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ISSN (E): 2349 1183

ISSN (P): 2349 9265


1(2): 0107, 2014

Review article

Current status, issues and conservation strategies for Rattans of


North-East India
Hans Raj1, Sandeep Yadav1* and N. S. Bisht2
1
ICFRE-Advanced Research Centre for Bamboo and Rattan, Aizawl, Mizoram, India
2
ICFRE-Rain Forest Research Institute, Jorhat, Assam, India
*Corresponding Author: sandeep080987@gmail.com [Accepted: 12 June 2014]

Abstract: A comprehensive account of the status of rattans found in the north-east region of India
is presented here. Out of the 600 species found worldwide, a total of 20 species of rattan are found
in North-East India. Rattan is inseparably attached with the tradition and culture of tribal people of
the North-Eastern region. Since antiquity, people of this region have used to make many articles of
daily use. The unique mix of characteristics such as strength, durability, flexibility etc, makes
rattan a very good raw material for furniture and handicraft industries. But sadly, these industries,
through their continued overexploitation and unsustainable extraction of rattan, have exhausted the
natural rattan resources of the region. Major issues and threat to the conservation of rattans are
noted, and lastly solutions are suggested for the sustainable extraction and conservation of this
valuable resource.
Keywords: Rattan - Furniture - Handicraft - Overexploitation - Sustainable - Conservation.

[Cite as: Raj H, Yadav S & Bisht NS (2014) Current status, issues and conservation strategies for Rattans of
North-East India. Tropical Plant Research 1(2): 17]

INTRODUCTION
Rattans are climbing spiny palms belonging to the Calamoideae, a large sub-family of Palm family (Palmae
or Arecaceae). There are around 600 species of rattans belonging to 14 genera in the world (Dransfield 1981).
These are naturally distributed in the South East Asia from Fiji Island to Africa and from southern China to
Queensland (Australia) with the greatest concentration in the Dipterocarp rain forests of the Malaysian
Archipelago (Weidelt 1990). India has a good representation of rattans with 5 genera and 60 species mainly
found in Western Ghats, Andaman and North-East India (Renuka 1999) (Table 1, Fig. 1). In fact, the rattans
comprise more than fifty per cent of the total palm taxa found in India (Basu 1985).

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Received: 02 April 2014 Published online: 30 June 2014
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Table 1. Diversity of rattans in India.
No. of species distributed in
S. No. Genera
NE Region Andaman & Nicobar Island Western Ghats
1 Calamus 14 11 23
2 Daemonorops 1 3 -
3 Plectocomia 4 - -
4 Korthalsia - 3 -
5 Salacca 1 - -
Total 20 17 23

Figure 2. Habit of rattan.

PLANT HABIT
Rattans have long and flexible stems that need support (Fig. 2). Some species are single-stemmed while
others are multi-stemmed. Single-stemmed species can only be harvested once, while the multi-stemmed ones
can be harvested sustainably/multiple times. Surrounding the stem are sheathing leaf bases which are nearly
always fiercely spiny, the spines are sometimes arranged in neat rows and interlocking to form galleries in
which ants make their nest, to provide extra protection to an already well protected plant. This may prevent
animals from feeding on the tender growing point (called cabbage), hidden within the leaf-sheaths. In addition
to sheath spines, rattans usually have whips, either on the leaf sheaths or at the ends of the leaves. They are
armed with grouped, grapnel-like spines and play a major role in supporting the rattan as it climbs in the forest
canopy. These whips and spines make collection unpleasant (Dransfield 2001).

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FLORAL BIOLOGY
Rattans are dioecious, the male and female plants being separate and the flowering is annual, although
Korthalsia is a monoecious genus in Asia and the flowers are bisexual. If the rattan is a single stem species the
whole plant dies, on the contrary if the plant belongs to clustering species only the individual stem dies.
In pleonanthic species, after a juvenile period of vegetative growth, maturity is reached and inflorescences
are continuously produced without compromising the vitality of the stem. All the species of Korthalsia,
Laccosperma, Plectocomia, Plectocomiop and Myrialepsis, and a few species of Daemonorops are hepaxanthic.
All other rattan species are pleonanthic (Dransfield 2001).

OVEREXPLOITATION OF RATTANS
The tribal people of North-Eastern India make extensive use of long canes of Plectocomia and Daemonorops
for making cane bridges. Split strings from the slender canes are used as cordage and dragline for catching fish.
Strong but slender canes are used for making bows and arrows. Radical leaves of Calamus andamanicus and
Daemonorops kurzii are used as thatch. To the Jarwa tribes of Andaman Island, C. andamanicus is the source of
soft drinking water (Sangal 1971). A section of a 3-m long cane, when cut and held vertically, yields sap that
trickles down from the cut end.

Figure 3. Commercial uses of rattan: A, Harvested raw material; B, Stacking and processing of canes; C, Edible
tender shoots; D-E, Cane furniture; F, Cane handicraft.

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Rattan is of great economic importance in handicraft and furniture making because of its richness in fibre,
with suitable toughness and easy for processing (Fig. 3). They are highly valued and have social and economic
importance because of their unique characteristics such as strength, durability, looks and bending ability; they
are regarded as green gold (Mohan Ram & Tandon 1997). In 1996, about 80% of the rattans at the
international market originated from Indonesia and in 1999, the export volume was 590,021 tons and a value of
US $ 1.147 billion (Anonymous 2000).
From the utility point of view, their position is next to timber and possibly equal to that of bamboos. Canes
play an important role in the rural economy employing many people in the remote areas, who earn their
livelihood through extraction of canes, cleaning and processing. Urban people are employed in the small-scale
industries and cottage industries manufacturing cane furniture and other articles.
Because of high demand for rattan products worldwide and its collection from wild habitat, rapid
deforestation and land-use/land-cover change, there exists a considerable threat to the survivability of most of
the species of rattans (Singh et al. 2004).

STATUS OF RATTANS
Of the approximately 600 species of rattan, 117 are recorded as being threatened to some degree (Walter &
Gillett 1998); of these, 21 are endangered, 38 are regarded as vulnerable, 28 as being rare and 30 as
indeterminate (IUCN Red List Categories 1997). North-Eastern states alone accounts for 4 genera and more
than 20 species. Out of these 20 species, 14 species are being threatened including eleven endemic species (Basu
1992).

MAJOR ISSUES
Threats to rattan come from several sources including:
Decreasing natural forest cover leading to loss of habitat.
Selective exploitation of stems for the furniture industry.
Increased exploitation for handicrafts.
Exploitation of apical stem and seeds for food (most damaging of all threats) and
Biotic factors such as diseases and pests.
Rattans are dioecious, i.e., the male and female plants are separate but the sex of the plant cannot be
identified till they flower which is after 5 years of planting (Ahmad & Ghani 1989). Hence extraction
before flowering may reduce the number of any one sex of the plant in the population.
In India, reproductive biology of rattans has not been studied in detail. Application of molecular tools
(markers, particularly DNA markers), for sex determination in early stage is very much desired.
At present out of the species reported, six species are critically endangered, eight are endangered and
26 are vulnerable and has no conservation strategy
In rattans even though fruits are produced in large quantities in natural forests, practically no natural
regeneration from seeds is seen near the mother plant in many areas. Whether this is due to dispersal
mechanisms or due to other ecological reasons is not known.
Since the rattan requires the stake for its proper growth and development, thereby it can be
intercropped with the important economic agroforestry species.
Suitable tree species for rattan farming and silvicultural model has to be identified.
Package of practices for its cultivation has not yet been developed.
Little information is available on the edaphic and climatic requirements of different species of the
rattan.
Moreover there is no mention of rattan in Green India Mission and state of forest report.
An analysis of distribution of rattans in the three different major areas in India shows that much change has
taken place in their distribution over the years because of the shrinkage of the natural forest cover. In the north-
eastern states shifting cultivation had been degrading and denuding the forests since long ago. Many of the
species reported earlier from certain localities are absent now (Renuka 1999). The growing popularity of rattan
furniture resulted in overexploitation of this important forest resource. In many regions, commercial species
have been seriously depleted as the rapid exploitation continues unabated. This situation, if left unresolved, will

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bring about severe economic and social repercussions. Calamus travancoricus, C. rotang, C. dransfieldiiand C.
nambariensis have become extremely rare in their original localities.
Their availability in wild from forests has become scarce due to over exploitation over the years and now
there is a need to grow them in plantation to meet various demands. There is an urgent need to disseminate
information about cultivation techniques of canes so that their plantations could be raised successfully.
Plantation of cane is not a usual phenomenon in the forestry. Thus there is not much information available to
foresters to raise successful plantations. Information on nursery techniques and plantation techniques are, though
available elsewhere in the country, it is not accessible to the foresters and farmers of the north-east region in
general.
In north-east India, these species are still found in wild habitats and are considered as minor, non-wood
forest species. Due to the common practice of shifting cultivation in the hills of this region and rapid
urbanisation, the natural reserves of rattan are being quickly depleted. Moreover many communities of north-
east consume its shoots and seeds as food disrupting its further growth. This resource is, therefore, bound to dry
up in the future. The dioecious nature of the north-east Indian species and indiscriminate harvesting often
hamper seed propagation, and regeneration in the natural stand in forest. As a result many species from these
reserves have come under threat.
There is no sufficient commercial rattan plantation in India as well as in north-eastern region and natural
forests are sole sources of its supply. Due to its versatile and increasing uses and shrinking natural habitat cane
resources are reducing at an alarming rate. Most of the rattans are in threatened state, some are on the verge of
extinction4 and many of the species reported earlier from this region are not present now (Renuka 1996).
Many of the cane industrial units in southern India are known to get their supplies from North-East India.
But the status of forests in North-East India itself is a matter of concern due to shifting cultivation and heavy
logging (Renuka 1996). In the Andaman and Nicobar islands also the natural resource is getting depleted at a
faster rate due to over-exploitation (Renuka 1995). If the depletion continues in the present rate, the natural
rattan resources will almost be totally decimated in a few years. Most of the rattans that occur in the Western
Ghats of Kerala region are in the juvenile stage, due to unscientific exploitation. Mature rattans are restricted
mostly to remote areas. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop a strategy for scientific management to
conserve this valuable forest resource.

CONCLUSION AND SOLUTIONS


North-East India is a home of rich and diverse reserves of rattans, which form the most important non-timber
forest product of the region. The livelihood of many people depends on rattan as it is used to make a wide range
of furniture products and handicraft articles. To meet the demand of industries, rattan has been harvested
unsustainably by the tribal people of north-east India. This unscientific exploitation of rattans has depleted the
natural rattan resources of the region. To conserve the rattan resources, following strategies should be
implemented and applied in the field:
1) Preservation of Natural Resources
Even though strict control of the exploitation of wild stock is prevalent, many times this cannot be
effectively implemented. It is practically impossible to control the illicit extraction from the forest areas.
Extraction can be controlled in protected areas like Biological parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries and this will help
to conserve rattan to a certain extent.
2) Cultivation
Cultivation of commercially important species for the industrial sector can relieve the pressure on the wild
stock. Before adapting the species for large scale plantations outside its natural home, species trials should be
conducted to assess the suitability of the species for a particular geo-climatic region. Though rattans occur from
almost sea level to 2000 m, most of them show altitudinal preferences. Many of the species are distributed
below 1000 m, while some are found only at higher altitudes. Some species are restricted to certain localities.
Rattan is not domesticated and so it is not subjected to any selection. The method followed in selecting the
superior plants in other crops cannot be applied to rattans since the age of the clump cannot be determined in the
natural forests. Hence it is very difficult to compare and assess the superiority. Some of the clumps might have
been partially harvested earlier, making it impossible to assess the original growth. The only possible way of
selection at present is to select the mother plants on the basis of phenotypic superiority.

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To start cultivation in the plantation level, a regular seed supply should be obtained for which it will be
necessary to set aside some accessible stands of good rattans as seed stands. It has however proved difficult to
maintain seed stands in the wild since no rattan seems to be safe from rattan collectors. Extraction of rattan
before flowering and the destruction of natural habitat of rattan drastically affect the seed source. Hence there is
a need to raise seed stands in protected areas.
Due to the global phenomenon of decreasing forest cover and consequent habitat destruction coupled with
over exploitation, there is reduction in the availability of this important non-timber forest produce. Therefore,
many industries, which depend on wild resource, are now finding it extremely difficult to obtain their required
raw materials. This warrants some urgent measures to be taken up for developing commercial Plantations and
farming of rattans. North-eastern states with their favourable agro-climatic condition and habitat, offer immense
scope for raising plantation of rattans in commercial scale.
Canes can be grown as inter-crop with valuable timber species which provides shade and support for
climbing. Such cultivation will not only add to the productivity but also provide a sustainable source of income
in a perennial manner to the farmer. They can also be cultivated in marshy areas, marginal land, jhumfallows
and waste land.
3) In situ conservation
In India, there has been no serious effort so far to conserve rattans in situ. Even though National Parks and
Bio-reserves are helpful in promoting in situ conservation, illicit harvesting cannot be controlled efficiently. For
conserving the natural populations, some of the State Forest Departments have introduced extraction rules.
Generally the extraction is carried out on a 4-year rotation. The Government has also banned the export of the
raw material.
Rattans are planted and protected in sacred groves. There are about 80 rattan bearing sacred groves in Kerala
alone (Mohanan & Muraleedharan 1988).
4) Ex situ conservation
State forest departments of Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Goa have started large-scale plantations of
rattans. Certain species are cultivated in homesteads. But only three or four economically important species are
protected like this.
A live collection consisting of about 30 species is maintained in the Kerala Forest Research Institute campus.
Seed stands of 12 species have been raised in Thrissur Forest Division. The State Forest Research Institute in
Arunachal Pradesh has also started germplasm conservation. Advanced Research Centre for Bamboo and Rattan
(ARCBR), Aizawl, Mizoram, a unit of Rain Forest Research Institute, Jorhat, Assam under Indian Council of
Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun, Uttarakhand have conserved all the 4 genera of rattan
found in this region (Calamus, Daemonorops, Salacca and Plectocomia spp.), collected from different parts of
North-Eastern India. These genera are planted in the reserve forest of the ARCBR campus and maintained for
research and extension purposes.
5) Biotechnological approaches
Since rattans are dioecious in nature and their reproductive biology has not been studied in detail mainly
because of lack of rattan plantations and the inaccessibility of the natural populations in forests, therefore, there
is an urgent need for the sex-determination in the early stage by employing the molecular and biotechnological
approaches which may be helpful in conservation of rattan resources.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank Director, Rain Forest Research Institute, Assam, India for providing all of the
research facilities and encouragement.

REFERENCES
Ahmad HJD & Ghani AB R (1989) Flowering and fruiting in Calamus manan. RIC Bulletin 8(1/4): 2.
Anonymous (2000) Technical report. Indonesia Furniture Industry and Handicraft Association. Asmindo.
Basu SK (1985) The present status of Rattans Palms in India-An overview. In: Wong & Manokaram (eds)
Proceedings Rattan Seminar. Kuala Lumpur, pp. 7794.
Basu SK (1992) Conservation status of Rattan in India. In: Chand BS & Bhat KM (eds) Rattan Management
and Utilization. KFRI, Kerala & IDRC, Canada, pp. 6775.

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Dransfield J (1981) The biology of Asiatic rattans in relation to the rattan trade and conservation. In: Synge H
(eds), The biological aspects of rare plant conservation, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., London,pp. 179186.
Dransfield J (2001) Taxonomy, biology and ecology of rattan. Unasylva 52(2): 1113.
Mohanan C & Muraleedharan PK (1988) Rattan resources in the sacred grooves of Kerala, India. RIC Bulletin
7(4): 45.
Mohan Ram H Y & Tandon R (1997) Bamboos and rattans: from riches to rags. Proceedings of the Indian
National Science Academy 63: 245267.
Renuka C (1995) A manual of the rattans of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. KFRI, Kerala, 72 p.
Renuka C (1996) Rattans of North eastern India- a cause for great concern. Arunachal Pradesh Forest News
14(2): 811.
Renuka C (1999) Indian rattan distribution-An update. Indian Forester 125(6): 591598.
Sangal PM (1971) Forest food for the tribal population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indian Forester 97:
646650.
Singh HB, Puni L, Jain Alka, Singh RS & Rao PG (2004) Status, utility, threats, and conservation options for
rattan resources in Manipur. Current science 87 (1): 9094.
Walter KS & Gillett HJ (1977) IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
Weidelt HJ (1990) Rattan growing in South-East Asia- an ecological well-adapted form of land use. Plant
Research and Development 31: 2632.

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ISSN (P): 2349 9265
1(2): 0810, 2014

Research article

Comparison of general nutritional composition of wild rice Oryza


rhizomatis D.A. Vaughan and the commercial variety Bg352
Gowri Rajkumar1, 3*, Renuka Silva2, Jagathpriya Weerasena3 and Kumudu Fernando4
1
Department of Botany, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka
2
Department of Applied Nutrition, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka
3
Institute of Biochemistry Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
4
Agricultural Biotechnological Centre, University of Peredeniya, Sri Lanka
*Corresponding Author: gowrir@jfn.ac.lk [Accepted: 22 June 2014]

Abstract: Oryza rhizomatis is an endemic wild rice species of Sri Lanka. Numerous studies on
nutritional attributes on several wild rice species revealed that some wild rice species contain
desirable nutritional qualities than the commercial rice varieties. A preliminary investigation was
carried out to compare general nutrition composition of O. rhizomatis seeds and the popular
commercial variety Bg352 seeds (Oryza sativa L.). Carbohydrate, protein, fat, moisture and ash
content of the seeds of this wild rice species was estimated by nutrient content analysis according
to the standard protocols recommended by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC),
USA. An unpaired t-test indicated that there was a significant difference between nutritional
compositions of two samples at 0.05 significant level (P value < 0.05). According to the mean
values, the mean protein content of 12.300 g/100 g, carbohydrate content of 69.354 g/100 g and
the fat content of 2.528 g/100 g was found in O. rhizomatis. Whereas the moisture and ash content
of O. rhizomatis is lower than in cultivated variety Bg352.
Keywords: Oryza rhizomatis - Bg352 - Nutritional composition - Protein - Carbohydrate - Fat.

[Cite as: Rajkumar G, Silva R, Weerasena J & Fernando K (2014) Comparison of general nutritional
composition of wild rice Oryza rhizomatis D.A. Vaughan and the commercial variety Bg352. Tropical Plant
Research 1(2): 810]

INTRODUCTION
Rice is the staple food of Sri Lankan. Oryza rhizomatis D.A. Vaughan is an endemic perennial wild rice
species of Sri Lanka (Liyanage et al. 2002) with some desirable characteristic features as resistance to biotic and
abiotic stresses. O. rhizomatis is adapted to specific areas and highly resistant to drought, temperature, soil type
and water quality. O. rhizomatis has the best adaptability to survive in the adverse environmental condition
(drought) of dry zone because of its thick root system and underground branched rhizome. O. rhizomatis is the
only species which has the branched underground rhizome and this feature makes it a perennial plant (Tao et al.
2001).
Several studies confirmed that most of the wild rice species have higher nutritional value and can be
considered as food source comparable to commercial cultivars (Kennedy & Burlingame 2003, Anderson 1976).
Even though the yield of O. rhizomatis is low, the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of
O. rhizomatis grains and compared to cultivated high yielding rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bg352 with the aim of
incorporating this wild rice species in crop improvement programmes in future.
Bg352 seeds were selected as the control as Bg352 is a popular commercial variety with white intermediate
bold grains. It is cultivated in 16.63% of the total extent of rice cultivation of Sri Lanka (Jeyawardena et al.
2010).

MATERIAL AND METHODS


Plant materials
O. rhizomatis and Bg352 seeds were collected from Rice Research and Development Institute (RRDI) Sri
Lanka. Weight of each sample was recorded, before and after milling the seeds. Four replicates from Bg352 and
O. rhizomatis were used in this study.
Moisture content

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Rajkumar et al. (2014) 1(2): 0810
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The moisture content was measured according to the AOAC method 925.10 (AOAC, 1990). An empty dish
and the lid were dried in an oven at 105oC for 3 hrs and transferred to desiccators until cool and weight was
recorded. Subsequently seed sample was placed in the dish and oven dried at 105oC until a constant weight is
reached. After drying, the dish with partially covered lid was transferred to a desiccator for cooling and the
weight of the dish was recorded as above.
Ash content
The ash content was calculated according to AOAC method 923.03(AOAC, 1990). Crucible and the lid were
placed in the furnace at 550C for overnight to ensure that impurities on the surface of crucible are burned off.
Crucible was cooled in the desiccator for 30 min and weight was recorded. Weight of sample and crucible was
then measured (before ignition) again. Crucible with the sample was heated over low Bunsen flame with half
covered lid and placed in a furnace until fumes are no longer produced. Crucible was then heated at 550C for
overnight, cooled in a desiccator and the weight was recorded.
Crude fat content
Crude fat content was measured according to AOAC method 996.06 (Eromosele & Eromosele, 1994). A
flask and the lid were placed in an incubator at 105oC overnight to ensure the weight of the flask is stable.
Weighed sample was filled into extraction thimble and transferred into Soxhlet apparatus. Petroleum ether (250
ml) was filled into the flask and heated for about 14 hrs (heat rate was 150 drops/min). Solvent was evaporated
by using a vacuum condenser. Flask was incubated at 80-90oC until the solvent is completely evaporated and the
flask was completely dried. Then the flasks were transferred to the desiccator for cooling and the residue weight
was recorded.
Protein content
Protein content was measured according to AOAC method 984.13, A-D (AOAC, 1990). Weighed sample
was placed in a digestion flask. Then Kjedahl catalyst (5 g) and of concentrated H2SO4 (200 ml) was added. A
separate flask was prepared as the blank by adding above chemicals except the sample. Flask was placed in an
inclined position and heated gently until frothing ceases and boiled briskly until the solution was clear. Then
flask was allowed to cool and 60 ml of distilled water was added. Flask was connected to digestion bulb with tip
of condenser immersed in standard acid (H2SO4) and 57 drops of mix indicator in the receiver. Condenser was
rotated to mix the content thoroughly and heated until all NH3 was distilled. Then the receiver was removed and
titrated with standard NaOH solution.
Carbohydrate content
Carbohydrate content was calculated by the difference after subtracting protein, fat, moisture and ash.
Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 14 statistical software. An unpaired t-test was used to
compare the nutrient content of O. rhizomatis with Bg352.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Nutritional aspect of endemic rice species O. rhizomatis is not reported yet. To consider O. rhizomatis as a
possible candidate for new rice varietal development, it is essential to understand the nutritional value of the
seeds. Therefore investigation was carried out to compare the nutrient content of this wild rice species with
cultivated rice (Table 1).

Table 1. Comparison of general nutritional composition between wild rice species and cultivated variety.
Component Wild species (g/100 g) Cultivated variety (g/100 g) P value*
Moisture 14.716 ( 0.240) 13.167 (0.335) 0.0001
Ash 1.137 ( 0.105 1.610 ( 0.072) 0.001
Fat 2.528 ( 0.064) 3.068 ( 0.094) 0.0001
Protein 12.300 (0.123) 6.550 ( (0.087) 0.0001
Carbohydrate 69.354 ( 0.137) 75.611 (0.250) 0.0001

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Rajkumar et al. (2014) 1(2): 0810
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An unpaired t-test indicated that there was a significant difference between nutritional compositions of two
samples at 0.05 significant level (P value < 0.05). According to the mean value, the mean protein content of O.
rhizomatis was 12.300 g/100 g. It is approximately two times as high as the cultivated variety Bg352 (6.550
g/100 g) whereas Bg352 contained comparatively higher amount of carbohydrate (75.611 g/100 g) than O.
rhizomatis (69.354 g/100 g). O. rhizomatis has relatively low fat content (2.528 g/100 g) than Bg352 (3.068
g/100 g). The moisture and ash content of Bg352 were higher than O. rhizomatis.

