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DIGITAL TACHOMETER 201

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This project is the first creditable achievement of our student life and it is
our prime duty to acknowledge the persons who helped us in this project.
We take this opportunity to heartily thanks our project in charge respected
Mr. M.S.Patel for her valuable guidance with a touch of inspiration and
motivation throughout the course of this project work.

At Last thanking all

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PREFACE
The idea of undertaking this project came to our mind due to our keen
interest in the field of hardware. This project is our practical knowledge which
is very useful particularly for the technical student. So we have decided to take
this project of Digital Tachometer. This project report is not just the copying
of material from the books but a great deal of material developed by ourselves.
It has been a long hard journey on this novel expedition for us and we
have tried to put in our best effort into the accomplishment of this project.
However we are bound to be erroneous due to inexperience and hence we
request the readers to please bear with us and analyze any project report.

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ABSTRACT
The working principles of IR sensor has been introduced in this paper. To
the defects of traditional methods, it proposed the designing strategy of motor
speed measurement system based on single chip microcontroller with integrated
chip.
The hardware circuits including power module, data processing module
and data display module have been described and it focuses on the analysis
speed measurement module. The speed data can be obtained through counting
impulse signals and displayed on LED or LCD.
Experience shows that the system have high stability, it can meet the
needs of DC motor speed measurement.

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Sr.
No.

Contents

Page no.

1.

Introduction

2.

Block Diagram

3.

Circuit diagram

4.

PCB layout bottom view

10

5.

PCB layout top view

11

6.

Component list

12

7.

Component Explanation

13

8.

Project Model

30

9.

Merits & Demerits & Application

31

10.

Conclusion

33

11.

References

34

INDEX

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1.INTRODUCTION
Method of Operation
Non-contacting speed sensors of the FAH11... series are
basically designed for speed sensing. The rotation of
ferromagnetic toothed wheels is sensed by means of a
difference-Hall-effect sensor chip and converted by a signal
amplifier into a rectangular signal.
The frequency of the rectangular signal is proportional to
the speed. Apart from speed, the sensors are adapted to sense
any movement of ferromagnetic parts. The rectangular signal
lends itself to evaluation or transformation by a variety of
devices.
The output signal is a noise-immune, rectangular signal
whose frequency is proportional to the speed. The voltage
range is within the load voltage and load-dependent. The
geometry of the passing object determines the pulse duty
factor. In the case of a toothed wheel, it corresponds to approx.
50 %.
The output circuit is a push-pull stage. Short circuit
protection is provided by a 60 PTC-resistor. Spurious pulses
are intercepted by an internal varistor against minus. The pushpull output stage can be used as a NPN output (current sinking)
as well as a PNP output (current sourcing). The output voltage
is galvanic ally coupled to the load voltage.

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2.BLOCK DIAGRAM

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3. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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4. PCB LAYOUT BOTTOM VIEW:

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5. PCB LAYOUT TOP VIEW:

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6. COMPONENTS LIST:
1. RESISTOR

2. CAPACITOR

3. DIODE

4. 7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR

5. 7812 VOLTAGE REGULATOR

6. COMPARATOR LM 392

7. IR TRANSMITTER AND SENSOR

8. DC MOTOR

9. 16x2 LCD Display


10. AT89S52 Micro Controller

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7.COMPONENTS EXPLANATION :
7.1 RESISTORS:A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage
across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current through it in
accordance with Ohm's law:
V = IR
Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and
are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of
various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a highresistivity alloy, such as nickel/chrome).
The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, the tolerance,
maximum working voltage and the power rating. Other characteristics include
temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance. Less well-known is critical
resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum
permitted current flow, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical
resistance depends upon the materials constituting the resistor as well as its
physical dimensions; it's determined by design.
Resistors can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits, as well as
integrated circuits. Size, and position of leads (or terminals) are relevant to
equipment designers; resistors must be physically large enough not to overheat
when dissipating their power.

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7.2 CAPACITOR:A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting
of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric. When a voltage potential
difference exists between the conductors, an electric field is present in the
dielectric. This field stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the
plates. The effect is greatest between wide, flat, parallel, narrowly separated
conductors.
An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value,
capacitance, which is measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge
on each conductor to the potential difference between them. In practice, the
dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current. The
conductors and leads introduce an equivalent series resistance and the dielectric
has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage.
Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits to block the flow of
direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, to filter out
interference, to smooth the output of power supplies, and for many other
purposes.

