Reminders:
Count proper significant figures
Always indicate units whenever necessary
Scientific Calculator (mode in DEG not RAD)
Class Standing:
75%
Exams (we only have 3 DepExs )
25%
Others
(Problem
Sets,
HW,
Recitation, Reports, Attendance)
Finals Exemption:
1.
No missed exam
2.
No exam < 50%
3.
Class Standing of 60% (~2.50)
or better
References:
Giancoli, D. C. (2014). Physics Principles With
Applications (7th ed.). San Francisco, CA:
Pearson Prentice Hall.
Giancoli, D. C., Davis, B., & Hendrickson, J. E. (2014).
Physics Principles With Applications
Instructor Solutions Manual (7th ed.). San
Francisco, CA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. (2012). University
Physics with Modern Physics (13th ed.). San
Francisco, CA: AddisonWesley.
Personal Note:
For questions/ clarifications/ concerns,
magsabi lang po sa Acads Comm Members.
1st time ko pong gumawa ng reviewer so comments and
suggestions are very much appreciated. G lang po
And check niyo po yung Giancoli and Young kasi the
same po yung order ng contents sa course outline natin.
GLHF and God Bless sa aral time!
(FYI ^ Good Luck, Have Fun hahaha)
\(^_^)/
LCB 2015
Page 1 of 14
Measurement
Introduction
Physics is the most basic of the sciences. It
deals with the behavior and structure of matter
(Giancoli, 2014).
Branches:
1. Classical Physics include:
motion
fluids
heat
sound
light
electricity
magnetism
2. Modern Physics include:
relativity
atomic structure
quantum theory
condensed matter
nuclear physics
elementary particles
cosmology and astrophysics
Accuracy VS Precision
Accuracy  how close a measurement is to
the true value (~ bullseye)
Precision  repeatability of the
measurement using a given instrument
Scalar VS Vector
Scalar quantity w/ magnitude only
Vector qty w/ magnitude and direction
Significant Figures (Applies only to final answer)
Multiplication or Division: check given with
the fewest number of significant figures.
Example:
1.60 x 2.296 = 3.67
(1.32578 x107) x (4.11 x 103) = 5.45 x 104
Addition of Subtraction: check given with
fewest number of decimal places.
Example:
27.153 + 138.2  11.74 = 153.6
12 + 9.8 + 76.00 = 98
Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pages 68
or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 89
LCB 2015
Quantity
Unit
Length
Time
Mass
Electric
Current
Temperature
Amount of
substance
Luminous
intensity
meter
second
kilogram
Unit
Abbreviation
m
s
kg
ampere
kelvin
mole
mol
candela
cd
Metric Prefixes
Prefix
Abbreviation
Value
yotta
Y
1024
zetta
Z
1021
exa
E
1018
peta
P
1015
tera
T
1012
giga
G
109
mega
M
106
kilo
k
103
hecto
h
102
deka
da
101
deci
d
101
centi
c
102
milli
m
103
micro
106
nano
n
109
pico
p
1012
femto
f
1015
atto
a
1018
zepto
z
1021
yocto
Y
1024
Steps in Units Conversion:
1. Identify conversion factor (i.e. 1in = 2.54 cm)
2. Setup equation and multiply to conversion
factor
Example: 27.0 cm __ ft
1 ft = 12 in
1 in = 2.54 cm
27.0 cm x
1 in
2.54 cm
1 ft
12 in
= 0.886 ft
1D Kinematics
Any measurement of position, distance, or speed
must be made with respect to a reference frame,
or frame of reference [Giancoli (2014) page 22].
Displacement
change in position of the object;
how far the object is from its starting point.
Example :
A person walks 70 m east, then 30 m west.
Example:
A person walks towards the front of a train
at 5km/h. The train is moving 80km/h with
respect to the ground, so the walking persons
speed, relative to the ground, is 85 km/h.
distance travelled
time elapsed
Average velocity ( )=
x
t
displacement
time elapsed
Average speed =
100 m
80 s
Average velocity ( ) =
Origin = (0,0)
For onedimensional motion, the xaxis
(horizontal axis) serves as the frame of reference.
