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UDC 693.

814
ISBN 0-626-09270-1

SABS
0162=2:1993

Code of practice

The structural use of steel


Part 2: Limit-states design of cold-formed
steelwork

Published by
THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS

Gr 14

SABS 0 162-2:1993

Amendments issued since publication


Amdt No.

Date

Text affected

SABS 0162-2:1993

UDC 693.814

SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS


CODE OF PRACTICE

THE STRUCTURAL USE OF STEEL


PART 2: LIMIT-STATES DESIGN OF COLD-ROLLED STEELWORK

Obtainable from the


South African Bureau of Standards
Private Bag XI91
Pretoria
Republic of South Africa
0001
Telephone
Fax
E-mail
Website

: (012) 428-7911
: (012) 344-1568
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COPYRIGHT RESERVED
Printed in the Republic of South Africa by the
South African Bureau of Standards

SABS 0162-2: 1993

Acknowledgement
The South African Bureau of Standards wishes to acknowledge the valuable assistance of the South
African Institute of Steel Construction in the preparation of this part of SABS 0162, which is based on
the Canadian Standards Association standard CAN/CSA-S136-M89, Cold formed steel structural
members.

Notice
This part of SABS 0162 was approved by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards on
25 February 1993.
NOTES
1 In terms of the regulations promulgated under the Standards Act, 1982 (Act 30 of 1982), it is a punishable offence for
any person to falsely claim compliance with the provisions of a code of practice published by the South African Bureau
of Standards.

2 Authorities who wish to incorporate any part of this code of practice into any legislation in the manner intended by
section 33 of the Act should consult the South African Bureau of Standards regarding the implications.

This part of SABS 0162 will be revised when necessary in order to keep abreast of progress.
Comment will be welcomed and will be considered when this part of SABS 0162 is revised.

Foreword
The technical committee responsible for this part of SABS 0162 decided that it should be based on
the Canadian standard CAN/CSA-S136-M89.
This part of SABS 0162 is compatible with section 4 of SABS 0160, The general procedures and
loadings to be adopted in the design of buildings.
SABS 0162 consists of the following parts), under the general title The structural use of steel:
- Part 1: Limit-states design of hot-rolled steelwork.
- Part 2: Limit-states design of cold-formed steelwork.

1) SABS 0162:1984, as amended, has, for practical purposes, been renumbered SABS 0162-3 but is expected to fall
away sometime in the future.

ISBN 0-626-09270-1

ii

SABS 0162-2: 1993

Contents
Page
Acknowledgement ...............................................................................................................

II

Notice

............................................................................................................................

ii

Foreword

............................................................................................................................

II

Committee ............................................................................................................................

vii

Scope and application ...................................................................................................

Scope ..................................................................................................................
Application ..........................................................................................................

1
1

Definitions. symbols and units .......................................................................................

Definitions ..........................................................................................................
Symbols .............................................................................................................
Units ...................................................................................................................
Normative references .........................................................................................

1
4
10
11

1.1
1.2

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

Materials .........................................................................................................................
3.1
3.2
3.3

Standard steels ...................................................................................................


Other steels .......................................................................................................
Physical properties ............................................................................................

Loads and limit-state criterion ........................................................................................


4.1
4.2

Loads .................................................................................................................
Limit-states criterion ..........................................................................................

General design considerations ......................................................................................

12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13

General ..............................................................................................................
5.1
13
Coldwork of forming ..........................................................................................
5.2
13
5.2.1 Application .........................................................................................................
13
5.2.2 Fully effective elements .....................................................................................
14
5.2.3 Elements not fully effective .......... , ....................................................................
14
Maximum effective slenderness ratio for members in compression ................ 15
5.3
Maximum flat width ratios for elements in compression ...................................
5.4
15
Maximum section depths ...................................................................................
5.5
15
Properties of sections .........................................................................................
5.6
16
5.6.1 General ...............................................................................................................
16
5.6.2 Effective design width of elements in compression ...........................................
16
5.6.3 Shear lag effects .................................................................................................
26
5.6.4 Curling of flanges ...............................................................................................
27

iii

SABS 0162-2:1993

Contents (continued)
Page
6

Member resistance ........................................................................................................


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.4.5
6.4.6
6.4.7
6.4.8
6.5
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.6.3
6.6.4
6.6.5
6.6.6
6.6.7
6.7
6.7.1
6.7.2
6.7.3
6.7.4
6.8
6.8.1
6.8.2
6.8.3

Connections ....... .... ..... ..................................


7.1
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3

iv

General .................................................
................................................
Resistance factors for strength analysis ........................ .... ...............................
Members in tension ...........................................................................................
Members in bending .......
.............................................................................
General ................
Laterally supported
Laterally unsupported mem
...............................................
Channels and Z-shaped members with unsti
Shear in webs ....................................................
..................................
Combined bending and shear in webs .............................................................
Web crippling ............................
..............................................................
Combined web crippling and be
................
............................
Transverse stiffeners for beam webs ....................................
....................
Bearing stiffeners ..........
...............................................
Intermediate stiffeners ................... .......
Integral stiffeners ...................................
................................................
Members in compression (concentricall
............................
General ................................................
............................
Sections not subject to torsional-flexural
............................
Singly-symmetricsections ............. ................. .............................. ......................
Point-symmetricsections ....
......
............ ........................... ..................
Circular hollow sections ............................ ..... ........ ............................................
Other sections ....................................................
..................................
Built-up members ..........
............................................................................
Combined axial load and
.....................................................
Doubly-symmetricsections (in
r hollow sections) ........ ................
Singly-symmetricsections ..................................................................................
Coefficients of equivalent uniform bending ............... .... .... .................................
Single angles loaded through one leg ......................................
Wall studs ........
.......................................................................................
General ..........
....................................................
Studs in compr
............................................. .......
Studs subject to combined axial load and bending ...........................................
...............................................

28
28
28
28
29
29
30
31
34
35
36
36
39
39
39
40
41
41
41
42
42
44
44
44
44
45
45
46
48

48
49
49
49
53

... .............

54

General ..............................................................................................................
Design ....................................................................
..................................
Connections subject to force reversal ....................
.....................................
Fastening methods ..................................
...............................................
Resistance factor ..___.......
..................... ..
..........................................
Welded connections .....
..........................................
Qualification ..
..............................
..,.....
Arc welds ............................................................................................................
Resistance welds ........................................................................ ...
.....

54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
57

SABS 0162-2: 1993

Contents (continued)
Page
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.3.6
7.3.7
7.3.8
7.4
7.5
8

Bracing .........................................................................................................................
8.1
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4

Mechanical fasteners (bolts. rivets i3nd screws) ................................................


General ...............................................................................................................
Factored shear resistance ..................................................................................
Factored tensile resistance (bolts) .....................................................................
Factored combined shear and tensile resistance (bolts) ...................................
Factored bearing resistance (single fasteners) ..................................................
Factored bearing resistance (groups of fasteners) ............................................
Dimensions of fastener holes .............................................................................
Minimum edge distance and spacing .................................................................
Connections in built-up members ......................................................................
Spacing of fasteners in compressive elements .................................................

General ..............................................................................................................
Sections that are symmetric relative to the plane of loading ............................
General ..............................................................................................................
Discrete bracing .................................................................................................
Bracing by deck. slab or sheathing ...................................................................
Channel and Z-shaped members in bending ...................................................
General ...............................................................................................................
Discrete bracing ..................................................................................................
One flange braced by deck. slab or sheathing ..................................................
Both flanges braced by deck. slab or sheathing ................................................

Testing ..........................................................................................................................
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
9.3.4

General ...............................................................................................................
Types of test ......................................................................................................
Test procedures .................................................................................................
Type A - Virgin steel properties ........................................................................
Type B - Cold-formed steel propellties .............................................................
Type C - Performance tests .............................................................................
Type D - Confirmatory tests ..............................................................................

10 Fabrication ....................................................................................................................
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6

General ..............................................................................................................
Maximum slenderness ratios ............................................................................
Fastenings .........................................................................................................
Straightening and flattening ...............................................................................
Provision for expansion and contraction ............................................................
Tolerances .........................................................................................................