They are used in resonant circuits in radio frequency equipment to select


particular frequencies from a signal with many frequencies.

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7.3 DIODE:Diodes are two terminal components used to block current in one
direction while passing current in the opposite direction. This effect, which
converts AC (alternating current) to DC (direct current) is also called
"rectifying" current, hence diodes are also called "rectifiers".
The symbol for diode is an arrow and line, indicating passing electricity
in only one direction.

A stripe on the component indicates the "perpendicular line on the schematic.


Diode ratings

Diodes have two important ratings and several more subtle ratings. The most
important ratings are:

PIV - peak inverse voltage


this is the voltage above which the diode is likely to be damaged, because
it stops blocking the flow of electricity in one direction.
Current rating in amps or milliamps. This is the amount of current the
diode can safely dissipate. It is based upon the physical size of the diode
and the amount of heat that the component can dissipate.

Uses for diodes

Conversion of AC into DC (rectification)


Blocking inverse polarity pulses from inductive loads (solenoids, motors
etc)
Reverse polarity protection with batteries
Voltage doublers (with AC current)
DC to DC conversion

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logic and switching matrices

7.4 7805 VOLTAGE RECULATOR :7805 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a


member of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The
voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not
give the fixed voltage output. The voltage regulator IC
maintains the output voltage at a constant value. The xx in
78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed to
provide. 7805 provides +5V regulated power supply. Capacitors
of suitable values can be connected at input and output pins
depending upon the respective voltage levels.

Pin Description:

Pin
No

Function

Name

1
2
3

Input voltage (5V-18V)


Ground (0V)
Regulated output; 5V (4.8V-5.2V)

Input
Ground
Output

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7.5 7812 VOLTAGE RECULATOR :7805 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a
member of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The
voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not
give the fixed voltage output. The voltage regulator IC
maintains the output voltage at a constant value. The xx in
78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed to
provide. 7805 provides +5V regulated power supply. Capacitors
of suitable values can be connected at input and output pins
depending upon the respective voltage levels.

Pin Description:

Pin
No

Function

Name

1
2
3

Input voltage (5V-25V)


Ground (0V)
Regulated output; 5V (11.8V-12.2V)

Input
Ground
Output

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7.6 LM-392 COMPARATOR:-

The LM392 consists of two independent building-block circuits. One is a


high-gain internally-frequency-compensated Operational Amplifier and the
other is a precision voltage Comparator Both the Operational Amplifier and the
voltage Comparator are designed to operate from a single power supply over a
wide range of voltages. Both circuits have input stages that force the commonmode input down to ground when operating from a single power supply.
Operation from split power supplies also is possible, and the low power-supply
current is http://circuits.datasheetdir.com/37/LM392-pinout.jpgindependent of
the magnitude of the supply voltage

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7.7 IR SENSOR:An infrared sensor is an electronic instrument that is used to sense certain characteristics of
its surroundings by either emitting and/or detecting infrared radiation. It is also capable of
measuring heat of an object and detecting motion. Infrared waves are not visible to the human
eye.
In the electromagnetic spectrum, infrared radiation is the region having wavelengths longer
than visible light wavelengths, but shorter than microwaves. The infrared region is
approximately demarcated from 0.75 to 1000m. The wavelength region from 0.75 to 3m is
termed as near infrared, the region from 3 to 6m is termed mid-infrared, and the region
higher than 6m is termed as far infrared.
Infrared technology is found in many of our everyday products. For example, TV has an IR
detector for interpreting the signal from the remote control. Key benefits of infrared sensors
include low power requirements, simple circuitry, and their portable feature.

Principles of Operation
We have already discussed how a light sensor works. IR Sensors work by using a specific
light sensor to detect a select light wavelength in the Infra-Red (IR) spectrum. By using an
LED which produces light at the same wavelength as what the sensor is looking for, you can
look at the intensity of the received light. When an object is close to the sensor, the light from
the LED bounces off the object and into the light sensor. This results in a large jump in the
intensity, which we already know can be detected using a threshold.

