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EXERCISE

4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON 1


4 mm Rana sp.
Whole mount

Tail
Neural tube
Notochord:
-

extends from the midbrain to the

Olfactory placodes
-

thickenings on the lateral side

have evaginated to from olfactory

posterior end of the body


Segmented mesoderm:
- somites

pits
Lens placode
-

Fin folds:
-

paired thickenings below the


olfactory placodes

dorsal fin and anal fin

Brain:

will evaginate to form the lens


vesicle -> eye lens

Prosencephalon (forebrain)

Otic lens

Mesencephalon (midbrain)

at the level of the rhombencephalon

Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

will evaginate to form the otic

Epiphysis:
-

mid-dorsal evagination of the brain


vesicle

placode
Stomodeum
-

fate: pineal body

fate: ectodermal rudiment of the


mouth (will rupture)

from the invagination of the anteroventral ectoderm of the head

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EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON


-

separated from the foregut

Prosencephalon:

(endodermal) by the oropharyngeal

cavity; prosocoel

membrane

syn: forebrain

suckers: ectodermal thickenings

Heart:

Mesenchyme:
-

from loose mesodermal cells beneath


the foregut and anterior to the yolk

embryonic CT for the mesoderm and


neural crest cells

mass

fate: connective tissue ( epithelial,


muscular and nervous tissues)

Yolk:

Head mesenchyme
-

nutrition for the embryo

Proctodeum:
-

epidermis and the walls of the

ectodermal envagination at the base


of the tail

fate: break open into the hindgut as

prosencephalon
Olfactory placodes
-

the anus
-

fills spaces bet. the presumptive

syn: anal pit

Transverse section

paired pigment invaginations on


either side of the prosocoel

Epidermis:
-

derived from the ectoderm

outermost skin layer

@ Level of the Prosencephalon and Nasal


Rudiments

@ Level of the Mesencephalon and Optic cups

EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON 3


Infundibulum:
-

depression in the floor of the


prosencephalon

precursor to the posterior portion of


the pituitary gland

Hypophysis
and brain cavity
-

w/c fuses with the infundibulum to

diencephalon

form the pituitary gland (syn:

inward growing cord of ectoderm

Rathkes pocket)
-

ingrowth from the stomodeum

fate: anterior portion of the

(rathkes pocket) and the

pituitary gland

infundibulum (syn: pituitary

double-walled structure,
invagination of the distal portion of

gland)
Mandibular arch
-

the optic vesicle


Lens vesicle
-

cavity: mesocoel

syn: midbrain

Oral cavity:

stomodeum
Adhesive gland:
-

paired ectodermal thickenings

secrete: mucus (FOR


ATTACHEMENT TO FOREIGN

canal

OBJECTS)
-

thickened cranial region of the


alimentary canal, comes in contact
with the ectoderm portion of the
syn: pharyngeal plate =
oropharyngeal membrane

Stomodeum

syn: cement glands = mucous


glands = oral suckers

Optic vesicle:
-

head
-

maxillary process cranial to the

cavity at the end of the alimentary

Oral plate:
-

cranial branchial arch, forming the


caudal border of the stomodeum

Mesencephalon:

(2) endocrine gland formed from an

from the stomodeum

Optic cups:
-

(1) invagination of the stomodeum

ventral component of the

Hypophysis:
-

ingrowth of cells lying bet. the oral

evagination from the lateral wall of


the prosencephalon

first indication of the formation of


the eye

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EX

EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON


-

gives rise to all parts of the eye ;

Pharynx:

except the lens and cornea


Optic stalk:
-

bounded region of the foregut

paired evagination: pharyngeal

connection of the optic cup with the


brain

pouches
Section through the embryonic heart

@ Level of the Rhombencephalon


Section through the anterior pharynx

Notochord
Rhombencephalon
Rhombencephalon:
-

most caudal region of the brain, with

Pharynx

a thin roof

Pericardial coelom:

cavity: rhombocoel

syn: hindbrain

Notochord:
-

Somite/s

defines the anteroposterior axis of

dorsal mesocardium: suspends the


heart within the pericardial coelom

Heart:
-

pericardial coelom surrounded by the

the developing embryo

pericardium (from the somatic

function: skeletal support

mesoderm) membrane enclosing


the heart

EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON 5


formed by the migration of


mesodermal cells (loose

Liver diverticulum:
-

mesenchymal cells); organize into


the endothelial lining of the heart

deep groove on the floor of the


pharynx

rudiment of the liver

(endocardium)
-

composed of two layers:

Section through the Pronephros

endocardium (inner layer-> lining


of the heart), epimyocardium (outer
layer-> muscle)
Section through the liver diverticulum

Spinal cord, Notochord, Pronephros,


Coelomic activities
Foregut:

Spinal cord, Notochord. Somites


Mesomeres:
-

paired bulges below the notochord

have begun to develop pronephric


tubules, collectively called
pronephros or pronephric kidney

syn: Pharynx

narrows into the midgut

Yolky endoderm:
-

nutrient supply for the developing


embryo

Spinal cord:
-

replaces the hindbrain

Pronephros:
-

paired, spherical structures clustered


together

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EX

EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON


-

initial secretory organ in developing


embryos

fate: degenerates and replaces by


the mesonephric kidney in adults

Somites:
-

Section through the Hundgut


segmented mesodermal blocks on ea.
side of the spinal cord

arises from the dorsal mesoderm

will differentiate into: sclerotome,


myotome and dermatome

Section through the Midgut

at level of the proctodeum

Cloacal membrane:
-

strand of tissue in bet. the


proctodeum and hindgut

fate: perforated to from the posterior


opening of the digestive tract

Dorsal fin:
-

spinal cord tapers off

flat extension of the bodt wall

subnotochordal rod, may be

fate: degenerates

identified bet. the notochord and


midgut (transient structure)

Hidgut:
-

fate: cloaca, colon, small intestine


and rectum

Proctodeum

EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON 7


7 mm Rana sp.
Whole mount

well-formed external gills

functional heart

embryo -> tadpole

elongated tail: powerful swimming

Epiphysis
-

knob of cells separated from the


brain

organ

mid-dorsal evagination of the brain


vesicle

lateral segmented somites

finfolds: dorsal and ventral fin

fate: pineal body

Liver diverticulum
Hindgut:

Telencephalon
Prosencephalon

bladder
-

Diencephalon

will ventrally evaginate -> Urinary


cavity-> CLOACA

Post anal gut:


-

extended dorsal wall of the hindgut


(tail rudiment)

Stomodeum:
-

deeply invaginated, and large


pigmented cells surround the
olfactory pit

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EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON

Transverse section

@ Level of the Diencephalon and Optic Cups

@ Level of the Telencephalon and Olfactory


Pits

Oral cavity:
-

surrounded by presumptive jaw


cartilages

Olfactory pits: (from the Olfactory placodes)


-

will develop nasal passages with

Diencephalon:
-

olfactory receptors
-

Oral plate:
-

epiphysis is attached with the

cavity on the lateral surface of the


head
perforated -> open mouth of the
embryo

diencephalon
-

paired hemispheres occupying the


anterior of the prosencephalon

Diencephalon:
-

posterior division of the


prosencephalon

Head mesenchyme

posterior half of the forebrain

Mesencephalon:
-

posterior to the eye

center for reflexes associated with

Telencephalon:
-

optic stalks, infundibulum and

vision, hearing and movement


Optic cup:
-

lens vesicle lies in its concavity

EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON 9



Pharynx:
-

large and more rounded

will give rise to the mandibular


arch: posterior border of the

Developing cranial nerve ganglion:


-

stomodeum
Stomodeum:
-

deep invagination of the pigmented,

lateral on the floor of the


mesencephalon

part of the peripheral nervous system

derived from the neural crest cells

midventral ectoderm at the anterior


end of the pharynx
Adhesive glands:
-

exceeds the height

paired ectodermal thickenings found


at the ventral surface

Pharynx (wider)

secrete mucus (for attachement to

Thyroid:

floating objects)
-

- width of the pharyngeal cavity greatly

syn: cement glands, mucous

evagination of the ectodermal cells


from the pharyngeal floor

glands, and oral suckers


Section through the Otic Vesicle
@ Level of the Rhombencephalon
Section through the Thyroid

