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Physics 51: Introduction to Classical Mechanics, Fluids and Thermodynamics

1st Exam Reviewer
FS AY 2015-2016

Course Outline (1st Exam Scope):
1. Introduction
1.1. Science and Creativity
1.2. Physics and Its Relation to Other Fields
1.3. Models, Theories and Laws
1.4. Measurement and Uncertainty
1.5. Unit, Standards and the SI System
1.6. Converting Units
1.7. Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimation
1.8. Mathematics in Physics
2. Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension
2.1. Reference Frames and Displacement
2.2. Average Velocity and Scalars
2.3. Instantaneous Velocity
2.4. Acceleration
2.5. Motion at a Constant Acceleration
2.6. Free Fall
3. Kinematic in Two Dimension: Vectors
3.1. Vectors and Scalars
3.2. Graphical Addition and Refraction of Vectors
3.3. Multiplication of a Vector with A Scalar
3.4. Adding Vectors by Components
3.5. Projectile Motion
3.6. Relative Velocities
4. Motion and Force: Dynamics
4.1. Force
4.2. Newton’s First Law of Motion
4.3. Mass
4.4. Newton’s Second Law of Motion
4.5. Newton’s Third Law of Motion
4.6. Weight and Normal Force
4.7. Friction
4.8. Free Body Diagrams
5. Circular Motion: Gravitation
5.1. Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion
5.2. Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
5.3. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
5.4. Satellites and Weightlessness
5.5. Kepler’s Law and Newton’s Synthesis

Count proper significant figures
Always indicate units whenever necessary
Scientific Calculator (mode in DEG not RAD)
Class Standing:
Exams (we only have 3 DepExs  )
Recitation, Reports, Attendance)
Finals Exemption:
No missed exam
No exam < 50%
Class Standing of 60% (~2.50)
or better
Giancoli, D. C. (2014). Physics Principles With
Applications (7th ed.). San Francisco, CA:
Pearson Prentice Hall.
Giancoli, D. C., Davis, B., & Hendrickson, J. E. (2014).
Physics Principles With Applications
Instructor Solutions Manual (7th ed.). San
Francisco, CA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. (2012). University
Physics with Modern Physics (13th ed.). San
Francisco, CA: Addison-Wesley.
Personal Note:
For questions/ clarifications/ concerns,
magsabi lang po sa Acads Comm Members.
1st time ko pong gumawa ng reviewer so comments and
suggestions are very much appreciated. G lang po 
And check niyo po yung Giancoli and Young kasi the
same po yung order ng contents sa course outline natin.
GLHF and God Bless sa aral time!
(FYI ^ Good Luck, Have Fun hahaha)

LCB 2015

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296 = 3. Example: 1. Modern Physics include:  relativity  atomic structure  quantum theory  condensed matter  nuclear physics  elementary particles  cosmology and astrophysics Accuracy VS Precision  Accuracy .54 cm) 2.repeatability of the measurement using a given instrument Scalar VS Vector  Scalar – quantity w/ magnitude only  Vector – qty w/ magnitude and direction Significant Figures (Applies only to final answer)  Multiplication or Division: check given with the fewest number of significant figures. Setup equation and multiply to conversion factor Example: 27.45 x 104  Addition of Subtraction: check given with fewest number of decimal places. Classical Physics include:  motion  fluids  heat  sound  light  electricity  magnetism 2. Example: 27. Identify conversion factor (i.e.2 .11.00 = 98 Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pages 6-8 or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 8-9 LCB 2015 Quantity Unit Length Time Mass Electric Current Temperature Amount of substance Luminous intensity meter second kilogram Unit Abbreviation m s kg ampere A kelvin K mole mol candela cd Metric Prefixes Prefix Abbreviation Value yotta Y 1024 zetta Z 1021 exa E 1018 peta P 1015 tera T 1012 giga G 109 mega M 106 kilo k 103 hecto h 102 deka da 101 deci d 10-1 centi c 10-2 milli m 10-3 micro μ 10-6 nano n 10-9 pico p 10-12 femto f 10-15 atto a 10-18 zepto z 10-21 yocto Y 10-24 Steps in Units Conversion: 1. Page 2 of 14 .886 ft Note: Conversion factors are constants.Measurement Introduction Physics is the most basic of the sciences.60 x 2. 2014).0 cm  __ ft 1 ft = 12 in 1 in = 2.6 12 + 9.8 + 76.11 x 10-3) = 5.0 cm x 1 in 2. Branches: 1.74 = 153. always refer to the close a measurement is to the true value (~ bullseye)  Precision . It deals with the behavior and structure of matter (Giancoli.67 (1.32578 x107) x (4. When checking for significant figures.153 + 138. 1in = 2.54 cm x 1 ft 12 in = 0.54 cm 27.

