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Why did Luther succeed where Huss and Wycliff failed?

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Problems were facing the church:


Renaissance Popes were too worldly
Church officials were poorly educated
Priests were not following the rules (wives / worldly)
People developed higher standards
educationally / socially
Christian Humanists & leaders of the Northern Renaissance who
focused on Religion presented new ideas.
Printing press (permissive cause)
In the north Italian Humanism was combined with tradition theology =
Christian Humanism
Italian Humanists:
- Secular interests
- Classical culture (Texts and language)
- Beauty of prose
- Examined words and their meaning
Christian Humanists:
- Reform movement
- Applied the ideals of humanism to church doctrine
- Sought to make people better Christians
- Education of Women
- Challenged Church education: Scholasticism (form of teaching and
learning), rote memorization emphasized, no critical thinking
Impact:
Challenged the church education
Established a new intellectual elite (16th Century)
Use their ability to reexamine church doctrine, help people become
better Christians
Erasmus
Goal was to unite the individual Christian with textual basis of Christian
doctrine
Attacked scholasticism, superstition and tradition to restore Christ to a
central role in peoples lives
In Praise of Folly
made fun of illiterate and innumerate people in society
Priests get especially harsh treatment- illiterate
Thomas More - Utopia (no place)
society based on reason / mercy (Platos Republic + Monastic life)
no greed, corruption, war or crime (abolished the 7 deadly sins)
Goal was to instruct people to live a more Christian life

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A society founded on Christian principles would lead to a Christian life


Why did these writers have such a great effect over peoples ideas?
3. Invention of the Printing press
1455 movable type and paper emerged resulting in the first printing
press.
in 50 years 9-10 million books were printed.
Bible is the first book printed by Johann Gutenburg
Education increased
Enabled government to increase uniformity of law
Helped spread newly emerging scientific ideas
Standardize language (Latin and Vernacular)
Increased the value placed on the discovery of new ideas
Reformation:
people form own ideas about religion
new ideas spread more quickly
people criticize the church more
New economic pressure
Economic innovation of the Renaissance led people to become more
independent in their daily lives
Fostered increasing resentment of the church tithes (and government
taxes of the New Monarchs)
Wealth form the new world
5. Political conditions
Feudal system had begun to give way towards a more nationalist
worldview
Kings / Princes will resent influence / interference of the church and
rival political leaders
Reformation became a way to challenge political authority
Pressure from Ottoman Empire prevented military oppression of
Reformation
Result: The emergence of all these conditions at the same instant in time
permitted the reformation to occur.
Martin Luther Notes
Specific Problems:
Church

Simony = buying and selling of church offices


Nepotism = granting of church offices based on family relation
Pluralism = holding several church offices at the same time
Absenteeism = not showing up for work

Relics = pilgrimages to worship holy relics (ie. a saints finger)


Catholic Doctrine:
Salvation faith and good deeds sins must be atoned for by good
works (prayer) or time in purgatory
Reservoir of good deeds from the lives of saints
Church could bestow that grace upon anyone it in place of their time in
purgatory
Clergy was essential to help guide people to heaven
Transubstantiation
Martin Luther

believed that salvation comes from faith in god


A monk named Tetzel was raising money by selling Letters of Indulgence
(gave the purchaser the freedom from penance)

Tetzel was leading the purchasers to believe that the Letter of


Indulgence was freeing them from all responsibility for their actions.
It looked like one could buy their way into heaven
As a response Luther wrote his 95 These (formal statements) and posted
them on the door of the local church.

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the 95 Theses were copied and then printed and widely distributed.
the ideas expressed in the 95 Theses include:
Salvation by faith alone
No need for sacraments
Bible is the only authority
Consubstantiation
Challenged the concept of monastic life
everyone has an equal relationship with god
dont need priests
Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther
Luther is put on trial by Charles V at the Diet of Worms
Charles V declared Luther an outlaw
Luther was supported by the German people
Luthers Ideas spread:
Translated Bible into German
Followers of Luther became known as Lutherans
mass held in German language
no priests
3. Group of German Princes join Luther and protest against the pope

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eventually became known as the Protestants


Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
Scandinavia (Pol. / Econ.), East (Short lived), Swiss
Who supported Luther?