CONCLUSION
O. rhizomatis possesses some desirable nutritional attributes. Therefore, this species could be considered as a
protein rich food source with low fat and carbohydrate content. However, extensive studies on total nutritional
content including mineral and vitamin content is suggested to conclude its use as a food source.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors are thankful to Mr P.V. Hemachandra, Research officer, Rice Research and Development Institute,
Department of Agriculture for providing rice seeds for this research.

REFERENCES
Anderson RA (1976) Wild rice: nutritional review. Cereal Chemistry 53: 949955.
AOAC (1990) Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th edition.
Washington, DC, Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Eromosele I & Eromosele O (1994) Studies on the chemical composition and physic-chemical properties of
seeds of some wild plants. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 46: 361365.
Jeyawardena N, Muthynayake P & Abeysekera W (2010) Present status of varietal spread of rice (Oryza sativa
L.) in Sri Lanka. Annals of the Sri Lankan Department of Agriculture12: 247256.
Kennedy G & Burlingame B (2003) Analysis of food composition data on rice from a plant genetic resources
perspective. Food Chemistry 80: 589596.
Liyanage U, Hemachandra P,Edirisinghe K, Senevirathna K & Takahashi J (2002) Surveying and mapping of
wild rice species of Oryza in Sri Lanka. Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture 46: 1422.
Tao D, Hu F, Yang Y, Xu P, Li J & Wen G (2001) Rhizomatous individual was obtained from interspecific
BC2F1 progenies between Oryza sativa and Oryza longistaminata. Rice Genetics Newsletter 18: 11.

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1(2): 1116, 2014

Research article

Fresh water Cyanobacteria of Sai River near Lucknow,


Uttar Pradesh
Neha Srivastava, M. R. Suseela* and Kiran Toppo
Algology laboratory, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow- 226 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Corresponding Author: mr.suseela@gmail.com [Accepted: 24 June 2014]

Abstract: The present paper deals with the identification of 23 fresh water cyanobacterial species
belonging to 14 genera from Sai river, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India). A total of 15 algal samples
were collected from 5 different sites of Sai River in March 2013. In the present study Anabaena
(5), Scytonema (2), Oscillatoria (3), Chroococcus (2), Gloeothece (1) and Lyngbya (2) were found
to be the dominant forms, whereas Gloeotrichia (1), Microcystis (1), Aphanothece (1),
Phormidium (1) were shown common occurrence and Spirulina (1), Gloecapsa (1),
Cylindrospermum (1), Nostoc (1) were found rare. All these forms were reported for the first time
from the study site.
Keywords: Blue green algae - Diversity - Abundance.

[Cite as: Srivastava N, Suseela MR & Toppo K (2014) Fresh water cyanobacteria of Sai River near Lucknow,
Uttar Pradesh. Tropical Plant Research 1(2): 1116]

INTRODUCTION
Sai River is a tributary of Gomti River which originates in Hardoi district of Uttar Pradesh and separates the
district of Lucknow with Unnao. The river flows towards south and enters in the district of Pratapgarh through
west, then it turns east. Many districts of Uttar Pradesh are situated on the banks of Sai river and it is one of the
most sacred rivers of Hindus. The total course of the river in the district is about 100 km in length and the banks
of river are precipitous in many places. The study site is located within the coordination of E 26 13'43" N 81
13'6" at the elevation of 106.7 m.
Cyanobacteria (blue green algae) comprise unique group of organisms. They are microscopic, unicellular
and filamentous forms. They are the major primary producers in all habitats occupying about 75% of the earths
surface and produce 80% oxygen. Cyanobacteria is a large group of structurally complex and ecologically
significant gram-negative prokaryotes which flourish in lotic and lentic water bodies, and play a major role in
sustaining the fertility of the ecosystem.
Cyanobacterial taxonomy has a diverse and great diagnostic importance in floristic analysis as well as basic
applied aspects of research. Studies on Cyanophyceaen algae from saline-alkali soils of Sikanderpur, Hardoi,
Uttar Pradesh was carried out by Singh et al. (1995). Prasad & Mehrotra (1978, 1979) reported 39 taxa of blue-
green algae from various crop fields of Uttar Pradesh. But absolutely there are no reports on Cyanobacterial
flora of Sai River. Therefore, the present investigation has been carried out to enumerate Cyanobacterial flora of
Sai River near Lucknow.

MATERIAL AND METHODS


Fresh water algal samples were collected from different sites of Sai River, Lucknow Uttar Pradesh (India) in
month of March, 2013. Collected samples were preserved in 10% formalin and deposited at phycology
laboratory of CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow. Microscopic observation was done by
Lieca DM.500 research microscope and photomicrography was done with attached camera EC-3. The
identification of taxa was done by referring standard taxonomic manuals of Desikachary (1959) and Prescott
(1951). The physico-chemical analysis of the water was measured by HACH instrument.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The physico-chemical characteristics of water collected from Sai river shows its pH 8.4, dissolve oxygen,
8.46, conductivity 547 s.cm-1, temperature 20.2C, nitrate 4.1 mg.L-1, phosphate 1.38 mg.L-1, sulphate 27
mg.L-1, iron 0.03 mg.L-1 and silicate 5.6 mg.L-1. In the present study a total of 23 Cyanobacterial taxa with 14

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genera belonging to 2 orders Chroococcales and Nostocales have been reported. Species of Anabaena (5),
Scytonema (2), Oscillatoria (3), Chroococcus (2), Gloeothece (1) and Lyngbya (2) were found to be the
dominant forms, where as Gloeotrichia (1), Microcystis (1), Aphanothece (1), Phormidium (1) were shown
common occurrence and Spirulina (1), Gloecapsa (1), Cylindrospermum (1), Nostoc (1) were found rare (Table
1).
Table 1. Diversity, distribution and abundance of Cyanobacterial flora in various sites of Sai river.
Abundance
Sl. No. Name of organism
Dominant Common Rare
1. Chroococcus minor (Kuitz.) Nag. +++ - -
2. Chroococcus turgidus (Kuitz) Nag. +++ - -
3. Gloeothece rupestris (Lyngb.) Bornet +++ - -
4. Aphanothece saxicola Nag. - ++ -
5. Gloeocapsa gelatinosa Kuitz. - - +
6. Microcystis aeruginosa Kuitz. - ++ -
7. Anabaena circinalis Rabenhorst ex Born.et Flash. +++ - -
8. Anabaena doliolum Bharadwaja +++ - -
9. Anabaena flos-aque Ralfs ex Born +++ - -
10. Anabaena iyengarii Bharadwaja +++ - -
11. Anabaena torulosa Lagerheim ex Bornet & Flahault +++ - -
12. Cylinderospermum stagnale (Kuitz) Born. et Flah. - - +
13. Nostoc punctiforme (Kuitz.) Hariot - - +
14. Gloeotrichia longicauda Schmidle - ++ -
15. Scytonema mirabile (Dillw.) Born. +++ - -
16. Scytonema simplex Bharadwaja +++ - -
17. Lyngbya allorgei Fremy +++ - -
18. Lyngbya confervoides C. Ag. ex Gomont +++ - -
19. Oscillatoria limosa Ag. ex Gomont +++ -
20. Oscillatoria prolifica (Grev.) Gomont +++ - -
21. Oscillatoria tenuis Ag. ex Gomont +++ - -
22. Spirulina major Kuitz. ex Gomont - - +
23. Phormidium mucicola Hub. Pestalozzi et Naumann - ++ -
+++: Dominant; ++: Common; +: Rare; -: Absent

Taxonomic enumeration of all 23 species with classification details were described below
Division: Cyanophyta
Class: Cyanophyceae
Order: Chroococcales
Family: Chroococcaceae
Genus: Chroococcus
1. Chroococcus minor (Kuitz.) Nag. (Fig. 1E)
Colony slimy-gelatinous, dirty blue-green, or olive green; cells spherical, 34 m in diameter, singly or in
pairs, seldom 4 or 8; sheath colorless, very thin, hardly visible.
2. Chroococcus turgidus (Kuitz) Nag. (Fig. 1N)
Cells spherical or ellipsoidal single, or in groups of mostly 24, seldom many, blue green or olive green or
yellowish, without sheath 832 m, with sheath 1335 m, in diameter; rarely 40 m; sheath colourless, not
distinctly lamellated.
Genus: Gloeothece
3. Gloeothece rupestris (Lyngb.) Bornet (Fig. 1P)
Cells ellipsoidal to cylindrical, without envelope 4.06.0 m broad, 1.53.0 times as long as broad, with
envelope 0812m broad, contents mostly blue-green, 24 rarely 8 together in oval to subglobose colonies,

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colonies 2541 m diameter, envelops colourless or brownish at the periphery, lamellated or unlamellated;
inside the colonies diffluent.
Family: Microcystaceae
Genus: Aphanothece
4. Aphanothece saxicola Nag. (Fig. 1M)
Thallus mucilaginous, colorless or yellowish; cells cylindrical, 12 m broad and 23 times long, single or
in pairs, seldom many in a common, mucilaginous envelope, pale blue-green.
Genus: Gloecapsa
5. Gloeocapsa gelatinosa Kuitz. (Fig. 1F)
Cells without sheath about 2.5 m and with sheath 6.210.0 m diameter, blue-green in colour; colonies
about 25 m diameter; sheath colorless, seemingly thin, older colonies lamellated.
Genus: Microcystis
6. Microcystis aeruginosa Kuitz. (Fig. 1L)
Colonies when young round or slightly longer than broad, solid, old colonies clathrate, with distinct hyaline
colonial mucilage; cells 37 m in diameter, spherical, generally with gas vacuoles.
Order: Nostocales
Family: Nostocaceae
Genus: Anabaena
7. Anabaena circinalis Rabenhorst ex Bornet. et Flash. (Fig. 1A)
Colony frothy, floating; trichome mostly circinate, seldom straight, mostly without a sheath, 814 m broad;
cells barrel-shaped or spherical, somewhat shorter than broad, heterocysts subspherical, 810 m broad; spores
cylindrical, sometimes curved, ends rounded, 1618 m broad up to 34 m long.
8. Anabaena doliolum Bharadwaja (Fig. 1J)
Thallus mass mucilaginous, pale blue-green; trichome single, free-swimming, straight, curved or slightly
coiled, 3.64.2 m broad, slightly tapering at the ends, with conical apical cell, possessing almost pointed apex,
cells barrel-shaped, as long as broad or a little longer or shorter than broad; heterocysts barrel-shaped, 5.26.3
m broad and 6.39.4 m long; spores ellipsoidal, with almost pointed apices in short or long chains, adjoining
the heterocysts but developed centrifugally, epispore thick, smooth and hyaline or yellow brown, 4.26.2 m
broad and 6.311.5 m long.
9. Anabaena flos-aquae Ralfs ex Bornet (Fig. 1H)
Trichome single, straight or bent, with almost rounded end cells, up to 350 m long, 5.05.6 m broad, at
the apex 4 m broad; cells barrel-shaped, 4.88.0 m long; heterocysts almost spherical, 6.48.4 m broad;
spores in long chains, often making the whole trichome sporogenous, adjoining the heterocysts but formed
centrifugally, almost spherical, with a smooth hyaline outer wall, 4.88.0 m broad and 3.28.8 m long.
10. Anabaena iyengarii Bharadwaja (Fig. 1W)
Trichome single or irregularly curved, 5.26.3 m broad, end-cell conical with rounded apex; cells barrel-
shaped, as long as broad, or slightly shorter or longer than broad; heterocysts barrel-shaped, 7.38.4 m broad
and 7.310.5 m long; spores ellipsoidal often in long or short chains, rarely single on both sides of the
heterocysts, 8.410.5 m broad and 10.521.0 m long, epispore thick, smooth and yellowish brown.
11. Anabaena torulosa Lagerheim ex Bornet & Flahault (Fig. 1X)
Thallus mucilaginous, thin, blue-green, trichome 4.25.0 m broad, apical cell acutely conical, cells barrel-
shaped, as long as or somewhat shorter than broad, heterocysts subspherical or ovoid, 6 m broad and 610 m
long, spores on both sides of the heterocysts developed centripetally in the middle, 712 m broad up to twice
as long as broad, epispore smooth and pale brown in colour.
Genus: Cylindrospermum
12. Cylindrospermum stagnale (Kuitz) Bornet. et Flah. (Fig. 1V)
Thallus floccose, expanded, attached or free-floating, blue-green; trichomes 3.84.5 m broad, constricted at
the cross-walls; cells nearly quadrate, or cylindrical, and often 34 times long; spores cylindrical with rounded
ends, 1016 m broad and 3240 m long, with smooth yellowish brown outer layer.

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Genus: Nostoc
13. Nostoc punctiforme (Kuitz.) Hariot (Fig. 1K)
Colony sub-globose up to 2 mm diameter, scattered or confluent, attached; filaments flexuous, densely
entangled; sheath delicate, hyaline, mucous; trichome 34 m broad, cells short, barrel-shaped or ellipsoidal,
blue-green; heterocysts 4.06.5 m broad; spores subspherical, or oblong, 56 m broad and 58 m long,
epispore thick and smooth.
Family: Rivulariaceae
Genus: Gloeotrichia
14. Gloeotrichia longicauda Schmidle (Fig. 1R)
Thallus hemispherical, mostly solid filaments radiating about 1 mm long, 2430 m broad; sheath somewhat
diffluent, not lamellated, colourless; trichome gradually attenuated into a long hair; cells as long as broad or
somewhat longer or shorter than broad, 68 m broad; heterocysts mostly many, of varying diameter; immature
spores rounded, cylindrical or long ellipsoidal, later bent or curved, about 16 m broad and 40 m long,
epispore colourless.
Family: Scytonemataceae
Genus: Scytonema
15. Scytonema mirabile (Dillw.) Bornet. (Fig. 1C&D)
Colony expanded spongy, tomentose, brownish black, blackish green, or seldom more or less blue-green;
filaments tortuous, intricate, 1521 m broad, 212 mm (rarely 1 cm) long, false-branched; sheath lamellated
with slightly divergent lamellation, yellowish brown, sometimes outside colourless or slightly gelatinous;
trichome 612 broad, yellow to blue-green or olive-green; cells cylindrical, at the ends discoid or more or less
barrel-shaped; heterocysts nearly quadratic or longer than broad, brownish.
16. Scytonema simplex Bharadwaja (Fig. 1I)
Colony dense, dirty blue-green or pale blue-green; filaments 14.015.7 m broad, irregularly bent and
loosely entangled; false branches long, geminate and single in equal numbers; sheath up to 2.1 m thick,
hyaline, unstratifield; trichomes sometimes with indistinct septa and occasionally with slight constrictions at the
joints, 9.411.5 m broad; cells usually elongate cylindrical up to four times as long as broad, sometimes
quadratic, at the growing region flattened and barrel-shaped; heterocysts single, sometimes in pairs, usually
elongate, cylindrical, rarely more or less quadratic, with convex end walls thicker than the longitudinal ones, as
broad as the trichome, 9.411.5 m broad and 11.546.2 long.
Order: Oscillatoriales
Family: Oscillatoriaceae
Genus: Lyngbya
17. Lyngbya allorgei Fremy (Fig. 1B)
Filaments solitary or united and caespitose, fasciculate; intricate, elongate; sheath very thin, papyraceous,
colourless, trichome pale violet, not constricted at the cross-walls, 3.54.0 m broad, cells nearly quadrate or up
to 1 times as long as broad, cross-walls not granulated; end cell rotund, calyptra absent.
18. Lyngbya confervoides C. Ag. ex Gomont (Fig. 1Q)
Yellowish brown or dull green biomass, when dried often violet, filament at the base decumbent, above
ascending and entangled, straight, sheath colourless, when old lamellated,outside rough up to 5m thick, not
coloured violet by chlor-zinc-iodide trichome olive-green or blue-green not constricted at the cross-walls
commonly granulated, not attenuated at the apices, 925 m mostly 10-16m broad, cells 1/31/8 times as long
as broad, 24 m long, end cell rotund, calyptra absent.
Genus: Oscillatoria
19. Oscillatoria limosa Ag. ex Gomont (Fig. 1U)
Thallus dark blue-green; trichome more or less straight, dull blue-green, brown or olive-green, not
constricted at the cross-walls, or only slightly constricted, 1120 m, commonly 1316 m broad; cells 1/31/6
as long as broad, 25 m long, cross-walls frequently granulated; end-cell flatly rounded with slightly thickened
membrane.
20. Oscillatoria prolifica (Grev.) Gomont (Fig. 1G)

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Trichome straight or curved, not constricted at the cross-walls, at the ends gradually attenuated, 2.25.0 m
broad, seldom single, mostly forming purple red, in irregular groups or bundles; cells nearly quadrate or longer,
seldom shorter than broad, 46 m long, septa often granulated, gas-vacuoles present, end cells capitate with
calyptra.

Figure 1. A, Anabaena circinalis Rabenhorst ex Bornet et Flash; B, Lyngbya allorgei Fremy; CD, Scytonema mirabile
(Dillw) Born.; E, Chroococcus minor (Kuitz.) Nag.; F, Gloeocapsa gelatinosa Kuitz.; G, Oscillatoria prolifica (Grev.)
Gomont; H, Anabaena flos-aquae Ralfs ex Bornet; I, Scytonema simplex Bhardwaja; J, Anabaena doliolum Bharadwaja;
K, Nostoc punctiforme (Kuitz) Hariot; L, Microcystis aeruginosa Kuitz; M, Aphanothece saxicola Nag.; N, Chroococcus
turgidus (Kuitz.) Nag.; O, Spirulina major Kuitz. ex Gomont; P, Gloeothece rupestris (Lyngb.). Bornet; Q, Lyngbya
confervoides C. Ag. ex Gomont; R, Gloeotrichia longicauda Schmidle; S, Phormidium mucicola Hub. Pestalozzi et
Naumann; T, Oscillatoria tenuis Ag. ex Gomont; U, Oscillatoria limosa Ag. ex Gomont; V, Cylindrospermum stagnale
(Kuitz.) Born. et Flah.; W, Anabaena iyengarii Bharadwaja; X, Anabaena torulosa Lagerheim ex Bornet & Flahault.

21. Oscillatoria tenuis Ag. ex Gomont (Fig. 1T)


Thallus thin blue-green or olive-green, slimy; trichome straight, fragile slightly constricted at the cross-
walls, 410 m broad, blue-green, sometimes bent at the ends, not attenuated at the apices, not capitate; cells up
to 1/3 as long as broad, 2.65.0 m long, at the septa mostly granulated; end cell more or less hemispherical
with thickened outer membrane.
Genus: Spirulina
22. Spirulina major Kuitz. ex Gomont (Fig. 1O)
Trichome 1.22.0 m broad, regularly spirally coiled, blue-green, spirals 2.54.0 m broad and 2.75.0
distant.
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Family: Phormidiaceae
Genus: Phormidium
23. Phormidium mucicola Hub. Pestalozzi et Naumann (Fig. 1S)
Filaments short, straight, 1020 m, occasionally up to 50 m long; sheath very thin, not coloured blue by
chlor-zinc-iodide; trichome not attenuated at the end, more or less distinctly constricted at the cross-walls; cells
1.52.0 m seldom 1.3 m broad and more or less twice as long as broad; end cells rounded, seldom slightly
conical, calyptra absent; contents granulated, pale bluish.

CONCLUSION
Cyanobacterial taxonomy has diverse and great diagnostic importance in floristic analysis as well as basic
and applied aspects of research. In the present study a total of 23 taxa of 14 genera belonging to class
Cyanophyceae have been described. Most of the genera isolated from various sites belong to two orders
Chroococcales and Nostocales of class Cyanophyceae. In the present study the Microcystis, Chroococcus,
Gloeocapsa, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, Spirulina and Scytonema have been found as the common blue-green
algal forms.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors are thankful to the Director, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India for his
constant encouragement and laboratory facilities.

REFERENCES
Desikachary TV (1959) Cyanophyta. Monograph on Blue Green Algae. Indian Council of Agricultural
Research, New Delhi, India, pp. 1686.
Prasad BN & Mehrotra RK (1978) Some new addition to the Cyanophycean flora of India. Journal of Indian
Botanical Society 57(1): 98101.
Prasad BN & Mehrotra RK (1979) Some Cyanophyceae new to Uttar Pradesh. New Botanist 6(1): 19.
Prescott GW (1951) Algae of the Western Great Lakes area. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills,
Michigan, USA, pp. 1944.
Singh BV, Fatima T & Goyal SK (1995) Some Cyanophyceae from Saline alkali soil of Sikanderpur Hardoi,
U.P. Acta Botanica Indica 23: 6770.

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ISSN (E): 2349 1183
ISSN (P): 2349 9265
1(2): 1725, 2014

Research article

Identification, market availability and consumption of green leafy


vegetables in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
U. Mathiventhan1*, R. Sivaganeshan2 and T. Mathiventhan1
1
Lecturer, Department of Botany, Eastern University, Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
2
Professor in Biochemistry, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
*Corresponding Author: umaramanip@yahoo.com [Accepted: 10 July 2014]

Abstract: Preliminary market visits, market survey and interviews with study subjects were
conducted in the coastal line extending from Kallar to Oddamavadi in the Batticaloa district, Sri
Lanka. Fifty nine species of Green Leafy vegetables (GLVs) were identified, which were
consumed for food and medicinal purposes. Among the identified species, 29 were supplied by the
markets in the Batticaloa district and the others from home gardens and forest lands. Thirty one
species were consumed commonly and their average consumption was 59%. Twenty eight species
were consumed rarely and their average consumption was 2%. Availability of GLVs depends on
size of the markets, seasonality, and easy access of supply area to markets and attitude of people.
GLVs were consumed both in cooked and uncooked states. Lactuca sativa was the only GLV
consumed in uncooked form for food purpose and Coleus amboinicus, Momordica charantia,
Ocimum tenuiflorum and Tribulus terrestris were the only GLVs consumed in uncooked form for
medicinal purpose. Average consumption of commonly consumed leafy vegetables was 31% and
28% on weekly and monthly basis respectively. But rarely consumed leafy vegetables were
consumed less than 2% on weekly as well as on monthly basis. Eighty eight percent of the study
subjects consumed GLVs immediately and 12% of study subjects consumed after 23 days of
purchasing/harvesting. Excess GLVs were stored mainly at room temperature (302 C) and at 4C
for a maximum of 4 days. Sixty five percent of study subjects preferred to store at 4C and 23% at
room temperature.
Keywords: Leafy vegetables - Market survey - Consumption.