relative to the ground.1-D Kinematics Any measurement of position. LCB 2015 = 1.25 𝑚⁄𝑠 70m−30m 80s = 40m 80s = 0. S. is 85 km/h. Average speed VS Average velocity  Average speed is the total distance traveled along its path divided by the time it takes to travel this distance. The total distance traveled is 100 m (path is shown dashed in black). or speed must be made with respect to a reference frame. Page 3 of 14 .0) For one-dimensional motion. the x-axis (horizontal axis) serves as the frame of reference.) Average speed = 100 m 80 s Average velocity ( ) = Origin = (0. a frame of reference is a set of coordinate axes (x and y). E. Example: A person walks towards the front of a train at 5km/h. SW etc. NS. In Physics. how far the object is from its starting point. Never forget to indicate the direction. or frame of reference [Giancoli (2014) page 22]. The train is moving 80km/h with respect to the ground. distance. Example ☼: A person walks 70 m east. W. but the displacement is 40 m to the east (as shown by the blue arrow).5 𝑚⁄𝑠 east Note: Speed is scalar but velocity is a vector.  Average velocity is the displacement divided by the elapsed time Average speed = distance travelled time elapsed Average velocity ( )= Δx Δt = displacement time elapsed Applying Example ☼ (t = 80s): Or can be expressed by specifying directions (N. then 30 m west. so the walking person’s speed. Displacement change in position of the object.

Graph B: Further reading: Giancoli (2014) page 25 or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 38-41 Acceleration and Deceleration  Acceleration . Interpretation: Since the object is constantly moving forward. we can derive the graph for velocity and acceleration since they are just the slope of the former. does not mean that the acceleration is necessarily negative. it has a constant positive velocity (derived from slope of Graph A). Graph C: acceleration x vs t graph’s slope is average velocity since Average velocity ( )= Δx Δt v vs t graph = slope is average acceleration Average acceleration = Δv Δt time Simple Example: Interpretation: Because of the constant velocity. Graphical Analysis of Linear Motion Given the graph of distance as a function of time. Average acceleration =  Δv Δt velocity change in velocity = time time elapsed Deceleration – velocity and acceleration point in opposite directions. Graph A: distance Further reading: Detailed discussion in Giancoli (2014) pages 39-40 time Interpretation: Object in Constant forward motion LCB 2015 Page 4 of 14 .Instantaneous velocity the average velocity over an infinitesimally short time rapidly the velocity of an object is changing. acceleration is zero (derived from slope of Graph B).