57
57
60
60
60
60
62
63
63
63
64
64
64
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
66
66
66
66
67
67
67
67
68
69
69
69
69
69
70
70
70

SABS 0162-2~1993

Contents (continued,
Page

11 Erection ............................................................................................................................
11. I
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5

Handling requirements ...................................................................


..............
Temporary loads during erection ..............
......................................
Marking of members ..................................
..........................................
Setting out and erection .... ......... .... ...........
.....................................................
Tolerances .................... .... ...................... ...........
..............................

12 Cleaning, surface preparation and protective treatment .... .... .... ............................

vi

70
70
70
70
70
70

.... ......

71

12.1 Storage and handling ............................................................................................


12.2 Surface preparation and protective treatment ............ ..................................... .....

71
71

SABS 0162-2: 1993

Committee
South African Bureau of Standards ................................................................

VJ Woodlock
(Chairman)
I Jablonski
(Standards writer)
E Coetzee
(Committee clerk)

Benard & Partners Incorporated .........................................................................

ED Benard
J Main

BKS Inc ...............................................................................................................

AG Ballack
NW Dekker

Department of Public Works ...............................................................................

MG Knoetze

Engineering Management Services Tvl (Pty) Ltd .............................................

C Lilley
HP Wilson

lscor Limited .......................................................................................................

J Barnard
JL Meyer

Provincial Administration of Natal


Chief Directorate: Works ..................................................................................

D le Voy
N Mann

Provincial Administration of the Orange Free State ...........................................

B Keyter

South African Fire Services Institute ..................................................................

CH de Bruyn
J Jakobsen

The South African Institute of Steel Construction ..............................................

J Duncan
KO Horngren

Transnet Limited .................................................................................................

J Geldenhuys
SFL Visser

University of Pretoria ...........................................................................................

WMG Burdzik
SWJ van Rensburg

University of the Witwatersrand ..........................................................................

AR Kemp
S Krige

vii

SABS 0162-2:1993
Blank

viii

CODE OF PRACTICE

SABS 0162-2~1993

The structural use of steel


Part 2:
Limit-states design of cold-formed steelwork

1 Scope and application


1.1 Scope
This part of SABS 0162 applies to the design, based on limit states, of structural memberscold-formed
to shape, from carbon or low-alloy steel sheet, strip or plate of thickness up to 25 mm and intended
for load-carryingpurposes in buildings. For applicationsother than in buildings, supplementary codes
of practice may have to be used to take account of different structural loads and effects, environments
or service conditions.

1.2 Application
Where a structure consists of cold-formedsteel structural members, provisionshall be made to ensure
adequate stability of the structure as a whole and adequate lateral, torsional and local stability of all
structural parts individually,so as to ensure resistanceto widespread collapse following a local failure.
Supplementaryprovisions may be requiredfor structures where accidental loads, for example vehicle
impact or explosion, may occur. When members designed in accordancewith this part of SABS 0162
are intended for use in structures where other recognized codes of practice apply, this part of
SABS 0162 shall supplement such codes as applicable. The resistance factors adopted in this part
of SABS 0162 are correlated with the loads and load factors for buildings as specified in SABS 0160.
(See also clause 4.)
Where this part of SABS 0162 does not provide design expressions or dimensional limitationsthat are
directly applicable to a specific situation, a rational design, if based on appropriate theory, analysis,
test results or engineering judgment, may be used.

2 Definitions, symbols and units


2.1 Definitions
For the purposes of this part of SABS 0162, the following definitions apply:

2.1.I asymmetric section: A section that is not symmetric about either an axis or a point.

SABS 0162-21
1993
2.1.2 cold-forming: The shaping of flat rolled steel at ambient temperature to produce a formed
section or profile.
2.1.3 cross-sectional areas
2.1.3.1 effective cross-sectional area A,: The cross-sectional area calculated using the effective
widths of compressive elements in accordance with 5.6.2. It can be an effective gross cross-sectional
area, or an effective net cross-sectional area, as applicable.
2.1.3.2 full cross-sectional area A: The cross-sectional area for which the effective width of
cornpressive elements, determined in accordance with 5.6.2, is equal to or less than the limiting flat
width and which is therefore equal to either the gross or the net cross-sectional area, as applicable.
In clause 6, the full cross-sectional area is equal to either the gross or the net cross-sectional area,
as applicable.
2.1.3.3 gross cross-sectional area A,: The cross-sectional area without deductions for holes,
openings and other cut-outs. Effective widths are not considered.
2.1.3.4 net cross-sectionalarea A,: The gross cross-sectional area less the area of holes, openings
and other cut-outs. Effective widths are not considered.

2.1.4 doubly-symmetric section: A section that is symmetric about two orthogonal axes through
its centroid.
2.1.5 effective slenderness ratio KLlr of a compressive member: The ratio of the effective
length KL to the radius of gyration r of the full cross-section.
2.1.6 effective width b: The dimension substituted for the flat width of an element when the flat width
is reduced for design purposes.
NOTE - Effective width is determined in accordance with 5.6.2.

2.1.7 effective width ratio B (= blt) : The ratio of the effective width b to the thickness t of an
element, determined in accordance with 5.6.2.
2.1.8 Engineer: The person responsible for the design and satisfactory completion of a structure in
accordance with the provisions of this part of SABS 0162.
2.1.9 factored resistance: The product of a nominal resistance R and the appropriate resistance
factor di
2.1.10 flange of a section in bending: The flat width, including any intermediate stiffeners plus the
adjoining corners.
2.1 .I1 flat width w: The width of an element, excluding rounded corners.

2.1.I2 flat width ratio W (= wlt): The ratio of the flat width w to the thickness t of the element.
2.1.13 limit states: Those conditions in which a structural member ceases to fulfil the function for
which it was designed. The states concerning safety are called the ultimate limit states and include
exceeding of load-carrying capacity, overturning, uplift, sliding, fracture and fatigue failure. The states
that restrict the intended use and occupancy of a structure are called serviceability limit states and
include excessive deflection, vibration and permanent deformation.

SABS 0162-2: 1993


2.1 . I 4 multiple-stiffenedelement: An element that is stiffened at both edges and is also stiffened
by means of intermediate stiffeners that are parallel to the direction of stress and is such that it
complies with 5.6.2.5.

2.1.15 nominal loads: The nominal loads specified in SABS 0160.


2.1 . I 6 point-symmetricsection: A section that is symmetric about its centroid.
2.1.17

resistance R: The resistance of a member, connection or structure, as calculated in


accordance with this part of SABS 0162, based on the specified material properties and nominal
dimensions.
2.1.18 resistance factor 6:A factor, given in the appropriate clauses of this part of SABS 0162,
applied to a specific material property or to the iresistance of a member, connection or structure that,
for the limit state under consideration, takes into account the variability of material properties,
dimensions, workmanship, type of failure and uncertainty in the prediction of member resistance.
To maintain simplicity of design formulae in this part of SABS 0162, the type of failure and the
uncertainty in prediction of member resistance have been incorporatedin the expressionsfor member
resistance.

2.1 . I 9 serviceabilityload: The design load or action effect pertainingto the serviceability limit state
(see 4.4.2 of SABS 0160).

2.1.20 singly-symmetric section: A section that is symmetric about one axis through its centroid.
2.1.21 stiffened element: A flat element both)edges of which parallel to the direction of stress are
supported by stiffeners that comply with 5.6.2.
2.1.22 structural quality steel: Steel produced to a recognized standard or other published
specification that specifies mechanical properties and chemical composition.
2.1.23 subelement of a multiple-stiffened element: The portion of a multiple-stiffened element
between adjacent intermediate stiffeners, between web and intermediate stiffener, or between edge
and intermediate stiffener.

2.1.24 thickness t : The base steel thickness, exclusive of coatings.


2.1.25 torsional-flexural buckling: A mode of buckling in which compressive members bend and
twist simultaneously.