[Cite as: Mathiventhan U, Sivaganeshan R & Mathiventhan T (2014) Identification, market availability and
consumption of green leafy vegetables in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka. Tropical Plant Research 1(2): 1725]

INTRODUCTION
Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) are rich sources of many nutrients and form a major category of vegetable
group that have been designated as natures anti-aging wonders. Many vegetables have been exploited as
source of antioxidants (Ismail et al. 2004). Inadequate number of studies, severe shortage of primary data and
many information gaps exist regarding availability of green leafy vegetables and their consumption pattern in
Batticaloa district. Systematic market surveys may help to identify the commonly available Green leafy
vegetables (Mensha et al. 2008). Therefore, this study attempts to identify the edible green leafy vegetables
(GLVs) and their consumption pattern.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Study Sites
The study sites were from Kallar to Oddamavadi of the Batticaloa district, Sri Lanka. Markets, which are
available in those study sites, were considered for systematic survey. Ten Market places were selected from the
visits that received a steady supply of green leafy vegetable daily (Fig. 1).
Data collection
Preliminary market visits, market survey and interviews with consumers (study subjects) were conducted
(Fig. 2). Five study subjects were interviewed, randomly, during each visit to the market. Interviews were

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Received: 25 April 2014 Published online: 31 August 2014
Mathiventhan et al. (2014) 1(2): 1725.

carried out with the semi-structured questionnaire. A total of one thousand subjects were interviewed from the
Batticaloa district, at the end of the survey (5 study subjects 2 times per month 10 places 10 months). The
interview mainly focused on the followings: (i) types and purpose of consuming green leafy vegetables, (ii) the
form of consumption - cooked and/or uncooked, (iii) frequency of consumption, (iv) time taken for consuming
after marketing/harvesting and (v) the way of storage of green leafy vegetables, if they were not consumed
immediately.

Figure 1. The study sites (market places): 1, Kallar; 2, Kaluwanchikudy; 3, Arayampathy; 4, Kattankudy;
5, Batticaloa; 6, Eravur; 7, Chenkalady; 8, Kiran; 9, Valaichenai; 10, Oddamavadi.

A B
Figure 2. Availability of leafy vegetables (e.g. Amaranthus sp., Acalypha, Alternanthera, Murraya, etc.)
at: A, Batticaloa; B, Kaluwanchikudy.

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Mathiventhan et al. (2014) 1(2): 1725.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Identification of Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs)
Fifty nine plant species were identified belonging to 52 genera and 27 families in the Batticaloa district
based on their characteristics feature described by many workers (Jayaweera 1981, Jayaweera 1982, Senaratna
2001, Thirugnanam 2007). Among them 29 species (49%) were available in the markets (Table 1).
Table1. GLVs identified in the Batticaloa district. Vernacular names in parenthesis (E)-English.
No Name of GLVs Vernacular name Family
1 Acalypha indica L. Cats straggle, Indian acalypha (E) Euphorbiaceae
2 Achyranthes aspera L. Chaff-flower, Devil's horsewhip (E) Euphorbiaceae
3 Aerva lanata (L) juss. ex Shult* Hongone (E) Amaranthaceae
4 Allmania nodiflora (L) R.Br. ex Wight* - Amaranthaceae
5 Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br* Alligator weed (E) Amaranthaceae
6 Amaranthus caudatus L.* Pendant amaranth (E) Amaranthaceae
7 Amaranthus spinosus L.* Spiny amaranth (E) Amaranthaceae
8 Amaranthus viridis L.* Green amaranth (E) Amaranthaceae
9 Argyreia pomacea Choicy* - Convolvulaceae
10 Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees. Hydrophylla (E) Acanthaceae
11 Basella alba L.* Indian spinach (E) Basellaceae
12 Beta vulgaris L. Beet root, Spinach beet (E) Chenopodiaceae
13 Boerhavia diffusa L. Hog weed, Pig weed (E) Nyctaginaceae
14 Borreria hispida L.* - Rubiaceae
15 Canthium parviflorum Lam.* Emetic nut tree,Wild jasmine (E) Rubiaceae
16 Cardiospermum halicacabum H.B.K.* Winter cherry (E) Sapindaceae
17 Cassia auriculata L. Tanners cassia (E) Fabaceae
18 Cassia oxidentalis L. Tanner's Cassia (E) Fabaceae
19 Centella asiatica Urban* Indian pennywort (E) Umbiliferae
20 Cissus quadrangularis L. Cissus (E), Piranddai (T) Vitaceae
21 Coccinia indica L. (=C. grandis Kurz.) Ivy gourd (E) Cucurbitaceae
22 Coleus amboinicus Lour. Countzyborage (E) Labiatae
23 Cordia obliqua Willd. Large sebesten (E) Boraginaceae
24 Cucurbita maxima Duchesne in Lamk.* Pumpkin (E) Cucurbitaceae
25 Delonix elata (L) Gamble.r. Com* Creamy peacock flower, Yellow Fabaceae
26 Drega volubilis (Linn. F.) Hook.f* Sneez ward (E) Asclepiadaceae
27 Erythrina varigata L. Sunshine tree (E) Fabaceae
28 Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. exchult.* Gurmar,Gymnema (E) Asclepiadaceae
29 Ipomea aquatica Forsk.* Water spinach, Kangkong (E) Convolvulaceae
30 Ipomoea batatas (L) Lamb. Sweet potato (E) Convolvulaceae
31 Lactuca sativa Linn.* Lettuce (E) Asteraceae
32 Lasia spinosa Thw. Lasia (E) Araceae
33 Launaea sarmentosa Willd. - Asteraceae
34 Leucas zeylanica (L) R.Br. Leucas , Ceylon slitwort (E) Labiatae
35 Manihot esculenta Crantz. Cassava, Manioc (E) Euphorbiaceae
36 Mentha arvensis L. Marsh mint (E) Labiatae
37 Merremia emarginata Burm f. Kidney-leaf morning glorry (E) Convolvulaceae
38 Mollugo oppositifolia L.* Itch flower (E ) Aizoaceae
39 Momordica charantia L. Bitter melons (E) Curcurbitaceae
40 Moringa oleifera Lamk* Moringa, Drumstick (E) Moringaceae
41 Mukia maderaspatana (L) M.Roemer. Madras Pea Pumpkin (E) Cucurbitaceae
42 Murraya koenigii Spreng* Curry leaf (E) Rutaceae
43 Ocimum sanctum L. Holly basil (E) Labiatae
44 Oxalis corniculata L. Indian Sorrel (E) Oxalidaceae
45 Passiflora edulis Sims.* Passion (E) Passifloraceae
46 Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) chiov. Pergularia (E) Asclepiadaceae
47 Pisonia grandis R.Br.* Lettuce tree, Moonlight tree (E), Nyctaginaceae
48 Premna latifolia Roxb. - Verbanaceae
49 Premna obtusifolia R.Br.* - Verbanaceae
50 Premna serratifolia L.* Creek Premna (E) Verbanaceae
51 Raphanus sativus L. Raddish (E) Cruciferae
52 Rivea ornata Choisy* Midnapore creeper (E) Convolvulaceae

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53 Sauropus androgynus L.* Sweet leaf, Tropical asparagus (E) Euphorbiaceae


54 Sesbania grandiflora Pers.* White dragon tree (E) Fabaceae
55 Solanam trilobatum L.* Heliotrope (E) Solanaceae
56 Solanum nigrum L. Black night shade, Bush tomato (E) Solanaceae
57 Trianthema portulacastrum L. Black pig weed (E) Aizoaceae
58 Tribulus terrestris L. - Zycophyllaceae
59 Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fenugreek (E) Fabaceae
* Available GLVs in the markets.
Market availability of Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs)
Markets in the Batticaloa district supplied 29 GLVs among the identified species. GLVs that were consumed
more than 10% were named as commonly consumed green leafy vegetables (CCGLV) (Chandrika et al. 2006)
and the GLVs that were consumed less than 10% were named as rarely consumed leafy vegetables (RCGLV).
Six markets supplied more than 50% of CCGLVs such as Batticaloa, Chenkalady, Eravur, Kaluwanchikudy,
Kiran and Oddamavadi (Fig. 3). These places have closer access to the western part of Batticaloa estuary (Fig.
1), where different types of GLVs are cultivated.

Figure 3. Overall availability of CCGLVs in ten market places.

The mean value of consumption was 57.3%, which was greater than mean value of market availability,
43.7% (Fig. 4). Overall consumption of GLVs is not purely dependant on market availability since GLVs are
available from home gardens and elsewhere. The consumption pattern and the availability of RCGLVs was very
low when comparing with the CCGLVs. Therefore a detailed comparison was not carried out.

Figure 4. Relationship between availability and consumption pattern of CCGLVs.

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Three GLVs were not available generally in the markets in the Batticaloa district such as A. longifolia, B.
hispida and P. latifolia, but they were consumed by the people who obtained from elsewhere. At the same time
A. sessilis, A. caudatus, C. asiatica and M. koenigii were available throughout the year irrespective of the
seasons.
Eravur and Kaluwanchikudy markets ranked as first and second places in the availability of GLVs
respectively (Table 2). Because those market places have the shortest distance from the supply area and
comparatively has higher number of consumers visiting from northern and southern part of the Batticaloa
respectively. About 50% of markets such as Kiran, Valaichenai, Kallar, Arayampathy and Oddamavadi showed
low availability of the different kinds of GLVs. In those markets, about 25% of GLVs were not available.

Table 2. Comparison of consumption and overall market availability of GLVs.


Consumption Market availability
No. Market place
Average (%) Rank Average (%) Rank
1 Arayampathy 63.8 5 32.9 7
2 Batticaloa 56.8 7 47.4 4
3 Chenkalady 66.3 3 45.6 5
4 Eravur 44.9 10 75.8 1
5 Kallar 66.1 4 28.8 8
6 Kaluwanchikudy 70.2 1 60.5 2
7 Kattankudy 45.9 9 55.5 3
8 Kiran 68.2 2 25.8 10
9 Oddamavady 53.8 8 40.0 6
10 Valaichenai 57.0 6 27.6 9
People consumed GLVs less frequently in Eravur and Kattankudy compared to other areas (Table 2). But the
availability of GLVs in these markets was reasonably higher than the other markets. These two market places
are mainly managed by a muslim community and more chances for trade opportunity than markets managed by
tamil community, therefore more chances for availability of GLVs.
Kattankudy market is bigger than the adjacent market place in Arayampathy. Distance from Kattankudy to
that of the next market (Kaluwanchikudy) is 15 km. Comparatively, more suppliers and consumers visiting
Kattankudy market from areas in between the long stretch is more likely. Therefore there are more chances for
availability of more varieties of GLVs.
But in the case of Eravur market, the situation is opposite to that of Kattankudy. Even though two other
markets are available around Eravur, such as Chenkalady and Kiran at a distance around 2 and 8 km
respectively, Eravur market has more suppliers and consumers because it has a long history of existence for
more than 60 years, managed by a muslim community and has easy access for suppliers from western part of the
Batticaloa estuary.
Consumption of Green Leafy Vegetables
Thirty one species of GLVs (53%), out of the 59 species, were commonly consumed (CCGLVs) in higher
amounts. Its average consumption was about 59% and the range was 2898% (Fig. 5). This is due to market
availability, requests by study subjects, size of the market and the distance from the place where the GLVs
harvested/supplied. Among the CCGLVs, 13 plant species were consumed less than 50% (Fig. 5). They were A.
nodiflora, A. spinosus, A. longifolia, B. hispida, C. parviflorum, G. sylvestre, I. aquatica, L. sativa, P. edulis, P.
serratifolia, P. latifolia, R. ornata and P. obtusifolia. This is mainly due to seasonal availability (Puspamma et
al. 1984) and requests by the study subjects.
Twenty eight species were rarely consumed (RCGLVs) and its average consumption was 1.6% and the range
was 0.16% (Fig. 6). These GLVs are not grown in larger scale and less known by the subjects.
Consumption of GLVs in cooked and uncooked state
GLVs were consumed in cooked and uncooked forms. Ninety seven percent of CCLVs (30 species) were
eaten in the cooked form. Sixty eight percent of CCLVs (21 species) were eaten in the uncooked form. More
than 50% of people consumed C. asiatica and S. trilobatum in uncooked form. L. sativa was the only GLV
consumed in uncooked form. A. caudatus, A. viridis, B. alba and M. oppositifolia were consumed only in the
cooked form. These results showed that people used these leafy vegetables in a traditional form of preparation
(cooking) due to taste and palatability. RCLVs were consumed mostly (93%) in the cooked form. Fifteen

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Mathiventhan et al. (2014) 1(2): 1725.

percent of them were consumed in uncooked form such as C. amboinicus, M. charantia, O. tenuiflorum, T.
terrestris and L. spinosa.

Figure 5. Consumption pattern of CCGLVs.

Figure 6. Consumption pattern of RCGLVs.

Frequency of consumption of GLVs


The weekly frequency of consumption ranged from 17 days. Monthly frequency ranged from 13 days.
Annual frequency was less than 12 days. For an example, 90% of the study subjects interviewed stated that they
consumed A. caudatus every week and 7% indicated they consumed less than 3 days/month. The average
consumption of CCGLVs was 31% on weekly, 28% on monthly and 0.2% on annual basis. A. sessilis, A.
caudatus, C. asiatica, D. volubilis, M. oppositifoloa, M. oleifera, M. koenigii and S. trilobatum were consumed
by 50% or more of the study subjects interviewed every week. These GLVs were generally available throughout
the year. Some of them were cultivated in the home garden. A. sessilis, A. caudatus and C. asiatica and M.
oleifera were generally available in most of the home gardens and less available in markets. D. volubilis is
available most of the time in forestland, open bare lands and fences. These plants are less affected by seasons.
More than 50% of individuals interviewed in Chenkalady, Kaluwanchikudy and Kiran indicated they
consumed GLVs daily (Fig. 7). This is due to availability of GLVs in the market as well as elsewhere. The
highest percentage of daily intake of leafy vegetables was recorded at Kiran (88%) and the lowest at
Oddamavadi (19%).

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Mathiventhan et al. (2014) 1(2): 1725.

Figure 7. Frequency of consumption of GLVs at different study sites, in a week time: P1, Arayampathy; P2, Batticaloa;
P3, Chenkalady; P4, Eravur; P5, Kallady; P6, Kallar; P7, Kattankudy; P8, Kiran; P9, Oddamavady; P10, Valaichenai.

The overall consumption of GLVs recorded was 48.7% on daily basis and 1% for more than 3 days per
week. Praba et al. (2009) found 51% of respondents consumed greens twice a week among selected households
at Bangalore, India. Furthermore overall consumption of GLVs twice a week ranged from 8% to 38% and three
times per week ranged from 10% to 45% (Fig. 7).
Storage of green leafy vegetables
GLVs remaining after cooking were stored by most of the people but it was not a regular practice. There
were two main storage methods practiced such as keeping at low temperature (refrigeration, at 4C) and at room
temperature (302 C). Refrigeration of the GLVs was the commonest (65%) method (Sankat & Maharaj 1996)
of storage and 23% preferred room temperature to store. About 11% used other techniques such as wrapping in
polythene bags and leaving at room temperature, keeping washed GLVs open outside the houses at night and
wrapping in banana leaves and 17% did not answer this question. The percentage of answer none was higher
in Kiran (73%) followed by Batticaloa (22%) and Arayampathy (10%) (Fig. 8). These results show that people
prefer fresh GLVs for consumption. Packaging of leafy vegetable was very effective in reducing weight and
moisture losses during storage, retarding chlorophyll degradation and loss of odour and maintaining stability
(Ahvenainen 1996).
In Chenkalady, Kaluwanchikudy and Valaichenai higher percentage of subjects stored GLVs at room
temperature compared with other places. In Kaluwanchikudy higher percentage of subjects used other
techniques. But these storage methods are not significantly practiced most of the times.
In Kiran, 100% of consumers preferred consumption of GLVs without storage (Fig. 8). But interviews
revealed that if they do not consume on the day of purchase they stored the GLVs. But in other places,
consumers normally purchase or harvest GLVs for immediate consumption as well as for storage.
In Chenkalady, Kaluwanchikudy and Valaichenai higher percentage of subjects stored GLVs at room
temperature compared with other places. In Kaluwanchikudy higher percentage of subjects used other
techniques. But these storage methods are not significantly practiced most of the times.
In Kiran, 100% of consumers preferred consumption of GLVs without storage (Fig. 8). But interviews
revealed that if they do not consume on the day of purchase they stored the GLVs. But in other places,
consumers normally purchase or harvest GLVs for immediate consumption as well as for storage.

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Mathiventhan et al. (2014) 1(2): 1725.

Figure 8. Storage of GLVs after purchase in different study sites: P1, Arayampathy; P2, Batticaloa; P3, Chenkalady; P4,
Eravur; P5, Kallady; P6, Kallar; P7, Kattankudy; P8, Kiran; P9, Oddamavady; P10, Valaichenai.

CONCLUSION
Fifty nine species were identified as sources of GLVs in the Batticaloa district of which 29 species were
available in the markets. Other species were obtained from home gardens, river sides and forest lands.
Seasonality, market size and easy access of supply area to market determined the availability of GLVs. Attitude
of people, food habit and level of awareness on GLVs also contributed to the availability of GLVs.
Thirty one species of GLVs were consumed in higher amount (average consumption of 59% - commonly
consumed leafy vegetables-CCLVs) and 28 species were consumed in lower amount (average consumption of
1.6% - rarely consumed leafy vegetables-RCLVs). GLVs were consumed in cooked and uncooked states.
Higher percentage of CCLVs was consumed on weekly basis both by the subjects (31%). Majority of the
subjects prefer to consume the GLVs immediately after harvesting/purchasing. Excess GLVs were mainly
stored at room temperature and in refrigerator.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank Mr. T. Kugathasan Technical Officer, Department of Botany, Eastern University, Sri Lanka to
provide technical assistance for conducting the field work. Our gratitude goes to leafy vegetable sellers and local
people who involved during our survey. Our appreciation goes to Dr. D.S.A.Wijesundara, Director
General/Department of National Botanical Gardens, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka to facilitate us to identify some of
the leafy vegetables.

REFERENCES
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green leafy vegetables and their estimated contribution to vitamin A requirement. Journal of the Science of
Food and Agriculture 86: 5461.
Ismail A, Marjan ZM & Foong CW (2004) Total antioxidant activity and phenolic content in selected
vegetables. Food Chemistry 87: 581586.
Jayaweera DMA (1981) Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Part 1 Used in Ceylon. The National Science
Council of Sri Lanka, Colombo.
Jayaweera DMA (1982) Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Part 1I Used in Ceylon. The National
Science Council of Sri Lanka, Colombo.
Mensah JK, Okoli RI, Ohaju-Obodo JO & Eifediyi K (2008) Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties
of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo people of Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 7(14):
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Praba R, Nath KG & Ramya BS (2009) Consumption of green leafy vegetables among selected urban
households in Bangalore, India. Asian Journal of Home Science 3(2): 180185.
Pushpamma P, Mrudula Kalpalathika PV & Rajyalakshmi P (1984) Consumption pattern of vegetables and
fruits in Andhra Pradesh South India. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 15(3): 225230.
Sankat CK & Maharaj V (1996) Shelf life of the green herb Shadobeni (Eryngium foetidum L.) stored under
refrigerated condition. Postharvest Biology and Technology 7: 109118.
Senaratna LK (2001) A check list of the flowering plants of Sri Lanka. National Science Foundation. MAB
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ISSN (E): 2349 1183
ISSN (P): 2349 9265
1(2): 2636, 2014

Research article

Assessment of diversity, population structure and regeneration


status of tree species in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary,
Assam, Northeast India
Moumita Sarkar and Ashalata Devi*
Department of Environmental Science, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Sonitpur, Assam, India
*Corresponding Author: ashalatadevi12@gmail.com [Accepted: 20 August 2014]

Abstract: The present study was carried out for quantitative analysis of diversity, population
structure and regeneration status of tree species in tropical semi-evergreen forest of Hollongapar
Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, northeast India. The study was conducted during 20102011,
by laying 100 quadrats (1010 m) following random plot sampling method. A total of 75 tree
species (30 cm gbh), belonging to 60 genera and 40 families were recorded from the study area.
Individuals were categorized into three groups, seedling, sapling and adult based on girth classes
and the status of natural regeneration of species was determined based on their population size.
Highest density (7756 individuals.ha-) and species richness (73) were recorded in 030 cm girth
class, while highest basal area (9.62 m.ha-) was observed in 120150 cm girth class. Majority of
tree species (36%) exhibited fair regeneration condition followed by good regeneration status
(24%). The overall population structure of tree species shows a reverse J-shaped population curve
and good regeneration status which reveals that the future communities may be sustained. The
study gives an understanding of the diversity, pattern of population and regeneration of the tree
species of the sanctuary which may help in forest management and conservation of the species.
Keywords: Conservation - Forest - Population structure - Protected areas - Quantitative characters.

[Cite as: Sarkar M & Devi A (2014) Assessment of diversity, population structure and regeneration status of tree
species in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, Northeast India. Tropical Plant Research 1(2): 26
36]

INTRODUCTION
The structure and function of forest ecosystem is determined by the plant component more than any other
living component of the system (Richards 1996). The plant diversity at any site is influenced by species
distribution and abundance patterns (Palit & Chanda 2012) and the richness of plant species is controlled by a
variety of biotic and abiotic parameters (Rannie 1986, Huston 1994). Topography, soil, climate and
geographical location of a region influence the vegetation diversity of the forest ecosystem (Ram et al. 2004). It
was found that, plant diversity inventories in tropical forests have mostly been concentrated on tree species than
other life-forms (Mani & Parthasarathy 2006). The nature of forest communities largely depends on the
ecological characteristics in sites, species diversity and regeneration status of species (Khumbongmayum et al.
2006). Species diversity is one of the most important indices used for evaluating the stability and sustainability
of forest communities. Information on the species composition of a forest is essential for its wise management in
terms of economic value, regeneration potential (Wyatt-Smith 1987) and ultimately may be leading to
conservation of biological diversity (Verma et al. 1999).
Population structure is expressed in terms of number of individuals present in each of the definite girth class
distribution of tree species. Saxena & Singh (1984) reported regeneration behaviour of tree species in a forest
can be revealed from the population structure. A successful regeneration is indicated by presence of sufficient
number of seedlings, saplings and young trees in a given population (Pokhriyal et al. 2010) and the number of
seedling of any species can be considered as the regeneration potential of that species (Negi & Nautiyal 2005).
Natural regeneration is a central component for tropical forest ecosystem dynamics (Getachew et al. 2010) and
is essential for preservation and maintenance of biodiversity (Rahman et al. 2011). It is important to understand
the growth status of a species in the ecosystem and is one of the key parameter to determine ecosystem stability
(Kadavul & Parthasarathy 2001, Deb & Sundriyal 2011). Several types of disturbances like logging, landslides,

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Received: 30 April 2014 Published online: 31 August 2014
Sarkar & Devi (2014) 1(2): 2636

gap formation, litterfall, herbivory, etc. can affect the potential regenerative status of species composing the
forest stand spatially and temporally (Guariguata 1990, Welden et al. 1991, Barik et al. 1996a, Boerner &
Brinkman 1996, Liang & Seagle 2002, Ganesan & Davidar 2003, Khumbongmayum et al. 2005, Ceccon et al.
2006, Khumbongmayum et al. 2006, Ward et al. 2006, Guarino & Scariot 2012).
The northeast India is a storehouse of rich biodiversity which includes variety of plant and animal species
and it is considered as one of the richest biodiversity centres of the Indian continent (Tynsong & Tiwari 2010)
with rich species density and diversity (Nath et al. 2005). Assam, a state in northeast India, has total recorded
forest area of 28,748 km2. which covers 32% of the total geographical area of the state and harbours 3017
species of flowering plants (Patiri & Borah 2007). Most of the population and regeneration studies in Northeast
India were reported from the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura, but a few
studies from Assam (Borah & Garkoti 2011 Nandy & Das 2013 Dutta & Devi 2013, Saikia & Khan 2013).
Therefore, the present study was undertaken to analyse the tree species diversity, population dynamics and to
assess the regeneration pattern of tree species of this tropical semi-evergreen forest of Assam, Northeast India.
The findings of the study will definitely add records on quantitative data on tree species diversity of
forest of Assam in particular and tropical forest in general.

