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Physics 51: Introduction to Classical Mechanics, Fluids and Thermodynamics

FS AY 2015-2016

Course Outline (1st Exam Scope):

1. Introduction
1.1. Science and Creativity
1.2. Physics and Its Relation to Other Fields
1.3. Models, Theories and Laws
1.4. Measurement and Uncertainty
1.5. Unit, Standards and the SI System
1.6. Converting Units
1.7. Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimation
1.8. Mathematics in Physics
2. Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension
2.1. Reference Frames and Displacement
2.2. Average Velocity and Scalars
2.3. Instantaneous Velocity
2.4. Acceleration
2.5. Motion at a Constant Acceleration
2.6. Free Fall
3. Kinematic in Two Dimension: Vectors
3.1. Vectors and Scalars
3.2. Graphical Addition and Refraction of Vectors
3.3. Multiplication of a Vector with A Scalar
3.5. Projectile Motion
3.6. Relative Velocities
4. Motion and Force: Dynamics
4.1. Force
4.2. Newtons First Law of Motion
4.3. Mass
4.4. Newtons Second Law of Motion
4.5. Newtons Third Law of Motion
4.6. Weight and Normal Force
4.7. Friction
4.8. Free Body Diagrams
5. Circular Motion: Gravitation
5.1. Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion
5.2. Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
5.3. Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
5.4. Satellites and Weightlessness
5.5. Keplers Law and Newtons Synthesis

Reminders:
Count proper significant figures
Always indicate units whenever necessary
Scientific Calculator (mode in DEG not RAD)
Class Standing:
75%
Exams (we only have 3 DepExs )
25%
Others
(Problem
Sets,
HW,
Recitation, Reports, Attendance)
Finals Exemption:
1.
No missed exam
2.
No exam < 50%
3.
Class Standing of 60% (~2.50)
or better
References:
Giancoli, D. C. (2014). Physics Principles With
Applications (7th ed.). San Francisco, CA:
Pearson Prentice Hall.
Giancoli, D. C., Davis, B., & Hendrickson, J. E. (2014).
Physics Principles With Applications
Instructor Solutions Manual (7th ed.). San
Francisco, CA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. (2012). University
Physics with Modern Physics (13th ed.). San
Personal Note:
For questions/ clarifications/ concerns,
magsabi lang po sa Acads Comm Members.
1st time ko pong gumawa ng reviewer so comments and
suggestions are very much appreciated. G lang po
And check niyo po yung Giancoli and Young kasi the
same po yung order ng contents sa course outline natin.
GLHF and God Bless sa aral time!
(FYI ^ Good Luck, Have Fun hahaha)
\(^_^)/

LCB 2015

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Measurement

Introduction
Physics is the most basic of the sciences. It
deals with the behavior and structure of matter
(Giancoli, 2014).
Branches:
1. Classical Physics include:
motion
fluids
heat
sound
light
electricity
magnetism
2. Modern Physics include:
relativity
atomic structure
quantum theory
condensed matter
nuclear physics
elementary particles
cosmology and astrophysics
Accuracy VS Precision
Accuracy - how close a measurement is to
the true value (~ bullseye)
Precision - repeatability of the
measurement using a given instrument
Scalar VS Vector
Scalar quantity w/ magnitude only
Vector qty w/ magnitude and direction
Significant Figures (Applies only to final answer)
Multiplication or Division: check given with
the fewest number of significant figures.
Example:
1.60 x 2.296 = 3.67
(1.32578 x107) x (4.11 x 10-3) = 5.45 x 104
Addition of Subtraction: check given with
fewest number of decimal places.
Example:
27.153 + 138.2 - 11.74 = 153.6
12 + 9.8 + 76.00 = 98
Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pages 6-8
or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 8-9
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Quantity