2.1.26 ultimate load: The design load or action effect pertainingto the ultimate limit state (see 4.4.2
of SABS 0160).

2.1.27 unstiffened element: A flat element with one longitudinal free edge.
2.1.28 virgin steel: Steel in the condition prio8rto cold forming.
2.1.29 wall stud: A vertical steel member supporting the sheathing in drywall construction.
2.1.30 web of a section in bending: The portion that joins two flanges or is joined to only one flange
(provided that it crosses the centroidal axis and transmits shear); taken as the flat length, measured
in the plane of the web, excluding the corners.

SABS 0162-2:1993
2.2 Symbols
The following symbols are used throughout this part of SABS 0162: (Deviations from them and
additional nomenclature are noted where they appear.)

full cross-sectional area of a member


area term used in calculating resistance of bearing stiffeners; cross-sectional area of a
fastener, based on its nominal diameter
area term used in calculating resistance of bearing stiffeners
effective cross-sectional area of a member in compression or bending
effective cross-sectional area of a stiffener
full cross-sectional area of a stiffener section, excluding any portion of adjacent elements
gross cross-sectional area of a member
net cross-sectional area of a member
area term used in calculating the resistance of circular hollow section compressive
members, when considering local buckling
reduced effective cross-sectional area of a stiffener
gross cross-sectional area of transverse or intermediate stiffeners
cross-sectional area of a web
fastener edge distance; length of a bracing interval; distance between web centrelines of
a closed box section; effective throat thickness of a fillet weld; effective throat thickness
of a flare-bevel groove weld
distance between the shear centre of a channel and the mid-plane of the web
effective width ratio of an element in compression (blt); wall stud spacing
reduced effective width ratio; the factored bearing resistance of a sheet
effective design width; width of the outstanding leg of an angle or the flange of a channel;
distance between flange centrelines for closed box section; width of an arc seam weld
effective widths (see figures 2, 6(a) and 6(b))
bending coefficient
Euler elastic buckling load (= 7c2Z/(KL)')
initial wall stud imperfection in the direction parallel to a wall
limiting flat width ratio

SABS 0162-2:1993

c,

factored compressive resistance of a concentrically loaded member; factored


compressive resistance of a transverse stiffener

c,

axial compression in member or component due to ultimate loads

c,

warping torsional constant

cy

factor used in inelastic resistance calculations

Do

initial wall stud imperfection in the direction perpendicular to a wall

diameter of a fastener; outside diameter of a circular hollow section; flat width of a lip
stiffener

de

effective width of a lip stiffener (see figure 2)

d,,

diameter of a fastener hole

di

overall depth of a lip stiffener (see figure 2)

d,

reduced effective width of a lip stiffener (see figure 2)

d,

minimum overall depth of a simple lip stiffener bent at right angles

elastic modulus of steel

E,

initial twist of wall stud from ideal configuration (rad)

eccentricity

f
fa

fa"

distance from the centroid of a member to its extreme compressive fibre; permissible
curling displacement

calculated stress in an element


compressive limit stress under concentric loading
calculated average flange stress, i.e. maximum flange stress multiplied by the ratio of
effective design width to actual width
bending stress
elastic buckling stress
compressive limit stress in a single-,webbeam, circular hollow section beam or box beam
Euler elastic buckling stress
elastic buckling stress about the strong axis
elastic buckling stress about the xy axis
elastic buckling stress about the weak axis

SABS 0162-2:1993
=

critical elastic buckling stress

Euler elastic buckling stress about the axis of symmetry for singly-symmetric sections

fSt

elastic torsional-flexural buckling stress

ft

elastic torsional buckling stress

tensile strength of virgin steel, determined in accordance with 3.2; tensile strength of
fastener

f"

limit stress in shear

fY

tensile yield stress of virgin steel

ffi

tensile yield stress of flats

average tensile yield stress that incorporates the effects of coldwork of forming

f,, f2

calculated stresses (see figures 6(a) and 6(b))

f3

calculated stress (see figure 2)

shear modulus of steel (assumed to be 80 x 103MPa)

distance from a fastener to flanges that are tending to close in a built-up member; spacing
of rows of fasteners, measured perpendicular to the direction of force

web slenderness ratio (= h,lt)

overall depth of section

h,

clear distance between flats of flanges, measured in the plane of the web

h,

clear perpendicular distance between the flats of flanges

h,

flat dimension of a web, measured in the plane of the web

1,

required moment of inertia for an adequate stiffener that allows an adjacent compressive
element to behave as a fully stiffened element (applies to edge and intermediate
stiffeners)

moment of inertia of the full cross-sectional area of a stiffener, about its own centroidal
axis parallel to the element to be stiffened; moment of inertia of a pair of attached
intermediate stiffeners or of a single intermediate stiffener, with reference to an axis in the
plane of the web

Is,

moment of inertia of the full cross-sectional area of a multiple-stiffened element, including


intermediate stiffeners, about its own centroidal axis

1,

moment of inertia of the full cross-sectional area about its major centroidal axis

fP

fS

f"

fY '

IS

1Y

= moment of inertia of the full cross-sectional area about its centroidal axis parallel to the
web(s)

SABS 0 162-2: 1993


product of inertia of the full cross-sectional area
moment of inertia of the compressive portion of a full cross-sectional area about the
centroidal axis of the entire section parallel to the web(s)
St Venant torsion constant
effective length factor
effective length
effective length factor for torsional buckling
buckling coefficient for compressive elements
shear buckling coefficient
unbraced length of a member; span of a beam; length of a weld; length of a wall stud
total length of a transverse stiffener
length of a member unsupported against twisting
bearing length
factored moment resistance
factored moment resistances with the possibility of lateral instability excluded
moment in a member or component due to ultimate loads
moments at the point under considerationdue to ultimate loads when used in conjunction
with 6.7.1 (a); maximum calculated moments due to ultimate loads occurring either at or
between braced points when used in conjunction with 6.7.l(b); moment due to ultimate
loads when used in conjunction with 6.8.3
ultimate moment causing a maximum compressive strain of Cyey
moment causing a maximum strain of ey
smaller end moment
larger end moment
distance between the shear centre of a channel and the mid-plane of the web; number
of holes across a connected leg or web of a tensile member; number of fasteners in the
first row parallel to the edge
ratio of the bearing length to the web thickness (= l,,lf)

number of rows of fasteners


number of 90" corners in the flange of a section in bending or in the entire cross-section
of a compressive or tensile member. If angles other than 90" are used, n, is the sum of
the bend angles divided by 90"
number of fasteners across a connected leg or web
number of holes across the connected leg or web of a tensile member
lateral force due to the ultimate loads used to design a bracing
factored web-crippling resistance of a member in bending
concentrated load or reaction due to ultimate loads
perimeter length of a multiple-stiffened element between the webs or from a web to an
edge stiffener; the ultimate load per unit length of a beam
limit shear rigidity, with sheathing on both sides of the wall studs

If1

I' I
If2

limit shear rigidity per unit length of the stud spacing, with sheathing on both sides of the
studs, based on the actual fastener spacing
limit shear rigidity per unit length of the stud spacing, with sheathing on both sides of the
studs, based on a 300 mm fastener spacing
ratio of the inside bend radius to the thickness (= r/t ); the resistance
tested serviceability limit state
tested strength limit state
radius of gyration of the full cross-sectional area: inside bend radius
polar radius of gyration of the full cross-sectional area about the shear centre
least radius of gyration of the full cross-sectional area
radii of gyration of the full cross-sectional area about the centroidal principal axes
radius of gyration of the full cross-sectional area of an individual section in a built-up
member
spacing between fasteners; spacing between rows of fasteners measured parallel to the
direction of force; distance between transverse stiffeners
factored tensile resistance
base steel thickness; thickness of a/the thinner connected sheet; thickness of a cover
plate or sheet

SABS 0162-2:1993
= equivalent thickness of replaced intermediate stiffeners (see figure 4)

= thickness of the thickest connected sheet in a simple lap joint; thickness of flange in
closed box members