MATERIAL AND METHODS


Study area
Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary (2640'2645' N and 9420'9425' E) is situated in Mariani range
of Jorhat district in upper Assam at an altitudinal range of 100120 m above msl. It has got the status of Reserve
forest in 1881 and then in 1997, the Hollangapar Reserve Forest was upgraded to Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary
(Fig. 1). Again in the year 2004, its name was changed to Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary (abbreviated
as HGWLS hereafter) but it is still popularly known as Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary. The area is situated amidst
tea gardens and villages, crisscrossed with numerous rain fed streams (nallahs). It covers an area of 19.49 km2
and the sanctuary has been divided into five compartments. The area receives an average annual rainfall of 249
cm. The soil is sandy clay loam in texture, slightly acidic in nature having pH 5.1 and soil organic carbon
content records 2.03%. The weather in the area may be classified as subtropical hot, wet monsoon periods
(May-August) and cool dry winter (September to April). Winter rains are also not uncommon and the average
temperature varies from 5C (min) 38C (max).

Figure 1. Map of the study site.

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As per Champion & Seth (1968), classification scheme, the forest type of HGWLS is Assam Plains
Alluvial Semi Evergreen Forests (1/2/2B/C). The sanctuary is a suitable habitat for large number of
mammalian, birds and invertebrate species. It harbours seven species of primates viz. Western Hoolock gibbon,
Slow loris, Capped langur, Rhesus, Pigtailed, Stump-tailed and Assamese macaque. This Sanctuary has the rare
distinction of holding one of the highest densities of gibbon populations in Assam. Extensive studies on
primates have been carried out in this sanctuary by several workers, but there is a lack of baseline information
and detailed study on quantitative characteristics of diversity, population structure and natural regeneration
status of tree species of HGWLS. Therefore, the study has been carried out and the recorded data on quantitative
characters of tree species may be helpful to formulate conservation strategy for plant species in particular and
for the proper conservation of animal species inhabiting in the sanctuary in general.
Methods
The study for the assessment of tree diversity, population structure and quantitative characteristic features
was conducted during 20102011 using random sampling method. Extensive field survey in all the five
compartments was carried out in the sanctuary during phytosociological study period. Quadrat method was
followed to record the tree species diversity and other quantitative parameters. For the study, 100 quadrats of
1010 m were laid down randomly in the study site, covering an area of 1 ha. All the species and individuals
encountered in each quadrat were counted and the girth was measured. Individuals having 30 cm girth (gbh)
were considered as adult, saplings with 10 cm to < 30 cm girth and seedlings with < 10 cm girth. The number
of individuals and girth of each individual species encountered in each quadrat were used for further quantitative
analysis. Population structure of the species was analyzed across thirteen girth classes i.e. 030, 3060, 6090,
90120, 120150, 150180, 180210, 210240, 240270, 270300, 300330, 330360 and >360 cm. The status
of regeneration of species was determined based on population size of seedlings, saplings and adults as
(modified from Khan et al. 1987, Shankar 2001, Khumbongmayum et al. 2006): (a) good, if seedlings > or <
saplings > adults; (b) fair, if seedlings > or saplings adults; (c) poor, if a species survives only in sapling
stage, but no seedlings (though saplings may be <, > or = adults); (d) none, if it is absent both in sapling and
seedlings stages, but found only in adults and (e) new, if a species has no adults, but only saplings and/or
seedlings. Community quantitative parameters such as frequency, density, abundance, basal area (BA), relative
frequency, relative density, relative dominance and Importance Value Index (IVI) were calculated (Cottam &
Curtis 1956). The Shannon-Wiener index (H) (Shannon & Weaver 1963), Simpsons index (CD) (Simpson
1949) and Pielous evenness index (e) (Pielou 1966) were also evaluated. Identification of plants was made by
referring taxonomic literature (Kanjilal & Bor 2005) and by consulting plant specimen at Botanical Survey of
India, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh. Herbarium specimen are deposited and preserved in the Department of
Environmental Science, Tezpur University.

RESULTS
Tree diversity

Figure 2. Tree species: A, Dominance diversity (D-D) curve; B, Density, basal area and species richness in different girth
classes.

A total of 75 tree species, belonging to 60 genera under 40 families were recorded from the study area.
Moraceae was the dominant family having 8 species followed by Magnoliaceae with 5 species, Anacardiaceae,

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Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae and Meliaceae recorded 4 species each. Under Moraceae family, the genus Ficus
contributed highest number of six species viz. Ficus benghalensis, Ficus benjamina, Ficus fistulosa, Ficus
lamponga, Ficus racemosa and Ficus religiosa.The total basal area of the tree species was computed as 58.0
m.ha- with density of 750 individuals.ha-. The dominant tree species was Vatica lanceaefolia Bl.
(Dipterocarpaceae), a critically endangered species as given by International Union for Conservation of Nature
red list of threatened species(IUCN 2014), which contributed 55.52 IVI value recording highest density (227
individuals.ha-) with basal area of 6.525 m.ha-. Detailed quantitative data of each tree species, density (ha-),
basal area (m.ha-) and IVI values are given in table 1. The other important species based on IVI values were
Artocarpus chaplasha (18.13), Lagerstroemia speciosa (16.30), Magnolia hookeri (16.07) and Dipterocarpus
retusus (13.91) as shown in fig. 2A. The Shannon-Wiener index (H'), Simpsons index (CD) and Evenness index
(e) for the tree species were calculated as 3.55, 0.05 and 0.82, respectively.
Population structure and regeneration status
Overall population structure of tree species depending on size-class distribution yielded reverse J-shaped
curve in HGWLS (Fig. 2B). The highest percentage (91.22%) of tree individuals were recorded in 030 cm girth
class and it gradually decreased with increasing girth class. Highest density (7756 individuals.ha-) and species
richness (73) were recorded in 030 cm girth class, while Tetrameles nudiflora showed lowest density (1
individual.ha-) and species richness (1) in 330360 cm girth class. Highest basal area (9.62 m.ha-) was
observed in 120150 cm girth class and lowest (0.97 m.ha-) in 330360 cm girth class. Population structure of
a few dominant tree species in HGWLS such as Magnolia hookeri, Dipterocarpus retusus, Artocarpus
chaplasha and Vatica lanceaefolia showed reverse J-shaped population curve, whereas Lagerstroemia speciosa
showed an interrupted population curve (Fig. 3).

Figure 3. Population structure of few dominant tree species recorded in the study site: A, Magnolia hookeri; B,
Dipterocarpus retusus; C, Artocarpus chaplasha; D, Vatica lanceaefolia; E, Lagerstroemia speciosa.

In the present study, 24% tree species exhibited good regeneration status, 36% showed fair regeneration
condition and 8% showed poor regeneration status. A total of 17% tree species were not regenerating at all
and 15% tree species, which were available only in sapling or seedling stage, were considered as new in
HGWLS (Table 1). The poor regenerating tree species were Aglaia spectabilis, Cinnamomum glaucescens,
Dillenia indica, Ficus racemosa, Hydnocarpus kurzii, Magnolia hodgsonii and Terminalia catappa. Species
which were found in none or not regenerating category were Albizia lebbek, Alstonia scholaris, Cyathea
gigantea, Duabanga grandiflora, Evodia meliaefolia, Macaranga denticulate, Morinda angustifolia,
Neolamarckia cadamba, Palaquium obovatum, Pterospermum acerifolium, Quercus gemelliflora, Sterculia
villosa, Terminalia myriocarpa, Vernonia arborea and Walsura robusta. New regeneration status included

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Sarkar & Devi (2014) 1(2): 2636

Actinodaphne angustifolia, Albizia lucidior, Bischofia javanica, Chrysophyllum roxburghii, Cinnamomum


bejolghota, Gynocardia odorata, Horsfieldia kingii, Machilus gamblei, Meliosma pinnata, Phoebe
goalparensis, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia bellirica and Toona ciliata. The total density of seedlings (6754
individuals.ha-) was recorded to be higher than the saplings (1002 individuals.ha-) and adults (750
individuals.ha-) in the study site, thus exhibiting overall good regeneration condition. The dominant tree
species, Vatica lanceaefolia had maximum seedling density (2876 individuals ha-) with highest sapling and
adult density of 412 and 227 individuals ha-, respectively showing good regeneration status. Among all tree
species recorded in the study site Vatica lanceaefolia is a critically endangered species which contributed 37%
towards the overall regeneration status.

Table 1. Density (D=individuals.ha-), basal area (BA=m2.ha-), Importance Value Index (IVI) and regeneration status (RS)
of adult tree species of Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary.
Scientific Name Family D BA IVI RS
Actinodaphne obovata (Nees.) Bl. Lauraceae 17 0.31322 6.15975 Fair
Aglaia spectabilis (Miq.) S.S.Jain & Bennet Meliaceae 22 2.65147 10.6607 Poor
Ailanthus integrifolia Lam. Simaroubaceae 3 0.72318 2.23857 Fair
Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. Mimosaceae 1 0.03361 0.38852 None
Alseodaphne petiolaris Hook. f. Lauraceae 3 0.04198 1.0641 Fair
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. Apocynaceae 1 0.01833 0.36217 None
Altingia excelsa Noronha Altingiaceae 16 0.52636 5.40771 Fair
Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. Thymelaeaceae 2 0.01846 0.69297 Fair
Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb. Moraceae 28 6.29636 18.1394 Good
Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. Moraceae 3 0.19543 1.32867 Fair
Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Phyllanthaceae 10 0.1217 3.51555 Good
Balakata baccata (Roxb.) Esser Euphorbiaceae 2 1.17837 2.69281 Fair
Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. Lecythidaceae 2 0.24522 1.08393 Fair
Canarium bengalense Roxb. Burseraceae 8 0.63933 3.35239 Good
Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. Rhizophoraceae 3 0.0572 1.09034 Good
Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A.DC. Fagaceae 20 1.72433 8.59823 Fair
Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) A.DC. Fagaceae 8 2.38789 6.76163 Fair
Chukrasia tabularis A.Juss. Meliaceae 2 0.04891 0.74547 Fair
Cinnamomum glaucescens (Nees) Hand.-Mazz. Lauraceae 14 1.54341 6.50011 Poor
Cyathea gigantea (Wall. ex Hook.) Holtt. Cyatheaceae 1 0.00959 0.3471 None
Dillenia indica L. Dilleniaceae 4 1.70451 4.2611 Poor
Diospyros variegate Kurz Ebenaceae 2 0.02531 0.70478 Good
Dipterocarpus retusus Bl. Dipterocarpaceae 24 3.69504 13.91 Fair
Drimycarpus racemosus (Roxb.) Hook.f. ex Marchand. Anacardiaceae 2 0.08046 0.79987 Good
Duabanga grandiflora (DC.) Walp. Lythraceae 2 0.0368 0.7246 None
Dysoxylum gotadhora (Buch.-Ham.) Mabb. Meliaceae 23 0.86818 7.71934 Good
Elaeocarpus serratus L. Elaeocarpaceae 4 0.07487 1.45138 Fair
Endospermum diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw Euphorbiaceae 4 0.10866 1.50962 Good
Eurya acuminata DC. Pentaphylacaceae 2 0.02101 0.69737 Fair
Evodia meliaefolia Benth. Rutaceae 2 0.02522 0.70463 None
Ficus benghalensis L. Moraceae 2 1.12092 2.59377 Fair
Ficus benjamina L. Moraceae 2 0.31396 1.20246 Fair
Ficus fistulosa Reinw. ex Bl. Moraceae 19 0.29231 5.60142 Good
Ficus lamponga Miq. Moraceae 8 0.55708 3.40782 Fair
Ficus racemosa L. Moraceae 3 0.04018 0.86374 Poor
Ficus religiosa L. Moraceae 1 0.43934 1.08805 Fair
Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr. Clusiaceae 3 0.09923 1.1628 Good
Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham. Clusiaceae 3 0.0434 1.06654 Good

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Sarkar & Devi (2014) 1(2): 2636

Gmelina arborea Roxb. Lamiaceae 4 0.05154 1.41115 Fair


Hydnocarpus kurzii (King) Warb. Achariaceae 4 0.11162 1.51474 Poor
Ilex godajam Coleb. ex Hook.f. Aquifoliaceae 6 0.09145 2.1411 Good
Khasiaclunea oligocephala (Havil.) Ridsdale Rubiaceae 11 0.97748 5.3216 Good
Kydia calycina Roxb. Malvaceae 6 0.11537 2.18235 Fair
Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. Lythraceae 39 3.69519 16.3047 Fair
Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pres. Lauraceae 12 0.21 3.53998 Good
Macaranga denticulata (Blume) Mll.Arg. Euphorbiaceae 2 0.09987 0.83334 None
Magnolia champaca (L.) Baill. ex Pierre Magnoliaceae 3 0.29418 1.49892 Fair
Magnolia griffithii Hook.f. & Th. Magnoliaceae 3 0.53187 1.90874 Fair
Magnolia hodgsonii (Hook.f. & Th.) H.Keng Magnoliaceae 12 1.39598 6.37373 Poor
Magnolia hookeri (Cubitt & Smith) Raju & Nayar Magnoliaceae 29 5.13547 16.074 Fair
Magnolia oblonga (Wall. ex Hook.f. & Thomson) Figlar Magnoliaceae 2 0.06037 0.568 Fair
Mallotus nudiflorus (L.) Kulju & Welzen Euphorbiaceae 2 0.07335 0.78761 Fair
Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. Anacardiaceae 4 0.43083 1.86786 Good
Mesua ferrea L. Calophyllaceae 21 3.26135 12.3678 Good
Morinda angustifolia Roxb. Rubiaceae 2 0.04877 0.74522 None
Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser Rubiaceae 4 1.00231 3.0504 None
Olea dioica Roxb. Oleaceae 6 0.2247 2.37084 Good
Palaquium obovatum (Griff.) Engl. Sapotaceae 2 0.53042 1.57566 None
Premna bengalensis Cl. Lamiaceae 2 0.03218 0.71663 Fair
Pterospermum acerifolium (L.) Willd. Malvaceae 2 0.02715 0.70796 None
Quercus gemelliflora Bl. Fagaceae 2 0.01739 0.69113 None
Saurauia roxburghii Wall. Saurauiaceae 26 0.33236 8.77342 Fair
Spondias mombin L. Anacardiaceae 4 1.21775 3.42185 Fair
Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurz. Anacardiaceae 2 0.03171 0.71582 Fair
Sterculia villosa Roxb. Malvaceae 2 0.03853 0.72758 None
Stereospermum chelonoides (L.f.) DC. Bignoniaceae 3 0.03336 1.04924 Good
Symplocos ferruginea Roxb. Symplocaceae 4 0.00975 1.14185 Fair
Syzygium kurzii (Duthie) Balakr. Myrtaceae 10 0.13052 3.53075 Good
Terminalia catappa L. Combretaceae 2 0.16568 0.9468 Poor
Terminalia chebula Retz. Combretaceae 3 0.03446 0.8539 Good
Terminalia myriocarpa Van Heurck & Mll. Arg. Combretaceae 4 0.74261 2.60265 None
Tetrameles nudiflora R. Br. Tetramelaceae 2 1.12475 2.60037 Fair
Vatica lanceaefolia Bl. Dipterocarpaceae 227 6.52549 55.5215 Good
Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. Asteraceae 3 0.08561 0.94208 None
Walsura robusta Roxb. Meliaceae 2 0.78779 2.0194 None

DISCUSSIONS
Tree diversity
The present semi-evergreen forest patch harbours rich tree diversity. The tree species richness (75 species)
recorded in this study site is higher than tropical semi evergreen forest of Manipur (Devi & Yadava 2006) and
Mizoram (Lalfakawma et al. 2009) which recorded 17 and 32 tree species, respectively. The value is
comparable to semi-evergreen and evergreen forest of Little Andaman Island, India with 83 and 84 tree species,
respectively (Rasingam & Parathasarathy 2009). According to Whitmore (1984), in tropical rain forests the tree
species ranges from 20 to a maximum of 223 ha-. Tree density (750 ha-) and basal area (58.0 m.ha-) recorded
in tropical semi-evergreen forest of HGWLS are found to be similar (685820 tree ha- and 18.9 to 19.58 m2.ha-
respectively) with tropical semi evergreen forest of Manipur (Devi & Yadava 2006), tropical wet evergreen
forest Namdapha National Park, northeast India (34 to 610 individuals ha- and 7.81 to 98.58 m2.ha-, Nath et al.
2005) and evergreen forest of Kalakad National Park of Western Ghats (575 to 855 individuals ha - and 61.7 to

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Sarkar & Devi (2014) 1(2): 2636

94.6 m2.ha-, Parthasarathy 1999). Tree density in tropical forests varies from 245 to 859 for trees of 30 cm
gbh (Richards 1952, Ashton 1964, Campbell et al. 1992) and the recorded values of the present study lies within
this range. Variation in density and basal area of different forest stand may be attributed by altitudinal variation,
species composition, age structure, successional stage of the forest and degree of disturbance (Swamy et al.
2000). The Shannon-Weiner diversity index normally varies from 1.5 to 3.5 and rarely exceeds 4.5 (Kent &
Coker 1992) and is generally higher in tropical forest. The Shannon-Wiener index (3.55) recorded in the present
study site is higher than tropical semi evergreen forest of Mizoram (Lalfakawma et al. 2009). The diversity
index (H') for Indian forests ranged from 0.83 to 4.1 (Singh et al. 1984, Parthasarathy et al. 1992, Visalakshi
1995) and the value of diversity index of the present study, therefore, lies within the range and it reflects high
tree diversity in the study site. Simpsons index values of different Indian tropical forests ranged from 0.03 to
0.92 (Bhuyan et al. 2003, Nath et al. 2005, Devi & Yadava 2006, Deb & Sundriyal 2011, Kushwaha & Nandy
2012) and the average value is 0.06 as reported by Knight (1975). The concentration of dominance of the study
site (0.05) corresponds well with the reported range for tropical forest. Evenness index (0.82) was comparable
with a report from tropical wet evergreen forest of Arunachal Pradesh (Nath et al. 2005) and tropical evergreen
region of Meghalaya (Tynsong & Tiwari 2010). The higher evenness index value reveals more consistency in
species distribution. IVI value of any species indicates the dominance of species in a mixed population and it
gives a total picture of the social structure of species in a community and can be used to form an association of
dominant species (Parthasarathy & Karthikeyan 1997). In the present study, it was found that Vatica
lanceaefolia Bl., a critically endangered species, records highest IVI value emerging as the dominant tree
species which was followed by Artocarpus chaplasha, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Magnolia hookeri and
Dipterocarpus retusus. The observation shows that HGWLS harbours rich tree diversity providing habitat and
food resources to large number of fauna. High species richness means greater diversity and which leads to a
higher community stability (MacArthur 1955). However, the anthropogenic activities prevailing in the sanctuary
like grazing by cattle and firewood collection by the local people to meet their energy requirements imposed
threat to the survival and population structure of the species. So, if the present trend of anthropogenic pressure
extended, the growth, survival and reproductive potential of the tree species will jeopardise in near future.
Therefore, a proper strategy for the conservation and management of the study site is required to formulate,
considering a sustainable harvest and utilization of forest resources by the local dwellers, for countering the
same.
Population structure and regeneration status
The size class distribution of tree has often been used to represent the population structure of forests (Saxena
& Singh 1984, Khan et al. 1987). Girth class frequency showed reverse J-shaped population curve in our present
study which is similar to those reported from forest of North east India (Upadhaya et al. 2004, Mishra et al.
2005, Tynsong & Tiwari 2011), Eastern Ghats (Kadavul & Parthasarathy 1999, Sahu et al. 2012), Andaman
Island (Rajkumar & Parathasarathy 2008, Rasingam & Parathasarathy 2009). The reverse J-shaped population
curve of trees suggests an evolving or expanding population, climax or stable type of population in forest
ecosystem, indicating that the forest harbours a growing and healthy population (Parthasarathy & Karthikeyan
1997, Mishra et al. 2005, Sahu et al. 2012). Micro-environmental factors which vary with seasonal changes
have an effect on different growth stages of trees i.e. seedling, sapling, coppice and young trees that also helps
to maintain the population structure (Khumbongmayum et al. 2006). The presence of established seedlings of
dominant species like Vatica lanceaefolia, Artocarpus chaplasha, Mesua ferrea, etc. is an indicative of excellent
recruitment of these species which also reflect that the prevailing environmental conditions of the study site are
favourable for their establishment stage. High stem density in lower girth class representing young stage also
reveals high biotic potential of the species which may be supported by the existing environmental conditions.
Tree regeneration can be predicted by the structure of their populations (Khan et al. 1987). In general,
regeneration of species is affected by various anthropogenic factors (Sukumar et al.1994 Khan & Tripathi 1989,
Barik et al. 1996b, Iqbal et al. 2012) and natural phenomena (Welden et al. 1991, Iqbal et al. 2012). The overall
regeneration status of the tree species of the study site is satisfactory at community level showing good
regeneration status, but 17% tree species, falls under not regenerating condition may affect the population size
in HGWLS in future. Species under not regenerating condition might have been occurred due to existing
disturbance in the study site like, grazing, firewood collection, and poor biotic potential of tree species which
either affect the fruiting and seed germination or successful conversion of seedling to sapling stage. Moreover,

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Sarkar & Devi (2014) 1(2): 2636

individuals in young stages of any species are more vulnerable to any kind of environmental stress and
anthropogenic disturbance. The successful regeneration of a tree species depends on its ability to produce large
number of seedlings and the ability of seedlings and saplings to survive and grow (Good & Good 1972). The
forest having good canopy cover might have affected the survival of seedlings under good canopy (Pokhriyal et
al. 2010) probably by reducing the penetration of sunlight reaching down to the forest floor. The poor, none
and new regenerating categories include many important and useful tree species namely Cinnamomum
glaucescens, Dillenia indica, Ficus racemosa, Duabanga grandiflora, Neolamarckia cadamba Syzygium
cumini, Terminalia bellirica, Toona ciliata, etc. which have certain economic values (timber and non timber
forest products) and act as a source of food for the seven primate species residing in the sanctuary. 13 species
contributing 15% of tree species were new arrivals/ newly colonize to the study site, representing only in
sapling or seedling stage. These species may have reached or colonized to the study site by dispersal of seeds
through drooping of birds and animals and getting favourable microsite to germinate and establish. Another
possible reason may be that the adult individuals were very poor and have been felled by locals but seed remain
as seed bank which germinate during favourable season. On the other hand, regeneration of a species is affected
by various factors such as light, canopy density, soil moisture, nutrients and anthropogenic pressure (Iqbal et al.
2012). Small openings in the forest canopy allow higher light availability in the forest floor which favours the
seedling recruitment process of certain light demanding species (Webb & Sah 2003).

