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Exam I Psychology 111

MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. When a researcher observes behavior in a real-world setting, it is called a ______.
a. comparative study
b. naturalistic observation
c. case study
d. correlational study
ANS: B

Page: 37
Topic: 2.2 Descriptive Research
Objective: Discuss the components of a naturalistic observation study.
Difficulty: Low
Category: Factual
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Knowledge
APA: Research Methods
2. Brian is in a lab where he is asked to draw an apple and to say his thoughts aloud as he draws.

This technique is similar to the process of ______.


a. introspection
b. neuroscience
c. heritability
d. functionalism
ANS: A

Page: 11
Reason: Introspection is an examination of one's own mental and emotional processes.
Topic: 1.2 The Origins and History of Psychology
Objective: Contrast structuralism and functionalism.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Blooms: Analysis
APA: Knowledge Base

3. On the average, what happens to sensation-seeking scores as people get older?


a. the scores tend to stay the same
b. the scores tend to increase
c. on the average, its difficult to predict what will occur to sensation-seeking scores
d.

as people get older


they tend to decline

ANS: D
4. Researchers do survey research to understand specific groups of people. The larger group

about whom researchers would like to draw conclusions is the ______, whereas the subgroup
that actually takes the survey is the ______.
a. bias, sample
b. blind, double blind
c. population, sample
d. sample, population
e. sample, bias
ANS: C
5. Meghan runs a study to determine whether college GPA is associated with later income. This

type of study is looking for a ______.


a. random sample
b. survey
c. causation
d. scatterplot
e. correlation
ANS: E

Correlation is the degree of association between two variables.


6. A study of antidepressants where neither the patient nor their therapist knows whether the

pills contain the active ingredient uses ______.


a. cohort effect
b. cross-sectional design
c. longitudinal design
d. double-blind procedure
ANS: D

A double-blind study keeps both the experimenter and subject from knowing the experimental
groups.

7. Russell wanted to be sure his experiment findings were true, so he conducted the experiment a

second time and compared the results. This addresses his concern for ______.
a. validity
b. reactivity
c. replicability
d. reliability
ANS: C

Page: 35
Reason: Replicable findings are ones that are found to be the same when the study is repeated.
Topic: 2.1 Psychological Investigation
Objective: Discuss the importance of the scientific method.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Analysis
APA: Research Methods
8. The strength of a correlation is indicated by its ______.
a. sign (+ or )
b. numerical size
c. direction
d. sample
ANS: B

Page: 43
Reason: The size of the correlation coefficient tells how strongly two variables are related; one
of .9 and one of -.9 are equally strong.
Topic: 2.2 Descriptive Research
Objective: Compare and contrast case studies, surveys, and correlational studies in terms of
descriptive research.
Difficulty: High
Category: Factual
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Comprehension
APA: Research Methods

9. Gina believes that listening to classical music can improve the intelligence of her three year old. She

believes this despite a lot of evidence that shows it is unlikely to improve intelligence. The article she
read on the Internet appears scientific but is based on unsound scientific principles. Gina has fallen
prey to _____.
a. functionalism
b. pseudoscience
c. heritability
d. empiricism
ANS: B

Pseudoscience is information that appears scientific but is based on unsound scientific principles
10. Psychology is the science of
a. behavior and mental processes
b. diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
c. personality
d. humans
ANS: A

from the chapter review test


11. If a correlation coefficient is ______, the two variables get higher and lower together.
a. positive
b. coefficient
c. negative
d. scatterplot
ANS: A
12. James works for the company Tasker. Hes hired by people to do tasks. One of the tasks that

is his speciality is waiting in line for other people. He can wait in line for hours with nothing
to do. It doesnt bother him a bit. Using this information it is likely that:
a. James would score high on the sensation-seeking component of boredom
susceptibility
b. James would score high on the sensation-seeking component of thrill and
adventure seeking.
c. James would score low on the sensation-seeking component of thrill and
adventure seeking.
d. James would score low on the sensation-seeking component of boredom
susceptibility
ANS: D

Know that James can wait in line for hours tells us that he might score low on boredom
susceptibly. But it doesnt tell us anything about his score on the sensation-seeking
component of thrill and adventure seeking.

