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MAKALAH SEJARAH PEMIKIRAN EKONOMI

KEYNES

Di susun oleh:
Kelompok :6
Materi no:8 (sejarah pemikiran ekonomi Keynes)
Vivian chaniago
Dini hartini
Redi
Abdur rohman

PROGRAM STUDI EKONOMI


UNIVEERSITAS INDRAPRASTA PGRI

English Paper
Article proposition

DI SUSUN OLEH :
KELOMPOK 9
MATERI NO 9 (ARTICLE PROPOSTION)
EER
TAUFIK
REDI

PROGRAM STUDI EKONOMI


UNIVERSITAS INDRAPRASTA PGRI

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface ............................................................................................................
..........
Table of
Contens ........................................................................................................
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION.............................................................................
A.
Background...............................................................................................
........
B.
Problem
formulation...........................................................................................
C.
Purpose ....................................................................................................
........
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION...................................................................................
A.
Preposition.................................................................................................
........
B.
Type of
preposition............................................................................................
C.
Use of the preposition phrase in the
sentence......................................................
D.
Meaning
categori................................................................................................
E.
Preposition with multiple
meanings......................................................................
F.
Prepositions that are often
confused....................................................................
G.
More
preposition...............................................................................................
CHAPTER III CLOSING........................................................................................
A.
..

CONCLUSSION...........................................................................................

Daftar
Pustaka.............................................................................................................

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A.

Background

In the United Kingdom, a preposition (the future of) the nickname of small words. Seen glimpses
of prepositions is just short words are not important, but in fact has a very important function.
Preposition is always followed by a noun (noun) or pronoun (pronoun). A preposition is a word
that suggests a liaison relationship between the noun that follows him and one of the basic
elements of a sentence, that is subject, verb, object or complement. A noun or pronoun that
follows the preposition is the object of a preposition. Pronouns used in this position is always an
object pronoun, like me, you, him, her, it, us and them. Prepositions plus object called a
preposition phrase (prepositional phrase).
B. Problem formulation

Based on the background of these problems then we formulate the contents of the paper are as
follows:
-

Identify the sense of Preposition

Identify the types of preposition

Identify ways to use

C. Purpose

Studying and understanding this paper materials namely about preposition then expected we can
understand the sense, different types, and how to use it. As for any other purpose the preparation
of this paper was to fulfill the course Structure.

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION
A. Prepositions

Prepositions have been called the biggest little words in English. They are usually quite short and
signification looking, but they have very important functions. Take a look at these sentence and
notice how completely different the meaning of each sentence is
A letter was sent to peter
A letter was sent for peter
A letter was sent by peter
A letter was sent from peter
Only the prepositions change, but that is enough to change the meaning entirely. Prepositions are
always followed by nouns (or pronouns). They are connective words that show the relationship
between the nouns following them and one of the basic sentence element: subject, verb, object,
or complement. They usually indicate relationship, such as position, place, direction, time,
manner, agent, possession, and condition, between their objects and other parts of the sentence.
Prepositional phrase usually provide information asked for by the question words who, what,
where, when, why, how, and how long
The noun or pronoun following the preposition is its object. A pronoun used in this preposition is
always an object pronoun: me, you, him, her, it, us, and them. The prepositions plus its object is
called the prepositional phrase.
B. Type of Preposition

A preposition can be classified into 6 types :


1. Simple preposition
The most commonly used simple preposition are : after, at, by, for, from, of, over, or in, through
to, until, under, up, with, etc.
Example : I saw him on Friday
2. Double preposition
The most commonly used double preposition are : into, on, to, from, under, from among, from
off, from within, over again, etc
Example : The boys gets into bed