LCB 2015
= 1.25
70m30m
80s
40m
80s
= 0.5 east
Note: Speed is scalar but velocity is a vector.
Never forget to indicate the direction.
Page 3 of 14
Instantaneous velocity
the average velocity over an infinitesimally short
time interval.
Graph B:
v
t
velocity
change in velocity
time
time elapsed
Graph C:
acceleration
x vs t graphs slope is average velocity since
Average velocity ( )=
x
t
v
t
time
Simple Example:
Graph A:
distance
time
Interpretation: Object in Constant forward motion
LCB 2015
Page 4 of 14
(1) v = v0 + at
(2) x = x0 + v0t + at2
(4) x  x0 =(
Eqtn #
1
2
3
4
)t
Quantities present
t
t
t
v
x
x
x
v
v
a
a
a
Free Fall
At a given location on the Earth and in the
absence of air resistance, all objects fall with the
same constant acceleration.
Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.8 ms 2
Example:
A coin is dropped from the Leaning Tower of Pisa
and falls freely from rest. What are its position
and velocity after 5.00 s?
Solution:
First, we need to identify and setup the
given. falls freely means falls with constant
acceleration due to gravity allowing us to use
the constantacceleration equations.
a = 9.8m/s2
v0 = 0 m/s
y0 = from origin = 0
t = 5.00 s
We use x = x0 + v0t + at2
but replace x with y (bc vertical axis).
y = y0 + v0t + at2
y = 0 + (0) (5s) + (9. 8m/s2) (5s)2
y = 122.5
= The coin is 123 m below the origin
after 5.00 seconds.
Note: Check the units because te given g may be
expressed in 9.8 or in 32
LCB 2015
Page 5 of 14
(yy0) =
v^2 v0^2
2a
Up = Positive Y
Down = Negative Y
g = a = 9.8 m/s 2
a = 9.8 m/s 2
@ Point A:
t0 = 0
t=
y0 = 0 m
V0 = 15.0 m/s
@ Point B:
t=?
yB = ? = max height
VB = 0
@Point C:
t=
v v0
a
0 15.0 m/s
9.8 m/s^2
t = 1.53s
(2) y = y0 + v0t + at2
y = 0 m + (15.0 m/s) (1.53 s)
+ ()(9.8 m/s2) (1.53 s)2
y = 11.5m
tC = ?
yC = 0 m
VC = 15.0 m/s
LCB 2015
Page 6 of 14
2D Kinematics
Vector Quantities
A quantity that has direction as well as
magnitude (Vector A denoted as: )
o Displacement
o Velocity
o Force
o Momentum
o Etc.
Vectors in twodimensions
Example:
A person walks 10.0 km east and then
5.0 km north.
Scalar Quantities
A quantity that has only magnitude
(Magnitude of A denoted as:  )
o Mass
o Time
o Temperature
o Etc.
Vector Addition
Vectors in onedimension
o Simple arithmetic
Example:
A person walks 8 km east one day, and 6 km
east the next day, the persons net or resultant
displacement is 14 km East of the origin.
Graphical Method:
 Accurate drawing using ruler
and protractor to measure
length and angle but is not
always sufficient.
1. Tailtotip method
The resultant is drawn from the
tail of the first vector to the tip
of the last one added.
Example:
LCB 2015
Page 7 of 14
2. Parallelogram method
The two vectors are drawn
starting from a common origin,
and
a
parallelogram
is
constructed using these two
vectors as adjacent sides
Example:
Multiplication by a Scalar
Multiplication of a vector by a positive scalar c
changes the magnitude of the vector by a factor
c but doesnt alter the direction. If c is a negative
scalar, the magnitude of the product is changed
by the factor.