13. The only method that can prove the independent variable alone is the cause of observed

differences in the dependent variable is ______.


a. correlational study
b. survey
c. naturalistic observation
d. true experiment
ANS: D

Only experiments can prove one variable causes differences in a dependent measure.
14. Roman wondered whether his intelligence test really reflects the nature of intelligence. His

concern is one of ______.


a. reactivity
b. validity
c. reliability
d. generalizability
ANS: B

Reason: Validity is whether the study captures the underlying meaning of a concept.
Topic: 2.1 Psychological Investigation
Objective: Discuss the importance of the scientific method.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Analysis
APA: Research Methods
15. Alan's therapist believes that Alan's phobia of driving occurred because of the auto accident he

witnessed and because he has a biological vulnerability to phobias. The therapist's explanation
reflects a ______ approach.
a. structural
b. functional
c. eclectic
d. psychoanalytic
ANS: C

Page: 13
Reason: The eclectic model is an approach that pulls together multiple ways of examining a
particular problem or question.
Topic: 1.3 Contemporary Psychology
Objective: Compare and contrast contemporary perspectives in psychology.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Blooms: Comprehension
APA: Knowledge Base

16. Regarding age, intelligence is believed to show ______.


a. blooming late in adulthood
b. constancy over most of the lifespan
c. achieving in school but not in life
d. wavering up and down across life
ANS: B

Page: 319
Reason: We also think of intelligence as a capacity that stays with an individual throughout
life.
Topic: 9.1 The Nature of Intelligence
Objective: Define intelligence from an adaptation perspective.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Factual
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Knowledge
17. Television and radio personalities often give information that sounds as if it is based on

psychological science, but it is not. In many cases, this is an example of


a. introspection
b. pseudoscience
c. eclecticism
d. focusing on the mind rather than the brain
ANS: B

from the chapter review test


18. Which of the following is the best reason that psychology should be seen as a science?
a. It focuses on important human questions.
b. It studies observable phenomena.
c. It uses the mind to study itself.
d. It uses the scientific method.
ANS: D

Page: 6
Reason: Any study of a topic that utilizes the scientific method is a science.
Topic 1.1 The Science of Psychology
Objective: Define the science of psychology.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied

19. The study of psychology is influenced by the study of biology. For example, naturalist

Charles Darwin heavily influenced which classic school of thought in psychology?


a. Psychoanalytic
b. Functionalism
c. Structuralism
d. Behavioral
ANS: B

Reason: Functionalism is a school of psychology concerned with the purposes of behavior


and mental processes. William James, an early functionalist, was inspired by Charles Darwins
work on finding meaning for the behavior and physical structures of animals.
Topic: 1.2 The Origins and History of Psychology
Objective: Examine the role of philosophy and physiology in the development of psychology.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Blooms: Comprehension
APA: Knowledge Base
20. Caro examines the way that people respond to lights in order to determine the optimal

brightness for traffic lights. Caro is involved in ______.


a. applied research
b. clinical research
c. basic research
d. cross-cultural research
ANS: A

Category: Applied research is a type of research concerned with solving everyday problems.
Topic: 1.3 Contemporary Psychology
Objective: Describe focused specializations of research and practice.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Blooms: Comprehension
APA: Research Methods

21. Which of the following psychologists is involved in applied research?


a. Dr. Light who is studying the use of humor to improve memory in college

students.
b. Dr. Quinton who is examining how the eyes adjust to reversed objects.
c. Dr. Dawson who is collecting data on the effect of temperature on reaction time
d. Dr. York who is researching the seasonal changes in testosterone levels in men.
ANS: A

Page: 17
Reason: A type of research concerned with solving everyday problems.
Topic: 1.3 Contemporary Psychology
Objective: Describe focused specializations of research and practice.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Blooms: Evaluation
APA: Research Methods
22. Erma found one type of intelligence test showed declines with age; namely, her ______.
a. fluid intelligence
b. crystallized intelligence
c. primary mental abilities
d. general intelligence
ANS: A

Page: 320
Reason: Cattell's fluid intelligence shows declines after age 30.
Topic: 9.1 The Nature of Intelligence
Objective: Compare and contrast theories of intelligence.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Analysis
APA: Application
23. The initial studies that discovered sensation-seeking were studying
a. free divers
b. sensory deprivation
c. following behavior of drivers
d. mountain climbers
ANS: C

24. Leo takes time to meditate each day. Which of the following benefits might he have from this

practice?
a. Better focus
b. Increased boredom susceptibility
c. Increased tolerance to medicines
d. Increased attentional blink
ANS: A

Page: 168
Reason: Researchers have discovered that meditation can help us to focus our attention
Topic: 5.5 Meditation
Objective: Discuss the effects and benefits of meditation.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Comprehension
APA: Knowledge Base
25. In one study, a girl who had been severely neglected was tested for her language ability. The

best description of this method is ______.


a. experiment
b. naturalistic observation
c. case study
d. survey
ANS: C

When an individual is the only subject, the method is called a case study.
26. Which of these is the best example of intelligence?
a. Deciding what to eat for lunch.
b. Recalling a childhood birthday celebration.
c. Reading a history of a town.
d.

Adapting your behavior to your new boss' expectations.