Unit

Length
Time
Mass
Electric
Current
Temperature
Amount of
substance
Luminous
intensity

meter
second
kilogram

Unit
Abbreviation
m
s
kg

ampere

kelvin

mole

mol

candela

cd

Metric Prefixes
Prefix
Abbreviation
Value
yotta
Y
1024
zetta
Z
1021
exa
E
1018
peta
P
1015
tera
T
1012
giga
G
109
mega
M
106
kilo
k
103
hecto
h
102
deka
da
101
deci
d
10-1
centi
c
10-2
milli
m
10-3
micro

10-6
nano
n
10-9
pico
p
10-12
femto
f
10-15
atto
a
10-18
zepto
z
10-21
yocto
Y
10-24
Steps in Units Conversion:
1. Identify conversion factor (i.e. 1in = 2.54 cm)
2. Setup equation and multiply to conversion
factor
Example: 27.0 cm __ ft
1 ft = 12 in
1 in = 2.54 cm
27.0 cm x

1 in
2.54 cm

1 ft
12 in

= 0.886 ft

Note: Conversion factors are constants.

When checking for significant figures,
always refer to the given.
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1-D Kinematics
Any measurement of position, distance, or speed
must be made with respect to a reference frame,
or frame of reference [Giancoli (2014) page 22].

Displacement
change in position of the object;
how far the object is from its starting point.
Example :
A person walks 70 m east, then 30 m west.

Example:
A person walks towards the front of a train
at 5km/h. The train is moving 80km/h with
respect to the ground, so the walking persons
speed, relative to the ground, is 85 km/h.

The total distance traveled is 100 m

(path is shown dashed in black);
but the displacement is 40 m to the east
(as shown by the blue arrow).

In Physics, a frame of reference is a set of

coordinate axes (x and y).

Average speed VS Average velocity

Average speed is the total distance
traveled along its path divided by the
time it takes to travel this distance.
Average velocity is the displacement
divided by the elapsed time
Average speed =

distance travelled
time elapsed

Average velocity ( )=

x
t

displacement
time elapsed

Or can be expressed by specifying directions

(N, S, E, W, NS, SW etc.)

Average speed =

100 m
80 s

Average velocity ( ) =
Origin = (0,0)
For one-dimensional motion, the x-axis
(horizontal axis) serves as the frame of reference.

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= 1.25

70m30m
80s

40m
80s

= 0.5 east
Note: Speed is scalar but velocity is a vector.
Never forget to indicate the direction.

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Instantaneous velocity
the average velocity over an infinitesimally short
time interval.

Graph B:

Further reading: Giancoli (2014) page 25

or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 38-41
Acceleration and Deceleration
Acceleration - how rapidly the velocity of
an object is changing.
Average acceleration =

v
t

velocity

change in velocity

time

time elapsed

Deceleration velocity and acceleration

point in opposite directions;
does not mean that the acceleration is
necessarily negative.

Graphical Analysis of Linear Motion

Given the graph of distance as a function of time,
we can derive the graph for velocity and
acceleration since they are just the slope of the
former.

Interpretation: Since the object is constantly moving

forward, it has a constant positive velocity (derived
from slope of Graph A).

Graph C:

acceleration
x vs t graphs slope is average velocity since
Average velocity ( )=

x
t

v vs t graph = slope is average acceleration

Average acceleration =

v
t

time

Simple Example:

Interpretation: Because of the constant velocity,

acceleration is zero (derived from slope of Graph B).

Graph A:

distance

Giancoli (2014) pages 39-40

time
Interpretation: Object in Constant forward motion

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(Setting the frame of reference)

We take the origin O at the starting point and
the upward direction as positive. The initial
coordinate and initial y-velocity are both zero.
The y-acceleration is downward

Derivations can be found in:

Giancoli (2014) pages 28-29
or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 46-49
Final equations at constant a:

(1) v = v0 + at
(2) x = x0 + v0t + at2

(3) v2 = v02 + 2a(x-x0)

v0x + vx

(4) x - x0 =(

Eqtn #
1
2
3
4

)t

Quantities present
t
t
t

v
x
x
x

v
v

a
a
a

Free Fall
At a given location on the Earth and in the
absence of air resistance, all objects fall with the
same constant acceleration.
Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.8 ms 2
Example:
A coin is dropped from the Leaning Tower of Pisa
and falls freely from rest. What are its position
and velocity after 5.00 s?
Solution:
First, we need to identify and set-up the
given. falls freely means falls with constant
acceleration due to gravity allowing us to use
the constant-acceleration equations.