3. Compound preposition
A compound preposition is a preposition witch is formed from noun, adjective or adverb and it is
combined with preposition be (by) or a (on).
Example : He sits beside me
4. Participial preposition
The most commonly used participial preposition are : during, not withstanding, past, expect,
save, considering, touching, concerning, regarding, and owing to.
Example : It is quarter past one.
5. Phrase preposition
The most commonly used preposition phrase / phrase preposition are : Because of, by means of,
by reasons, in spite of.
Example : Ahmad doesnt enter the class because of this illness.
6. Disquised preposition.
A disguised preposition is shown in such words below :
Behind be : by hind = behind
Across on : a on cross = a cross
Example : He has gone for hunting
C. Use of the prepositional phrase in the sentence

Many prepositional phrase seem adverbial in meaning, in that they often indicate time, place,
manner, or degree, as adverbs do. However, the same prepositonal phrase may be used as an
adjective, an adverb, or a noun.
-

The delegates went for a swim before breakfast. (Adverb)

A swim before breakfast is better than one after dinner. (Adjective)

Before breakfast is a good time to swim. (Noun)

Prepositional phrases used as adverbs usually follow the verb, though like adverbs, they can be
moved to other prepositions in the sentence. Prepositional phrases used as adjectives usually
follow the nouns they modify. Prepositional phrases used as nouns will be subject, object, or
complement in the sentence.
D. Meaning categories

The following list illustrate the use of prepositional phrases to convey specific kinds of
information.
1.

Place, position

Example :
Across her house is across the street
-

After the first street after the bridge is state street

Against his by cycle was leaning against the fence

Among the letter might be among those papers

Around the shop is just around the corner

At he used to be a student at a north American university

Before I have your letter before me now

Behind the garage is behind the house

Below they live in apartment below ours

Between his shop is between the bank and the post office

That house by the lake is my dream house

In she was dozing in an armchair when we got there

In front of the ball stopped in front of the bus

Inside come in. It is warmer inside the house

Near you shouldn't smoke near gasoline

On he found the book on the table

On top of I want whipped cream on the top of my strawberries

Opposite the school is opposite the church

Outside there's bird's nest outside my window

Over the window is over the radiator

To attach the rope to the bumper of the car

Under the book was under the desk

Underneath the book is underneath the papers

2.

Direction

Example :
Across I am going across the street to see my cousin
-

At the children threw stone at the bear

By way of can't we drive to new york by way of Philadelphia?

Down we saw her walking down fifth avenue

Into I saw her going into the theater a few minutes ago

Out of he took some money out of his pocket

To she went to the grocery store

Through the bird flew through the open window

Toward this road leads toward the sea

Up the salmon were swimming up the river

Upon the birds was perched upon his shoulder

3.
Time
Example :
About I think she will be away about a week
-

After would you please call after eight

Around I get to my office around nine every morning

At I told her to meet us at six o'clock sharp

Before take the medicine before the mealtime

By she should be back by seven at the latest

During the winter, I think I'll go to Florida

From...to the office will be open from nine to one every day

From...until she works from eight until two six days a week

In I'll meet you in an hour

4.
Purpose, reason
Example :

For take this medicine for your headache

5.
Possession
Example :
Of the leader of the scout has not arrived yet
6.
Manner, instrument
Example :
By I enjoy going there by train
-

In you can't go to that restaurant in jeans

Like that clown walk like a duck

With she writes with a pen

7.
Identification
Example :
At the shop at the corner sells stamps
-

By that book by Hemingway is a masterpiece

In the man in the dark suit is my neighbor

On the apartment on the second floor is smaller than ours

With people with law degrees often go into politics

8.
Distance
Example :
For we walked for miles and miles
9.
Agent
Example :
By this film was directed by a Czech director
10. Material
Example :
With I must fill my pen with ink
11. Quantity
Example :
By meat is sold by the pound or by kilo

E. Prepositions with multiple meanings

Some prepositions are used to express a variety of meanings. These may be present difficulties.
Some of the common prepositions with their various meaning and their most common used are
summarized as follows for references purposes.
1.
Around
"At approximately"
The police believe the man died around six o'clock
-