10 EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON



Otic vesicle:
through the rhombencephalon

Notochord:
-

hindbrain

visible ventral to the

rhombencephalon
-

hollow organ on each side of the


formed by the invagination of the
otic placode

dorsal to the gut and ventral to the

Heart

hindbrain

Bulbus cordis:

provides skeletal support

Truncus arteriosus:

most anterior heart chamber

Pericardial coelom:

visible within the pericardial coelom

cavity that surrounds the heart

at the anterior portion of the heart

bounded the pericardium

four subdivisions:

Heart:
Section through the Heart

a. Truncus arteriosus
b. Ventricle
c. Atrium
d. Sinus venosus
Optic capsules:
-

now visible, developed from the


ectoderm will later differentiate into
the inner ears

Rhombencephalon:
-

will from the IV ventricle

similar to the spinal cord

will differentiate into the

evident external gills : fingerlike


projections that protrude from the

metencephalon (anterior) and

sides of the head

myelencephalon (posterior)

Esophageal plug:
-

temporarily blocks the esophagus


before the larva starts to feed

EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON 11



Atrium:
-

Glomus:
chamber of the heart that receives

triangular-shaped structures, ventral

blood from the S.V. and delivers

to the dorsal aorta that hang down

blood to the ventricle.

onto the coelomic activity

Thin-walled chamber almost filled

with blood

functional components of the


pronephric kidney

External gills:

waste products from the blood


diffuse from the glomi into the

filamentous respiratory organ

coelomic fluid

from branchial arches 3-6

Spinal cord

will develop into internal gills

Somite:
-

located on either side of the


developing spinal cord, arises from

@ Level of the Spinal Cord

the dorsal mesoderm


Dorsal aorta:

Section through the Pronephros and Midgut

primitive, paired longitudinal


arteries of the trunk beneath the
notochord

Pronepros:
-

initial excretory organ found in the


developing embryo

nitrogenous wastes are passed from


the pronephric tubules into the
pronephric ducts into the hindgut
(cloaca) then into the exterior

Notochord

functional in larval amphibians and


fish

replaced by the mesonephric


kidney

12 EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON



Nephrostomes:
-

funnel-shaped opening of the


pronephric tubules where coelomic
fluid is swept

Midgut:
-

middle part of the gut w/ a small


lumen with a thick yolky floor

derived from the archenterons

will give rise to the small intestine

Dorsal fin:
-

extension of the body wall

will degenerate

Cloaca:
-

posterior most chamber in the


vertebrate digestive system

Proctodeum:
-

ectodermal invagination on the


ventral side of the trunk

will give rise to the anus

EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON 13


10 mm Rana sp.
Whole mount

Telencephalon:
Transverse section

paired ant. division of the


prosencephalon

@ Level of the Telencephalon and Olfactory

Organs

cavity: lateral ventricle (from the


invagination of the side of the neural
tube

layers of the brain wall:


1. Ependymal layer

one cell thick, ciliated layer


surrounding the neurocoel

cilia: for the movt of cerebrospinal


fluid in the ventricles of the brain
and in the central canal of the spinal
cord
2.

Mantle layer

fate: gray matter of the CNS

14 EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON



3. Marginal layer
-

outermost layer, contains

d. Jacobsons Organ
-

neuroblasts from the inner layers


and nerve fibers
-

tubular organ in the region of the


telencephalon

syn: olfactory organ

opening of the nasal cavity to the


outside

external to the jaws


f. Prechordal Cartilage
-

invagination

cartilaginous cranium called:

opening of the nasal cavity into the


syn: choana

chondrocranium
-

contains photoreceptors and may

syn: trabecular cartilage

g. Melanocytes
-

stellate cells scattered in the


dorsolateral region of the brain and

from the evagination of the


diencephalic roof and the epiphysis

hyaline cartilages beneath the


telencephalon w/c form the

c. Frontal Organ
-

oral papillae: lobose structures

marks the pt of original ectodermal

buccal region
-

jaws: tipped w/ horny matter and


tooth germs

b. Internal Naris
-

lined with epithelium, derived from


the stomodeum

a. External Naris
-

region where the nasal cavity and


mouth opens

from the olfactory epithelium


-

syn: vomeronasal organ

e. Buccal Cavity

olfactory nerve connecting the


olfactory lobes to the brain arises

func: to pick up smell of food from


the buccal organ

from the invagination of the


ectoderm

the nasal organ

fate: white matter of the CNS

Nasal Organ:

sac formed by the evagination of

lateral to the nasal organs


h. Mesenchyme
-

function as the third eye

mesodermal cells filling up the space


bet. the organs and the epidermis

form the loose reticulum, w/ the


outermost cells forming the dermis
of the integument

EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON 15


i. Epidermis
-

Pituitary body:

outer layer of the skin, composed of

two layers
-

oval mass beneath the floor of the


infundibulum

note the ff: free melanin granules

and melanocytes

endocrine gland: derived from the


infundibulum and solid ingrowth
from the stomodeum

@ Level of the Diencephalon and the Eye

syn: hypophysis

Eye:
a. Optic Cup:
-

Retina: thick, inner layer of the


optic cup

Layer of ganglion cells:

axons of nerve cells form the optic


nerve

optic chiasma: region where the


optic nerves cross in the floor of the
diencephalon

Diencephalon:

Layer of bipolar neurons

Will synapse the receptor and

posterior pt. of the prosencephalon,

ganglion cells

ventrally elongated
-

cavity: III ventricle

Infundibulum:
-

evagination of the diencephalic floor

evaginates into the posterior or


neural tube of the pituitary together

Rods and Cones

where the photoreceptoral process is


formed

Pigmented epithelium:
-

from the medial half of the optic

with the stomodeum

vesicle

Mesencephalon:

bears the 3rd and 4th cranial nerves

cavity: cerebral aqueduct

outerwall of the optic cup: formed

fate: iris of the eye

16 EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON



Lens:

Skeletal muscle:
-

spherical body, patly enclosed by the

mesodermal masses lying on the

optic cup

lateral and ventral side of the

formed by the thickenings of the

pharynx

inner wall of the lens vesicle


-

Lens epithelium: one-cell thick

Oral suckers:
-

pair of glandular structures,

outer layer

composed of elongated columnar

Lens fibers: columnar cells, at the

cells

core of the lens that will later

become long fibers arranged in


layers

attachment to floating objects


-

Cornea:
-

superficial covering of the eye

from the assembly of ectodermal and

produces a sticky slime for


syn: cement glands , mucous
glands or adhesive glands

@ Level of the Myelencephalon and Auditory

mesodermal cells bet the ectoderm

Vesicle

and lens
Choroid and Sclera:
-

outer reserves of the optic cup

mesodermal cells aggregating


outside the pigmented epithelium

Pharynx:
-

lined by endodermal cells

Hypobranchial cartilages:
-

long masses of cartilages under the


floor of the foregut

makes up parts of the visceral

Meyelencephalon:
-

skeleton
-

func: support the pharynx

a thick floor
-

Thyroid:
-

lateral devt: becomes vascularized


to form the posterior choroids

paired, small endocrine bodies,


beneath the hypobranchial cartilages

most posterior region of the brain w/

plexus
-

cavity: IV ventricle

EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON 17



Auditory Vesicle:
-

Notochord:

completely closed hollow organ on

mesenchymal cells from the

each side of the medulla

notochord give rise to the

parts:

notochordal sheath

Endolymphatic duct: thick-walled

Parachordals:

structure bet. the medulla and ear

vesicle; marks the course of


invagination of the auditory vesicle
from the ectoderm
-

right
-

Conus arteriosus: most anterior

canal)

ventricle w/ the ventral aorta (syn:

Sacculus: (ill-defined ventral

Bulbus cordis)
-

Ventricle: chamber w/ thick

vertebrates, gives rise to the

muscular wall, connected to the

chochlea in higher vertebrates

conus
-

Atrium: dorsal, thin-walled

mesenchymal cells surrounding the

chamber; receives blood from the

a. vesicle

S.V. and delivers it to the ventricle

will form the cartilaginous ear

Sinus venosus: most posterior

capsule that surrounds and protects

chamber lying on the right, anterior

the inner ear

to the liver; receives venous blood

mass of nerve cells on the medial


side of the a. vesicle

Pericardial cavity: chamber


enclosing the heart

Auditory ganglion:
-

lightly coiled tube twisted to the

chamber of the heart, connects the

Auditory capsule:

epithelium thickened horizontal

chamber) forms the lagena in lower

Heart:

Semicircular canals: 3 mutually


perpendicular folds (sensory

each side

Utriculus: large dorsal chamber of


the ear vesicle

cartilages flanking the notochords on

syn: Acoustic ganglion

and delivers it to the atrium


Opercular cavity:
-

paired chamber continuous w/ the


gut and found on each side of the
heart

18 EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON



-

contains the internal gills w/ the

branchial blood vessels


-

syn: gill chamber

rhombencephalon
-

Dorsal aorta:
-

anterior subdivision of the


behind the optic lobes and medial to
the V ganglion

blood vessel located above ea. gill


chamber

@ Level of the Pronephros and the First

Aortic Arches:
-

Spiral Ganglion

blood vessels w/in the branchial


arches and encircling the pharynx

connect the dorsal aorta w/ the


ventral aorta

aortic arch 3-6 w/ gills

Ganglia:
-

Facial ganglion (VII): mass of


nerve cell bodies anterior to the
auditory ganglion; acoustico-facialis
ganglion- fusion of the facial and
auditory ganglia (syn: geniculate
ganglion)

Spinal cord:
-

neural tube

Trigeminal ganglion (V): mass of


nerve cell bodies ant and dorsal to
the acoustico-facialis ganglion (syn:

Neural canal:
-

Glossopharyngeal ganglion (IX):

granules

auditory vesicle
-

external wall of the opercular cavity


formed by a body fold

Metencephalon:

ependymal cells that line the central


canal possess cilia and pigment

mass of nerve cell bodies below ea.


Operculum:

cavity that is laterally compressed


by thick walls of the spinal cord

semilunar ganglion)
-

from the posterior region of the the

syn: central canal

Gray matter:
-

inner layer of the SC close to the


ependymal

EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON 19



-

composed of a compact mass of

Posterior Cardinal Veins:

neuroblast and neuroglia

White matter:
-

peripheral layer of SP containing the

tubules and supplies them with blood


Nephrostome:

axons of the neurons in the gray

matter
Meninges:
-

Nephric duct:
membranous covering of the CNS

thickened primordial of skeletal

Glomus:
-

SM fibers are arranged


longitudinally

lone duct, will eventually join the


cloaca

muscles on ea. side of the notochord


-

opening of the pronephric tubules


into the coelom

First Spinal Ganglia:


-

blood vessels w/in the pronephric

functional components of the


pronephric kidney

Stomach:

Pleuroperitoneal Cavity:

posterior continuation of the

contains the viscera

esophagus w/ folded lining and thick

pleural cavity: contains the lungs,

muscular walls

peritoneal cavity: contains the

lining form the rudiments of the

kidney and reprod. organ)

gastric glands
Duodenum:

tubular organ w/ folded mucosal

lining below the notochord


-

Pronephros:
paired excretory organs that arise

Intestine:
-

Pronephric tubules:
ducts of the pronephros lined w.
cuboidal epithelium

on the upper right corner of the body


cavity

from the nephrotome


-

region of the gut bet. the pyloric end


of the stomach and the intestine

Dorsal aorta
-

evaginations of the endodermal

digestive organs (assoc glands,


Esophagus:
-

posterior the duodenum and is filled


w/ abundant yolk platelets

Liver:
-

highly vascularized, enlarged organ


at the right of the midline

spaces : sinusoids

20 EXERCISE 4: ORGANOGENESIS (NEURULATION) MFDTUAZON



Gallbladder:
-

one-cell thick, large vesicle assoc.


with the liver

Bile duct:
-

thick-walled tube appears in place of


the gallbladder

Pancreas:
-

large organ at the curvature of the


stomach

right of the liver and bile duct

presence of alveoli (nest of cells),


surrounding the pancreas