CONCLUSIONS
Precise assessment and understanding of the dynamics of plant resources is important for their sustainable
management, utilization and biodiversity conservation. Quantitative analysis of tree species diversity of
HGWLS will be useful in forest management and conservation as the location of the sanctuary, amidst tea
gardens and villages, has made the flora more vulnerable with respect to human interference. This study
provides a critical analysis of tree species richness in the study site. A reverse J-shaped population curve
indicates high tree species richness and density in lower girth class which gradually decrease with increase in
girth class population size. The overall population structure of tree species in the study site reveals that
contribution of seedlings to the total population was highest followed by saplings and adult trees. It shows
regeneration of tree species in the forest is good and the future communities may be sustained unless there is
any major environmental stress or interference exerted by human activities. However, considering the increasing
anthropogenic pressure, there may be spatial and temporal threat to the seedling establishment and growth of
tree species in the study site. The growth, survival and reproductive potential of the tree species will be at risk in
near future if the present trend of anthropogenic continues. Thus, a systematic management plan is required for
the conservation of vegetation and sustainable use of available resource. Quantitative analysis of diversity,
population structure and regeneration status of tree species recorded from the present study may provide
baseline information for formulating conservation and management strategies of the present forest.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors acknowledge their sincere thanks to the P.C.C.F (Wildlife) and D.F.O, Jorhat Division (Assam
Forest Department), for permission to carry out the work in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary. The help
given by Deben Borah and other staff of Meleng Beat office during the field work is gratefully acknowledged.
We are also thankful to the staff of BSI, Arunachal Pradesh Circle, Itanagar, Jintu Sarma and Monoranjan Nath
for immense help and support.

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ISSN (E): 2349 1183
ISSN (P): 2349 9265
1(2): 3747, 2014

Review article

First report of Pteridophytes from Govind Wildlife Sanctury,


Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India
Sandip Kumar Behera* and Prem Behari Khare
Pteridology Laboratory, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg,
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Corresponding Author: 16.sandip@gmail.com [Accepted: 20 August 2014]

Abstract: In the present study 55 species of ferns and fern-allies belonging to 26 genera of 15
families have been collected which is a first and preliminary report from Govind Wildlife
Sanctuary. The species belonging to the genera Dryopteris and Polystichum were found maximum.
The occurrence of the species Dryopteris caroli-hopei was observed to be at high risk. The
populations of Pteridium aquilinum were more in most of the localities. The species compositions
were different from place to place depending upon the altitude and topography.
Keywords: Ferns - Fern-allies - Govind Wild Life Sanctury - Uttarakhand.

[Cite as: Behera SK & Khare PB (2014) First report of Pteridophytes from Govid Wildlife Sanctuary,
Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India. Tropical Plant Research 1(2): 3747]

INTRODUCTION
The Govind Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in Purola Tehsil in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. Naitwar
is the entrance and starting point of the sanctuary. This wildlife sanctuary was established on 1st March, 1955
and spreads over an area of 957.969 km2. It lies between Longitude: 78.05E and Latitude: 31.00 to 31.25N.
This sanctuary forms the upper catchment of the Tons river, which is the most important tributary of River
Yamuna in its upper reaches. The area is very rich in plants and its large area along with the forests of the
neighbouring forest divisions helps in maintaining genetic diversity. Pteridophytes play an important and
significant role in the enrichment of biodiversity of this area. They grow luxuriantly in the moist and shady
places. Dixit (1984), Chandra (2000) have Reported More than 1200 species of ferns and fern allies from India.
Khuller (1994, 2000), Pandey & Pandey (2003) listed the ferns of Himalaya but did not explore and mention the
areas of Govind Wildlife Sanctuary. Recently, Shah & Pande (2010) reported 186 species of ferns belonging to
52 genera under 26 families from Uttarkashi district, but they did not touch the areas of Govind Wildlife
Sanctuary. The Pteridophytic diversity of this Wildlife Sanctuary has not been explored yet. It has always been a
very difficult area to visit. Therefore, the authors have undertaken to document the Pteridophytic flora this area.
The present report is the preliminary report on Pteridophytes of Govind Wildlife Sanctuary.

MATERIAL AND METHODS


Several field trips were undertaken in different seasons to different localities of Govind Wildlife Sanctuary
to explore and survey the Pteridophytic flora. During the survey the detailed field notes on altitude, latitude,
longitude and types of habitat of many plants were recorded. The localities visited are: Sankri, Jakhol, Taluka,
Osla, on the way to Kedar Kantha from Sankri, Juda Tal, Ghuiyan Ghati, Badgad dhara, region between
between Osla and Gangar and their nearby areas and Dhaula etc. as shown in figure 1. All the specimens were
critically studied and identified by first author. All the herbarium specimens were processed and deposited in the
Herbarium of the CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India (LWG). Each species is listed
with author citation followed by the habitat on which it was found growing in the study area, the locality,
altitude, latitude and longitude, the collectors name (acronyms: SKB - Sandip Kumar Behera; SN - Sanjeeva
Nayaka; VS - Vinay Sahu), collection number. However, in some species altitude, latitude and longitude could
not be noted because of some technical problem in the GPS handset (Gramin-72).

RESULTS
In the present study 55 species of ferns and fern-allies belonging to 26 genera of 15 families have been
collected from the studied area. The families with maximum representation of species were Dryopteridaceae,

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Received: 08 May 2014 Published online: 31 August 2014
Behera & Khare (2014) 1(2): 3747
.

Figure 1. Map of Govind Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttarkashi district showing the locations of study areas.

Pteridaceae and Polypodiaceae, and the families with representation of single species were Blechnaceae,
Coniogramaceae, Equisetaceae, Osmundaceae Pteridaceae, Pteridiaceae, Selaginellaceae, Sinopteridaceae
(Table.1). Among the plants collected, genus Dryopteris had maximum, 10 species followed by the genus
Polystichum with 8 species, Pteris with 5 species, Asplenium and Athyrium with 3 species, Adiantum, Onichium,
Lepisorus, and Polypodiodes with 2 species and rest genus had 1 species each (Table 1). Only 2 species of fern-
allies like Equisetum diffusum D. Don and Selaginella kraussiana (Kuntze) A. Braun were found and rest were
true ferns. One population of the species Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkin (Fig. 3E) was found in one
locality with single individual, Pteris wallichiana J. Agardh (Fig. 5D) was found to grow luxuriantly in a single
patch in single locality. The populations of Pteridium aquilinum (Fig. 5A) were more in most of the localities
and were growing like weeds. The families, genus and species identified were listed alphabetically.

Table 1. List of the genera and total number of species in each genera belonging to different families.
Sl. No. Name of the Families Name of the Genus No. of species
1. Adiantaceae Adiantum 2
2. Aspleniaceae Asplenium 3
3. Athyriaceae Athyrium 4
Diplazium 1
4. Blechnaceae Woodwardia 1
5. Coniogramaceae Coniogramme 1
6. Cryptogrammaceae Onichium 2
7. Dryopteridaceae Cyrtomium 1
Dryopteris 10
Hypodematium 1
Polystichum 8
8. Equisetaceae Equisetum 1
9 Osmundaceae Osmunda 1
10. Polypodiaceae Arthromeris 1
Drynaria 1
Lepisorus 2
Polypodiodes 2
Pyrrosia 1
11. Pteridaceae Pteris 5
12. Pteridiaceae Pteridium 1
13. Selaginellaceae Selaginella 1
14. Sinopteridaceae Cheilanthes 1
15. Thelypteridaceae Glaphyropteridopsis 1
Pseudocyosorus 1
Pseudophegopteris 1
Thelypteris 1

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LIST OF THE PTERIDOPHYTES
Fern-allies
1. Family- Equisetaceae
Genus- Equisetum
(i) Equisetum diffusum D. Don. (Fig. 2A)
The plant was growing adjacent to water channel in the sandy soil near Sankri. Inspite of being a common
species, it was located in a single locality, 6282 ft., N 31 04.552' E 078 10.652', 7.11.2012, SKB 253085.

Figure 2. A, Equisetum diffusum D. Don; B, Selaginella kraussiana (Kuntze) A. Braun; C, Adiantum venustum D.
Don; D, Adiantum Phillipense L.; E, Asplenium dalhousiae Hook.; F, Asplenium trichomanes L.

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2. Family- Selaginellaceae
Genus- Selaginella
(i) Selaginella kraussiana (Kuntze) A. Braun (Fig. 2B)
The plant was collected from the place on the way to Kedarkantha, 8094 ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342',
5.11.2012, SKB 253042. The plant was terrestrial as well as lithophytic.

Ferns
3. Family- Adiantaceae
Genus- Adiantum
(i) Adiantum Phillipense L. (Fig. 2D)
The plant was terrestrial. Netwar, 3 kms away on the way to Sankri, 4512 ft., N 31 04'08.96" E 078
06'20.35", 8.11.2012, SKB 253707.
(ii) Adiantum venustum D. Don (Fig. 2C)
The plant was terrestrial and found to grow on moist places. On the way to Taluka from Sankri, 13.5.2011, SN
253001. En route to Osla from Taluka, 14.5.2011, SN 253016. On the way to Kedarkantha, 6547 ft., N 31
04.331' E 078 11.413', 5.11.2012, SKB 253027; 4 km before Jakhol on the way from Shankri to Jakhol, 6435
ft., N 31 06.603' E 078 14.777', 6.11.2012, SKB 253073. Between Osla and Gangar, 2456 m, N 31 06'38.82"
E 078 19'28.64", 4.4.2013, VS 253104; 2388 m, N 31 06'21.56" E 078 18'50.00", 4.4.2013, VS 253107; 2456
m, N 31 06'38.82" E 078 19'28.64", 4.4.2013, SKB & VS 253104. On the way to Osla from Taluka, 2068 m, N
31 04'49.48" E 078 15'08.29", 1.4.2013, SKB 253096.

4. Family- Aspleniaceae
Genus- Asplenium
(i) Asplenium dalhousiae Hook. (Fig. 2E)
The plant was terrestrial. 4 km before Jakhol on the way from Sankri to Jakhol, 6435 ft., N 31 06.603' E
078 14.777', 6.11.2012 SKB 253072. Taluka 1 km towards Osla, 2022 m, N 31 04'51.6" E 078 15'11.9",
4.4.2013, VS 253109.
(ii) Asplenium tenuicaule Hayta
Lithophytic and epiphytic covered with moss near the water stream. On the way to Osla from Taluka,
14.5.2011, SN 253013; on the way from Taluka to Osla, 2083 m, N 31 04'49.97" E 078 15'10.26", 9.10.2013,
SKB 253097; between Osla and Gangar, 2712 m, N 31 06'41.9" E 078 19'44.2", 4.4.2013, VS 253101. Taluka
1 km towards Osla, 2022 m, N 31 04'51.6" E 078 15'11.9", 5.4.2013, VS 253110. Dhaula, 5182 ft., N 31 07'
52.5" E 078 05'04.29", 9.10.2013, VS 253705.
(iii) Asplenium trichomanes L. (Fig. 2F)
The plant was lithophytic. On the way to Osla from Taluka, 14.5.2011, SN 253014. Sankri local, 6282 ft., N
31 04.552' E 078 10.652', 7.11.2012, SKB 253088. Taluka, 1 km towards Osla, 2022 m, N 31 04'51.6" E 078
15'11.9", 5.4.2013, VS 253111.

5. Family- Athyriaceae
Genus- Athyrium
(i) Athyrium flabellulatum (C.B. Clarke) Tardieu
The plant was terrestrial. On the way to Taluka from Sankri, 14.5.2011, SN 253023
(ii) Athyrium foliolosum T. Moore ex R. Sim
The plant was terrestrial and growing in moist shady slopes in the forest, 6547 ft., E 78 11.413' N 31
04.331', 5.11.2012, SKB 253029.
(iii) Athyrium nigripes (Blume) T. Moore.
The plant was terrestrial. Ghuiyan Ghati between Sankri & Jakhol, 5507 ft., N 31 04.830' E 078 04.395',
5.11.2012, SKB 253058.
(iv) Athyrium schimperi Moug. ex Fe (Fig. 3A)
The plant was terrestrial. On the way to Kedarkantha, from Sankri, 7430 ft., E 078 11.342' N 31 03.95',
5.11.2012, SKB 253709.

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Genus- Diplazium
(i) Diplazium polypodiodes Blume (Fig. 3D)
The plant was terrestrial and found to grow on humus-rich mountain slopes with high moisture at various
elevations, usually at edge of forests or in clearings, not in deep shade. On the way to Kedarkantha from Sankri,
7430 ft., N 310 04.331' E 0780 11.413', 5.11.2012, SKB 253031; 8094 ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342',
5.11.2012, SKB 253051. 2 km before Jakhol from Sankri, 7060 ft., N 31 06.733' E 078 14.029', 6.11.2012,
SKB 253070. Sankri local, 6479 ft., N 31 04.618' E 078 11.007', 7.11.2012, SKB 253074.

Figure 3. A, Athyrium schimperi Moug. ex Fe; B, Cheilanthes farinosa (Forssk.) Kaulf; C, Coniogramma procera
(Wall.) Fe.; D, Diplazium polypodiodes Blume; E, Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkin; F, Dryopteris wallichiana
Wall.
6. Family- Blechnaceae
Genus- Woodwardia
(i) Woodwardia unigemmata (Makino) Nakai (Fig. 5F)
The plant was terrestrial. 2 km before Jakhol from Sankri, 7060 ft., N 31 06.733' E 078 14.029', 6.11.2012,
SKB 253069.

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7. Family- Coniogrammaceae
Genus- Coniogramma
(i) Coniogramma procera (Wall.) Fe. (Fig. 3C)
The plant was terrestrial and growing in humus rich soil at higher altitude. On the way to Kedarkantha from
Sankri, 6547 ft., E 078 11.342' N 31 03.95', 5.11.2012, SKB 253032.

8. Family- Cryptogrammaceae
Genus- Onychium
(i) Onychium contiguum Wall ex Hope (Fig. 5E)
The plant was terrestrial. On the way to Taluka from Sankri, 13.5.2011, SN 253006. On the way to
Kedarkantha from Sankri, 6547 ft., N 31 04.331' E 078 11.413', 5.11.2012, SKB 253025; 8094 ft., N 31
03.612' E 078 11.342', 5.11.2012, SKB 253041. Ghuiyan Ghati between Sankri & Jakhol, 5507 ft., N 31
04.830' E 078 04.395', 6.11.2012, SKB 253059.
(ii) Onychium japonicum var. lucidum (D. Don) Christ.
The plant was terrestrial. Located at Sankri, 6282 ft., N 31 04.552' E 078 10.652', 7.11.2012, SKB 253089.

9. Family- Dryopteridaceae
Genus- Cyrtomium
(i) Cyrtomium caryotideum (Wall ex Hook et Grev.) C. Presl
The plant was terrestrial and growing in moist and shaded forest slopes. On the way to Osla from Taluka,
14.5.2011, SN 253009, 14.5.2011, SN 253020.
Genus- Dryopteris
(i) Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkin (Fig. 3E)
The plant was found to grow from the crevices of rocks of a wall. Sankri local, 6479 ft., N 31 04.618' E
078 11.007', 7.11.2012, SKB 253081.
(ii) Dryopteris cochleata (Buch. Ham ex D.Don) C.Chr
The plant was terrestrial. Ghuiyan Ghati between Sankri & Jakhol, 5508 ft., N 31 04.830' E 078 04.395',
6.11.2012, SKB 253061.
(iii) Dryopteris conjugata Ching
The plant was terrestrial and growing in moist slopes of the forest. On the way to Kedarkantha from Sankri,
8094 ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342', 5.11.2012, SKB 253046.
(iv) Dryopteris juxtaposita Christ
The plant was terrestrial herb. On the way to Taluka from Sankri, SN 253010; on the way to Kedarkantha,
from Sankri, 8094 ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342', 5.11.2012, SKB 253047.
(v) Dryopteris lepidopoda Hayata
The plant was terrestrial and growing in moist slopes of the forest. On the way to Kedarkantha, from Sankri,
8094 ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342', 5.11.2012, SKB 253038.
(vi) Dryopteris neorosthornii Ching
The plant was terrestrial and growing in moist and shaded forest slopes. On the way to Kedarkantha from
Sankri, 6547 ft., N 31 04.331' E 078 11.413', 5.11.2012, SKB 253026.
(vii) Dryopteris nigropalaceae (Fraser- Jenk.) Fraser- Jenk.
The plant was terrestrial. On the way to Taluka from Sankri, SN 253012. On the way to Osla from Taluka,
14.5.2011, SN 2530019. On the way to Kedarkantha, from Sankri, 8094 ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342',
5.11.2012, SKB 253044. Jakhol village, 7218 ft., N 31 06.725' E 078 13.919', 6.11.2012, 6.11.2012, SKB
253066. Sankri local, 6282 ft., N 31 04.552' E 078 10.652', 7.11.2012, SKB 253086; 6282 ft., N 31 04.552' E
078 10.652', 7.11.2012, SKB 253095. Between Osla and Gangar, 2456 m, N 31 06'38.82" E 078 19'28.64",
4.4.2013, VS 253106.
(viii) Dryopteris sparsa (Ham. ex D.Don) Kuntze
The plant was terrestrial and growing in moist and shaded forest slopes en route to Osla from Taluka, SN

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253017; Sankri local, 6479 ft., N 31 04.618' E 078 11.007', 7.11.2012, SKB 253076.
(ix) Dryopteris subimpressa Loyal
The plant was terrestrial. On the way to Kedarkantha, from Sankri, 8094 ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342',
5.11.2012, SKB 253053.
(x) Dryopteris wallichiana Wall (Fig. 3F)
The plant was terrestrial, evergreen with shuttlecock-like rosettes of lance-shaped fronds. On the way to
Kedarkantha, from Sankri, 7430 ft., E 078 11.342' N 31 03.95', 5.11.2012, SKB 253033.

Figure 4. A, Drynaria propinqua (Wall) J. Smith; B, Hypodematium crenatum (Forssk.) Kuhn; C, Lepisorus nudus
(Hook.) Ching; D, Polypodiodes amoena (Wall. ex Mett.) Ching; E, Polystichum squarrosum D. Don; F,
Pseudophegopteris pyrrhorachis (Kunze) Ching.

Genus- Hypodematium
(i) Hypodematium crenatum (Forssk.) Kuhn (Fig. 4B)
The plant is lithophytic and found to grow in the rock crevices in the exposed areas of forest. Sankri local,
6479 ft., N 31 04.618' E 078 11.007', 7.11.2012, SKB 253077.

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Genus- Polystichum
(i) Polystichum discretum (D.Don.) J. Smith
The plant was terrestrial. Near Juda tal, on the way to Kedarkantha, 9429 ft., N 31 03.116' E 078 11.016',
5.11.2012, SKB 253054.
(ii) Polystichum mucranifolium (Blume)
The plant was terrestrial. En route to Osla from Taluka, 13.5.2011, SN 253008.
(iii) Polystichum obliquum (Don) Moore
The plant was lithophyte and was growing in ravines swamp and gorges. En route to Osla from Taluka,
14.5.2011, SN 253021.
(iv) Polystichum piceopaleatum Tagawa
The plant was terrestrial. En route to Kedarkantha from Sankri, 15.5.2011, SN 253024. On the way to
Kedarkantha, 3 km from Sankri, 6547 ft., N 31 04.331' E 078 11.413', 5.11.2012, SKB 253028. Between Osla
and Gangar, 2712 m, N 31 06'41.9" E 078 9'44.2", 1.4.2013, VS 253100.
(v) Polystichum shensiense Christ
The plant was terrestrial and was growing in alpine forest. On the way to Kedarkantha, from Sankri, 8094 ft.,
N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342', 5.11.2012, SKB 253040.
(vi) Polystichum stimulans (Kunze ex Mettenius) Beddome
The species was terrestrial and growing in moist and shaded forest slopes en route to Taluka from Sankri, SN
253007. On the way to Osla from Taluka, 2108 m, N 31 04'50.58" E 078 15'13.10", 1.4.2013, SKB 253098. On
the way from Osla to Gangar, 2468 m, N 31 06'39.83" E 078 19'38.01", 4.4.2013, SKB 253102, 4.4.2013, SKB
253103.
(vii) Polystichum squarrosum D.Don (Fig. 4E)
The plant was terrestrial. En route to Taluka from Sankri, 13.5.2011, SN 253004, 253011. Sankri local, 6479
ft., N 31 04.618'E 078 11.007', 7.11.2012, SKB 253078; 6282 ft., N 31 04.552' E 078 10.652', 7.11.2012,
SKB 253091.
(viii) Polystichum yunnanense Christ
The plant was terrestrial. On the way to Kedarkantha, from Sankri, 8094 ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342',
5.11.2012, SKB 253048. Near Juda tal, on the way to Kedarkantha, 9429 ft., N 31 03.116' E 078 11.016',
5.11.2012, SKB 253055. Sankri local, 6282 ft., N 31 04.552' E 078 10.652', 7.11.2012, SKB 253094.

10. Family- Osmundaceae


Genus- Osmunda
(i) Osmunda claytonia L.
The plant was terrestrial and growing in humus rich soil at higher altitude. En route to Osla from Taluka,
14.5.2011, SN 253018, SN 253022.

11. Family- Polypodiaceae


Genus- Arthromeris
(i) Arthromeris wallichiana (Spreng,) Ching
The plant was epiphyte and found to grow on tree trunk. En route to Osla from Taluka, 14.5.2011, SN
253015
Genus- Drynaria
(i) Drynaria propinqua (Wall) J. Smith (Fig. 4A)
The plant is epiphytic. Near Juda Tal, on the way to Kedarkantha, 9429 ft., N 31 03.116' E 078 11.016',
5.11.2012, SKB 253056.
Genus- Lepisorus
(i) Lepisorus contortus Ching
The plant was lithophytic. Badgad dhara (near bridge), 1 km before Jakhol village, 7335 ft., N 31 06.728' E
78 14.375', 6.11.2012, SKB 253068. Sankri local, 6479 ft., N 31 04.618' E 78 11.007', 7.11.2012, SKB

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253080. Dhaula, 5182 ft., N 31 07'52.5" E 078 04. 29", 9.10.2013, VS 253703.
(ii) Lepisorus morrisonensis (Hayata) H. Ito
The plant was lithophytic and epiphytic growing on rocks and tree. Dhaula, 5182 ft., N 31 07'52.5" E 78
04.29", 9.10.2013, VS 253702.
(iii) Lepisorus nudus (Hook.) Ching (Fig. 4C)
The plant was both lithophytic and epiphytic. Dhaula, 5182 ft., N 31 07' 52.5" E 078 04. 29" 9.10.2013, VS
253706.
Genus- Polypodiodes
(i) Polypodiodes amoena (Wall. ex Mett.) Ching
The plant was epiphytic growing on rocks or on tree trunks. On the way to Kedarkantha, from Sankri, 7430
ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342', 5.11.2012, SKB 253034; Juda Tal, on the way to Kedarkantha, 9429 ft., N 31
03.116' E 078 11.096', 5.11.2012, SKB 253057. Sankri local, 6479 ft., N 31 04.618' E 078 11.007', 7.11.20.12,
SKB 253079.
(ii) Polypodiodes lachnopus (Wall. ex Hook.) Ching
The plant was lithophytic. Dhaula, 5182 ft., N 31 07'52.5" E 078 05'04.29", 9.10.2013, VS 253704.
Genus- Pyrrosia
(vii) Pyrrosia porosa (C. Presl) Hovenkamp
The plant was lithophytic and epiphytic growing on rocks and tree. Dhaula, 5182 ft., N 31 07'52.5" E 078
05'04.29", 9.10.2013, VS 253701.