= thickness of a web in a closed box member


= locally applied ultimate load on a beam
= factored shear resistance of a web or fastener
= shear force in a member or component due to ultimate loads

= flat width ratio (= wlf)


= ratio of the width of a flange projecting beyond the web or half the distance between webs
for box or U-type sections, to the thickness of the flange (= w'lt)
= limiting flat width ratio for fully effective compressive elements
= flat width ratio of a multiple-stiffenedflange element between webs or from the web to an
edge stiffener (= wJtJ

ws

= flat width ratio of a flange element stiffened by webs with one intermediate stiffener

W*

= ratio of the centreline length of a flange cross section of a member in bending, or of the
entire cross-section of a tensile or compressive member, to the thickness

= flat width

wln

= flat width between webs or from the web to an edge stiffener of a multiple-stiffenedflange
element (see figure 4)

ws

= flat width of a stiffened flange element with one intermediate stiffener (see figure 3)

W'

(= WJt)

= width of a flange projection beyond the web for an I-beam and similar sections; half the
distance between webs for box or U-type sections

= distance from a concentrated load point to a brace


= distance from a shear centre to the centroid of the section
= compressive section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the effective crosssectional area, calculated in acclordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the
centroidal axis to the extreme cornpressive fibre
= compressive section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the full cross-sectional
area (gross or net) divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre
= tensile section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the effective gross crosssectional area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the
centroidal axis to the extreme tensile fibre

SABS 0162-21
1993
tensile section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the effective net cross-sectional
area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the centroidal axis
to the extreme tensile fibre
compressive section modulus of the full cross-sectional area about the centroidal x-axis
perpendicular to the web, i.e. I, divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the
extreme compressive fibre
compressive section modulus of the full cross-sectional area about the centroidal y-axis
parallel to the web, i.e. Iy divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre
load factor
amplification factors
shear strain in the sheathing of wall studs
limit shear strain in the sheathing of wall studs under ultimate loads
yield strain (= ClE)
angle between the plane of a web and the plane of a bearing surface (degrees); angle
made by the end edge with the direction of load (degrees)
Poisson's ratio (= 0,30)
resistance factor for tension, bending and shear
resistance factor for axial compression
resistance factor for connections
resistance factor for web crippling in beams having other than a single unreinforced web
resistance factor for web crippling in beams having a single unreinforced web
resistance factor for other strength limit states as determined by the tensile strength of the
material
coefficients used to determine the equivalent uniform bending stress

2.3 Units
Equations and expressions used in this part of SABS 0162 are compatible with the following SI
(metric) units:

- force: newtons (N)


- length: millimetres (mm)
- moment: newton-millimetres (N.mm)
- strength and stress: megapascals (MPa)

10

SABS 0162-2: 1993

2.4 Normative references


The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions
of this part of SABS 0162. All standards are subject to revision and, since any reference to a standard
is deemed to be a referenceto the latest edition of that standard, parties to agreements based on this
part of SABS 0162 are encouraged to take steps to ensure the use of the most recent editions of the
standards indicated below. Informationon currently valid national and internationalstandards may be
obtained from the South African Bureau of Standards.
AWS D 1. I , Structural welding code - Steel.
BS 1449-1.4, Steel plate, sheet and strip - Parl' 1: Carbon and carbon-manganese plate, sheet and
strip - Section 1.4: Specification for hot-rolled wide material based on specified minimum strength.
BS 1449-1.5, Steel plate, sheet and strip - Pan' 1: Carbon and carbon-manganese plate, sheet and
strip - Section 1.5: Specification for cold-rolled wide material based on specified minimum strength.
BS 1449-1.10, Steel plate, sheet and strip - Part 1: Carbon and carbon-manganese plate, sheet and
strip - Section 1.70: Specification for hot-rolled narrow strip based on specified minimum strength.
BS 1449-1.I
1, Steel plate, sheet and strip - Part 1: Carbon and carbon-manganese plate, sheet and
strip - Section 1.17: Specification for cold-rolled narrow strip based on specified minimum strength.

BS 4360, Weldable structural steels.


BS 4848-2, Hot-rolled structural steel sections --Part 2: Specification for hot-finished hollow sections.
Euronorm 149, Flat products of steels with a high yield strength for cold-working; wide flats, sheets and
strip.

IS0 657-14, Hot-rolled steel sections - Part 14: Hot-finished structural hollow sections - Dimensions
and sectional properties.
SABS 657-1, Steel tubes for non-pressure purposes - Part 1: Steel tubes for scaffolding and for
structural and general engineering purposes.
SABS 1200-HI Standardizedspecifications for civil engineering construction - H: Structural steelwork.
SABS 1431, Weldable structural steels.
SABS 044, Welding.
SABS 054, Tensile testing of metallic materials.
SABS 0160, The general procedures and loadings to be adopted in the design of buildings.
SABS 0 162-1, The structural use of steel - Part 1: Limit-states design of hot-rolled steelwork.

11

SABS 0162-2:1993

3 Materials
3.1 Standard steels
Steel for the manufacture of structural members in accordance with this part of SABS 0162 shall
comply with one of the following standards, except as provided for in 3.2:
SABS 1431

BS 1449-1: section 1.4


BS 1449-1: section 1.5

BS 1449-1: section 1.10


BS 1449-1: section 1.11
Euronorm 149

BS 4360
For the steels listed above, fyand fushall have the specified values as given in the relevant standard.

3.2 Other steels


3.2.1 Other structural quality steels
For structural quality steels not listed in 3.1, fy and fu shall have the specified minimum values given
in the relevant standard or published material specification. These steels shall comply with the
requirements of 3.2.3.

3.2.2 Commercial quality steels and steels of unknown origin


For steels not covered by 3.1 or 3.2.1, tensile tests shall be carried out in accordance with 9.3.1. The
design values fy and fu shall be 0,8 times the yield strength and 0,8 times the tensile strength
determined from the tests. These steels shall comply with the requirements of 3.2.3.

3.2.3 Ductility requirements


Steels conforming to 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 shall have a tensile-strength-to-yield-strength ratio of at least
1,08. Total elongation shall be at least 10 % for a 50 mm gauge length or at least 7 % for a 200 mm
gauge length standard specimen tested in accordance with SABS 054.
Steels that do not comply with the ductility requirements given above may be used in particular
applications, provided the following conditions are met:
a)

the yield strength for design fy shall not exceed the lesser of 0,75 of the specified yield strength
and 360 MPa, and the tensile strength for design fu shall not exceed 0,75 of the specified
minimum tensile strength, when clauses 5 to 8 of this part of SABS 0162 are being used;

b)

the suitability of such steelsfor the application (including connections) shall be determined by load
tests in accordance with clause 9; and

12

SABS 0162-2:1993
c)

for applications with established performance, no load testing is required, but loads shall not
exceed those calculated when clauses 5 to 8 together with clause 9 are being used.

3.3 Physical properties


The values of physical properties of steel used for design purposes shall be:

- Elastic modulus (E) : 203 000 MPa


-Shear modulus (G)

: 78 000 MPa

- Poisson's ratio (p)

: 0,3

- Mass density

: 7 850 kg/m3

- Coefficient of linear

thermal expansion

: 11,7 x 1O-6/oC

4 Loads and limit-states criterion


4.1 Loads
Nominal loads and other influences to be considered in the design of cold-formed steel structural
members shall be adopted in accordance with sections 1 to 5 of SABS 0160.

4.2 Limit-states criterion


The criterion for avoiding failure at ultimate limit states or avoiding unfitness for purpose at
serviceability limit states of a structure or part thereof is:
Design resistance 1. Effect of ultimate or serviceability loads,
where the design resistance is determined in accordance with this part of SABS 0162, and the effect
of the ultimate or serviceability loads is determined in accordance with this part of SABS 0162, using
the ultimate or serviceability loads defined in sections 4 and 5 of SABS 0160.

5 General design considerations


5.1 General
Unless otherwise specified, all calculations for loads, forces, deflections and other effects shall be in
accordance with conventional methods of structural analysis. Design shall be made with reference to
the load factors and strength criteria given in this part of SABS 0162.