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1. Princes
Deep religious convictions
Helped them centralize their control, kept tax money from going to
Rome

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Confiscate church lands (monastic)


2. Free Towns
Clearly separate church and civil powers
Allowed early MC to challenge the privileged orders
Urban priests embraced Protestantism, increased personal power
3. Women
Mainly noble women
Gave equal spiritual footing to women
Increased the emphasis on the family as the primary societal unit
Other factors:
Charles V not able to step on Lutherans:

Political struggle between Pope Leo X and Charles


Pressure from Ottoman Empire
Conflict with France
Calvinism notes
2nd Generation of reformers: Institutional and Doctrinal issues
Switzerland becomes the home of two reform movements:

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Zwinglianism: Initiated by Zwingli (Priest 1523)


Characteristics:
Abolish relics, images, pilgrimages and other traditions
Abolish mass in favor of services
Did not believe in consecration of Eucharist (symbolic only)
Abolish popes authority
Killed by plague (1531)
Calvinism: Believed in salvation by faith and predestination
French, kicked out, war refugee, ended up in Geneva
Wrote: Institutes of the Christian Religion
Emphasized the absolute power of God
Dont need structure of the Church, power rests with God
Salvation at the mercy of god


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Predestination meant that you were selected by god and should do


Gods work on earth
Believed that they should spread their faith to others
Create govt. in Geneva
Consistory would punish crimes
Dancing, singing, swearing
Elect should rule
How do you know you are one of the elect?
Live right, wealth / success
John Knox: Impressed with Calvinism and brought it to Scotland
Started Presbyterian faith
Marian exiles brought Calvinism to England (puritans)
Henry VIII
1509 - Henry became King (18 years old)
Devout Catholic
Defender of the Faith
Wife #1: Catherine of Aragon (Hapsburg), wife of Henrys Bro.
1516 daughter: Mary
1527 Henry decided Catherine could not have a male child
Needed male child to prevent civil war over succession (War of the
Roses)
Henry wanted a new wife, but could not get a divorce
Henry asked the Pope to declare the marriage illegal
Pope Clement VII says nothing
Charles V (Hapsburg) would not let the Clement end the marriage of
his Aunt (Catherine of Aragon)
Henry called together Parliament
Reformation Parliament:
Legalized Henrys divorce
Declared Henry to be the leader of the church (not the Pope)
Wife #2: Anne Boleyn (1527)
Daughter: Elizabeth
1534 Parliament approved the Act of Supremacy
Declared that the king was the head of the church of England
Henry seized all church property and sold it to the nobles
If the Catholic Church returned to England then the nobles would lose
this property
1536 still no male child, Anne Boleyn beheaded
Wife #3: Jane Seymour

1536 Edward was born (Jane dies in birth)


Wife #4: Ann of Cleves

German princess who did not look like her portrait


Wife #5: Catherine Howard

Committed adultery and was beheaded


Wife #6: Catherine Parr

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More of a nurse than a wife, out lives Henry


1548 Henry died, Edward becames king at the age of 12
Mary became queen after Edwards death
Catholic - tried to restore the Catholic religion in England
Resulted in persecution of Protestants and the Marian Exiles
Elizabeth I became queen, locked up Mary
Restored Protestantism to England
Had to deal with the return of radical Protestants and Catholics
39 Articles created a compromise between the radicals and
conservatives
Temporary solution
Question in England:
How protestant will the church be and what role should the
government have?
Others:
Anabaptists: Adult Baptism, church only for the saved
Seen as radical and attacked
Contrasting Protestant and Catholic Doctrine
Protestants
Catholic
Role of Bible emphasized
Bible + traditions of Middle Ages +
papal pronouncements

"Priesthood of all believers" all


individuals equal before God. Sought
clergy that preached.

Medieval view about special nature


and role of the clergy.

