

qq

1 0 .5

C2 correction factor due to soil creep =

time in years

0.1

1 0.2 log

- stress at the level of foundation (due to loading +


self weight of footing + weight of soil above footing)
q

q D f

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Figure 2.17 : Calculation of elastic settlement using strain


influence factor
The variation of Iz with depth below the footing for
square or circular are as below :
Iz = 0.1
Iz = 0.5
Iz = 0

at
at

z=0
z = z1 = 0.5B
at
z = z2 = 2B

Footing with L/B 10 (rectangular footing) :


Iz = 0.2
Iz = 0.5
Iz = 0

at
at

z=0
z = z1 = B
at
z = z2 = 4B

2.10.3 Range of material parameters


Elastic parameters such as Es and s in Table 2.4 can be used
if the real laboratory test results not available.
Table 2.4 : Elastic parameters of various soils
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Type of soil
Loose sand
Medium dense
sand
Dense sand
Silty sand
Sand and gravel
Soft clay
Medium clay
Stiff clay

Modulus of
Elasticity, Es
(MN/m2)
10.5 24.0
17.25 27.60

Poissons ratio, s

34.50 55.20
10.35 17.25
69.00 172.50
4.1 20.7
20.7 41.4
41.4 96.6

0.30 0.45
0.20 0.40
0.15 0.35

0.20 0.40
0.25 0.40

0.20 0.50

2.10.4 Consolidation settlement


(a)

Primary consolidation, Sc

Many methods were developed in estimating the value of


consolidation settlement, Sc.
Due to simplicity only chart based on Newmarks (1942),
Figure 2.18 will be used in estimating the consolidation
settlement.
Primary consolidation, Sc calculated as :

H
1 e0

S c C c

where :

log

p
p0

Cc compression index (given)


H thickness of clay layer
e0 initial void ratio (given)
p = p0 + p, final pressure

p0 overburden pressure
p =4(Ip)q0 net consolidation pressure at midheight of clay layer
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Ip Influence factor (from Figure 2.18)


q0 net stress increase

Figure 2.18 : Chart for determining stresses below corners


of rigid foundation and isotropic soil
Example 2.7
Given :

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Figure 2.19
A foundation to be constructed as in Figure 2.19. The base of
the foundation is 3m by 6m, and it exerts a total load of
5400 kN, which include all self weight. The initial void ratio,
e0 is 1.38 and compression index, Cc is 0.68.
Required :
Expected primary consolidation settlement of clay layer.
Solution :
p0 = 19.83(200 - 198) + (19.83 9.81)(198 - 192) + (17.1
9.81)(192 185.6)/2 = 123.1 kN/m2
Weight of excavation = 19.83(200 - 198) + (19.83 9.81)
(198 195.5) = 64.7kN/m2
Net stress increase, q 0 load pressure weight of excavation

5400kN
19.83 200 198 19.83 9.81198 195.5 235.3kN / m 2
3m 6m

By dividing the base into 4 equal size of 1.5m by 3.0m :


mz = 1.5m

nz = 3.0m

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z 195.5m

192.0m 185.6m
6.7 m
2

1.5m
3 .0 m
0.224 ; n
0.448
6 .7 m
6 .7 m

From Figure 2.18, the influence coefficient is 0.04


Therefore ;

p 4 0.04 235.3kN / m 2 37.6kN / m 2

Final pressure, p = p0 + p = 123.1 + 37.6 = 160.7 kN/m2.


Therefore;

(b)

H
1 e0

S c C c

log

160.7 kN / m 2
p
6 .4 m

0.68
log

2
p0
1 1.38
123.1kN / m

0.212m

secondary consolidation

Secondary settlement, Ss is computed from the following


calculation (U.S. Department of the Navy, 1971)

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t
S s C H log s
t
p

where :
Ss secondary compression settlement
C coefficient of secondary compression, can be
determined from Figure
3.26
H thickness of clay layer that is considered
ts time for which settlement is required
tp time to completion of primary consolidation

Figure 2.20 : Value of C


2.11 Allowable bearing pressure in sand
based on settlement consideration.
Bowles (1977) proposed a correlation of the net
allowable bearing pressure for foundations with SPT (Nvalues).
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The following equations are used :

25.4

q net ( all ) (kN / m 2 ) 19.16 N Fd

And

3.28 B 1

3.28 B

q net ( all ) ( kN / m 2 ) 11.98 N

Where :

Fd depth factor =

for

B 1.22m

Fd

25.4

for

B 1.22m

Df
1.33
1 0.33
B

S tolerable settlement, in mm.

Example 2.8
Given:
A shallow square footing for a column is to be
constructed. Design load is 1000 kN. The foundation
soil is sand. The SPT numbers from field exploration as
shown in the table.
Assume that the footing must be 1.5m deep, the
tolerable settlement as 25.4mm and the size is >
1.22m.
Required :
(a) The exact size of the footing (b) safety factor for
foundation
Solution :

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Navg = (7+8+11+11+13+10+9+10+12)/9=10
With S=25.4mm and N=10
3.28 B 1

3.28B

q net ( all ) (kN / m 2 ) 11.9810

Fd

25.4

25.4

3.28 B 1
119 .8

3.28 B

Fd

Df
1.33
Fd 1 0.33
B

By trial and error (set the table for calculation)

From the table it is seen that the appropriate B=2.4

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Setting general equation and equation for net ultimate


with c=0 (for sandy soil) :
qu ( net ) qu q
q D f

q u cN c Fcs Fcd Fci qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi

qu net q ult q qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi

1
BN Fs Fd Fi
2

1
BN Fs Fd Fi q
2

For N=10; friction angle of =34 is considered (from


table on SI)

With no inclination so Fqi=Fi=1.0


From table 2.3 Nq=29.44, N=41.06

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So for a tolerable settlement of 25.4mm, the SF


required is calculated as : SF=Qnet(u)/Q=
10,322kN/1000kN = 10.3 which is OK, therefore most
design controlled by tolerable criterion.

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