12. Family- Pteridaceae


Genus- Pteris
(i) Pteris aspericaulis Wall. ex J. Agardh
The plant was terrestrial and was commonly growing along streams, stream banks and marshes in high
altitudes. On the way to Kedarkantha, from Sankri, 8094 ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342', 5.11.2012, SKB
253043.
(ii) Pteris cretica Linn. (Fig. 5B)
The plant was terrestrial. En route Taluka from Sankri, 13.5.2011, SN 253004. On the way to Kedarkantha,
from Sankri, 8094 ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342', 5.11.2012, SKB 253050. Ghuiyan Ghati, between Sankri &
Jakhol, 5508 ft., N 31 04.830' E 078 04.395', 6.11.2012, SKB 253064. Sankri local, 6282 ft., N 31 04.552' E
078 10.652', 7.11.2012, SKB 253084. On the way to Osla from Taluka, 2108 m, N 31 04'50.58" E 078
15'13.10", 1.4.2013, VS 253099.
(iii) Pteris excelsa Gaud (Fig. 5C)
The plant was terrestrial. Ghuiyan Ghati between Sankri & Jakhol, 5508 ft., N 31 04.830' E 078 04.395',
6.11.2012, SKB 253060. Sankri local, 6282 ft., N 31 04.552' E 078 10.652', 7.11.2012, SKB 253091.
(iv) Pteris pseudoquadriaurita Khuller
The plant was terrestrial. Jakhol village, 7218 ft., N 31 06.725' E 078 13.919', 6.11.2012, SKB 253065.
Badgad dhara (near bridge), 1 km before jakhol village, 7335 ft., N 31 06.728' E 078 14.375', 6.11.2012, SKB
253067. Sankri local, 6282 ft., N 31 04.552' E 078 10.652', 7.11.2012, SKB 253082.
(v) Pteris wallichiana J. Agardh (Fig. 5D)
The plant was terrestrial, large, evergreen and clumping. The plant was found 4 km before Jakhol from
Sankri, 6435 ft., N 31 06.603' E 078 14.777' 6.11.2012, SKB 253071.

13. Family- Pteridiaceae


Genus- Pteridium
(i) Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn (Fig.5.A)
The plant is terrestrial which forms large clonal colonies in its habitat. On the way to Kedarkantha, from
Sankri, 8094 ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342', 5.11.2012, SKB 253052. Sankri local, 6282 ft., N 31 04.552' E
078 10.652', 7.11.2012, SKB 253092.

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Figure 5. A, Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn; B, Pteris cretica Linn; C, Pteris excelsa Gaud; D, Pteris wallichiana J.
Agardh; E, Onychium contiguum Wall ex Hope; F, Woodwardia unigemmata (Makino) Nakai.

14. Family- Sinopteridaceae


Genus- Cheilanthes
(i) Cheilanthes farinosa (Forssk.) Kaulf. (Fig. 3B)
The plant was both terrestrial and lithophytic. 1 km from Taluka, towards Osla, 6653 ft., N 31 04'51.6" E
078 15'11.9", 5.4.2013, VS 253112.

15. Family- Thelypteridaceae


Genus- Glaphyropteridopsis
(i) Glaphyropteridopsis erubescens (Wall. ex Hook.) Ching
The plant was terrestrial. Ghuiyan Ghati, between Sankri & Jakhol, 5508 ft., N 31 04.830' E 078 04.395',
6.11.2012, SKB 253062.
Genus- Pseudocyosorus

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(i) Pseudocyosorus canus (Baker) Holttum & J.W. Grimes
The plant was terrestrial. Sankri local, 6282 ft., N 31 04.552' E 078 10.652', 7.11.2012, SKB 253087.
Genus- Pseudophegopteris
(i) Pseudophegopteris pyrrhorachis (Kunze) Ching (Fig. 4F)
The plant was commonly growing along streams, stream banks and marshes in high altitudes. On the way to
Kedarkantha from Sankri, 8070 ft., N 31 03.612' E 078 11.342', 5.11.2012, SKB 253035; 8094 ft., N 31
03.612' E 078 11.342', 5.11.2012, SKB 253043. Ghuiyan Ghati, between Sankri & Jakhol, 5508 ft., N 31
04.830' E 078 04.395', 6.11.2012, SKB 253063; Sankri local, 6479 ft., N 31 04.618' E 078 11.007', 7.11.2012,
SKB 253075; 6282 ft., N 31 04.552' E 078 10.652', 7.11.2012, SKB 253090.
Genus- Thelypteris
(i) Thelypteris palustris Schott
This is a perennial fern and found to grow in open area where the soil is permanently wet and organic at
Netwar, 3 kms away on the way to Sankri, 4512 ft., N 31 04'08.96" E 078 06'20.35", 8.11.2012, SKB 253708.

DISCUSSIONS
The preliminary observations of the studied areas showed that this Sanctuary is most diversified in terms of
taxa although some genera had single representation of species. The species Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-
Jenkin (Fig. 2E), which is believed to be common fern in Western Himalaya and hence not listed in threatened
category by Chandra et al. (2008) was observed in one locality with single individual, indicates the species is at
risk. The luxuriantly growth of Pteris wallichiana J. Agardh in a specific habitat shows, it prefers to grow in
open spaces with sufficient sun light at high altitude. At the same time since the habitat was road side hence, it
was more prone to destruction by anthropogenic activities. The plants of Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn were
being used by the local people for burning fire after drying it, which was again a threat for the survival of this
plant.
The natural calamity due to heavy rain fall and cloud burst which resulted in destruction of roads debarred us
to visit the all areas of the sanctuary. However, the complete studies of the Pteridophytic flora of all the areas of
the sanctuary will give the clear picture of the status of different species and hence will fill up the gap left
behind.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors are extremely thankful to Dr. Sanjeeva Nayaka, Dr. Vinay Sahu and Dr. K. K Rawat for their
valuable help while collecting the plants during the exploration and Mr. Manoj Srivastava and Mr. Shyam Babu
for their valuable support. The authors are thankful to Director, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute,
Lucknow for providing financial support in the Budget head-BSC-0106, CSIR, New Delhi.

REFERENCES
Dixit RD (1984) A Census of the Indian Pteridophytes. Flora of India. Ser. 4, Botanical Survey of India,
Howrah (Calcutta), India, 177 p.
Chandra S (2000) The Ferns of India (Enumeration, Synonyms & Distribution). International Book Distributors,
Dehra Dun, India, 459 p.
Chandra S, Fraser-Jenkins CR, Kumari A & Srivastava A (2008) A summary of the status of threatened
pteridophytes of India. Taiwania 53(2): 170209.
Dixit RD (1984) A Census of the Indian Pteridophytes. Flora of India-Series 4. Botanical Survey of India,
Howrah, India, 177 p.
Khullar SP (1994) An illustrated Fern Flora of West Himalaya, Vol I. International Book distributors, Dehra
Dun, India, 506 p.
Khullar SP (2000) An illustrated Fern Flora of West Himalaya, Vol II. International Book distributors, Dehra
Dun, India, 543 p.
Pande HC & Pande PC (2003) An illustrated fern flora of the Kumaon Himalaya, Vol. 1. Bishen Singh
Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India, 372 p.
Shah R & Pande HC (2010) Fern flora of Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand. The Indian Forester 136(6): 717
724.

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ISSN (P): 2349 9265
1(2): 4854, 2014

Research article

Elevational controls of lichen communities in Zanskar valley,


Ladakh, a Trans Himalayan cold desert
Jatinder Kumar1, Himanshu Rai2, Roshni Khare2, D. K. Upreti2*, P. Dhar1, A. B.
Tayade1, O. P. Chaurasia1, R. B. Srivastava1
1
Defence Institute of High altitude Research (DIHAR), Defence Research & Development Organisation
(DRDO), Leh-901205, Jammu & Kashmir, India
2
Lichenology Laboratory, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR-NBRI), Lucknow-226001,
Uttar Pradesh, India
*Corresponding Author: upretidk@rediffmail.com [Accepted: 21 August 2014]

Abstract: Elevation linked climatic factors such as temperature, moisture, radiation and
precipitation delimit the distribution of organisms. Effect of elevation was studied on lichen
diversity in seven spatially separated sites of Zanskar valley, in Ladakh region of Indian
Himalayan state of Jammu and Kashmir. The study revealed presence of 24 species, of lichens in
the valley belonging to 12 genera and 10 families. Microlichens (crustose, placodioid, squamulose)
were the dominant growth forms in all the studied sites. Acarospora badiofusca and Xanthoria
elegans were the most common species in the valley. The study revealed presence of one new
record for the state (i.e. Endocarpon pallidum) and there new Toninia species to the lichen flora of
India. Principal component analysis (PCA) of sites and further two tailed bivariate correlational
analysis concluded the determinable influence of elevation on the lichen diversity of the valley.
Keywords: Correlation - Elevation - Himalaya - Lichens - PCA - Zanskar.

[Cite as: Kumar J, Rai H, Khare R, Upreti DK, Dhar P, Tayade AB, Chaurasia OP & Srivastava RB (2014)
Elevational controls of lichen communities in Zanskar valley, Ladakh, a Trans Himalayan cold desert. Tropical
Plant Research 1(2): 4854]

INTRODUCTION
The diversity and distribution pattern of organisms is strongly influenced by environmental variables such as
elevation, topography, moisture, temperature, precipitation, exposure to radiation and substrate attributes (i.e.
stability, nutrients, and chemistry) (John & Dale 1990, Eldridge & Tozer 1997, Belnap & Gillette 1998, Ponzetti
& McCune 2001, Krner 2003). Among various environmental variables elevation gradient is among the most
influencing, which through associated effects on atmospheric temperature, humidity, pressure and precipitation
influence the distribution dynamics of plant and animals (Vetaas & Grytnes 2002, Bhattarai et al. 2004, McCain
2004, Grau et al. 2007, Baniya 2010, Baniya et al. 2012).
Lichens, one of the most successful symbiotic associations of a fungus, a green and/ or blue green alga, are
known to inhabit nearly all the terrestrial domains of the planet (Galloway 1992). Though habitat range of
lichens is influenced by multi-scale environmental variables (Lalley et al. 2006), elevation is a key variable
which influences the diversity and distribution patterns of lichens (Bruun et al. 2006, Pinokiyo et al. 2008,
Baniya et al. 2010, Huang 2010, Baniya et al. 2012, Rai et al. 2012).
Himalayan habitats, rich in diversity of lichens, harbour definite pattern of lichen growth form distribution-
dominated by foliose lichens at lower to mid-elevations, fruticose-dimorphic lichens at subalpine elevations and
predominantly crustose along with their sub-growth forms- squamulose and placoid in alpine habitats with low
precipitation (Upreti 1998, Singh & Sinha 2010, Kumar et al. 2012).
Ladakh, the north most region of the Indian Himalaya, is characterized by mountainous topography, and
subzero harsh climate. Rocks and soil are the most preferred habitats for lichens of the region (Negi & Upreti
2000).Except the enumeration of 21 species of lichens from Hemis National Park, by Negi & Upreti (2000) and
36 species of lichens by Kumar et al. (2012), no records of lichens are available from this region.
In the present study we describe the lichen diversity of seven sites of Zanskar valley, situated in west
Ladakh, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India with reference to elevational gradients.

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Received: 11 May 2014 Published online: 31 August 2014
Kumar et al. (2014) 1(2): 4854
.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Study area
Zanskar, a sub district/ tehsil of the Kargil district, lies in the eastern half of the Indian state of Jammu and
Kashmir (Fig. 1). The Zanskar valley lies south west to Zanskar mountain range which separates Zanskar from
Ladakh. Geologically, the Zanskar Range is part of the Tethys Himalaya, an approximately 100-km-wide
synclinorium formed by strongly folded and imbricated, weakly metamorphosed sedimentary series. The
average height of the Zanskar mountain range is about 6,000 m.

Figure 1. Location map of study sites in Zanskar valley.

Zanskar valley covers an area of some 7,000 square kilometers, at a height ranging from 3,500 and 7,000
metres. The Valley consists of the area lying along the two main branches of the Zanskar River, Doda and
Lungnak (formed by two tributaries Kargyag and Tsarap river). The easiest approach is from Kargil through the
Suru valley. These topographical features makes access to Zanskar difficult from all sides. Communication with
the neighboring areas is maintained across mountain passes or along the Zanskar river when frozen.
The climate of Zanskar valley is extremely dry and cold. Annual precipitation is only around 100 mm / year
and humidity is very low. In this region, above 3,000 meters elevation, winters are extremely cold. The average
January temperature of the valley is -20C which drops as low as -40C.
The vegetation of Zanskar mainly consists of alpine and tundra plant species, which are mainly confined on
the upper slopes which receive more precipitation. Many species of Hippophae- the sea-buckthorns are found in
the region with minimal soil humidity. The alpine meadows are covered with edelweiss (Leontopodium
alpinum). Landuse by the local human population is mainly semipastoral agriculture based on livestock grazing
and agriculture. Cultivated crops including barley, lentils, and potatoes which are grown by farmers at the lower
elevations. At higher elevation livestock are major source of livelihood. Domesticated animals consists of yak,
dzo, sheep, horse, and dog. The wildlife in Zanskar is represented by marmot, bear, wolf, snow leopard, kiang,
bharal, alpine ibex, wild sheep and goats, and the lammergeyer (Bearded vulture).
The study was conducted in seven sites of Zanskar valley- Pibcha, Rangdum, Ichar, Sani, Raru, Stongday
and Zangla (Table 1) in order to assess the lichen diversity of the valley along elevation gradients. The sites
covered the elevational range of 35714001 m above mean sea level.
Lichen sampling and identification
Lichens were collected from seven localities of Zanskar valley (Table 1) using random sampling from all the
available relevs. In all the sampling sites the land use was semipastoral. The sampling was done on the basis of
morphospecies or recognizable taxonomic units (RTUs), identified based on morphological differences,

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Kumar et al. (2014) 1(2): 4854
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irrespective of their association with individuals of other taxa (Negi 2000). All the lichen RTUs were reported
from rocks.
Table 1. Sampling sites and their geomorphic and land use attributes in Zanskar valley.
S No. Localities Altitude (m) Coordinates Land use
1. Pibcha 3756 N 3323.596' E 7655.988' Semipastoral
2. Rangdum 4006 N 3403.165' E 7620.772' Semipastoral
3. Ichar 3774 N 3318.129' E 7659.901' Semipastoral
4. Sani 3572 N 3330.020' E 7648.932 Semipastoral
5. Raru 3728 N 3319.662' E 7657.545' Semipastoral
6. Stongday 3571 N 3331.356' E 7658.894' Semipastoral
7. Zangla 3573 N 3339.769 E 7659.316' Semipastoral

The lichen samples collected were examined and identified in the lichenology laboratory of the CSIR-
National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. 100% of the lichen RTUs were identified
taxonomically upto species level using a stereomicroscope, light microscope (morpho-anatomically) and,
chemically with the help of spot tests, UV light and standardized thin-layer chromatography (Elix & Ernst-
Russel 1993, Orange et al. 2001). The species were authenticated using relevant keys and monographs (Awasthi
1991, Divakar & Upreti 2005, Awasthi 2007).The voucher specimens were deposited at the lichen herbarium
(LWG), National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR-NBRI), Lucknow, India.
Data analysis
Lichen assemblage of all the 7 sites was quantitatively analyzed for frequency, with reference to lichen
richness, species and growth form diversity, in each site. RTUs collected from each site were considered as
measure of total lichen richness (Negi 2000), whereas number of species was considered as measure of species
diversity in sites (Pinokiyo 2008, Rai et al. 2012). An indirect gradient ordination method, principal component
analysis (PCA), was used to summarize the compositional differences between the sites (Pinokiyo et al. 2008,
Rai et al. 2012). Pearsons correlation coefficients were calculated to compare explanatory variable (i.e.
elevation) and response variables (PCA axis score, total lichen diversity, lichen species diversity and growth
form diversity) (Rai et al. 2012). The absolute constancy of each species in the study was calculated as the
number of sites in which the given species was present (Mueller-Domdois & Ellenberg 1974, Rai et al. 2012).
Except PCA and cluster analysis, which were performed using multivar option in PAST 2.17c (Hammer et al.
2001), all other statistical analysis were made using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.

RESULTS
Average community structure and patterns
The terricolous lichen assemblage recorded from the 7 sites in the Zanskar valley consisted of 24 species
belonging to 12 genera, ten families and four growth forms (i.e. crustose, placodioid, squamulose and, foliose)
(Table 2). All the studies sites exhibited dominance of the species of lichen family Lecanoracea (8 spp.),
followed by Acarosporaceae, Catillariaceae and Candelariaceae (3 spp. each) (Table 2). Among the species
recorded Acarospora badiofusca and Xanthoria elegans were the most common lichens (present in 6 sites)
(Table 2). The study revealed one addition (Endocarpon pallidum) to lichens for Jammu & Kashmir state and
recorded three new species of Toninia for India (Table 2).
The lichen communities on all the study sites surveyed were dominated by microlichens (i.e. squamulose and
crustose) (Table 2, Fig. 2B). Though no significant relationship was found between number of species and
elevation, a significant linear relationship was observed between total lichen diversity (RTUs frequency) and
elevation, where a gradual decrease in lichen diversity was observed with decrease in elevation (Table 2, Fig.
2A).
Principal community determinants
Principal component analysis:
The dominant and co-dominant lichens differed within seven sites of Zanskar valley indicating distinct
lichen assemblages in different sites (Table 2), which was also confirmed by PCA (Fig. 3).

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Kumar et al. (2014) 1(2): 4854
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Figure 2. A, Total lichen diversity along elevation gradient, with reference to RTUs recorded from the seven sites of
Zanskar valley; B, Percentage lichen growth form composition recorded in the seven sites of Zanskar valley. Sites are
arranged along decreasing elevation gradient.

The PCA analysis required 6 components (axis) to account for 100% variation in the data set. The first three
axis of PCA explained 85.8% of variance, and each axis explained 58.3, 15.1 and 12.4%, respectively. The first
two axes explaining 73.4% of variance were considered for further correlation studies.
PCA analysis resulted in preferential clustering of seven sites of Zanskar valley. Zangla, Stongday, Raru and
Pibcha though mapped in the same quarter of the PCA ordination plot, their relative clustering was governed by
proportional difference of growth forms in each site (Fig. 2B, 3; Table 2). Znagla and Stongday clustered along
due to dominance of squamulose growth forms in both sites. Raru and Pibcha mapped apart due to almost equal
proportion of squamulose and crustose growth forms in Raru and absence of placodioid growth forms in Pibcha
(Fig. 2B, 3; Table 2). PCA ordination showed similar differential proportion of crustose and, squamulose
growth forms in rest of the sites (Fig. 2B, 3; Table 2).

Figure 3. PCA ordination plot of 7 study sites of Zanskar valley.

Correlation analysis:
PCA 1 was found significantly correlated to total lichen diversity, elevation, and growth forms- curstose and
placodioid, indicating their primary influence in differentiating lichen communities in Zanskar valley (Table 3).
Total lichen diversity was correlated with lichen species diversity, elevation, and diversity specific growth forms
(i.e. squamulose, crustose, and placodioid). Elevation was correlated with total lichen diversity and diversity of
crustose and placodioid growth forms, indicating specific controls of elevation on lichen communities.

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Kumar et al. (2014) 1(2): 4854
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DISCUSSIONS
The Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, India is a Trans Himalayan desert which receives minimal
precipitation due to its location in the rain shadow region of Indian monsoon. The Zanskar valley, like majority
of Ladakh receive most of its moisture through winter snow fall, occasional rainfall and cloud burst events
(Strzepek & Smith 1995). The dominance and low species turnout of crustose, squamulose and placodioid
growth forms in Zanskar valley is in accordance to other such trans Himalayan habitats (Baniya 2010, Baniya et
al. 2012, Kumar et al. 2012), which can be attributed to decreasing soil cover, low atmospheric humidity and
poor substrate nutrients (carbon and nitrogen) at higher elevations (Baniya 2010). The clustering of some sites
(i.e. Zangla and Stongday) was due to alike lichen growth form composition, which was characterized by the
presence and similar proportion of crustose, placodioid, squamulose and foliose growth forms. The peculiar
dominance of microlichens in the Zanskar valley is similar studies to such studies done in the region of Leh
(Kumar et al. 2012). Higher total lichen (RTUs collected) and species (no. of species collected) diversity in the
sites with higher elevation can be attributed to relative higher precipitation received at these elevations (i.e.
35004006 m).
Table 3. Pearsons correlation coefficients between PCA axes and selected variables (significant correlations are
tagged).
PCA1 PCA2 SD LD Al Sq Cr Pl Fo
PCA1 1
PCA2 0.000 1
SD 0.680 -0.003 1
LD 0.953** 0.008 0.868* 1
**
Al 0.937 -0.051 0.630 0.894** 1
**
Sq 0.742 0.365 0.883 0.865* 0.687 1
Cr 0.883** 0.071 0.878** 0.949** 0.806* 0.916** 1
** * **
Pl 0.881 -0.243 0.514 0.812 0.906 0.451 0.624 1
Fo 0.174 0.124 0.402 0.305 0.191 0.223 0.076 0.399 1
SD, Species diversity (no. of spp.); LD Lichen diversity (frequency of RTUs); Alt, Altitude; Sq, Squamulose;
Cr, Crustose; Pl, Placodioid; Fo, Foliose
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed), **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

CONCLUSION
Lichen constitute a major component of flora of cold desert in trans Himalaya (Baniya 2010), and their
growth forms are known to be good indicators of habitat heterogeneities in Himalayan habitats (Baniya et al.
2012, Rai et al. 2012). Present study revealed a considerable lichen diversity in Zanskar valley, influenced by
elevation linked climatic factors. The findings here by elucidate the yet less explored lichen biodiversity of
Ladakh, and can act as base line data for further lichenological researches in the region.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors are thankful to Director CSIR-NBRI and Director and support staff of DIHAR-Leh for the
laboratory and collection facilities provided.

REFERENCES
Awasthi DD (2007) A Compendium of the Macrolichens from India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bishen Singh
Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India, 580 p.
Awasthi DD (1991) A key to the microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 40: 1
336.
Baniya C, Solhy T, Gauslaa Y & Palmer MW (2012) Richness and composition of vascular plants and
cryptogams along a high elevational gradient on Buddha mountain, central Tibet. Folia Geobotanica 47:
135151.
Baniya CB (2010) Vascular and cryptogam richness in the world's highest alpine zone, Tibet. Mountain
Research and Development 30: 275281.
Belnap J & Gillette DA (1998) Vulnerability of desert biological soil crusts to wind erosion: the influence of
crust development, soil texture and disturbance. Journal of Arid Environments 39: 133142.
Bhattarai KR, Vetaas OR & Grytnes JA (2004) Fern species richness along a central Himalayan elevational
gradient, Nepal. Journal of Biogeography 31: 389400.