5.2 Coldwork of forming


5.2.1 Application
5.2.1.1 The use of coldwork of forming is optional. If used, it shall be confined to members designed
in accordance with 5.2.2 and with the following subclauses:

13

SABS 0162-2:1993
a) 6.3: members in tension;
b) 6.4.1, 6.4.2 (except 6.4.2.2) and 6.4.3 (except 6.4.3.5): members in bending;
c) 6.6 (except 6.6.5): members in compression (concentrically loaded);
d) 6.7: combined axial load and bending; and
e) 6.8: wall studs.

5.2.1.2 When coldwork of forming is being used, fyshall be replaced by fy'.


5.2.1.3 The increase in yield stress due to coldwork of forming shall not be used for members that are
welded, annealed, galvanized (after forming), or subject (after forming) to heat treatment that may
soften the steel in critical areas.

5.2.2 Fully effective elements


For axially loaded tensile members, tensile flanges of members in bending, axially loaded
compressive members with fully effective area, and compressive flanges of members in bending the
elements of which are not subject to a reduction in effective area as required by 5.6.2, the yield stress
fy' shall be determined by one of the following methods:
a) from full-section tensile or compressive tests in accordance with 9.3.2; or
b) by calculation, as follows:
f;' = f; + 5nc (f"-fy)/

where
fy'

is the calculated average tensile yield stress over the full cold-formed section of a tensile or
compressive member, or over the full flange of a member in bending;

fy,fu are the specified minimum tensile yield stress and tensile strength, respectively, of the virgin
steel established in accordance with clause 3;

nc is the number of 90" corners in the flange of a member in bending or in the entire crosssection of a compressive or tensile member. If angles other than 90" are used, n, is the sum
of the bend angles divided by 90"; and

W is the ratio of the centreline length of a flange cross-section of a member in bending, or of the
entire cross-section of a tensile or compressive member, to the thickness.

5.2.3 Elements not fully effective


For axially loaded compressive members and the compressive flanges of members in bending that
do not comply with 5.2.2, the yield stress fy' shall be taken as the lesser of
a)

the specified minimum tensile yield stress of the virgin steel established in accordance with
clause 3; and

b)

the tensile yield stress of the flats ffl determined in accordance with 9.3.2.

14

SABS 0162-2:1993
5.3 Maximum effective slenderness ratio for members in compression
The effective slenderness ratio KUr of members in compression shall not exceed 200. The value of
the effective length factor K to be used in the design of members in compression shall be at least that
given in 9.3 (or in appendix B) of SABS 0162-1.

5.4 Maximum flat width ratios for elements in compression


The flat width ratio W, disregarding intermediate stiffeners, shall not exceed:
a)

for stiffened compressiveelements that have one longitudinaledge connectedto a web or flange
element and the other stiffened by
: 60

1) a simple lip

2) any other kind of stiffener : when I, < I, : 60


when I, > I , : 90
b)

for stiffened compressive elements with


both longitudinal edges connected to a
web or other stiffened element
: 500

c)

for unstiffened compressive elements

: 60

NOTES
1 Unstiffenedcompressive elements (see (c) above) that have flat width ratios exceeding approximately 30 and stiffened
compressive elements (see (b) above) that have flat width ratios exceeding approximately 250 are likely to develop
noticeable deformation under nominal load without detriment to the load-carrying ability.
2 Compressive elements that have flat width ratios exceeding the limits specified above may be used to support loads,
but substantial deformation of such elements under load may occur and may invalidate the design formulae of this part
of SABS 0162.

3 Additional flat width limits may be specified in certain clauses.

5.5 Maximum section depths


5.5.1 The web slenderness ratio H of members in bending shall not exceed:
a) for sections with unreinforced webs
b)

: 200

for sections with webs provided with


transverse stiffeners and complying with 6.5
1) with bearing stiffeners only

: 260

2) with bearing stiffeners and intermediate


stiffeners

: 300

15

SABS 0162-2~1993
H being calculated as follows:

H = h,/t
where:

h, is the flat dimension of the web, measured in the plane of the web; and

t is the web thickness.


5.5.2 Where a web consists of two or more sheets, the slenderness ratio H shall be calculated for
each individual sheet.

5.6 Properties of sections


5.6.1 General
Properties of sections, including cross-sectional area, moment of inertia, section modulus and radius
of gyration, shall be determined in accordance with conventional methods. Properties shall be based
on the gross cross-sectional area (or net cross-sectional area where applicable), except where the
substitution of effective width for the flat width is required by 5.6.2.

5.6.2 Effective design width of elements in compression


5.6.2.1 General

wim

When the flat width ratio W for elements in compression exceeds


, the flat width w shall be
replaced by an effective width b . The effective width is a function of the effective width ratio B, and
is defined in 5.6.2.2 to 5.6.2.8.
NOTE - For shear lag effects, see 5.6.3 and for curling of flanges, see 5.6.4.

For strength calculations, ultimate loads are used; for serviceability calculations, serviceability loads
are used.
The effective width ratio B shall be determined as follows:
Case 1:

W z LWlm

B=W
Case 2:

W>

ylm

0,95 m [ 1

where, for cases 1 and 2,

W,

0,644 w

m]

f ;

k and Ware as defined in 5.6.2.2 to 5.6.2.8; and

16

SABS 0162-2:1993
a) for strength determination:
f is the calculated stress in the compressive element (IfJ, using ultimate loads and effective
section properties;
b) for serviceability determination:
f is the calculated stress in the compressive element, using serviceability loads and effective
section properties.
5.6.2.2 Elements under uniform stress stiffened on each edge by a web or flange
5.6.2.2.1 The effective design width b = Bt for strength and serviceability shall be determined in
accordance with 5.6.2.1, with k = 4 and W = w/t . See figure 1.
5.6.2.2.2 For the special case of serviceability determination of stiffened elements of multiple-web
profiles, an alternative method of calculating the effective width is given by the following:

Case 1: W <

Wim

B=W
Case 2: Qim
< W I CO,

0,95 m

f 1,358

44

0 438
W

5 W

Case 3: W > CO,

[,,,I + 0 , 5 9 m f

0,95 @f

wj5 w

0;9

where, for cases 1,2 and 3,

W,,

0,644 @f

= w/t:
0,256 m

cow =

1,052

fi

f
0,328 w

= 4 ; and

is the calculated stress in the clDmpressive element, using serviceability loads and
effective section properties.

17

SABS 0162-211993
f (compression)

SABS 0162-2
Drg12836-ec/00-05

Figure 1 - Example of stiffened flange element


subject to uniform compressive stress

5.6.2.3 Elements under uniform stress stiffened on one edge by a web or flange and on the
other by an edge stiffener
The effective widths b, and b, , the reduced effective width d, and the reduced effective area A, for
strength and serviceability shall be determined in accordance with the following (see figure 2):
Case 1: W z

w,m,(no edge stiffener required)

b, = b, = w12
d, = d,

for simple lip stiffener

A, = A,, for other stiffener shapes


Case 2: W,,,,,,< W c

wlm2

b, = I,Bt/2 5 Btl2
b, = Bt

b,
for simple lip stiffener

d, = d, I, 5 d,

A, = A,, I, 5 A,, for other stiffener shapes


where

I, = Islla

I, = 400f4 WIW,im2
~

400t4(W1W,im2- 0,328)

Case 3: W > \n/lim2


b , , b,, dr,A,, I, are as defined in case 2, with

18

SABS 0162-2~1993
where, for cases 1, 2, and 3,

b, , b,

are the effective widths illustrated in figure 2;

Wiml

0,644 m
f

with k

0,4.3;

Yim2

0,644 m
f

with k

4;

wlt;

d , w , di are dimensions illustrated in figure 2;


is the effective width of the stiffener illustrated in figure 2 and calculated in accordance with
5.6.2.7, with W = dlt and f = f3 ;
are the calculated stresses in the compressive element, using ultimate loads and effective
section propertiesfor strength determination, and serviceability loads and effective section
properties for serviceability determination (see figure 2);
is the reduced effective width of the stiffener illustrated in figure 2 to be used in calculating
overall effective section properties;
is the effective area of the stiffener, based on the local buckling effective widths of the
individual plate elements;
is the reduced effective area of the stiffener to be used in calculating overall effective
section properties; the centroid of the stiffener is considered to be located at the centroid
of the full area of the stiffener, and the moment of inertia of the stiffener about its own
centroidal axis shall be that of the full section of the stiffener;
is the required moment of inertia for an adequate stiffener that allows the adjacent
compressive element to behave as a fully stiffened element;
is the moment of inertia of full cross-sectional area of a stiffener, about its own centroidal
axis parallel to the element to be stiffened (for edge stiffeners, the radius between the
stiffener and the element to be stiffened shall not be considered as part of the stiffener); for
the edge stiffener shown in figure 2,

Z, = fd 3sin2/12; and
is calculated in accordance with 5.6.2.1, with k for simple lip stiffeners as given in table 1,
while for other stiffener shapes,

k = 3,57(Zr)" + 0,43 5 4;

n = 030 for case 2;

n = 0,33

for case 3.