The temperature has been around 32 celcius degrees all day

"In the vincinity of"


-

People have reported seeing a stranger around the store"

2.
At
With a street address if the house number given
She lives at 18 Magnolia Street
-

With points in time

He arrived at 08.00

Those farmers stop working at sunset

With prices
-

They are on sale at two dollars a dozen

I cannot afford to buy them at that price

3.
By
"Alone" (with a reflexive pronoun)
He lives by himself
-

She did the homework by herself

"Past" (with verbs of motion)


-

I always walk by that house on my way to work

Several ways buses go by our house

"At the latest" (with a maximum time limit)


-

He will be here by five o'clock

All classes will be over by June.

4.
For
To indicate the duration of time
She played the piano for two years
-

They lived in Washington for two years

"In exchange for"


-

He rented the house for very little money

I bought this book for two dollars

With the beneficiary of an action


-

Shall I open the window for you?

He baked a cake for me

"Instead of," "in place of"


-

When he was away, his neighbor did the work for him

With the subject of an infinitive

It is important for them to arrive early

For him to go to a party is unusual

5.
In
With cities, states, countries, continents
He lives in Cairo
-

That river is in California

Rice is grown in Thailand

With periods of time


-

I saw him in January

The mail comes in the morning

With lengths of time


-

He will come in an hour

He finished that book in one evening

With languages

That opera was originally written in Italian

6.
On
To indicate contact with a surface
The book is on the table
-

The picture is on the wall

There is a light on the ceiling

With days of the week and dates


-

Summer begins on June 21

We do not have classes on Sundays

With the name of a street


-

I live on McKinley street

She is visiting a friend on Magnolia Street

7.
With
To indicate association
She is with a consulting firm
-

I will stay with the car while you go for help

8.
Without
To indicate the absence of something
Nothing can live without water
-

I am without money today and cannot buy the tickets

F. Prepositions that are often confused

In, on, and at discussed previously, are probably the most often confused nglish prepositions.
Following are some others.
1.
Above, over
Above refers to a place higher than a certain point. Over refers to a place directly above a certain
point.
The temperature is well above freezing
-

He held an umbrella over his head

Over also means "more than" and "in the course of" a period af time

He is over eighty years old

Over the years, he has proven to be a true friend

2. Below,under
Below refers to a place lower than the a certain point. Under refers to a place directly below a
certain point
That valley is below sea level
-

His shoes are under the bed

Under also means "less than" and "under the supervision of"
-

The children in this class are under six years of age

She works under the managing editor

3. Beneath, underneath
Beneath and underneath mean almost the same thing in many uses. Generally, both indicate a
position lower than a given point. When the meaning diverge, underneath conveys more
specifically the meaning of one object being covered up by another, and beneath may be used in
a figurative sense. It may be useful to associate underneath with under and beneath with below.
Two hundred feet beneath (below) the surface of the earth, solid rock was found
-

The official does not consider it beneath him to type his own letters

The shoes were found underneath a pile of clothes in the closet

4. To, toward
To is used with verbs of motion and definite destinations. Toward means "in the general direction
of".
We walked to the station.
-

All mosque face toward Mecca.

5. Beside,besides
Beside means "next to". Besides means "in addition to".
He is sitting beside his brother.
-

Two others won prizes besides us.

6. In,into
In is used with locations or conditions. Into is used with verbs that show motion (real or
metaphorical) from one place or sate to another.
The child is in the pool. The child jumped into the pool.

The patient is in coma. The patient slipped into a coma.

7. Past, beyond
Past is used with verbs of motion to indicate approaching, then passing by certain point. Beyond
refers to a location further away than some specified concrete or abstract point.
The car went past the monument at 10.00.
-

He lives beyond the post office.

His generosity is beyond belief.

three or more persons or things.


I want put the table between those two windows.
-

I found you letter among my school papers.