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Depiction of the operation of an IR Sensor

Detecting Brightness

Since the sensor works by looking for reflected light, it is possible to have a sensor that can
return the value of the reflected light. This type of sensor can then be used to measure how
"bright" the object is. This is useful for tasks like line tracking.

Depiction of the operationof an


IR Sensor to measure brightness

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7.8 DC MOTOR:An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce
mechanical energy. The reverse process, that of using
mechanical energy to produce electrical energy is
accomplished by a generator or dynamo. The principle of
conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by
electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British
scientist Michael Faraday in 1821.

DC Motor Operation.

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7.9 16x2 LCD Display

LCD display is an inevitable part in almost all embedded projects and this article is about
interfacing 162 LCD with 8051 microcontroller. Many guys find it hard to interface LCD
module with the 8051 but the fact is that if you learn it properly, its a very easy job and by
knowing it you can easily design embedded projects like digital voltmeter / ammeter, digital
clock, home automation displays, status indicator display, digital code locks, digital
speedometer/ odometer, display for music players etc etc. Thoroughly going through this
article will make you able to display any text (including the extended characters) on any part
of the 162 display screen. In order to understand the interfacing first you have to know
about the 162 LCD module.

162 LCD module.


162 LCD module is a very common type of LCD module that is used in 8051 based
embedded projects. It consists of 16 rows and 2 columns of 57 or 58 LCD dot matrices.
The module were are talking about here is type number JHD162A which is a very popular
one . It is available in a 16 pin package with back light ,contrast adjustment function and each
dot matrix has 58 dot resolution. The pin numbers, their name and corresponding functions
are shown in the table below.
Pin No:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Name
VSS
VCC
VEE
RS
R/W
E
DB0
DB1
DB2
DB3
DB4
DB5
DB6
DB7
LED+
LED-

Function
This pin must be connected to the ground
Positive supply voltage pin (5V DC)
Contrast adjustment
Register selection
Read or write
Enable
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Back light LED+
Back light LED-

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VEE pin is meant for adjusting the contrast of the LCD display and the contrast can be
adjusted by varying the voltage at this pin. This is done by connecting one end of a POT to
the Vcc (5V), other end to the Ground and connecting the center terminal (wiper) of of the
POT to the VEE pin. See the circuit diagram for better understanding.
The JHD162A has two built in registers namely data register and command register. Data
register is for placing the data to be displayed , and the command register is to place the
commands. The 162 LCD module has a set of commands each meant for doing a particular
job with the display. We will discuss in detail about the commands later. High logic at the RS
pin will select the data register and Low logic at the RS pin will select the command register.
If we make the RS pin high and the put a data in the 8 bit data line (DB0 to DB7) , the LCD
module will recognize it as a data to be displayed . If we make RS pin low and put a data on
the data line, the module will recognize it as a command.
R/W pin is meant for selecting between read and write modes. High level at this pin enables
read mode and low level at this pin enables write mode.
E pin is for enabling the module. A high to low transition at this pin will enable the module.
DB0 to DB7 are the data pins. The data to be displayed and the command instructions are
placed on these pins.
LED+ is the anode of the back light LED and this pin must be connected to Vcc through a
suitable series current limiting resistor. LED- is the cathode of the back light LED and this
pin must be connected to ground.

162 LCD module commands.


162 LCD module has a set of preset command instructions. Each command will make the
module to do a particular task. The commonly used commands and their function are given in
the table below.
Command
0F
01
2
4
06
E
80
C0
38
83
3C

Function
LCD ON, Cursor ON, Cursor blinking
ON
Clear screen
Return home
Decrement cursor
Increment cursor
Display ON ,Cursor ON
Force cursor to the beginning of 1st line
Force cursor to the beginning of 2nd line
Use 2 lines and 57 matrix
Cursor line 1 position 3
Activate second line

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0C3
OC1

Jump to second line, position3


Jump to second line, position1

LCD initialization.
The steps that has to be done for initializing the LCD display is given below and these steps
are common for almost all applications.

Send 38H to the 8 bit data line for initialization


Send 0FH for making LCD ON, cursor ON and cursor blinking ON.
Send 06H for incrementing cursor position.
Send 01H for clearing the display and return the cursor.