19

SABS 0162-2:1993
Table 1 - Buckling coefficients for elements in compression
under uniform stress with a simple lip stiffener
(as shown in figure 2)
2

d,lw 5 0,25

0,25 c d,lw 5 0,8

k=4

k = 5,25

k = 3,57 ([,)Of5+ 0,43

k = [4,82 - 5(d,/ w ) ] ( I+~0,43


)~'~

k=4

k = 525

5(d,/w)

5(d,IW)

k = 3,57 (Zr)0,33
+ 0,43

1 k = [4,82 - 5(d,/W)](Z,)O'~~
+ 0,43

NOTE - d/t 5 14.

f (compression)

Figure 2 - Example of edge-stiffened flange element


subject to uniform compressive stress

5.6.2.4 Elements under uniform stress with one intermediate stiffener and stiffened on each
edge by a web or flange
The effective width b = Bt for strength and serviceability shall be determined in accordance with the
following (see figure 3):
Case 1:

W, 5

qim
(no intermediate stiffener required)

b=w

b = Bt

where B is calculated in accordance with 5.6.2.1, with W = w/t , and k is defined as follows:

20

SABS 0162-2: 1993


k = 3(Zr)03 + 1 5 4
I,= &/Ia

i, = 50y"WS/W,,, - I ]
Ar = A e J r 5

Case 3:

Aes

W, > 3 4 ,
b = Bt

where

B is calculated in accordance with 5.6.2.1, with W = wlt , and k is defined as follows:


k = 3(Ir)033+ 1 5 4
I,= IJIa

I, = P[128(Ws/W,im)- 2851

where, for cases 1 , 2 and 3,

yi,

0,644

@%

with k

4;

is the calculated stress in the compressive element, using ultimate loads and effective
section propertiesfor strength determination, and serviceability loads and effective section
properties for serviceability determination (see figure 3);

W,

= wJ t, where w, is as illustrated in figure 3;

A,,

is the effective cross-sectional area of the stiffener, based on the effective width of the
individual plate elements;

A,

is the reduced effective cross-sectionalarea of the stiffener to be used in calculating overall


effective section properties; the centroid of the stiffener is considered to be located at the
centroid of the full area of the stiffener, and the moment of inertia of the stiffener about its
own centroidal axis shall be that of the full section of the stiffener:

i,

is the required moment of inertia for an adequate stiffener that allows the adjacent
compressive element to behave as ia fully stiffened element; and

I,

is the moment of inertia of the full cross-sectional area of the stiffener, about its own
centroidal axis parallel to the element to be stiffened.

21

SABS 0162-2:1993

mmmrIIrr

f (compression)

----lmmm
____

SABS 0162-2
Drg.12835-ec/00-05

Figure 3 - Example of stiffened flange element with one intermediate


stiffener, subject to uniform compressive stress
5.6.2.5 Elements under uniform stress with multiple stiffeners

For a flat compressive element to be considered a multiple stiffened element, it shall either be
stiffened between webs with two or more intermediate stiffeners or be stiffened between a web and
an edge stiffener with one or more intermediate stiffeners (see figure 4).
The intermediate stiffener(s) shall be disregarded, unless, for each stiffener,

where
I, = ( 4 W - 26)t 2 18t4 ;
I,

is the moment of inertia of the full cross-sectional area of the stiffener, about its own
centroidal axis parallel to the element to be stiffened; and

I,

is the required moment of inertia for an adequate stiffener.

The following limitations shall also apply:


a) if the spacing of the stiffeners between two webs is such that the flat width ratio W of any of the
subelements between the stiffeners is larger than Yim,
only two intermediate stiffeners (those
nearest each web) shall be considered effective;
b) if the spacing of the stiffeners between a web and an edge stiffener is such that the flat width ratio
W of any of the subelements between the stiffeners is larger than Yim,
only the intermediate
stiffener nearest the web shall be considered effective;
c) the effective width b of the subelements in (a) and (b) above shall be based on the reduced
effective width ratio B, , with b = B,t

22

SABS 0162-2:1993
where

B, = B

when W I 60; and

B, = B - 0,l W + 6

when W > 60;

where B is calculated in accordance with 5.6.2.1, with k = 4 and W = w/t ;


d) when the effective structural properties of a section are being calculated, the area of edge and
intermediate stiffeners in (a) and (b) above shall be replaced by a reduced effective area A,

4 = A,

when WI

60;

A, = (3 - 2B, /W + B, 130 - W/30)A,

when 60 < W I 90; and

Ar = (Br IWA,

when W > 90;

where

wim =

0,644 m
f

with k

4;

is the calculated stress in the compressive element, using ultimate loads and effective section
properties for strength determination, and serviceability loads and effective section properties for
serviceability determination (see figure 4);

= wlt;

A, is the reduced effective area of stiffener to be used in calculating overall effective section
properties; the centroid of the stiffener is considered to be located at the centroid of the full area
of the stiffener, and the moment of inertia of the stiffener about its own centroidal axis is that of the
full section of the stiffener: and
A, is the full cross-sectional area of stiffener; and
e) if the intermediate stiffeners are spaced so closely that the flat width ratio Wof all the subelements
between stiffeners does not exceed W,, , all the stiffeners may be considered effective. In the
calculation of the flat width ratio W ,and the effective width ratio B of the entire multiple stiffened
element, such element shall be considered as replaced by an element without intermediate
stiffeners whose width w, is the flat width between webs or from web to edge stiffener, and whose
equivalent thickness t, is determined as follows:

where
I,,

is the moment of inertia of full cross-sectional area of the multiple stiffened element,
including intermediate stiffeners, abcrut its own centroidal axis;

is the perimeter length of the multiple stiffened element, between webs or from web to edge
stiffener, as illustrated in figure 4;

is the base steel thickness;

w,

is the flat width between webs or from web to edge stiffener, as illustrated in figure 4; and

w,

= WJt,

23

SABS 0162-2: 1993


The effective width ratio B of the multiple stiffened element including stiffeners is calculated using
W = W, , and the effective area of this element, used to calculate section properties, is Btst .
The moment of inertia of the entire section shall be calculated assuming the "equivalent element" to
be located at the centroidal axis of the multiple stiffened element, including intermediate stiffeners. The
actual extreme fibre distance shall be used in calculating the section modulus.