ANS: D

Page: 318
Reason: Intelligence is the capacity to learn from experience, acquire knowledge, adapt to the
environment, and solve problems marked by the use of deliberate reasoning.
Topic: 9.1 The Nature of Intelligence
Objective: Define intelligence from an adaptation perspective.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Analysis
APA: Application

27. One important criticism of survey studies is that ______.


a. we don't know how to correctly sample from a population.
b. they are very rarely conducted.
c. people may not give accurate answers.
d. A survey only works with a small sample.
e. it is difficult to collect survey data.
ANS: C

Surveys are self-report, and people may not want to say or may not recall the desired
information.
28. Ryan compares subjects who have been socially excluded to those who were not. The group

that was socially excluded is called the ______.


a. dependent variable
b. control group
c. experimental group
d. independent variable
ANS: C

The group that receives a treatment or experience is the experimental group.


29. Which of these is most likely a correlational study?
a. A survey of customer satisfaction.
b. A study measuring number of study hours and GPA.
c. Research where one group gets caffeine and another does not.
d. A test of a genius's productivity.
ANS: B

Correlation is the degree of association between two variables.


30. In the early studies of sensation-seeking unconventional people
a. never showed up for the experiments
b. participated in greater amounts
c. rarely participated
ANS: B

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31. The best example of crystallized intelligence here is ______.


a. following your gut instinct
b. figuring out connections between two new concepts
c. drawing on previous knowledge
d. remembering you were in a store before
ANS: C

Page: 320
Reason: Cattell's crystallized intelligence is the ability to draw upon previously learned
knowledge and skills.
Topic: 9.1 The Nature of Intelligence
Objective: Compare and contrast theories of intelligence.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Analysis
APA: Application
32. A 21-year-old who scores the same as the average ten-year-old would have a mental age of

______.
a. 21
b. 2.1
c. 10
d. 100
ANS: C

Page: 329
Reason: Mental age is the average level of intellectual development for a child of a particular
age.
Topic: 9.2 Measuring Intelligence

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33. If the subgroup selected from the population fails to capture an accurate representation of the

larger group, this is called ______.


a. naturalistic observation
b. comparative study
c. sampling bias
d. survey
ANS: C

Page: 40
Topic: 2.2 Descriptive Research
Objective: Compare and contrast case studies, surveys, and correlational studies in terms of
descriptive research.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Factual
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Knowledge
APA: Research Methods
34. The factor that changes as the experimenter manipulates it to create different experiences for

participants is the ______.


a. experimenter variable
b. correlational variable
c. independent variable
d. dependent variable
ANS: C
35. Keren is doing a study on rats that are learning to run a maze. She gives some rats a drug, and

then compares them to another group of rats. In this study, the independent variable is
______.
a. the drug
b. maze learning
c. correlated
d. animal
ANS: A

The manipulated variable, whether they received the drug, is the independent variable.

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36. The finding that scores on intelligence tests have no relationship to scores on athletic ability

can best be described as a ______.


a. sampling bias
b. positive correlation
c. negative correlation
d. zero correlation
ANS: D

Page: 43
Reason: Zero correlation means that there is no association between two variables.
Topic: 2.2 Descriptive Research
Objective: Compare and contrast case studies, surveys, and correlational studies in terms of
descriptive research.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Analysis
APA: Research Methods
37. Todd is a mountain climber. He scores high in sensation seeking. Sarah, on the other hand is

not a sensation seeker. While standing on the edge of a cliff whos cortisol level might be
higher?
a. Theres no relationship between sensation seeking and cortisol
b. Todd
c. Sarah
d. They might be about the same
ANS: B
38. Thea assumed that the reason that many dogs spin before they sit down is to be sure they

aren't sitting on anything harmful. She suggests this increases their chance of survival. Thea's
assumption forms the basis of what classic school in psychology?
a. Psychoanalytic
b. Positive psychology
c. Functionalism
d. Structuralism
e. Humanism
ANS: C

Functionalism is a school of psychology concerned with the purposes of behavior and mental
processes

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39. Blakely has trouble focusing on everyday tasks, which has caused her to become anxious and

stressed. Which of the following practices would best fit Blakely's needs?
a. Dopamine
b. Meditation
c. Attentional blink
d. Progressive relaxation
ANS: B

Page: 167
Reason: Meditation can help people to focus their attention.
Topic: 5.5 Meditation
Objective: Discuss the effects and benefits of meditation.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Analysis
APA: Knowledge Base
40. If someone scores high on one intelligence test, according to Spearman's g theory, they will

______.
a. score high on only very similar ones
b. do poorly on many others
c. prefer specific tests
d. score high on a very different one
ANS: D

Page: 320
Reason: General intelligence (g) is Spearmans theory that all mental abilities reflect a single
underlying capacity.
Topic: 9.1 The Nature of Intelligence
Objective: Compare and contrast theories of intelligence.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Factual
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Analysis
APA: Application

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