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Bruun HH, Moen J, Virtanen R, Grytnes, JA, Oksanen L & Angerbjrn A (2006) Effects of altitude and
topography on species richness of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in alpine communities. Journal of
Vegetation Science 17: 3746.
Divakar PK & Upreti DK (2005) Parmelioid Lichens in India: A Revisionary Study. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal
Singh. Dehradun, India, pp. 488.
Eldridge DJ & Tozer ME (1997) Environmental factors relating to the distribution of terricolous bryophytes and
lichens in semi-arid eastern Australia. Bryologist 100: 2839.
Elix JE & Ernst-Russel KD (1993) A Catalogue of Standardized Thin Layer Chromatographic Data and
Biosynthetic Relationships for Lichen Substances, 2nd Edition. Australian National University, Canberra,
Australia.
Galloway DJ (1992) Biodiversity: a lichenological perspective. Biodiversity and Conservation 1: 312323.
Grau O, Grytnes JA & Birks HJB (2007) A comparison of altitudinal species richness patterns of bryophytes
with other plant groups in Nepal, Central Himalaya. Journal of Biogeography 34: 19071915.
Hammer , Harper DAT & Ryan DP (2001) PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education
and data analysis. Palaentologia Electronica 4: 19.
Kumar J, Khare R, Rai H, Upreti DK, Tayade A, Hota S, Chaurasia OP, Srivastava RB (2012) Diversity of
lichens along altitudinal and land use gradients in the Trans Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh. Nature and
Science 10(4): 19.
John E & Dale MRT (1990) Environmental correlates of species distributions in a saxicolous lichen community.
Journal of Vegetation Science 1: 385392.
Krner C (2003) Alpine Plant Life - Functional Plant Ecology of High Mountain Ecosystems, 2nd Edition.
Springer, Heidelberg.
Lalley JS, Viles HA, Copeman N & Cowley C (2006) The influence of multi-scale environmental variables on
the distribution of terricolous lichens in a fog desert. Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 831838.
McCain CM (2004) The mid-domain effect applied to elevational gradients: species richness of small mammals
in Costa Rica. Journal of Biogeography 3: 1931.
Mueller-Domdois D & Ellenberg H (1974) Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New
York.
Negi HR (2000) On the patterns of abundance and diversity of macrolichens of Chopta-Tunganath in the
Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of Biosciences 25(4): 367378.
Orange A, James PW & White FJ (2001) Micro-chemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens. British
Lichen Society, London, UK.
Pinokiyo A, Singh KP & Singh JS (2008) Diversity and distribution of lichens in relation to altitude within a
protected biodiversity hot spot, north-east India. Lichenologist 40: 4762.
Ponzetti JM & McCune BP (2001) Biotic soil crusts of Oregon's shrub steppe: community composition in
relation to soil chemistry, climate, and livestock Activity. Bryologist 104: 212225.
Rai H, Upreti DK & Gupta RK (2012) Diversity and distribution of terricolous lichens as indicator of habitat
heterogeneity and grazing induced trampling in a temperate-alpine shrub and meadow. Biodiversity and
Conservation 21: 97113.
Singh KP & Sinha GP (2010) Indian lichens: an annotated checklist. Govt. of India, Botanical Survey of India.
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1(2): 5559, 2014

Research article

A biomimetic approach towards synthesis of Zinc oxide


Nanoparticles using Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell.
M.S. Shekhawat1*, C. P. Ravindran1 and M. Manokari2
1
Biotechnology Lab. Postgraduate Department of Plant Science, Mahatma Gandhi Govt. Arts College, Mahe,
Pondicherry, India
2
Biotechnology Unit, K.M. Centre for Post Graduate Studies, Pondicherry, India
*Corresponding Author: smahipal3@gmail.com [Accepted: 22 August 2014]

Abstract: We report green approach for the synthesis of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles from the
aqueous extracts of leaves, stem and roots of Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell in present
study. H. enneaspermus plant has been used in traditional system of medicines in India, but so far
it has not been tested for synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized
using Zinc Nitrate hexahydrate [Zn(NO3)2.6H2O] solution. The Zinc Nitrate solution was exposed
to the herbal extracts, which was reduced and the nanoparticles were synthesized. The formation
of nanoparticles was confirmed by the color change of the reaction mixture. The synthesized ZnO
nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometeric analysis. The reaction mixtures
leaf extract showed absorption peak at 300 nm, stem extract at 290 nm and root extract at 288 nm.
Keywords: Green synthesis - Zinc oxide nanoparticles - Hybanthus enneaspermus.

[Cite as: Shekhawat MS, Ravindran CP & Manokari M (2014) A Biomimetic Approach towards Synthesis of
Zinc oxide Nanoparticles using Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell. Tropical Plant Research 1(2): 5559]

INTRODUCTION
Nanoparticles are of great scientific interest, and they represent a bridge between the bulk materials and the
molecules. Earlier, the nanoparticles were studied because of their size-dependent physical and chemical
properties but now they have entered in commercial exploration with huge applications (Shearer et al. 2000).
The intrinsic properties of metal nanoparticles are due to their size, composition and morphology (Dickson &
Lyon 2000). These nano size metal oxides have been attracted researchers by their ability to withstand under
harsh condition and safe to mankind (Fu et al. 2005).
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are versatile elements with various biomedical properties like,
antimicrobial (Rajendran et al. 2010), antibacterial activities (Zhang et al. 2010) etc. ZnO nanoarticles are
among the top most photocatalysts which are used in disinfecting waste water and to decompose pesticides,
herbicides (Zhao et al. 2010) etc. Biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and their use in various fields are reported
by many authors (Bagabas et al. 2013, Malarkodi et al. 2013).
Biogenesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles using plant parts was reported in Corriandrum sativum, Acalypa
indica (Gnanasangeetha & Sarala 2013a,b), Aloe barbadensis (Sangeetha et al. 2011), Morinda pubescens,
Passiflora foetida (Shekhawat et al. 2014a,b) etc.
Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell. belongs to family Violaceae, is commonly called Ratanpurus,
Sthalakamala, Gem for men, Spade flower etc. (Kirtikar & Basu 1975). Traditionally H. enneaspermus plant is
used to treat malaria, diabetes, male sterility, gonorrhea, urinary tract infection, jaundice, Cholera etc. (Sarita et
al. 2004, Patel et al. 2011, Kheraro & Bouquet 1950, Pushpangadan & Atal 1984, Gopal & Shah 1985). This
plant is also used to improve memory and to treat asthma, tuberculosis, eye diseases etc. (Udayan & Indira
2009).
The aqueous extract of H. enneaspermus was used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Sripriya et
al. (2013). As per the literature survey no data were available regarding the biogenesis of Zinc oxide
nanoparticles using H. enneaspermus. The present study intended to synthesize and characterize ZnO
nanoparticles from various extracts of this valuable medicinal plant for the first time.

MATERIAL AND METHODS


Collection of plant material and preparation of broth solutions
www.tropicalplantresearch.com 55
Received: 19 May 2014 Published online: 31 August 2014
Shekhawat et al. (2014) 1(2): 4859
.

Figure 1. Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell. in natural habitat.


Hybanthus enneaspermus is an important ethno-medicinal herb (Fig. 1). The plant material for the present
study was collected from the campus of K.M. Centre for Postgraduate Studies, Pondicherry, India. The leaf,
stem and roots were collected from the healthy plants and washed thoroughly with distilled water, and finely cut
into small pieces (Fig. 2,3 & 4A,B).

Figure 2. A, Mature leaves, B, Leaves in small pieces; C, Zinc Nitrate solution, aqueous extract of leaves and the mixture.

Figure 3. AB, Stem cuttings; C, Zinc Nitrate solution, aqueous extract of stem and the mixture.
5 gm of chopped plant parts were boiled in a clean and sterilized conical flask of desired size with 50 ml of
double distilled water for 5 min. to prepare broth solution. The extracts were filtered with Whatman filter paper
No.1 after boiling and stored in refrigerator for further study.
Preparation of precursors and synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles

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Figure 4. AB, Root cuttings; C, Zinc Nitrate solution, aqueous extract of roots and the mixture.
Zinc Nitrate hexahydrate [Zn(NO3)2.6H2O] (Merck, Mumbai, India) was used as precursor to synthesize
ZnO nanoparticles using H. enneaspermus. 1 mM Zinc nitrate solution was prepared using Zinc Nitrate
hexahydrate with double distilled water and stored in refrigerator at 4oC for further use. Three boiling tubes
were taken for the synthesis process; one containing 10 ml of 1 mM Zinc nitrate solution as control, the second
tube containing 10 ml of broth solution from appropriate part of the plant to observe the color change and the
third tube containing 9 ml of 1 mM Zinc nitrate solution and 1 ml of plant extracts as test solution.
Characterization of nanoparticles
The synthesized Zinc oxide nanoparticles using the plant extracts were centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 15 min to
obtain the pellet which was used for further study. Supernatant was discarded and the pellet dissolved in
deionized water. The synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles were confirmed and characterized by using UV-
Visible spectrophotometer (Model 2202, Systronics Ltd. India). The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the zinc
colloids from various parts of the plants were confirmed by using wave length scan between 200 nm and 700
nm.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The ethnobotanical herb Hybanthus enneaspermus has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antitussive,
antiplasmodial, anticonvulsant, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, antifungal, hypolipidemic and free radical
scavenging activities (Boominathan et al. 2004, Sahoo et al. 2006, Satheesh & Kottai 2012, Patel et al. 2011,
Arumugam et al. 2011). This plant is said to be rare because of its seasonal habitat and sporadic distribution
(Prakash et al. 1999).
The bio-nano-synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf, stem and root extracts of Hybanthus
enneaspermus was investigated in the present study. The color change was observed in the test solution of leaf
and stem from colorless to pale yellow when 1 ml of broth solution was challenged with 9 ml of Zinc nitrate
solution. The color was not changed in case of root extract without heating the mixture (Fig. 2,3 & 4C) even
after two hours. Color change from colorless to pale yellow was observed when the test solution was heated in
the oven at 60o C for ten minutes, which was disappeared while cooling. The present observations were also
confirmed by our previous study (Shekhawat et al. 2014a, 2014b).
Plants attributed the way to synthesize nanoparticles through green method because of their green chemistry
principle. Sripriya et al. (2013) biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using H. enneaspermus and used these
nanoparticles in antibacterial coatings and drug delivery applications. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are very special
among the existing nanomaterials due to their organometallic properties. Now it is possible to prepare individual
nano metal or oxide particles.
The whole plant body of H. enneaspermus has evident to possess aphrodisiac activities and it has significant
role in maintaining maleness. The Siddha medicine explains it as rejuvenating herb and it is known to possess
coumarin, which is responsible for the hypolipidemic activity (Senthil et al. 2013, Narayanaswamy et al. 2007).
We strongly believe that the phytochemicals, like coumarin are working as reducing agent and responsible for
the conversion of metallic oxide into nanoparticles.
The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometeric analysis. The
aqueous leaf extract showed absorption peak at 300 nm, stem extract at 290 nm and the root extract at 288 nm
(Fig. 5). Jain et al. (2014) also observed same types of results and described the biological approach for the
synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles.
The absorption wavelength at about 300 nm of ZnO suggested the excitonic character of Zinc at room
temperature. Vanheusden et al. (1996) described that the UV emission is attributed to the radiative

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Shekhawat et al. (2014) 1(2): 4859
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recombination between the electrons in the conduction band and the holes in the valence band while working on
ZnO phosphor powders.

Figures 5. A, Spectrophotometric absorbance peak of leaf reaction mixture; B, Spectrophotometric absorbance peak of root
reaction mixture; C, Spectrophotometric absorbance peak of stem reaction mixture.

CONCLUSION
This is the first study to develop an efficient protocol for the biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using H.
enneaspermus to highlight eco-friendly approach for commercial application of Zinc nanoparticles in agriculture
as nano-bio-fertilizers and in the field of medicine.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors are grateful to Department of Science, Technology and Environment, Govt. of Puducherry for
providing financial support.

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Bagabas A, Alshammari A, Aboud MFA & Kosslick H (2013) Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide
nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation. Nanoscale Research
Letters 8(1): 516.
Boominathan R, Parimaladevi B, Mandal SC & Ghoshal SK (2004) Anti-inflamattory evaluation of Ionidium
suffruticosum Ging. in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 91: 367370.
Dickson RM & Lyon LA (2000) Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires. Journal of Physical
Chemistry 104: 60956098.
Fu L, Liu Z, Liu Y, Han B, Hu P, Cao L & Zhu D (2005) Beaded Cobalt oxide nanoparticles along carbon
nanotubes: towards more highly integrated electronic devices. Advanced Materials 7: 217221.
Gnanasangeetha D & Sarala TD (2013a) One pot synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles via chemical and green
method. Research Journal of Material Science 1(7): 18.
Gnanasangeetha D & Salara TD (2013b) Biogenic Production of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Acalypha
indica. Journal of Chemical Biological and Physical Sciences Sec B 4(1): 238246.
Gopal GV & Shah GL (1985) Some folk medicinal plants used for jaundice in Gujarat, India. Journal of
Research and Education in Indian Medicine 4: 45.
Jain N, Bhargava A & Panwar J (2014) Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using
biologically synthesized protein-capped ZnO nanoparticles. Chemical and Engineering Journal 243: 549
555.
Kheraro J & Bouquet A (1950) In-Plantes medicinales et toxiques de la cote dlvoire-Haute-Volta. Vigot Freres,
Paris, pp. 170.
Kirtikar KR & Basu BD (1975) Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. I, 2nd Edition. International Book Distributors,
Dehradun, India. pp. 212.
Malarkodi C & Annadurai G (2013) A novel biological approach on extracellular synthesis and characterization
of semiconductor Zinc sulfide nanoparticles. Applled Nanosciece 3: 389395.
Narayanaswamy VB, Manjunatha SM, Malini S & Annie Shirwaikar (2007) Preliminary aphrodisiac activity of
Hybanthus enneaspermus in rats. Pharmacologyonline 1: 152161.

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Patel DK, Kumar R, Prasad SK, Sairam K & Hemalatha S (2011) Antidiabetic and in vitro antioxidant potential
of Hybanthus enneaspermus (Linn.) F. Muell in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asian Pacific Journal
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Prakash E, Sha Vallikhan PS, Sairam Reddy P & Rao KR (1999) Regeneration of plants from seed-derived
callus of Hybanthus enneaspermus (L) Muell., a rare ethnbotanical herb. Journal of plant cell reports
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Pushpangadan P & Atal CK (1984) Ethno botanical investigations in Kerala, Some primitive tribal of Western
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Rajendran R, Balakumar, Hasabo AM, Jayakumar S, Vaideki K & Rajesh EM (2010) Use of Zinc oxide nano
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Sahoo S, Kar DM, Mohapatra S, Rout SP & Dash SK (2006) Antibacterial activity of Hybanthus enneaspermus
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Sangeetha G, Rajeshwari S & Venckatesh R (2011) Green synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles by Aloe
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Research article

Diallel analysis for different horticultural traits in bitter gourd


(Momordica charantia L.) using Haymans numerical and
graphical approach
K. Radha Rani
College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India
*Corresponding Author: radha.aphu@gmail.com [Accepted: 24 August 2014]

Abstract: Twenty eight F1 hybrids developed during summer, 2010 by crossing 8 diverse parents
in all possible combinations without reciprocals were evaluated for diallel analysis for genetic
parameters and graphic representation for yield and yield attributing traits during summer 2011 at
College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. The validity of the assumptions of
diallel analysis was confirmed for all the traits studied except number of fruits/vine other traits
such as average fruit weight, pulp thickness and yield/vine as t2 values for these traits were found
to be significant. The dominance variance was found to be greater in magnitude than additive
variance for all the traits indicating the presence of over dominance controlling the traits which
was further confirmed from the regression line of Wr-Vr graph was found to cut the ordinate
below origin. The distribution of array points along and around the regression line for yield/vine
indicated that the parents IC-470560, IC-470550 and IC-033227 had an excess of dominant genes
whereas IC-045339 being farthest from the origin carrying maximum recessive genes. The
predominance of dominant gene action coupled with low heritability observed for all the traits
except average fruit weight suggesting the importance of heterosis breeding for improvement of
yield and yield attributing traits in bitter gourd.
Keywords: Haymans graphical approach - Genetic parameters - Wr-Vr graph - Gene action.

[Cite as: Radha Rani K (2014) Diallel analysis for different horticultural traits in bitter gourd (Momordica
charantia L.) using Haymans numerical and graphical approach. Tropical Plant Research 1(2): 6064]

INTRODUCTION
The procedure of quantitative genetic analysis to estimate genetic parameters from the component of genetic
variation, essentially involves calculating variance and covariances of arrays of diallel table and regression of
variance of parent upon covariances of hybrids to ascertain dominance, additive and non-additive gene action
and finally inheritance pattern of particular character leading to the targeted selection of entries for further
utilization/developing commercial cultivars. Bitter gourd is an important commercial crop rich in nutrients and
therapeutic properties. Though a wide range of genetic variability is present in this crop for yield and other
related characters, a very little attempt has been done on inheritance of characters. Hence, the present
investigation was undertaken to supplement the genetic parameters interpretations with diallel graphs and to
pinpoint which parents contain preponderance of dominance/recessive genes with increasing/decreasing
character attributes for utilizing them judiciously in future breeding programmes.

MATERIAL AND METHODS


Eight genetically diverse inbreds of bitter gourd viz., IC-033227, IC-044417, IC-044438, IC-045339, IC-
085622, IC-470550, IC-470558 and IC-470560 were crossed in dialle mating design without reciprocals to get
28 F1 hybrids during summer 2010. The hybrids along with parents were evaluated at college of Horticulture,
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad in a randomized block design with three replications during summer 2011. The seeds
were sown in rows at spacing of 2 m between rows and 0.5 m between plants. The crop was raised by following
the recommended package of practices. Data recorded on fifteen characters viz., vine length (m), number of
laterals/vine, internodal length (cm), days to 1st male flower appearance, days to 1st female flower appeared,
node number at which 1st male flower appeared, node number at which 1st female flower appearance, sex ratio
(male to female), number of fruits/vine, average fruit weight (g), fruit length (cm), fruit girth (cm), pulp

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Received: 22 May 2014 Published online: 31 August 2014
Radha Rani (2014) 1(2): 6064
.
thickness (cm), number of seeds/fruit and yield/vine (kg) from five randomly selected plants in each replication.
Gene action was elucidated by adopting genetical and graphical analysis as suggested by Hayman (1954a,b).

RESULTS
The validity of the assumptions of diallel analysis was confirmed for all the traits studied except number of
fruits/vine, average fruit weight, pulp thickness and yield/vine as t2 values for these traits were found to be
significant (Table 1). The regression line of Wr-Vr graph was found to be deviate from unit slope for all the
characters in the present study. However, the b values were exceeding 0.5 for 8 characters viz., vine length,
number of laterals/vine, intermodal length, days to 1st male & female flower appeared, node number at 1st male
and female flower appeared and sex ratio indicating the absence of epistasis (Table 1). Components of variance
due to genetic and environmental factors were presented in table 2. Both additive and dominance component of
variation for inheritance was significant for all the traits studied except average fruit weight, fruit length, pulp
thickness, number of seeds/fruit and yield/vine for which dominance component only was significant (Table 2).
The dominance variance was found to be greater in magnitude than additive variance for all the traits indicating
the presence of over dominance controlling the traits which was further confirmed from the regression line of
Wr-Vr graph was found to cut the ordinate below origin.
Table 1. Estimates of t2, a, b, SEb, b-0/SEb and 1-b/SEb.
Character t2 a b SEb b-0/SEb 1-b/SEb
Vine length 0.529 -0.034 0.875 0.111 7.882 1.126
No. of laterals/vine 2.035 -0.069 0.696 0.140 4.971 2.174
Intermodal length 0.013 -0.156 0.732 0.260 2.815* 1.030
Days to 1st male flower 1.048 0.256 0.820 0.119 6.890** 1.512
Days to 1st female flower 0.024 1.587 0.608 0.351 1.732* 1.116
Node No. at 1st male flower 0.368 -0.363 0.843 0.343 2.457 0.457
Node No. at 1st female flower 0.688 -0.038 0.576 0.223 2.583* 1.901
Sex ratio 0.603 -0.205 1.035 0.198 5.227** -0.176
No. of fruits/vine 8.481** 2.167 0.416 0.126 3.301* 4.634*
Ave. fruit weight 6.355** 6.618** 0.163 0.162 1.006* 5.166**
Fruit length 1.001 -0.193 0.303 0.257 1.179 2.712*
Fruit girth 1.697 -0.110 0.386 0.218 1,771* 2.816**
Pulp thickness 2.800* 0.010 -0.059 0.215 -0.274* 4.925**
No. of seeds/fruit 3.626* 0.026 0.292 0.186 1.569 3.806*
Yield/vine 8.460** 0.019 0.198 0.144 1.375 5.569**
*Significant at 0.05% probability ** Significant at 0.01% probability
The dominant and recessive genes contributed by parental arrays for different traits were depicted in from
fig. 1 and fig. 2. For vine length, the distribution of array points showed (Fig. 1A) the concentration of dominant
genes in the parent IC-085622 (array 5) followed by IC-470550 (array 6) as they were located close to origin
while the parent IC-470558 (array 7) contributed most recessive genes as its position was far away from origin.
Similarly for number of laterals/vine, IC-044438 had most dominant genes (Fig. 1B) while IC-045339 had most
recessive genes. Based on their position of arrays, IC-470558 showed (Fig. 1C) most dominant genes while IC-
044417 contributed recessive genes for intermodal length. The results of graphic analysis (Fig. 1D&E) indicated
that the parent IC-470558 had most dominant genes both for days to 1st male and female flower whereas IC-
045339 and IC-033227 had most recessive genes for days to 1st male and female flower respectively. For node
number at 1st male and female flowers (Fig. 1F&G), the parent IC-470558 contributed dominant genes while IC-
045339 contributed recessive genes. The parent IC-045339 had recessive genes while IC-044438 contained
most dominant genes for sex ratio (Fig. 1H).
Maximum frequency of dominant alleles for number of fruits/vine was observed in IC-033227 followed by
IC-470550 and IC-470560 (Fig. 1I), for average fruit weight (Fig. 2A) in array, IC-470560 followed by IC-
033227, for fruit length (Fig. 2B) in IC-470550 and IC-470560, for fruit girth (Fig. 2C) in IC-470560, for pulp
thickness and number of seeds/fruit (Fig. 2D&E) in IC-085622.while parent IC-045339 had maximum recessive
genes for all these traits except for number of fruits/vine (IC-044417) and number of seeds/fruit (IC-470550).
The distribution of array points along and around the regression line for yield/vine (Fig. 2F) indicated that the

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Table 2. Estimates of genetic parameters for different traits in bitter gourd.
Characters D + SE (D) F + SE (F) H1 + SE (H1) H2 + SE (H2) h2 + SE (h2) E + SE (E)
Vine length 0.05**+0.008 0.02+0.02 0.22**+0.12 0.18**+0.02 0.60**+0.01 0.003+0.003
No. lateral/vine 0.24**+0.04 -0.06+0.08 0.84**+0.08 0.77**+0.07 0.46**+0.05 0.02+0.01
Intermodal length 0.18**+0.07 0.22+0.16 0.91**+0.15 0.70**+0.13 1.84**+0.09 0.10**+0.02
Days to 1st male flower 6.98**+0.51 4.07**+1.20 6.69**+1.17 5.40**+1.02 -0.10+0.68 0.74**+0.17
Days to 1st female flower 15.49**+2.84 7.95+6.71 18.98**+6.53 14.64**+5.68 0.69+3.81 0.65+0.95
Node No. at 1st male flower 1.57**+0.34 1.87*+0.90 3.25**+0.87 2.61**+0.76 0.14+0.51 0.17+0.13
Node No. at 1st female 2.73**+0.65 1.15+1.54 5.82**+1.50 5.29**+1.30 1.23+0.87 0.24+0.22
flower
Sex ratio 0.52**+0.09 0.44*+0.21 1.13**+0.21 0.80**+0.18 1.03**+0.12 0.09**+0.03
No. of fruits/vine 8.03**+1.18 -4.36+2.78 15.59**+2.71 12.25**+2.35 14.08**+1.58 0.25+0.39
Ave. fruit weight 37.02+38.61 14.36+91.22 185.48*+88.75 163.48*+77.21 101.31+51.78 4.96+12.87
Fruit length 1.93+1.25 1.70+2.95 9.41**+2.87 7.26**+2.50 2.94+1.67 0.05+0.42
Fruit girth 1.14*+0.45 1.69+1.07 3.18**+1.04 2.24*+0.91 2.01**+0.61 0.05+0.15
Puplp thickness 0.03+0.03 0.04+0.08 0.23**+0.08 0.20**+0.07 0.14**+0.04 0.003+0.01
No. of seeds/fruit 0.98+0.89 0.50+2.09 3.67+2.04 3.49*+1.77 0.10+1.19 0.86**+0.30
Yield/vine 0.07+0.04 -0.02+0.10 0.28**+0.09 0.23**+0.08 0.22**+0.05 0.002+0.01
*Significant at 0.05% probability ** Significant at 0.01% probability
parents IC-470560, IC-470550 and IC-033227 had an excess of dominant genes whereas IC-045339 being
farthest from the origin carrying maximum recessive genes.