“falls freely” means “falls with constant acceleration due to gravity” allowing us to use the constant-acceleration equations. From the given we have: a = -9. we need to identify and set-up the given.Motion at Constant Acceleration (Setting the frame of reference) We take the origin O at the starting point and the upward direction as positive. What are its position and velocity after 5.00 s? Solution: First. We are asked for the position (y) at 5s. Note: Check the units because te given g may be expressed in 9.5 = The coin is 123 m below the origin after 5.8 𝒎⁄𝒔 𝟐 or in 32 𝒇𝒕⁄𝒔 𝟐 LCB 2015 Page 5 of 14 .00 s We use x = x0 + v0t + ½at2 but replace x with y (bc vertical axis). all objects fall with the same constant acceleration. y = y0 + v0t + ½at2 y = 0 + (0) (5s) + ½ (-9.00 seconds.8m/s2 v0 = 0 m/s y0 = from origin = 0 t = 5. Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9. The y-acceleration is downward Derivations can be found in: Giancoli (2014) pages 28-29 or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 46-49 Final equations at constant a: (1) v = v0 + at (2) x = x0 + v0t + ½at2 (3) v2 = v02 + 2a(x-x0) v0x + vx (4) x . 8m/s2) (5s)2 y = -122.x0 =( 2 Eqtn # 1 2 3 4 )t Quantities present t t t v x x x v v a a a Free Fall At a given location on the Earth and in the absence of air resistance. The initial coordinate and initial y-velocity are both zero.8 m⁄s 2 Example: A coin is dropped from the Leaning Tower of Pisa and falls freely from rest.

06s / 2 = 1.53 s)2 y = 11.8 m/s^2 t = 1.06 s t = 0 is Point A t = 3.0) = (0)2 .0 m/s −9.(15.0 m/s) (1. Use Eqtn (1) (to find t) then (2) (to find y) [replace x to y]: (1) v = v0 + at t= y0 = 0 m V0 = 15. Calculate how high it goes. Ignore air resistance.80 m/s2)t2 Factor out t and solve.06 is Point C Point B = 3.8 m/s 2 @ Point A: t0 = 0 (2) y = y0 + v0t + ½at2 y = 0 m + (15.53s)2 y = 11.0 m/s)2 2(-9.0 m/s)t + ½(–9.0 m/s @ Point B: t=? yB = ? = max height VB = 0 @Point C: t= v− v0 a 0 − 15.8 m/s2) (1.0 m/s LCB 2015 Page 6 of 14 .53s Up = Positive Y Down = Negative Y g = a = -9.53s (2) y = y0 + v0t + ½at2 y = 0 m + (15.0m/s)(1. There are 3 approaches to solve this problem.8m/s2) y = 11.0 m/s.8m/s2) (1.5m 2. t = 0 and t = 3.5m 3.5m tC = ? yC = 0 m VC = -15.53s) + (½)(-9. Recall the contant-acceleration equations.53 s) + (½)(-9. Use Eqtns (2) (to find t) [replace x to y] then (2) (to find y) (2) y = y0 + v0t + ½at2 0 = 0 + (15. Use Eqtn (3) [replace x to y] (3) v2 = v02 + 2a(y-y0) (y-y0) = v^2− v0^2 2a (y .8 m/s 2 a = -9.The Cliché Example: A person throws a ball upward into the air with an initial velocity 15. 1.

Scalar Quantities  A quantity that has only magnitude (Magnitude of A denoted as: | |) o Mass o Time o Temperature o Etc.0 km east and then 5. Vector Addition  Vectors in one-dimension o Simple arithmetic Example: A person walks 8 km east one day. 1. Vectors in two-dimensions Example: A person walks 10.  Vector Quantities  A quantity that has direction as well as magnitude (Vector A denoted as: ) o Displacement o Velocity o Force o Momentum o Etc. Tail-to-tip method The resultant is drawn from the tail of the first vector to the tip of the last one added. and 6 km east the next day. the person’s net or resultant displacement is 14 km East of the origin.Accurate drawing using ruler and protractor to measure length and angle but is not always sufficient.0 km north. o Graphical Method: . Example: But if he walks 8 km east on the first day. then the person will end up 2 km East of the origin.2-D Kinematics second day. and 6 km west (in the reverse direction) on the LCB 2015 Page 7 of 14 .