ession)

dashed line element

Figure 4 - Example of multiple stiffened flange


element subject to uniform compressive stress

5.6.2.6 Unstiffened elements under uniform stress


The effective width b = Bt for strength and serviceability shall be determined in accordance with
5.6.2.1, with k = 0,43and W = w/t (see figure 5).
f (compression)

f-

SABS 0162-2
Org.12837-ec/00-05

Figure 5 - Example of unstiffened flange element


subject to uniform compressive stress

24

SABS 0162-2:1993
5.6.2.7 Unstiffened elements and edge stiffeners under a stress gradient
The effective width d, = Bt shall be determined by calculating B in accordance with 5.6.2.1, with
k = 0,43 , f = f3 , and W = d/t. For strength determination, f3 is calculated using ultimate loads and
effective section properties; for serviceability determination, f3is calculated using serviceability loads
and effective section properties (see figure 2).
5.6.2.8 Webs and stiffened elements under stress gradient

w,,,,

When W >
, the effective widths b, and b:,for strength and serviceability shall be determined in
accordance with the following:
a) for webs (f, in compression and f, in tension - see figure 6(a)):

b, = Bt/(3 + 9); and


b, = Bt/(l + q) - b,;
where B is calculated in accordance with 5.621, with f = f, , and k is calculated as follows:
k = 4 + 2 ( 1 + q ) 3 + 2 ( l+ q )

whenO< q < 1;and

k = 6(1 + 9)'

when 1 c q

< 3;
f1 (compression)

f
r

\t' //

I/

Centroidal axis

f2 (t'ens

Figure 6(a) - Example of stiffened web element subject


to stress gradient (compression and tension)

b) for other stiffened elements (6 and f2 in compression - see figure 6(b)):


b, = Bt/(3 - 9); and

where B is calculated in accordance with 5.6.2.1, with f = f, , and k is calculated as follows:


k = 4 + 2 ( 1 -q)3+2(1 -q);

25

SABS 0162-2:1993
where, for both cases (a) and (b) above,
b,, b, are the effective widths illustrated in figures 6(a) and 6(b);

= wlt;

is the flat width illustrated in figures 6(a) and 6(b);

f,, f,

are the calculated stresses shown in figures 6(a) and 6(b).

In figure 6(a), f, is in compression and fz in tension. In figure 6(b), f, and f, are both in compression,
with f, > fz . For strength determination, f, and f, are calculated using ultimate loads and effective
section properties; for serviceability determination, f, and f, are calculated using serviceability loads
and effective section properties.
fi (compression1

.
zh

f7 (compression)

I/

II

Centroidal axis

II

A-J
I

Figure 6(b) - Example of stiffened flange element subject


to stress gradient (compression both ends)

5.6.3 Shear lag effects


Where the span of a member in bending is less than 30w (with w as defined in table 2) and the
member carries a single concentrated load, or several such loads spaced farther apart than 2w, the
effective width of any flange b , whether in tension or in compression, shall also be limited by the ratio
given in table 2. Flanges in compression shall also be limited by the effective width provisions of 5.6.2.

26

SABS 0162-2:1993
Table 2 - Short wide flanges
(maximum allowable ratio of effective width to actual width)
1
Span L
Ratioblw

2
30w'
1.00

3
25w'
0,96

4
2Ow'
0,91

5
18w'
0,89

6
16w'
0,86

7
14w'
0.82

10

11

12w'

IOW'

6w'

0,78

0,73

8w'
0,67

0,55

NOTES

is the full span for simple beams, or the distance between inflection points for continuous beams, or twice the
length of cantilever beams;

w'

is the width of flange projecting beyond the web for I-beam and similar sections, or half the distance between
webs for box or U-shaped sections. For flanges of I-beams and similar sections stiffened by lips at the outer
edges, w' shall be taken as the sum of the flange projection beyond the web plus the depth of the lip;

is the effective width of flange; and

5.6.4 Curling of flanges


Where a flange of a member in bending is unusually wide and it is desired to limit the amount of
curling or movement of the flange towards the centroidal axis, the gross width ratio W, of either
stiffened or unstiffened compressive and tensile flanges shall not exceed the value Wmax,
as follows:

where

w,

= w'lt ;

W'

is the width of flange projecting beyond the web for I-beams and similar sections, or half the
distance between webs for box or U-type sections;

is the thickness of flange;

h2

is the clear perpendicular distance between flats of flanges;

is the permissible curling displacement; and

fa"

is the average flange stress, which equals the maximumflange stress multiplied by the ratio
of the effective design width to the actual width calculated at nominal loads.

NOTE - The allowable amount of curling will vary witl-i different kinds of sections and should be established by the
Engineer. An amount of curling displacement in the order of 5 % of the depth of the section is usually not considered
excessive.

27

SABS 0162-2~1993

6 Member resistance
6.1 General
All factored resistances determined in accordance with this clause shall exceed or be equal to the
effect of the ultimate loads determined in accordance with 4.2.

6.2 Resistance factors for strength analysis


Unless otherwise specified, the value of the resistance factor when member resistance is being
determined shall be taken as follows:
a) for axial tension, bending and shear: @ = 0,90;
b) for axial compression:
1)

doubly symmetric sections; double-angle sections restrained against torsional-flexural


buckling; and circular hollow sections: @a = 0,90;

2)

singly symmetric, point-symmetric and asymmetric sections; single angles and double-angle
sections not restrained against torsional-flexural buckling; and bearing stiffeners:
= 0,75;

c) for web crippling in beams:

1)

single unreinforced webs and deck sections:

2)

other webs:

d) for connections:

@s

= 0,80;

a0= 0,67;
aC= 0,67; and

e) for limit states determined by the tensile strength of the material: @, = 0,75.

6.3 Members in tension


6.3.1 The factored tensile resistance T, of a concentrically loaded member shall be the lesser of
a) Try= @A,fy ; and
b) Tr, = @UAfU

6.3.2 Except as provided in 6.3.3, the factored tensile resistance T, of eccentrically-loaded tensile
members shall be the lesser of
Try =

@fY

(I/Ag

e/Z,)

and

Tru

@U fu

(I/A,,

e/Z,,,)

where
Z,

28

is the tensile section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the effective gross crosssectional area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the
centroidal axis to the extreme tensile fibre; and

SABS 0162-2:1993
Ztn is the tensile section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the effective net
cross-sectional area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the
centroidal axis to the extreme tensile fibre.

6.3.3 The factored tensile resistance Trof single angles with unstiffened legs connected by fasteners
in one leg, and single channels with unstiffenetl flanges connected by fasteners in the web, shall be
the lesser of
a) for angles,

Tr, = @,, [Ag- (0,7b + mdh)t]fU; and


T,=

b) for channels,

Tr, =

@Agf,
[Ag- ( b + rnd,$

If"

T, = @Agfy
where

b is the width of outstanding leg of an angle or flange of a channel;


dh is the diameter of fastener hole;

rn is the number of holes across the connected leg or web; and


t

is the base steel thickness.

6.4 Members in bending


6.4.1 General
6.4.1.1 The factored moment resistance of a rnember in bending shall be the least of

M, = @Zxcfc
(applies to 6.4.3.5 only)

where
fc

is the compressive limit stress calculated in accordance with either 6.4.2 or 6.4.3;

Zc

is the compressive section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the effective crosssectional area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the
centroidal axis to the extreme compressive fibre;

Z,

is the tensile section modulus based Ion the moment of inertia of the effective gross crosssectional area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the
centroidal axis to the extreme tensile fibre;

29

SABS 0162-211993
Z,,

is the tensile section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the effective net crosssectional area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the
centroidal axis to the extreme tensile fibre; and

Z,,

is the compressive section modulus of the full cross-sectional area about the centroidal axis
perpendicular to the web 1, divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre.

6.4.1.2 The following exceptions, additions and modifications to 6.4.1.Ishall apply:

a) for channels and Z-shaped members with unstiffened flanges, see also 6.4.4;
b

for closed box members, see 6.4.3.4;

c) for circular hollow sections, see 6.4.3.5;


d) the factored moment resistance AAr of a member classified as a structural hollow section
manufactured in accordance with SABS 657-1 (cold-formed non-stress-relieved),or in accordance
with BS 4848-2 or I S 0 657-14 (hot-formed or cold-formed stress-relieved), and complying with
clause 11 of SABS 0162-1 for sections of class 1, 2 or 3, shall be calculated in accordance with
that standard.
e) in addition to 6.4.1 .I,
6.4.6 and 6.4.8 shall be considered.