Anglicans rejected popes authority


monarch
became Supreme Governor of the
church. Lutherans rejected authority of
the pope but kept bishops.
Most Calvinists governed church by
ministers
and a group of elders, a system
called Presbyterianism.
Anabaptists rejected most forms of
church
governance in favor of congregational
democracy.
Most Protestants denied efficacy of
some or all
of sacraments of the medieval church
the
Eucharist (communion) most
controversial.
Consubstantiation Lutherans: bread
and wine
did not change but believer realizes
presence
of Christ is in the bread and wine.
(Real
Presence)
Zwingli saw the event of communion
as
only symbolic memorial to the
actions of
Christ, or thanksgiving for Gods grant
of
salvation (main reason for break with
Luther)
Lutherans believed in Justification by
faith
salvation cannot be earned and a good
life is
the fruit of faith.
Calvinists: predestination; a good life
could
provide some proof of predestined
salvation "visible saints" or the
"elect."

Medieval hierarchy: believers, priests,


bishops and pope.

All seven sacraments

Transubstantiation bread and wine


retain
outward appearances but are
transformed into
the body and blood of Christ.

Salvation through living life according


to Christian
beliefs and participating in the
practices of the
church -- good works

Lutherans and Anglicans believed


Catholics and Calvinists believed
state controls
church should
the Church.
control and absorb the state
Anabaptists believed church ignores
theocracy.
the state.
Services emphasized the sermon
Services emphasized the Eucharist
Protestantism and the idea of progress
Question:
Was the Protestant Reformation responsible for the rise of liberal democracy
and the industrial economy of Western Europe?

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Is there a link between Protestant thought and democratic government,


modern science, technology and culture?
Con:
16th Century Protestants were not the rationalists of the early
industrial period.
Just as guilty of superstitious behavior as the Catholics
Saw the point of life to get to heaven (like Catholics), as a result they
did not emphasize the temporal world
Early Protestants did not believe in separation of church and state
Protestant governments were models of intolerance
Early Protestants were not democratic
Replaced the authority of the pope with classed / ranked order in
society
Ex. Luther opposed the peasant revolt, Calvinist doctrine of
Predestination
Pro:
Values of early Protestants coincided with the values necessary for the
development of a commercial revolution
Protestant values strengthened the commercial and industrial middle
classes
Rejection of usury on loans
Women more economically accepted
Increased literacy rates in the population
Result: The reformation created a new social, political and economic way of
life in which the emerging middle class could prosper and grow.
Max Weber:
Calvinist thought promoted a life style best adapted to the production and
accumulation of wealth in early modern European history.

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Wealth accumulation requires short term sacrifice and reinvestment.


Protestants emphasized self sacrifice

Elimination of saints festivals and reinforcement of Sabbath


emphasized the concept of a six day work week

Emphasized work as a way of avoiding sinning

Rejection of usury law, provided capital for investment


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Accumulation of wealth became a sign of living a good life
Counterview:

Western Europe developed not because of the culture of Protestantism,


but rather their geographical advantages (coal, iron)
Impact on nationalism / rationalism:

In some areas (dominated by one religion), religion influenced the


development of patriotism / nationalist feelings.

Both Protestantism and Catholicism behave in ways which supported


emerging capitalism, and yet were both reactionary (witches).
Historical discussion has shifted towards trying to understand the
relationship between politic Peace of Augsburg: established the local
authorities responsibility to select the religion of the area, one faith one king

Created confusion as princes converted back and forth

Left no room for moderates


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Both sides philosophical outlook was absolute
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Left no room for moderates, attacked by both sides

Extremists dominated European politics


1550-1650 time of internal and external conflict throughout Europe
French Wars of Religion

Civil War, particularly destructive to the development of the nation


Background:

As a result of Reformation France had a Catholic Monarchy, but a


divided population between Calvinists and Catholics
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Both beliefs became highly MILITANT
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Protestants led by the Bourbons (Henry of Navarre)
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Catholics led by the Guise
Huguenots: French Calvinists who were persecuted

Came from all levels of society

Mostly tradesmen and artisans, nobility (40-50%) including the


Bourbon line (related to kings)