Sending data to the LCD.


The steps for sending data to the LCD module is given below. I have already said that the
LCD module has pins namely RS, R/W and E. It is the logic state of these pins that make the
module to determine whether a given data input is a command or data to be displayed.

Make R/W low.


Make RS=0 if data byte is a command and make RS=1 if the data byte is a data to be
displayed.
Place data byte on the data register.
Pulse E from high to low.
Repeat above steps for sending another data.

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Circuit diagram.

Interfacing 16x2 LCD module to 8051


The circuit diagram given above shows how to interface a 162 LCD module with AT89S1
microcontroller. Capacitor C3, resistor R3 and push button switch S1 forms the reset
circuitry. Ceramic capacitors C1,C2 and crystal X1 is related to the clock circuitry which
produces the system clock frequency. P1.0 to P1.7 pins of the microcontroller is connected to
the DB0 to DB7 pins of the module respectively and through this route the data goes to the
LCD module. P3.3, P3.4 and P3.5 are connected to the E, R/W, RS pins of the
microcontroller and through this route the control signals are transffered to the LCD module.
Resistor R1 limits the current through the back light LED and so do the back light intensity.
POT R2 is used for adjusting the contrast of the display.

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7.10 8051 MICROCONTROLLER

When we have to learn about a new computer we have to familiarize about


the machine capability we are using, and we can do it by studying the
internal hardware design (devices architecture), and also to know about
the size, number and the size of the registers.
A microcontroller is a single chip that contains the processor (the
CPU), non-volatile memory for the program (ROM or flash), volatile
memory for input and output (RAM), a clock and an I/O control unit.
Also called a "computer on a chip," billions of microcontroller units
(MCUs) are embedded each year in a myriad of products from toys to
appliances to automobiles. For example, a single vehicle can use 70 or
more microcontrollers. The following picture describes a general block
diagram of microcontroller.

89s52:
The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit
microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The
device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory
technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set
and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed
in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory pro-grammer. By
combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a
monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller, which
provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many, embedded control
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applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes
of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers,
three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full
duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the
AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and
supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the
CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system
to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con-tents but
freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt

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The hardware is driven by a set of program instructions, or software. Once


familiar with hardware and software, the user can then apply the microcontroller
to the problems easily.

The pin diagram of the 8051 shows all of the input/output pins unique to
microcontrollers:

The following are some of the capabilities of 8051 microcontroller.


Internal ROM and RAM
I/O ports with programmable pins

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Timers and counters
Serial data communication
The 8051 architecture consists of these specific features:
16 bit PC &data pointer (DPTR)
8 bit program status word (PSW)
8 bit stack pointer (SP)
Internal ROM 4k
Internal RAM of 128 bytes.
4 register banks, each containing 8 registers
80 bits of general purpose data memory
32 input/output pins arranged as four 8 bit ports: P0-P3
Two 16 bit timer/counters: T0-T1
Two external and three internal interrupt sources Oscillator and

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clock circuits.

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8. PROJECT MODEL

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9. MERITS & DEMERITS & APPLICATION


MERITS:-

1. It is non-contact type sensor which is very reliable.


2. Because IR sensor is non-contact type, there is no friction or
energy loss during speed measurement.
3. IR sensor based speed measurement is accurate and cheaper.

DE-MERITS:1. If there is any magnetic interference around tachometer, it can


generate errors in output.

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APPLICATIONS:-

1.

Electric tachometers are utilized in machinery and automobiles

2. Tachometers are used in aircraft, automobiles and other vehicles

for indicating the rotation rate of the crankshaft of the engine


3. Tachometers are used in vehicles such as trucks and tractors
4. Used in stationary engines
5. Used in rail vehicles
6. Used in analog audio recording

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10. CONCLUSION:-

IR Sensor Based Tachometers are devices that measure the speed of


rotation of a disk or shaft in motors or other machines. It works on the principle
that a motor which is operated as a generator produces a voltage according to
the velocity of the shaft. Available electrical outputs of tachometers include
switch or alarm, analog modulated frequency, analog current and analog
voltage.

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11. REFERENCES:-

www.efymag.com

www.projectguidance.com

www.google.com

www.wikipedia.com

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DATASHEETS

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