2. 49-57 or Young and Freedman (2012) pp. Parallelogram method The two vectors are drawn starting from a common origin. Example: Analytical Method . the magnitude of the product is changed by the factor. and a parallelogram is constructed using these two vectors as adjacent sides Example: o Multiplication by a Scalar Multiplication of a vector by a positive scalar c changes the magnitude of the vector by a factor c but doesn’t alter the direction. If c is a negative scalar. 10-18 LCB 2015 Page 8 of 14 .Identify and use components x = | |cosϴ y = | |sinϴ Subtraction of Vectors Vector addition with opposite direction 2 1= 2 + (1) Example: y = x + ϴ y x Pythagorean: √c 2 = √a2 + b 2 | | = √| x|2 + | y|2 | | y| = | |sinϴ | = | |cosϴ x ϴ = tan-1 Ay Ax Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pp.

R = X = V02 sin2ϴ0 g Page 9 of 14 . The path followed by a projectile is called its trajectory. ϴ. with no units. Φ (if 2D: Φ = 90° = 0) Final Equations: | |= √Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2 Unit Vectors Unit vectors describe directions in space. and z-axes of a rectangular coordinate system. 19-24 ϴ = tan-1 Ay Ax Az2 Φ = cos-1 √Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2 | | = | |cosϴ sinΦ | | = | |sinϴ sinΦ | | = | |cosΦ LCB 2015 Projectile Motion A projectile is any body that is given an initial velocity and then follows a path determined entirely by the effects of gravitational acceleration (air resistance oftentimes neglected). Vectors in three-dimension = | |. Further reading: Young and Freedman (2012) pp. The unit vectors are aligned with the x-. A unit vector has a magnitude of 1. The x-distance travelled is called the horizontal range (R). y-.

Choose a coordinate system. Read. choose the object. Apply relevant equations.y0) Max height (y) of projectile motion: V02sin2 ϴ 2g Max range (x) of projectile motion: ϴ0 = 45° Rmax = V02/g Derivations and further readings can be found in: Giancoli (2014) pp. Choose a time interval.) we can use the constant-acceleration equations and separate each coordinate plane. How fast must the motorcycle leave the cliff top to land on level ground Y = Y0 + V0yt – ½gt2 V2y = V20y – 2g (y . 7. Origin: edge of cliff y is positive: upwards x is positive: to the right 4. 90.0m Vy = 0 6.0m Vx = unknown Vertical (y): ay = -g = -9. Horizontal (x): ax = 0 ∴ vx is constant Xat the ground = +90. etc. t = 0: when the motorcycle leaves the cliff top t = end: before the motorcycle touches the ground 5. The motorcycle maintains constant Vx as long as it is in the air. 3. and draw a diagram.80 m/s2 Yat the ground = +50.0m from the base of the cliff where the cameras are? Ignore air resistance. taken as a single unit. List knowns and unknowns. we also do not know the time (t) when the motorcycle reaches the ground.0-m-high cliff. LCB 2015 Page 10 of 14 . 60-64 or Young and Freedman (2012) pp.Since acceleration is due to gravity which is constant (ignoring effects of wind. and 2. Examine x and y motions. Vx = constant Vertical Motion ay = -g = constant V0x = |Vo| cos ϴ Vx = V0x X = X0 + V0xt V0y = |V0| sin ϴ Vy = V0y . 77-85 Example: A movie stunt driver on a motorcycle speeds horizontally off a 50. Object: motorcycle and driver. Problem Solving Steps: 1. Aside from Vx. Kinematic Equations for Projectile Motion: Horizontal Motion ax = 0. The time it stays in the air is determined by the y motion—when it reaches the ground. air resistance.

To find out how long it takes the motorcycle to reach the ground below. we use the modified Equation #2 with Y = 0 and Vy0 = 0. The acceleration in the x direction is zero.So we first find the time using the y motion. the only acceleration is gin the negative y direction. and then use this time value in the x equations. LCB 2015 Page 11 of 14 . Note: In the time interval of the projectile motion.