9. Through, throughout
Through refers to motion first into then out of something. Throughout used with something that
is distributed in every part of something.
Let's walk through the park.
-

The news spread throughout the country.

G. More preposition

Now, we will dealt with some of the most troublesome prepositions in English. The ones in this
lesson are, on the whole, more straightforward in meaning and perhaps less susceptible to
varying usage, in spite of their sometimes more complex structure. Here is a list for reference.
1. According to
According to is used to cite an authority or source of information.
According to the latest census, Houston, has more than a million inhabitants.
-

According to the critics, the play is excellent.

2. Against
Against means "in opposite to"
Salmon swim upstream, against the current.
-

National fight wars against other nations that threaten them.

3. As far as
As far as is used to indicate a limit reached in the course of an activity.
We walked as far as the park before we got tired.

He threw the ball as far as the fence.

4. Before,after
Before means "earlier than the time of" after means "later than the time of".
He studied before an examination.
-

He relaxes after work every day.

5. Despite, in spite of
Despite, like in spite of, has the meaning of "without regard to". It is often used in the expression
despite the fact that.
-

They are playing football despite the rain.

They are playing despite the fact that it is raining.

She came to school today in spite of the doctor's warnings.

6. During
During relates an activity to a specific period of time. The activity may be constant or
intermittenent.
My cousin lived in St.Louis during the most of her childhood
-

We ate hot dogs and drink soda during the football game.

7. Inside
Inside means that something is contained by a limit or boundary.
-

The paper is inside the drawer.

You will find your gift inside thet box.

8. Like,unlike
Like means "similar to". Unlike means "different from".
-

His mind is like an adding machine.

The film is unlike the book.

Just like means "exactly the same as".


-

You look just like your brother.

9. Near
Near means "not far away from".

The bank is near the post office.

Her car is parked near the school.

10. Off
Off shows that something is removed from contact or connection with a place it occupied before.
He took the book off the shelf.
-

I lost a button off my coat.

11. Opposite
Opposite means "directly across from".
The site opposite me in the cafetaria every day.
-

There is a new building opposite our house.

12. Until
Until indicates the continuation of an action or a step up to a specified point.
I will wait for you until five o'clock.
-

He lived there until his marriage.

13.Upon
Upon means "on top of" or "as a result of".
-

They placed a crown upon Caesar's head.

Upon hearing that he was in town, I telephoned him.

Upon is also used with depend and verbs of similar meaning ( rely, count ).
-

You can depand upon my promises

He caannot be relied upon.

On may replaced upon in all of these.


-

On is somewhat less than upon.

14. Within
Within indicates that something is inside described limits.
The mail will arrive within an hour.
-

That decision is not within my area of authority; it is beyond my jurisdiction.

CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION
A. Conclusion

A preposition is classified as a part of speech in grammar. It denotes the relationship to some


other words in a sentence with are placed before a noun or a pronoun.
Prepositions are always followed by nouns (or pronouns). They are connective words that show
the relationship between the nouns following them and one of the basic sentence element:
subject, verb, object, or complement. They usually indicate relationship, such as position, place,
direction, time, manner, agent, possession, and condition, between their objects and other parts of
the sentence. Prepositional phrase usually provide information asked for by the question words
who, what, where, when, why, how, and how long
The noun or pronoun following the preposition is its object. A pronoun used in this preposition is
always an object pronoun: me, you, him, her, it, us, and them. The prepositions plus its object is
called the prepositional phrase.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Ahmad, Izzam, Try May Hadi. 2007. Basic English Grammer. Jakarta :
Azar, Betty Achrampfer. 2000. Understanding and Using Grammer. Jakarta : Bina Rupa Aksara
Macmillan, Collier. 1972. English 900. London : English Language Services, Inc
Swijin, Drs. 2007. Perfect English Grammer. Bandung : CV Yrama Widya
www.yrama-widya.co.id 20 November 2013, makalah preposition