Made them a powerful political threat, despite representing 7% of


population

Centered in growing towns and cities which also represent a challenge


to growth of Monarchical power
Opposed by Catholic Monarch and rise of Ultra-Catholic party

Ultra-Catholics get support from pope and Jesuits


French Monarchy:

King Henry II died (Jousting)


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Francis II became king


House of Guise became influential
Sought to persecute Henry of Navarre
Charles IX (Catherine de Medicis was Regent)
Guise eliminated Protestant influence at Court and began to attack
protestant areas
Protestants fought a defensive war
War worsened with the assassination of duc de Guise
Both sides brought in mercenary help (Spain, Swiss)
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Guise used arraigned marriage of Henry of Navarre as an opportunity
to kill the entire protestant leadership
Impacts:
Deepened hatred and divisions
Prolonged the civil war
Medici blamed, monarchy seen as on the Catholic side
Theory of Resistance: Lawful to resist a monarchy acting in an
unlawful manner
Protestants
Politiques: Catholics who joined w/ protestants as a protest against the
massacre
Catholic League: Collection of Catholic towns that opposed
Protestantism
War of the Three Henry's: King Henry III, Henry Guise & Henry of
Navarre
King Henry III could not control the Ultra-Catholics
Assassinated Henry Guise and his Brother
Henry III driven out of Paris by the Ultra-Catholics
King Henry III and Henry of Navarre made a pact to defeat the UltraCatholics
Henry III was assassinated by a priest
Henry of Navarre became king (Henry IV 1594)
Drove out the Spanish, united France
"Paris is worth a Mass"
Edict of Nantes: religious freedom, right to fortify cities
Extremists continued to fight, Henry IV eventually assassinated
Restored the place of the monarchy and unity of the French
Spain and Philip II
Charles V of Germany retired:
Left German Empire to Fredrick I
Left Spanish Empire to Phillip II


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Mid 16th Century Spain was the greatest social and econ. Power of
Europe
Spain, Netherlands, Milan, Naples, Portugal and New World
Great Naval power (Sp. + Port.)
Phillip II: Militant Catholic, great administrator of government
Spain under Phillip II:
very wealthy (gold / silver from New World)
very Catholic (used force and cruelty)
very strong control of nobles
Netherlands were predominately Protestant (problem)
Phillip II was also engaged to Mary Tudor
Problems facing Phillip and Spain:
Wealth was based on money, not production
Catholicism brought them into foreign wars with the Ottomans,
Netherlands and English
The rest of Europe saw Spain as a threat
Rebellion in Netherlands over taxation and religion
Philip:
Great Administrative mind: "King of Paper"
Stood against Ottoman expansion in the Mediterranean Sea
Battle of Lepanto: Coast of Greece, defeated Ottoman Navy (decisive
victory)
Devout Catholic
Inquisition
Involvement in the French Wars of Religion
Marriage to Mary Tudor
Rivalry w/ England
Religious
Personal (Elizabeth said no)
Economic: English "Sea Dogs" (Francis Drake)
Military: Netherlands and France (keep others fighting, stay out of
conflict)
Spanish Armada 1588, bad plan
Turning point, people did not know it
Results:
Spains heyday as a continental power was over
England ensured that it would remain protestant
England prepared to become a world power
Dutch emerge as an independent group and a commercial center of
Europe
Netherlands revolted
17 independent provinces

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Manufacturing / banking center of Europe


General discontent galvanized around rel. differences
Spanish rel. policy violated the Peace of Augsburg
Protestants resented Spanish rule
Margaret of Parma regent (Philip II's 1/2 sister)
Calvinists go of Iconoclasm rampage
Put down by Margaret and Protestants alike
Philip II still sent troops
Duke of Alba
Massacred protestants, deepened divisions and hatred
Open revolt
William of Orange key figure in resistance
Spanish army mutinied: "Spanish Fury" at Antwerp
Pacification of Ghent 1576
12 Years Truce: ended conflict and established a free /
antagonistic Dutch State
al and religious experiences of early modern European people.