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Improving student’s academic performance is not an easy task for the academic community of higher learning. Descriptive statistics is the discipline of quantitatively describing the main features of a collection of information, or the quantitative description itself.
We will be collecting the marks of 100 Students as population and here only marks of 20 students are shown as a sample and apply some measures that can be used like are commonly used to describe a data set. There are different measures of central tendency and measures of variability and dispersion. Measures of central tendency include the mean, median and mode, while measures of variability include the standard deviation (or variance), the minimum and maximum values of the variables, kurtosis and skewness.

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Volume: 2 Issue: 5

ISSN: 2321-8169

1188 1190

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Dr. Manju Kaushik #1, Bhawana Mathur #2

Associate Professor #1, Research Scholar #2

Department of Computer Science#1, Department of Computer Science #2

JECRC University, jaipur#1, JECRC University, jaipur#2

India#1, India #2

1

manju.kaushik@jecrcu.edu.in,

2

bhawanamathur19@gmail.com

Abstract Improving students academic performance is not an easy task for the academic community of higher learning. Descriptive

statistics is the discipline of quantitatively describing the main features of a collection of information, or the quantitative description itself.

We will be collecting the marks of 100 Students as population and here only marks of 20 students are shown as a sample and apply some

measures that can be used like are commonly used to describe a data set. There are different measures of central tendency and measures of

variability and dispersion. Measures of central tendency include the mean, median and mode, while measures of variability include the standard

deviation (or variance), the minimum and maximum values of the variables, kurtosis and skewness.

Keywords Descriptive statistics, central tendency, measures of variability, dispersion, kurtosis and skewness.

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

(e) Qualitative variable - A variable differing in quality is

I. INTRODUCTION

Descriptive statistics provide simple summaries about the called a qualitative variable or attribute, for example, the color,

sample and about the observations that have been made. Such the degree of damage of a car in an accident.

summaries may be either quantitative, i.e. Summary statistics, (f) Discrete variable - A discrete variable is one which no

or visual, i.e. Simple-to-understand graphs. These summaries value may be assumed between two given values, for example,

may either form the basis of the initial description of the data as the number of children in a family.

part of a more extensive statistical analysis, or they may be (h) Continuous variable - A continuous variable is one which

sufficient in and of themselves for a particular investigation.

any value may be assumed between two given values, for

Statistics is concerned with the scientific method by which example, the time for 100-meter run.

information is collected, organized, analyzed and interpreted

for the purpose of description and decision making.

Examples using statistics are: Hang Seng Index, Life or car

insurance rate, Unemployment rate, Consumer Price Index, etc.

There are two subdivisions of statistical method.

(a) Descriptive Statistics - It deals with the presentation of

numerical facts, or data, in either tables or graph form, and with

the methodology of analyzing the data.

(b) Inferential Statistics - It involves techniques for making

inferences about the whole population on the basis of

observations obtained from samples.

Some Basic Definitions

(a) Population - A population is the group from which data are

to be collected.

(b) Sample - A sample is a subset of a population.

(c) Variable - A variable is a feature characteristic of any

member of a population differing in quality or quantity from

one member to another.

(d) Quantitative variable - A variable differing in quantity is

called quantitative variable, for example, the weight of a person,

number of people in a car.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Experiential learning philosophy underlies simulation

education, in which students are able to develop and refine

knowledge. Simulation debriefing guides students through a

reflection on what occurred during a simulation scenario, with

the goal of developing the knowledge and skills [12] (Mark A.

Neill, Karen Wotton).

Studies have shown (demos, Garfield, Ooms, and Chance 2007)

that students abilities to describe and interpret a variables

distribution from a histogram, in the context of the data, is

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Volume: 2 Issue: 5

ISSN: 2321-8169

1188 1190

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

quite high even before taking a first course in statistics. While

qualitative descriptions of a Distribution are helpful for

summarizing a data set, students eventually will be asked to use

statistics to numerically describe a distribution in terms of

center, variability, and shape. Without difficulty, they can see

how the mean, median, and mode can indicate the center, and

how standard deviation and range can describe variability. But

the terms skewness and kurtosis are non-intuitive. Worse,

skewness and kurtosis statistics and formulas are opaque to the

average student, and lack concrete reference points.

A word about kurtosis is in order. Horswell and Looney (1993,

p. 437) note that The performance of skewness tests is shown

to be very sensitive to the kurtosis of the underlying

distribution. Few instructors say much about kurtosis, partly

because it is difficult explains, but also because it is difficult to

judge from histograms. Kurtosis is essentially a property of

symmetric distributions (Balanda and MacGillivray 1988).

Data sets containing extreme values will not only be skewed,

but also generally will be leptokurtic. We cannot therefore

speak of non-normal Skewness as if it were separable from

non-normal kurtosis. The best we can do is to focus on the

skewness statistic simply as one test for departure from the

symmetric normal

Distribution.

Cobb and Moore (1997, p. 803) note that In data analysis,

context provides meaning. Realizing this, over the past several

decades, more and more instructors are using sample data

arising from real (or realistic) scenarios. One result is that

students are learning that perfectly symmetrical graphical

displays are hard to find. Even with the ability to verbally

describe a distribution from a visual display, researchers have

found (delMas et al. 2007) that students cannot translate their

understanding of shape when asked to compare numerical

statistics such as the mean and median.

Hence, measures of skewness are becoming more important

(although many instructors may reasonably conclude that

kurtosis does not deserve extended discussion in a basic

statistics class)

3. Proposed Approach

1. Univariate Analysis

We will use Univariate analysis which is involves describing

the distribution of a single variable, including its central

tendency (including the mean, median, and mode) and

dispersion (including data-set, and measures of spread such as

the variance and standard deviation). The shape of the

distribution may also be described via indices such as

skewness and kurtosis. Characteristics of a variable's

distribution may also be depicted in graphical or tabular format,

including histograms and stem-and-leaf display.

