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ROLLING ELEMENT

BEARING
Antifriction Bearing
Is a precision item and can not be Designed but only Selected out of available ones!

TIMKEN, SKF

ABMA (American Bearing


Manufacturers Association)
AFBMA (Anti-friction Bearing
Manufacturers Association)

M S Dasgupta, BITS Pilani

Unlike coefficient of sliding friction, the coefficient of rolling friction varies


with conditions and has a dimension as unit of length.
The rolling resistance can be expressed as
Fr = c W
(1)
where
Fr = rolling friction (N)
c = rolling resistance coefficient - dimensionless (coefficient of rolling friction CRF)
W = m g = normal force or weight of body (N)
m = mass of body (kg)
g = accelaration of gravity (9.81 m/s2)
The rolling resistance can alternatively be expressed as
Fr = cl W / r
(2)
where
cl = rolling resistance coefficient with dimension length (coefficient of rolling
friction) (mm)
r = radius of wheel (mm)
M S Dasgupta, BITS Pilani

Size?
Working

Advantage?
Although the starting friction is about twice the
running friction, but still it is negligible in
comparison with the starting friction of a journal
bearing

M S Dasgupta, BITS Pilani

Rolling elements

Single use item

M S Dasgupta, BITS Pilani

Ball Bearing Nomenclature:

How the balls go inside the races?

Conrad type

Filling Notch type


M S Dasgupta, BITS Pilani

Balls / Rollers as rolling element

One piece cage


retainer

Different types of ball bearings:

Different types of roller bearings


a) Straight roller
b) Tapered roller, thrust

c) Spherical roller, thrust


d) Needle
e) Tapered roller (both radial and thrust)
f) Steep-angle tapered roller

Bearing life
Virtually infinite!
If maintained in condition of clean and properly lubricated,
is mounted and sealed against the entrance of dust and dirt
and is operated at reasonable temperatures, then metal
fatigue will be the only cause of failure.
For example Timken company takes the failure criterion as
a wear area of 6.45 mm2.
Wear debris, vibration etc. may be other criteria.
Bearing life of an individual bearing is defined as the total
number of revolutions (or hours at a constant speed) of
bearing operation until the failure criterion is developed.

Rating life
The rating life is used by AFBMA (Anti-friction Bearing
Manufacturers Association)

the rating life of a group of nominally identical ball or


roller bearings is defined as the number of revolutions (or
hours at a constant speed) that 90% of the group of bearings
will achieve or exceed before the failure criterion develops.

Rating life for different manufacturers:


SKF
: 106 revolutions
Timken : 90(10)6 revolutions

Bearing load (F) - Life (L) trade-off at


constant (rated, 90%) reliability (R):
Using a regression equation of the form

Experimentally
obtained data
plotted, for 90%
reliability
Rating Life
Fig: Typical bearing load-life log-log curve.

Bearing load (F) - Life (L) trade-off at


constant (rated, 90%) reliability (R):
2
Desired Load=FD
1

Rating Load=C10

F1L1 a F2 L2 a

Desired
Life=LD

Rating
Life=L10

Associating the load F1 with C10, the catalogue rating that you need to look at, and
the life measure in revolutions L1 with the L10, which is the manufacturer specific
quantity, FD and LD refer to the design quantities for the bearing to be selected, we
can write,

C10 L10

1/ a

FD LD

1/ a

Here If we want to specify in the life hours, then we can write, rpm (nR & nD) values:

C10 R nR 60

1/ a

FD D nD 60

1/ a

Bearing load (F) - Life (L) trade-off at


constant (rated, 90%) reliability (R):

C10 R nR 60

1/ a

FD D nD 60

1/ a

Catalog rating, kN
Rating life in hours

Rating speed in RPM

Desired speed in RPM


Desired life in hours
Desired load, kN

Solving for C10 gives


Catalogue load rating, C10

D n D 60

FD
LR n R 60

1/ a

D n D 60

FD
rating life

1/ a

M S Dasgupta, BITS Pilani

Effect of load application factor


The Desired load (FD) is not steady then Load application factor
(A.F) is used

Table 115

Dimensions and Basic Load Ratings for


Cylindrical Roller Bearings

Table 113

The coding method for standard bearings:


As per ABMA, the bearings are identified by a two-digit number
called the dimension-series code.
The first number is from the width series, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6.
The second number is from the diameter series (outside), 8, 9, 0, 1, 2,
3, & 4.