We are asked for the position (y) at 5s,

From the given we have:

a = -9.8m/s2
v0 = 0 m/s
y0 = from origin = 0
t = 5.00 s
We use x = x0 + v0t + at2
but replace x with y (bc vertical axis).

y = y0 + v0t + at2
y = 0 + (0) (5s) + (-9. 8m/s2) (5s)2
y = -122.5
= The coin is 123 m below the origin
after 5.00 seconds.
Note: Check the units because te given g may be
expressed in 9.8 or in 32

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The Clich Example:

A person throws a ball upward into the air with
an initial velocity 15.0 m/s. Calculate how high it
goes. Ignore air resistance.

Recall the contant-acceleration equations.

There are 3 approaches to solve this problem.
1. Use Eqtn (3) [replace x to y]
(3) v2 = v02 + 2a(y-y0)

(y-y0) =

v^2 v0^2
2a

2(-9.8m/s2)
y = 11.5m

2. Use Eqtns (2) (to find t) [replace x to y]

then (2) (to find y)
(2) y = y0 + v0t + at2
0 = 0 + (15.0 m/s)t + (9.80 m/s2)t2
Factor out t and solve.
t = 0 and t = 3.06 s
t = 0 is Point A
t = 3.06 is Point C
Point B = 3.06s / 2
= 1.53s

Up = Positive Y
Down = Negative Y
g = a = -9.8 m/s 2
a = -9.8 m/s 2
@ Point A:
t0 = 0

(2) y = y0 + v0t + at2

y = 0 m + (15.0m/s)(1.53s)
+ ()(-9.8m/s2) (1.53s)2
y = 11.5m

3. Use Eqtn (1) (to find t)

then (2) (to find y) [replace x to y]:
(1) v = v0 + at

t=

y0 = 0 m
V0 = 15.0 m/s
@ Point B:
t=?

yB = ? = max height
VB = 0

@Point C:

t=

v v0
a

0 15.0 m/s

9.8 m/s^2
t = 1.53s
(2) y = y0 + v0t + at2
y = 0 m + (15.0 m/s) (1.53 s)
+ ()(-9.8 m/s2) (1.53 s)2
y = 11.5m

tC = ?

yC = 0 m
VC = -15.0 m/s
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2-D Kinematics

second day, then the person will end up 2 km

East of the origin.

Vector Quantities
A quantity that has direction as well as
magnitude (Vector A denoted as: )
o Displacement
o Velocity
o Force
o Momentum
o Etc.

Vectors in two-dimensions
Example:
A person walks 10.0 km east and then
5.0 km north.

Scalar Quantities
A quantity that has only magnitude
(Magnitude of A denoted as: | |)
o Mass
o Time
o Temperature
o Etc.
Vectors in one-dimension
o Simple arithmetic
Example:
A person walks 8 km east one day, and 6 km
east the next day, the persons net or resultant
displacement is 14 km East of the origin.

Graphical Method:
- Accurate drawing using ruler
and protractor to measure
length and angle but is not
always sufficient.
1. Tail-to-tip method
The resultant is drawn from the
tail of the first vector to the tip

Example:

But if he walks 8 km east on the first day, and

6 km west (in the reverse direction) on the

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2. Parallelogram method
The two vectors are drawn
starting from a common origin,
and
a
parallelogram
is
constructed using these two
Example:

Multiplication by a Scalar
Multiplication of a vector by a positive scalar c
changes the magnitude of the vector by a factor
c but doesnt alter the direction. If c is a negative
scalar, the magnitude of the product is changed
by the factor.
Example:

Analytical Method
- Identify and use components

= | |cos

= | |sin

Subtraction of Vectors
2 1=
2 + (1)
Example:

x
Pythagorean: c 2 = a2 + b 2
| | = | x|2 + | y|2

|
|

y|

= | |sin
|
=
| |cos
x
= tan-1 Ay

Ax
Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pp. 49-57
or Young and Freedman (2012) pp. 10-18

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Vectors in three-dimension

= | |, , (if 2D: = 90 = 0)
Final Equations:
| |=

Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2

Unit Vectors
Unit vectors describe directions in space. A unit
vector has a magnitude of 1, with no units. The
unit vectors
are aligned with the x-, y-,
and z-axes of a rectangular coordinate system.
Young and Freedman (2012) pp. 19-24

= tan-1 Ay

Ax
Az2

= cos-1

Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2

| | = | |cos sin
| | = | |sin sin
| | = | |cos

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Projectile Motion
A projectile is any body that is given an initial
velocity and then follows a path determined
entirely by the effects of gravitational
acceleration
(air
resistance
oftentimes
neglected). The path followed by a projectile is
called its trajectory. The x-distance travelled is
called the horizontal range (R).

R = X = V02 sin20
g

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Since acceleration is due to gravity which is constant

(ignoring effects of wind, air resistance, etc.) we can use
the constant-acceleration equations and separate each
coordinate plane.
Kinematic Equations for Projectile Motion:

Horizontal Motion
ax = 0, Vx = constant

Vertical Motion
ay = -g = constant

Vx = V0x
X = X0 + V0xt

V0y = |V0| sin

Vy = V0y - gt
Y = Y0 + V0yt gt2
V2y = V20y 2g (y - y0)

Max height (y) of projectile motion:

V02sin2
2g
Max range (x) of projectile motion:

0 = 45
Rmax = V02/g
Derivations and further readings can be found in:
Giancoli (2014) pp. 60-64
or Young and Freedman (2012) pp. 77-85

Example:
A movie stunt driver on a motorcycle speeds
horizontally off a 50.0-m-high cliff. How fast must the
motorcycle leave the cliff top to land on level ground
below, 90.0m from the base of the cliff where the
cameras are? Ignore air resistance.

Problem Solving Steps:

1. and 2. Read, choose the object, and draw a diagram.
Object: motorcycle and driver, taken as a single unit.
3. Choose a coordinate system.
Origin: edge of cliff
y is positive: upwards
x is positive: to the right
4. Choose a time interval.
t = 0: when the motorcycle leaves the cliff top
t = end: before the motorcycle touches the ground
5. Examine x and y motions.

Horizontal (x):
ax = 0 vx is constant

Xat the ground = +90.0m

Vx = unknown
Vertical (y):
ay = -g = -9.80 m/s2

Yat the ground = +50.0m

Vy = 0
6. List knowns and unknowns.
Aside from Vx, we also do not know the time (t) when
the motorcycle reaches the ground.

7. Apply relevant equations.

The motorcycle maintains constant Vx as long as it is in
the air. The time it stays in the air is determined by the y
motionwhen it reaches the ground.

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So we first find the time using the y motion, and then use
this time value in the x equations. To find out how long it
takes the motorcycle to reach the ground below, we use
the modified Equation #2 with Y = 0 and Vy0 = 0.

Note: In the time interval of the projectile motion, the

only acceleration is gin the negative y direction. The
acceleration in the x direction is zero.

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Motion & Force: Dynamics

Force
as any kind of a push or a pull on an object

Newtons First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia)

Every object continues in its state of rest, or of uniform
velocity in a straight line, as long as no net force acts on
it.