2. Bivariate Analysis

When a sample consists of more than one variable, descriptive

statistics may be used to describe the relationship between pairs

of variables. In this case, descriptive statistics include:

The main reason for differentiating univariate and bivariate

analysis is that bivariate analysis is not only simple descriptive

analysis, but it also describes the relationship between two

different variables. [5]

3. Advantages of Descriptive statistics

Descriptive statistics is a powerful beast of burden:

(1) It collects and summarizes vast amounts of data and

information in a manageable and organized manner,

(2) A fairly straightforward process that can easily translate

into results in a distribution of frequency, percents and overall

averages.

(3) Establishes standard deviation,

(4) It's used when it may not be desirable to develop a complex

Research models,

(5) Deals with immediate data and single variables rather than

trying

to establish conclusions,

(6) Can identify further ideas of research,

(7) A good primer to learn about statistical processes, and

(8) Can lay the groundwork for more complex statistical

analysis.

TABLE I:

FROM 100 STUDENTS MARKS AS A POPULATION, HERE

ONLY MARKS OF 20 STUDENTS SAMPLE

Case

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

20

19

17

18

17

17

17

17

17

18

18

19

17

19

18

17

19

18

19

16.8

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_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 2 Issue: 5

ISSN: 2321-8169

1188 1190

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Analyze -> Descriptive Statistics -> Descriptives

Fig.2 Descriptives

Fig.5 Histogram: Students Marks vs Frequency

TABLE III

Mean and Standard Deviation and Number of Students

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

89.45

4.893

20

TABLE IIIII

Frequencies of 20 Students Results

Fig.3 Frequencies

Mean

89.45

1.094

Median

88.85

Mode

85

Std. Deviation

4.893

Variance

23.945

Skewness

0.580

0.512

Kurtosis

-0.874

0.992

Range

16

Minimum

84

Maximum

100

RESULT

Measures of central tendency include the mean is

89.45, median is 88.85 and mode are 85, while measures of

variability include the standard deviation is 4.893 and the

variance is 23.945, the minimum is 84 and maximum values of

the variables are 100, kurtosis are -0.874 and skewness. are

0.580

1190

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 2 Issue: 5

ISSN: 2321-8169

1188 1190

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK

In this study, we make use of descriptive statistics in the

students database this technique to predict the students

learning activities. The information generated after the

implementation of descriptive statistical technique may be

helpful for the instructor as well as for the students. This work

may improve students performance; reduce failing ratio by

taking appropriate steps at the right time to improve the quality

of education.

For future work, we will refine our technique in order to get

more valuable and accurate outputs that would be, useful for

instructors to improve the students learning outcomes.

REFERENCES

[1] R. Serfling, "Robust, Affine Invariant, Computationally

Easy

Nonparametric

Multivariate

Outlyingness

Functions", Session on "Data Depth Methods in Data

Mining,

Clustering,

and

Beyond", International

Conference on Nonparametric Statistics and Statistical

Learning, Ohio State University, May 2010.

[2]

L Hartling, A. Chisholm, D. Thomson, DM Dryden, A

Descriptive

Analysis of Overviews of Reviews , Health Care

Literature, Published

between 2000 and 2011.

[3]

A. Field Miles, J., & Z. Field, Discovering statistics

using R.,

American Psychological Association, Washington, DC,

2012.

[4]

De Veaux, RD, Velleman, PF & Bock, DE, Intro Stats,

th

4 edn, Pearson

Addison Wesley, Boston. , 2009.

[5]

Argyrous, G. Statistics for Research: With a Guide to

SPSS, SAGE,

London, ISBN 1-4129-1948-7, 2005

[6] R. Levesque, SPSS Programming and Data Management:

A Guide for SPSS and SAS Users, Fourth Edition, SPSS

Inc., Chicago, Ill. ISBN 1-56827-390-8, 2007.

[7]

SPSS 15.0 Command Syntax Reference, SPSS Inc.,

Chicago, Ill, 2006.

[8] Wellman, B. "Doing It Ourselves: The SPSS Manual as

Sociology's Most Influential Recent Book." pp. 7178

in Required Reading: Sociology's Most Influential Books,

edited by Dan Clawson. Amherst: University of

Massachusetts Press, ISBN 978-1-55849-153-3, 2006.

[8] R. Serfling, "Advances in Nonparametric Multivariate

Statistics in Bootstrap and Data Depth", International

Indian Statistical Association (IISA) Conference,

Riverside, July 2014

[9] J. B. Davis, and J. W. McKean, Rank based methods for

multivariate linear models, Journal of the American

Statistical Association, Vol. 88, pp. 245-251, 1993.

equivalent multivariate median, Journal of Biometrika,

Vol. 89, pp. 851-860, 2002.

[11] R. A. Johnson, and D. W. Wichern, Applied Multivariate

Statistical Analysis, 4th Ed., Upper Saddle River, New

Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002.

[12] Mark A. Neill, High-Fidelity Simulation Debriefing in

Nursing

Education: A Literature Review, Clinical

Simulation in Nursing, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages e161

e168, September 2011

[13] A Haarala-Muhonen, M Ruohoniemi, Comparison of

students

Perception of their teaching learning environment in

three professional

Academic disciplines: A valuable tool for quality

enhancementLearning Environments ,

International Journal of

Springer, 2011.

[14] David P. Doane, Lori E. Seward, Measuring Skewness:

A Forgotten

Statistic, Journal of Statistics Education, Volume 19,

Number 2, 2011,

1191

IJRITCC | May 2014, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

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