Dimensions and Load Ratings for Single-Row 02-Series


Deep-Groove and Angular-Contact Ball Bearings

Table 112:

Shoulder dimensions:
What ds and dH in the catalogues
mean

The housing and shaft shoulder diameters


listed in the tables should be used whenever
possible to secure adequate support for the
bearing and to resist the maximum thrust
loads

Reliability goal of the mechanical system


The combined reliability goal is normally specified, say, Rt.
Then each of the two bearings, if both of them are same type, must
possess a reliability of:
Rt RA RB
If RA RB R, Rt R R R 2
or R Rt
e.g ., Rt 0.90,
R 0.90 0.948
Thus, R Rt

When dissimilar bearings are to be chosen at the two ends, the more
critical of the two will be designed for Rt. RB=Rt/RA=Rt/Rt=1. Thus
automatically the second bearing will have 100% reliability.

Bearing load (F) - Life (L) - reliability (R)


three-way relationship
(What to do, if more than 90% reliability is desired?):
Using the Weibull distribution, along any
constant load line (horizontal line in the
graph):

x x0 b
R exp[(
) ]
x0
R=reliability
x=life measure dimensionless variate, L/L10
x0=guaranteed, or minimum value of the variate
=characteristic parameter corresponding to the 63.2121 percentile value of the
variate; b= shape parameter that controls the skewness

Bearing load (F) - Life (L) - reliability (R)


three-way relationship
1

FB xB a FD xDa FB FD
Along a constant load line (AB),
x x
0
RD exp B
x0
Solving xB

x Da
1

xB a

1/ b

xB x0 x0 ln
RD
substituti ng

1/ a

xD
xD
FB C10 FD 1 FD
1/ b
a

x
ln
1
/
R
xB
0
D
0

The natural logarithmic function can be series-expanded and simplified to yield

C10 FD (

xD
1/ a
)
, R 0.90
1/ b
x0 ( x0 )(1 RD )

Accounting for thrust force:


Purpose is to find the equivalent radial load Fe, that
would do the same damage as that done by the
existing radial and thrust loads together. V is the
rotation factor. V=1 for inner ring rotation, V=1.2
for outer ring rotation.

Fe
1
VFr

when

Fe
F
X Y a
VFr
VFr

when

Generalizing for both zones,

Fe X iVFr Yi Fa
Fe may separately be multiplied by service factor if load is not steady
For horizontal line zone, i=1 and for inclined line zone, i=2.
Table 11-1 gives the values of Xi and Yi.

Table 111
Equivalent Radial Load Factors for Ball Bearings

Variable loading:
Three types of variable loading are possible:
1) Piecewise constant loading in a cycle pattern

2) Continuously variable loading in a repeatable cyclic pattern


3) Random variation

F L= Constant = K
F may be already be an equivalent
steady radial load for radial-thrust load
combination

If load level of F1 is selected and run to failure


criteria, the area under the F1- L1 trace is
numerically equal to K

Piece-wise continuous cycle:

The damage done by loads Fe1,


Fe2, and Fe3 is
D = Fae1 l1 + Fae2 l2 + Fae3 l3
The equivalent steady load Feq
when run for l1 + l2 + l3 revolutions
does the same damage D.
Thus
D = Faeq (l1 + l2 + l3)

The loads Fei are equivalent


steady radial loads for
combined
radialthrust
loads.

Equating above equations and solving for Feq

Piece-wise continuous cycle:

F l F l f l
Feq [
]
l1 l2 l3
a
1 1

Feq

a
2 2

nt F

[
n t
i i

i i

a
ei 1/ a

a
3 3 1/ a

[ fi Fi ]

a 1/ a

li can be expressed as ni ti , where ni is the


rotational speed at load Fei and ti is the
duration of that speed,

Feq { fi [( AF )i Fei ] }

a 1/ a

where fi is the fraction of revolution run up under load Fei .