Contact Force - force when two objects are in contact

Normal Force (FN) - Contact force that is perpendicular
to the common surface of contact

Example:
A 65-kg woman descends in an elevator that briefly
accelerates at 0.20g* downward. She stands on a scale
that reads in kg. (a) During this acceleration, what is her
weight and what does the scale read? (b) What does the
scale read when the elevator descends at a constant
speed of 2.0 m/s ?
*acceleration due to gravity; not grams (g)

Mass (kg)
measure of the inertia of an object;
The more mass an object has, the greater the force
needed to give it a particular acceleration

Solution:
(a) Use Newtons 2nd Law

Newtons Second Law of Motion (Law of Acceleration)

The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to
the net force acting on it, and is inversely proportional
to the objects mass. The direction of the acceleration is
in the direction of the net force acting on the object.

mg - FN = m (0.20 g)
FN = mg - m (0.20 g)
= 0.80mg

F = ma

Actual weight = mg
= (65 kg)(9.8 m/s2)
= 640 N

Mathematically:

F = ma
Units of Force = Newton (N)
= kg m / s2

Newtons Third Law of Motion (Law of Interaction)

Whenever one object exerts a force on a second
object, the second object exerts an equal force in the
opposite direction on the first.

Weight and Normal Force

Mass VS Weight
Mass is a property of an object itself
Weight is a force, the pull of gravity acting on an
object.

Force exerted by scale

= 0.80m
= (0.8)(65 kg)
= 52 kg
(b) constant speed of 2.0 m/s means no acceleration. Using
Newtons 2nd Law mg - FN = 0 and mg = FN scale reading is
65 kg.

Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pp. 84-86

or Young and Freedman (2012) pp. 117-120

Free Body Diagrams

a diagram showing all the forces acting on each
object involved;
Indicates the direction of each force and its
relationship to the other forces.

Mathematically:
Mass = m
Weight = mg (g = acceleration due to gravity)

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Friction
Another type of contact force. It is always
perpendicular to the normal force.
1. Kinetic Friction:
Acts when a body slides over a surface.
The magnitude of the kinetic friction force
usually increases when the normal force
increases.

Free-body diagram of the crate:

fk = kn
fk = magnitude of kinetic friction force (N)
k = coefficient of kinetic friction (No unit)
n = normal force (Unit: N)
2. Static Friction:
Acts when there is no relative motion.
Friction force exerted with an equal
magnitude and opposite direction

We need the magnitude of the tension force T. Using

Newtons 2nd Law, we get the Force per component.

fs sn
fs = magnitude of static friction force (N)
s = coefficient of static friction (No unit)
n = normal force (Unit: N)

Substitute the value of n to solve for T

Example:
You want to move a crate by pulling upward on the rope
at an angle of 30 above the horizontal. How hard must
you pull to keep it moving with constant velocity?
Assume that k = 0.40.

Illustration:

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or Young and Freedman (2012) pp. 146-151

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Circular Motion: Gravitation

Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion
An object moving in a circle of radius r at constant
speed v has an acceleration whose direction is
toward the center of the circle.
It has centripetal acceleration (center-pointing
acceleration) or radial acceleration (since it is
directed along the radius, toward the center of the
circle) (ar)
Frequency (f) = number of revolutions per second
Period (T) = time required to complete one
revolution.

Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation

Every particle in the universe attracts every other
particle with a force that is proportional to the product
of their masses and inversely proportional to the square
of the distance between them. This force acts along the
line joining the two particles.

FG = G m1m2
r2
G = 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 / kg
Keplers Law and Newtons Synthesis
Keplers Laws of Planetary Motion
Keplers first law: The path of each planet around
the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus

Equations:

v=

distance
time

ar =

v2
r

T=

2r
T

42 r
T2

1
f

Derivations & further readings can be found in:

Giancoli (2014) pages 108-112
or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 154-157

Keplers second law:Each planet moves so that

an imaginary line drawn from the Sun to the
planet sweeps out equal areas in equal periods
of time

Keplers third law:The ratio of the squares of the

periods Tof any two planets revolving around the
Sun is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their
mean distances from the Sun

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

Applying Newtons 2nd Law, uniform circular
motions net force must be directed toward the
center of the circle

F = ma = m

Derivations & further readings can be found in:

Giancoli (2014) pages 112-115
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v2
r

Derivations & further readings can be found in:

Giancoli (2014) pages 122-129
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