Figure 1. A, Vine length; B, Number of laterals/vine; C, Internode length; D, Days to 1st male flower; E, Days to 1st female
flower; F, Node number at 1st male flower; G, Node number at 1st female flower; H, Sex ratio; I, Number of fruits/vine.

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.

Figure 2. A, Average fruit weight; B, Fruit length; C, Fruit girth; D, Pulp thickness; E, Number of seeds/fruit; F, Yield/vine.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


Both additive and dominant genes in the inheritance of vine length, number of laterals/vine, days to 1st male
and female flower, node number at 1st male & female flower, sex ratio, fruit girth had been reported earlier by
Sundaram (2007). Similarly the involvement of additive and dominant genes in the inheritance of fruit girth and
vine length in bitter gourd had been recorded by Devdass (1993) while Lawande & Patil (1991) found the
involvement of both additive and dominant genes in the inheritance of number of fruits/vine. The presence of
both additive and non-additive gene action along with high heritability was observed for majority of the traits
indicating the possibility of isolating superior inbreds from segregating generations as suggested by Sundaram
(2007). Reciprocal recurrent selection could be adopted to exploit both additive and non-additive gene effects.
The predominance of dominant gene action coupled with low heritability observed for all the traits except
average fruit weight suggesting the importance of heterosis breeding for improvement of yield and yield
attributing traits in bitter gourd. Similar reports were mentioned by Sundaram (2007) in bitter gourd. The
possibilities for commercial exploitation of heterosis had also been reported earlier by Chaubey & Ram (2004),
Patel et al. (2005), Maurya et al. (2009) and Thangamani et al. (2011) in bitter gourd.

REFERENCES
Chaubey AK & Ram HH (2004) Heterosis for fruit yield and its components in bitter gourd (Momordica
charantia L.). Vegetable Science 31(1): 5153.
Devdass VS (1993) Genetic studies on fruit and seed yield and quality in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia
L.), Ph.D. (Hort) Thesis. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Chennai, India.
Hayman BI (1954a) The theory and analysis of diallel crosses. Genetics 39: 789808.
Hayman BI (1954b) The analysis of variance of diallel tables. Biometrics 10: 235244.
Lawande KE & Patil AV (1991) Studies on gene action in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). Vegetable
science 18(2): 192199.
Maurya M, Mohan J & Kushwaha L (2009) Studies on heterobeltiosis and combining ability in bitter gourd
(Momordica charantia L.). Pantnagar Journal of Research 7(2): 177179.

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Patel NB, Patel JB, Solanki SD & Patel JJ (2005) Heterosis, Inbreeding depression, heritability and genetic
advance study in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). International Journal of Bioscience Reporter 3 (2):
278283.
Sundaram V (2007) Haymans diallel analysis in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) under salt stress. The
Asian Journal of Horticulture 2(2): 8086.
Thangamani C, Pugalendhi L, Sumathi T, Kavitha C & Rajashree V (2011) Estimation of combining ability and
heterosis for yield and quality characters in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). Electronic Journal of
Plant Breeding 2(1): 6266.

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ISSN (P): 2349 9265
1(2): 6572, 2014

Research article

Estimates of direct and indirect effects between yield and yield


components and selection indices in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
M. T. Hasan and A. C. Deb*
Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh
*Corresponding Authors: anil_deb2001@yahoo.com & htarikul@yahoo.com [Accepted: 24 July 2014]

Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate direct and indirect effects and selection index
in eight genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The experiment was carried out in the
University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh during the consecutive three crop seasons viz., 2009-2010,
2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The direct and indirect effect analysis have been done based on seed
weight per plant (seed yield) as a dependent variable. In this study, number of seeds per plant had
maximum positive direct effect on seed yield followed by days to first flower and plant height at
first flower at genotypic level while at phenotypic level, plant height at maximum flower had the
highest positive direct effect on yield followed by plant weight at harvest and number of pods per
plant. These results confirmed that these characters had maximum contribution in determining
yield. In discriminant function study, high expected genetic gain was observed when two
characters viz., number of secondary branches at first flower and number of primary branches at
maximum flower were in a combination than three or more. Again, number of secondary branches
at first flower also had positive direct effect on seed yield and number of primary branches at
maximum flower had significant positive total effect on seed yield. The study hereby suggestes
that the two traits (i.e. number of secondary branches at first flower and number of primary
branches at maximum flower) may be given more emphasis while selecting high yielding chickpea
genotypes.
Keywords: Correlation - Path coefficient - Discriminant function - Genetic gain.

[Cite as: Hasan MT & Deb AC (2014) Estimates of direct and indirect effects between yield and yield
components and selection indices in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Tropical Plant Research 1(2): 6572]

INTRODUCTION
Bangladesh is a dense populated country and in this country the major part of the population suffers from
malnutrition, mainly due to deficiency of protein, owing to expensive price of animal protein like meat, fish.
Pulse crops (Food legumes) are the second most planted crops in Bangladesh after rice, reflecting the importance
of pulses as a source of protein in Bangladeshi diets. Among the pulses, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an
important pulse crop of rabi (winter) season in Bangladesh.
To formulate proficient breeding program and for developing high-yielding varieties, it is essential to
understand the genetics of the yield and related traits. The path-coefficient analysis studies between yield and
yield contributing traits will be helpful in sorting out most associated contributing traits to yield. It is recognized
that, correlation coefficient indicates only the general association between any two traits without tracing any
possible causes of such association. In order to tracing any possible causes of association between seed weight
per plant (SW/P) and other yield related traits, calculated correlation coefficient were partitioned into direct and
indirect effects by using SW/P as dependent variable. A combination of direct and indirect selection will be
effective to get a high selection response. Several researchers such as Saleem et al. (2002), Noor et al. (2003),
Atta et al. (2008), Farshadfar & Farshadfar (2008), Sharma & Saini (2010), Ali et al. (2011) have emphasized
the utility of path coefficient analysis. We know that, yield is a complex quantitative character and influenced by
environmental fluctuations. Therefore direct selection for yield as such will not be reliable and fruitful. Hence,
selection criteria based on yield components would be helpful in selecting suitable plant types. Thus,
construction of selection indices will be highly helpful to discriminate desirable genotypes. The discriminant
function provides an efficient method for simultaneous selection (Smith 1936). For this reason, to estimate
expected genetic gain of the character through discriminant function methods is necessary. This method has

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Received: 30 May 2014 Published online: 31 August 2014
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been successfully followed by various researchers in various crops such as Deb & Khaleque (2007) in chickpea,
Sarker & Deb (2009) in blackgram, Ferdous (2010) in bread wheat, Kumar et al. (2012) in rabi sorghum and
Sarker et al. (2013) in chickpea. Hence, available information will be very helpful for an efficient selection
criterion in selecting the most desirable and high yielding genotypes of chickpea.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The experimental material comprising of eight genotypes of chickpea were evaluated in completely
randomized block design with three replications in the University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh during three
consecutive rabi seasons viz., 20092010, 20102011, 20112012. The observations were recorded on the basis
of 15 randomly selected plants for thirteen different characters namely, days to first flower (DFF), plant height
at first flower (PHFF), number of primary branches at first flower (NPBFF), number of secondary branches at
first flower (NSBFF), days to maximum flower (DMF), plant height at maximum flower (PHMF), number of
primary branches at maximum flower (NPBMF), number of secondary branches at maximum flower (NPBMF),
plant weight at harvest (PWH), number of pods per plant (NPd/P), pod weight per plant (PdW/P), number of
seeds per plant (NS/P) and seed weight per plant (SW/P). The path-coefficient analysis was done by using
Wrights (1921,1923) formula as was extended by Dewey & Lu (1959) where, characters except SW/P were
independent variables and SW/P was dependent variable. The phenotypic and genotypic variances and co-
variances as obtained were used for constructing the discriminant function using different character
combinations according to the method as developed by Fisher (1936) and Smith (1936). The expected genetic
gain from straight selection {GA(S)} and from discriminant function {GA (D)} was calculated as follows:
GA (S) = (Z/P) (gyy)/(tyy)1/2 and
GA (D) = (Z/P) (b1g1y)/(ty2g2y)1/2
Where, Z/P = the selection differential in slandered units, for the present study it was 2.06 at 5% level of
selection (Lush 1949) Fisher (1936).
gyy and tyy= the genotypic and phenotypic variances of trait.
b1, b2 ...........................bn= the relative weights for the trait.
g1y, g2y.................................. = the genotypic co-variances of independent trait with y
The expected gain form the discriminant function over straight selection was calculated for all the function as
shown below:
Expected gain (%) = [{GA(D)/GA(S)}-1] 100.

RESULTS
Perusing the table 1 and table 2, the direct effect of the traits viz., DFF, PHFF, NSBFF, NSBMF, PdW/P and
NS/P was positive at genotypic and the traits viz., DFF, PHMF, NSBMF, PWH, NPd/P and PdW/P at
phenotypic level. Path coefficient diagrams both at genotypic and phenotypic level of thirteen characters are
present in figure 1 & 2 respectively. In the present study, high positive direct effect along with significant
positive correlation at genotypic level was exhibited by NS/P followed by PdW/P, NSBMF. The trait, NPd/P
showed negative direct effect though; it had significant and positive correlation with seed yield. Among the
yield contributed traits at genotypic level, days to first flower had positive direct effect and indirect effect via
PHFF, NSBFF, NPBMF, PdW/P and NS/P on seed yield but it had negative indirect effect via rest of the traits
and its total effect was negative. The trait PHFF had positive direct effect but negative indirect effects via DMF
and PHMF nullify its positive value into negative as total effect on seed yield. NPBFF had the highest negative
direct effect which compensated by high positive indirect effect mainly via DFF and NS/P. While, NSBFF had
positive direct effect which, was nullified by most of the traits. Days to maximum flower had negative direct
effect on seed yield. The total effect of DMF also showed negative but non-significant mainly due to high
positive indirect effect of DFF. The negative direct effect of PHMF remains negative due to negative indirect
effect via DMF and NPd/P though the total effect was reduced by the positive indirect effects of DFF, PHFF,
NSBFF and NS/P. The strong positive indirect effect of NS/P had cancelled the negative direct effect of
NPBMF and NPd/P and also increased the total effect value of positive direct effect of NSBMF. On the other
hand, high negative indirect effect of NS/P increased the negative total value of PWH. Total effect of pod
weight per plant was also increased by positive indirect effect of NS/P. At phenotypic level, the positive direct
effect of DFF and PWH were nullified by the comparatively high negative indirect effect of PHFF. Whereas, the
negative direct effects of NPBFF and NPBMF were turned into positive total effect mainly due to the

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Residual effect = -1.0486 and 0.5393 for Genotypic and Phenotypic Path co-efficient respectively.
Diagonal value represents the direct effect. *, **and ns for Significance at 5%, 1% and non-significant respectably.
days to first flower (DFF), plant height at first flower (PHFF), number of primary branches at first flower (NPBFF), number of secondary branches at first flower (NSBFF), days
tomaximum flower (DMF), plant height at maximum flower (PHMF), number of primary branches at maximum flower (NPBMF), number of secondary branches at maximum flower
(NPBMF), plant weight at harvest (PWH), number of pods per plant (NPd/P), pod weight per plant (PdW/P), number of seeds per plant (NS/P) and seed weight per plant (SW/P).
.

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comparatively high positive indirect effect of PHMF. The traits PHFF, NSBFF and DMF had negative direct
effect on seed yield. The total effect of these trait also had negative due negative indirect effect via various traits
especially PHFF for latter two traits. The high negative indirect effect of PHFF also reduces positive direct
effect of PHMF. The positive direct effect of NSBMF, NPd/P and PdW/P exhibited positive total effect mainly
due to comparatively high positive indirect effect of PHFF, PdW/P and NPd/P respectively. The Negative direct
effect of NS/P was counterbalanced by the high positive indirect effect via NPd/P and PdW/P.
Various selection indices based on different character combinations including seed yield are presented in
Table 3. In the present investigation, among the thirteen characters positive expected gain was exhibited by
NPBMF (7603.25%), which was the highest value followed by NSBFF (4599.44%) and NSBMF (1739.66%).
Most of the traits exhibited negative expected gain. The result revealed that a maximum genetic gain of
3424.93% was expected when two attributes viz., NSBFF and NPBMF were included in the function followed
by three characters, four characters and five characters combination. Further increases in the genetic gain with
the addition of more traits are negligible. The inclusion of NSBFF and/or NPBMF in an index increases the
values of expected gain greatly. But when the DMF, PHMF and/or PWH were included with other characters in
an index, it reduces the expected gains in majority of the cases.
Table 3. Expected genetic gain in % for over straight selection from use of various selection indices in
chickpea genotypes. Indices showing vales over 200 are shown only.
Selection Index Genetic Gain Selection Index Genetic Gain
X13 -147.40 X4+X6+X8 316.42
X1 -159.90 X4+X7+X8 1546.28
X2 69.03 X4+X7+X11 427.45
X3 685.76 X4+X7+X13 327.16
X4 4599.44 X4+X8+X9 297.69
X5 -245.78 X4+X8+X11 722.75
X6 198.28 X4+X8+X13 636.93
X7 7603.25 X5+X7+X8 281.10
X8 1739.66 X6+X7+X8 346.72
X9 -183.29 X6+X8+X11 255.33
X10 -252.84 X6+X8+X13 240.87
X11 59.37 X7+X8+X9 340.98
X12 -52.00 X7+X8+X11 806.78
X3+X 7 1568.18 X7+X8+X13 713.47
X3+X8 1235.46 X7+X11+X13 207.18
X4+X7 3424.93 X8+X9+X11 233.13
X4+X8 1552.64 X8+X9+X 13 217.34
X5+X8 256.03 X8+X11+X13 434.27
X6+X7 242.68 X3+X4+X5+X8 221.01
X6+X8 330.30 X3+X4+X6+X7 203.46
X7+X8 1712.80 X3+X4+X6+X8 291.03
X7+X11 552.81 X3+X4+X7+X8 1149.15
X7+X13 428.01 X3+X4+X7+X11 343.77
X8+X9 315.48 X3+X4+X7+X13 275.84
X8+X11 776.98 X3+X4+X8+X9 270.79
X8+X13 682.46 X3+X4+X8+X11 606.99
X3+X4+X7 1148.73 X3+X4+X8+X13 543.15
X3+X5+X8 234.60 X3+X5+X7+X8 257.80
X3+X6+X7 220.52 X3+X6+X7+X8 318.98
X3+X6+X8 303.45 X3+X6+X8+X11 237.41
X3+X7+X8 1247.96 X3+X6+X8+X13 224.42
X3+X7+X11 428.30 X3+X7+X8+X9 310.07
X3+X7+X13 347.57 X3+X7+X8+ X11 677.76
X3+X8+X9 286.48 X3+X7+X8+X13 608.49
X3+X8+X11 648.34 X3+X8+X9+X11 215.13
X3+X8+X13 578.89 X3+X8+X9+X13 201.10
X4+X5+X8 240.84 X3+X8+X11+X13 386.00
X4+X6+X7 223.33 X4+X5+X7+X8 266.54
X4+X6+X7+X8 333.20 X3+X4+X7+X8+X11 638.17
X4+X6+X8+X11 244.92 X3+X4+X7+X8+X13 574.18
X4+X6+X8+X13 231.02 X3+X4+X8+X9+X11 203.44

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X4+X7+X8+X9 323.85 X3+X4+X8+X11+X13 364.63
X4+X7+X8+X11 755.22 X3+X6+X7+X8+X11 251.31
X4+X7+X8+X13 669.98 X3+X6+X7+X8+X13 238.09
X4+X8+X9+X11 220.21 X3+X7+X8+X9+X11 235.43
X4+X8+X9+X13 205.16 X3+X7+X8+X9+X13 220.95
X4+X8+X11+X13 409.14 X3+X7+X8+X11+X13 412.02
X5+X7+X8+X11 213.47 X4+X5+X7+X8+X11 202.49
X5+X7+X8+X13 200.08 X4+X6+X7+X8+X11 259.86
X6+X7+X8+X11 270.01 X4+X6+X7+X8+X13 245.69
X6+X7+X8+X13 255.30 X4+X7+X8+X9+X11 242.50
X7+X8+X9+X11 254.92 X4+X7+X8+X9+X13 226.92
X7+X8+X9+X13 238.63 X4+X7+X8+X11+X13 438.18
X7+X8+X11+X13 462.39 X6+X7+X8+X11+X13 205.14
X3+X4+X5+X7+X8 244.76 X3+X4+X6+X7+X8+X11 242.03
X3+X4+X6+X7+X8 306.87 X3+X4+X6+X7+X8+X13 229.28
X3+X4+X6+X8+X11 227.89 X3+X4+X7+X8+X9+X11 224.18
X3+X4+X6+X8+X13 215.38 X3+X4+X7+X8+X9+X13 210.31
X3+X4+X7+X8+X9 294.95 X3+X4+X7+X8+X11+X13 391.39
Where, X1 = DFF, X2 = PHFF, X3 = NPBFF, X4 = NSBFF, X5 = DMF, X6 = PHMF, X7 = NPBMF,
X8 = NSBMF, X9 = PWH, X10 = NPd/P, X11 = PdW/P, X12 = NS/P and X13 = SW/P.
DFF= Days to first flower, PHFF= Plant height at first flower, NPBFF= Number of primary
branches at first flower, NSBFF= Number of secondary branches at first flower, DMF= Days to
maximum flower, PHMF= Plant height at maximum flower, NPBMF= Number of primary
branches at maximum flower, NPBMF= Number of secondary branches at maximum flower,
PWH= Plant weight at harvest, NPd/P= Number of pods per plant, PdW/P= Pod weight per plant,
NS/P= Number of seeds per plant and SW/P= Seed weight per plant.

DISCUSSION
In the present study, high positive direct effect along with significant positive correlation coefficient of NS/P
at genotypic level indicated that this character had maximum contribution in determining yield in this crop.
Observation of this investigation also revealed that most of the traits had high positive indirect effect on seed
yield through NS/P. Thus improving this trait may increase seed yield as well as performance of some traits. It
also indicates the true relationship between this trait and seed yield and direct selection through this trait will be
effective. Therefore, NS/P may be given more emphasis while selecting high yielding chickpea genotypes.
Whereas, NPd/P show negative direct effect but it had significant and positive correlation with seed yield
indicating indirect selection of this trait may be effective. Saleem et al. (1999), Deb & Khaleque (2005), Yucel
et al. (2006) and Zali et al. (2011) reported the similar results for NS/P but it dissimilar with Renukadevi &
Subbalakshmi (2006). They found NPd/P as positive and NS/P as negative direct effect on seed yield. NPd/P
noted as the highest positive direct effect on yield by Noor et al. (2003), Ciftci et al. (2004), Atta et al. (2008),
Farshadfar & Farshadfar (2008), Thakur & Sirohi (2009), Sharma & Saini (2010) Ali et al. (2011) and
Padmavathi et al. (2013). On the other hand, Vaghela et al. (2009), Ali et al. (2009), Yucel & Anlarsal (2010)
found NS/P and NPd/P both as positive direct effect on seed yield while Mushtaq et al. (2013) found both as
negative direct effect on seed yield. Among the yield attributed traits at genotypic level, the direct effect of
NPBFF and NPBMF had negative but total effect was positive mainly due to high positive indirect effects on
seed yield via NS/P indicating that indirect selection of NPBFF and NPBMF through NS/P might be helpful in
yield improvement but since the direct effect was negative, so direct selection for these traits to improve yield
will not be desirable. This result is in line with the findings of Saleem et al. (1999). The traits DFF, PHFF and
NSBFF had positive direct effect on seed yield but comparatively low along with negative association with seed
yield, indirect effect also low and negative so, direct and indirect selection may not be desirable for these traits
to improving seed yield in chickpea on the other hand, NSBMF and PdW/P had low but positive direct effect
along with positive correlation with yield they had also high indirect effect via NS/P, so direct selection of
NSBMF and PdW/P might be helpful in yield improvement. Whereas, direct or indirect selection of DMF,
PHMF and PWH will not be effective due to their negative direct effect and negative association with seed
yield. At the phenotypic level, direct selection for NSBMF, NPd/P and PdW/P to improve yield will be helpful
due to their positive direct effect along with significant positive correlation with seed yield. While indirect
selection of NS/P might be helpful. But direct or indirect selection of DMF will not be effective due to its
negative direct effect and negative association with seed yield.

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The results of discreminant function revealed that a maximum genetic gain of 3424.93% was expected when
two attributes viz., NSBFF and NPBMF were included in the function. Similar results were reported by Sarker et
al. (2013) in chickpea. It is always preferable to use a discriminant function containing a minimum number of
traits which may lead to the maximum genetic gain. Deb & Khaleque (2007) in chickpea, Ferdous et al. (2010)
in wheat and Kumar et al. (2013) in rabi sorghum obtained highest expected gain in five, three and six
characters combinations, respectively. In this study negative expected gains were found in some cases. Similar
result was reported by Deb & Khaleque (2007) in chickpea. Therefore, in this investigation this two yield
components viz., NSBFF and NPBMF may be considered as the primary yield components and SW/P will
increased by the improvement of these character. Hence, the selection index based on NSBFF and NPBMF may
be considered as appropriate selection index for seed yield improvement in chickpea genotypes.

CONCLUSION
Positive and significant correlation and high contribution to seed yield suggested that selection for high yield
in chickpea could be enhanced by NS/P and PdW/P as a selection criteria along with NSBFF and NPBMF.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors are grateful to the University Grants Commission (UGC) and Ministry of Education, Government of
the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh for granting fellowship and deputation to carry out the research work.

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