117-120 Free Body Diagrams a diagram showing all the forces acting on each object involved. as long as no net force acts on it.Motion & Force: Dynamics Force as any kind of a push or a pull on an object Newton’s First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia) “Every object continues in its state of rest.FN = m (0.0 m/s ? *acceleration due to gravity.0 m/s means no acceleration.” mg .FN = 0 and mg = FN ∴ scale reading is 65 kg.force when two objects are in contact Normal Force (FN) . or of uniform velocity in a straight line. the second object exerts an equal force in the opposite direction on the first.20g* downward. Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pp.” Contact Force . The direction of the acceleration is in the direction of the net force acting on the object.Contact force that is perpendicular to the common surface of contact Example: A 65-kg woman descends in an elevator that briefly accelerates at 0.20 g) FN = mg . and is inversely proportional to the object’s mass. what is her weight and what does the scale read? (b) What does the scale read when the elevator descends at a constant speed of 2. Indicates the direction of each force and its relationship to the other forces.80m = (0.8)(65 kg) = 52 kg (b) constant speed of 2. (a) During this acceleration.” Weight and Normal Force Mass VS Weight Mass is a property of an object itself Weight is a force.8 m/s2) = 640 N Mathematically: ∑ F = ma Units of Force = Newton (N) = kg ∙ m / s2 Newton’s Third Law of Motion (Law of Interaction) “Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object. Force exerted by scale = 0.m (0.80mg ∑ F = ma Actual weight = mg = (65 kg)(9. Mathematically: Mass = m Weight = mg (g = acceleration due to gravity) LCB 2015 Page 12 of 14 . not grams (g) Mass (kg) measure of the inertia of an object. the pull of gravity acting on an object. Using Newton’s 2nd Law mg . 84-86 or Young and Freedman (2012) pp.20 g) = 0. The more mass an object has. She stands on a scale that reads in kg. the greater the force needed to give it a particular acceleration Solution: (a) Use Newton’s 2nd Law Newton’s Second Law of Motion (Law of Acceleration) “The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it.

Illustration: LCB 2015 Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pp. It is always perpendicular to the normal force.93-98 or Young and Freedman (2012) pp. How hard must you pull to keep it moving with constant velocity? Assume that 𝜇 k = 0.Friction Another type of contact force. Friction force exerted with an equal magnitude and opposite direction We need the magnitude of the tension force T. 146-151 Page 13 of 14 .40. Kinetic Friction: Acts when a body slides over a surface. Free-body diagram of the crate: fk = 𝜇 kn fk = magnitude of kinetic friction force (N) 𝜇 k = coefficient of kinetic friction (No unit) n = normal force (Unit: N) 2. we get the Force per component. The magnitude of the kinetic friction force usually increases when the normal force increases. Using Newton’s 2nd Law. fs ≤ 𝜇sn fs = magnitude of static friction force (N) 𝜇 s = coefficient of static friction (No unit) n = normal force (Unit: N) Substitute the value of n to solve for T Example: You want to move a crate by pulling upward on the rope at an angle of 30° above the horizontal. Static Friction: Acts when there is no relative motion. 1.

toward the center of the circle) (ar) Frequency (f) = number of revolutions per second Period (T) = time required to complete one revolution.67 x 10-11 N ∙ m2 / kg Kepler’s Law and Newton’s Synthesis Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion  Kepler’s first law: The path of each planet around the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus Equations: v= distance time ar = v2 r = T= = 2πr T 4π2 r T2 1 f Derivations & further readings can be found in: Giancoli (2014) pages 108-112 or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 154-157  Kepler’s second law:Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the Sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal periods of time  Kepler’s third law:The ratio of the squares of the periods Tof any two planets revolving around the Sun is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their mean distances from the Sun Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion Applying Newton’s 2nd Law. It has centripetal acceleration (“center-pointing” acceleration) or radial acceleration (since it is directed along the radius. uniform circular motion’s net force must be directed toward the center of the circle ∑ F = ma = m Derivations & further readings can be found in: Giancoli (2014) pages 112-115 LCB 2015 v2 r Derivations & further readings can be found in: Giancoli (2014) pages 122-129 Page 14 of 14 . This force acts along the line joining the two particles.” FG = G m1m2 r2 G = 6.Circular Motion: Gravitation Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion An object moving in a circle of radius r at constant speed v has an acceleration whose direction is toward the center of the circle. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation “Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.