Example:
Analytical Method
 Identify and use components
=  cos
=  sin
Subtraction of Vectors
Vector addition with opposite direction
2 1=
2 + (1)
Example:
x
Pythagorean: c 2 = a2 + b 2
  =  x2 +  y2


y
=  sin

=
 cos
x
= tan1 Ay
Ax
Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pp. 4957
or Young and Freedman (2012) pp. 1018
LCB 2015
Page 8 of 14
Vectors in threedimension
=  , , (if 2D: = 90 = 0)
Final Equations:
 =
Unit Vectors
Unit vectors describe directions in space. A unit
vector has a magnitude of 1, with no units. The
unit vectors
are aligned with the x, y,
and zaxes of a rectangular coordinate system.
Further reading:
Young and Freedman (2012) pp. 1924
= tan1 Ay
Ax
Az2
= cos1
LCB 2015
Projectile Motion
A projectile is any body that is given an initial
velocity and then follows a path determined
entirely by the effects of gravitational
acceleration
(air
resistance
oftentimes
neglected). The path followed by a projectile is
called its trajectory. The xdistance travelled is
called the horizontal range (R).
R = X = V02 sin20
g
Page 9 of 14
Horizontal Motion
ax = 0, Vx = constant
Vertical Motion
ay = g = constant
V02sin2
2g
Max range (x) of projectile motion:
0 = 45
Rmax = V02/g
Derivations and further readings can be found in:
Giancoli (2014) pp. 6064
or Young and Freedman (2012) pp. 7785
Example:
A movie stunt driver on a motorcycle speeds
horizontally off a 50.0mhigh cliff. How fast must the
motorcycle leave the cliff top to land on level ground
below, 90.0m from the base of the cliff where the
cameras are? Ignore air resistance.
Horizontal (x):
ax = 0 vx is constant
LCB 2015
Page 10 of 14
So we first find the time using the y motion, and then use
this time value in the x equations. To find out how long it
takes the motorcycle to reach the ground below, we use
the modified Equation #2 with Y = 0 and Vy0 = 0.
LCB 2015
Page 11 of 14
Example:
A 65kg woman descends in an elevator that briefly
accelerates at 0.20g* downward. She stands on a scale
that reads in kg. (a) During this acceleration, what is her
weight and what does the scale read? (b) What does the
scale read when the elevator descends at a constant
speed of 2.0 m/s ?
*acceleration due to gravity; not grams (g)
Mass (kg)
measure of the inertia of an object;
The more mass an object has, the greater the force
needed to give it a particular acceleration
Solution:
(a) Use Newtons 2nd Law
mg  FN = m (0.20 g)
FN = mg  m (0.20 g)
= 0.80mg
F = ma
Actual weight = mg
= (65 kg)(9.8 m/s2)
= 640 N
Mathematically:
F = ma
Units of Force = Newton (N)
= kg m / s2
Mathematically:
Mass = m
Weight = mg (g = acceleration due to gravity)
LCB 2015
Page 12 of 14
Friction
Another type of contact force. It is always
perpendicular to the normal force.
1. Kinetic Friction:
Acts when a body slides over a surface.
The magnitude of the kinetic friction force
usually increases when the normal force
increases.
fk = kn
fk = magnitude of kinetic friction force (N)
k = coefficient of kinetic friction (No unit)
n = normal force (Unit: N)
2. Static Friction:
Acts when there is no relative motion.
Friction force exerted with an equal
magnitude and opposite direction
fs sn
fs = magnitude of static friction force (N)
s = coefficient of static friction (No unit)
n = normal force (Unit: N)
Example:
You want to move a crate by pulling upward on the rope
at an angle of 30 above the horizontal. How hard must
you pull to keep it moving with constant velocity?
Assume that k = 0.40.
Illustration:
LCB 2015
Page 13 of 14
FG = G m1m2
r2
G = 6.67 x 1011 N m2 / kg
Keplers Law and Newtons Synthesis
Keplers Laws of Planetary Motion
Keplers first law: The path of each planet around
the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus
Equations:
v=
distance
time
ar =
v2
r
T=
2r
T
42 r
T2
1
f
F = ma = m
v2
r