6.4.2 Laterally supported members


f, shall be calculated in accordance with either 6.4.2.1 or 6.4.2.2. Lateral support may be provided by
continuous or discrete bracing members. For discrete bracing, 6.4.2 only applies when f,, , as
calculated in accordance with 6.4.3, is equal to or exceeds fy.
6.4.2.1 Based on initiation of yielding

fc = fy .
6.4.2.2 Based on inelastic reserve capacity
NOTE -This subclause does not apply to cylindrical hollow members (see 6.4.3.5).

6.4.2.2.1 The inelastic reserve capacity may be used when all of the following conditions are met:

a) the member is not subject to twisting or to lateral, torsional or torsional-flexural buckling;


b) the effect, if any, of coldwork of forming is disregarded;
c) the ratio of the depth of the compressive portion of the web to its thickness does not exceed
1 , l l R ;
d) the depth-to-thickness ratio h,lt does not exceed

3,73R;

e) the shear force due to ultimate loads V, does not exceed 0,64 Awfy; and
f) the bend angle between web and flange is between 70" and 1IO"(inc1usive).

SABS 0162-2: 1993


6.4.2.2.2

shall not exceed 1,25 My/Z, or M M; IZ,

where

Z,

is defined in clause 6.4.1.1;

My is the moment causing a maximum strain of ey , where ey = fy/E;


M; is the ultimate moment causing a maximum compressive strain of CYc,
(no limit is placed on the maximum tensile strain); and
Cy is a factor determined as follows:

a) for stiffened compressive elements without intermediate stiffeners,


1)

when W

1 , I l a:

cy= 3;
2)

when 1 , l I a c W I 1,28dE'fy :

C,

3)

11,8 W f l

- 1,ll;

when W > 1 , 2 8 m

c y =1;
b) for unstiffened compressive elements, coinpressive elements with edge stiffeners, compressive
elements with one intermediate stiffener and multiple stiffened compressive elements,

cy=1.
6.4.2.2.3 Where applicable, effective design widths shall be used in calculating section properties.

M;

shall be calculated considering equilibrium of stresses, assuming

a) an ideally elastic-plastic stress-strain curve that is the same in tension as in compression;


b) small deformations; and
c) plane sections before bending remain plane during bending.

6.4.3 Laterally unsupported members


6.4.3.1 General
For symmetric I-shaped, Z-shaped, or singly-symmetric single-web members, fc shall be calculated
as follows:
a) when fb > f'l2 :

f c = f'

(f32

- -

I fy

4fb
f ' = 1,11 f y ;

31

SABS 0162-2:1993
b) when fb I f l 2 :

fc = fb ;
where fb shall be calculated in accordance with 6.4.3.2, 6.4.3.3 or 6.4.3.4, as applicable.
6.4.3.2 Bending about a centroidal axis perpendicular to the web

fbshall be calculated as follows:


a) for doubly-symmetric I-sections,

fb = 0,833 cbfbe ;
b) for singly-symmetric sections such as channels,

fb

,&-(;

CbroA

ZXC

c) for point-symmetric Z-sections,

fb

-Cbr,A
2ZXC

6.4.3.3 Bending about a centroidal axis parallel to the web of singly-symmetric sections, such
as channels

fbshall be calculated as follows:

where, for clauses 6.4.3.1, 6.4.3.2 and 6.4.3.3,

is the overall depth of section;

is the unbraced length of member;

IYC

is the moment of inertia of the compressive portion of the full cross-sectional area about the
centroidal axis of the entire section parallel to the web(s);

ZYC

zxc

32

is the compressive section modulus of the full cross-sectional area about the centroidal y-axis
parallel to the web (Iydivided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre);
is the compressive section modulus of the full cross-sectional area about the centroidal x-axis
perpendicular to the web (Ix
divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre);

is the full cross-sectional area of member; and

SABS 0162-2: 1993


C, =

Vw is the bending coefficient and can be taken conservatively as unity; or shall not
exceed 2,5when w is calculated as
w

= 0,6 + 0,4 Ml/M2for me'mbersbent in single curvature, or

= 0,6 - 0,4 Ml/M2for members bent in double curvature,

where M,/M2is the moment ratio of smaller to larger moment at opposite ends of the unbraced length,
in the plane of bending.
When the bending moment at any point within ;an unbraced length is larger than that at either end of
this length, the bending coefficient C, shall be taken as unity. Also, for members subject to combined
axial and bending forces (see 6.7),C, shall be taken as unity.
Furthermore,

C, = +I
for bending causing compression on the shear-centre side of the centroid;
C, = -1 for bending causing tension on the shear-centre side of the centroid; and

-/,

ro =

where
rxl y'

are the radii of gyration of the full cross section about the centroidal principal axes;

K,, K,, Kt

are the effective length factors for bending about the x-axis and y-axis, and for
twisting;

L,, L,, L,

are the unbraced length of member for bending about the x-axis and y-axis, and for
twisting;

xo

is the distance from shear centre to centroid of section;

is the St. Venant torsion const.ant for open sections;

c*

is the warping constant of torsion; and

- [,A x3dA

+ Jnxy2dA] t

IX,~.

21,

6.4.3.4 Closed box members


When bending is about the major axis of the section, fc is determined in accordance with 6.4.3.1, with
fb defined as follows:

where
1,

is the moment of inertia of the full cross-sectional area about the centroidal axis
parallel to the web(s);

is the unbraced length of the member;

33

SABS 0162-2:1993
Z,,

J =

is the compressive section modulus of the full cross-sectional area about the centroidal axis
perpendicular to the web, i.e. 1,divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre; and
2(ab)2 for closed members.
alt, + d/t2

where
a

is the distance between web centrelines;

is the distance between flange centrelines;

t,

is the thickness of the flanges; and

t2

is the thickness of the webs.

6.4.3.5 Circular hollow sections

For outside-diameter-to-wall-thickness ratios dlt not exceeding 0,441 Elf, , the compressive stress fc
on the full cross-sectional area shall be calculated as follows:
a) when dlt 5 0,07 Elf,:

fc = 1,25 fy ;
b) when 0,07 Elfy < dlt 5 0,319 Elfy

0,965

"1

E
0,02 - fy ; and
dlt

c) when 0,319 Elfy < dlt I 0,441 Elfy :


0,328E
f c = - .
dlt
6.4.3.6 Other sections

For singly-symmetric I-sections and for asymmetric sections whose cross-sections do not have any
symmetry, either about an axis or a point, the factored moment resistance shall be determined by
rational analysis. Alternatively, members subject to bending that are composed of such sections may
be tested in accordance with 9.3.3.

6.4.4 Channels and 2-shaped members with unstiffened flanges


For channels and Z-shaped members with unstiffened flanges and fc < fy , the factored moment
resistance shall be further limited as follows:
M,

4kn2EZ,
12(1 -

where

k = 0,43;

34

p2)W2

SABS 0162-2: 1993


Z,

is the compressivesection modulus based on the moment of inertia of the full cross- sectional
area (gross or net), divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre; and

is the flat width ratio of the unstiffened flange (wlt).

6.4.5 Shear in webs


The factored shear resistance V, of a web shall1 be determined by

vr =

Wwfv

where f, is determined as follows:

,/q
:

a) when H 5

f, = 0,64 fy
b) when

/w

< H I1,41,/=

f;

c) when H > 1,41

fv

0,641

/wi:
n2Ekv

12(1 - jL2)H2

where

A,

is the area of the web;

fv

is the limiting shear stress;

fy

is the yield stress of the web material;

= h3/f;

h,

is the flat dimension of the web measured in the plane of web; and

k,

is the shear buckling coefficient determined as follows:


1) for unreinforced webs, k, = 5,34;

2) for beam webs with transverse stiffeners satisfying the requirements of 6.5,
kv = 4 +
k,

5,34

-,5 34 when s/h3 I


1;
(s1h3l2
+

-, when slh, > 1;


(s/h3)2

where s is the distance between transverse stiffeners.


Where the web consists of two or more sheets, each sheet shall be considered as a separate member
carrying its share of the shear.

35

SABS 0162-2~1993
6.4.6 Combined bending and shear in webs
For webs subject to both bending and shear stresses, the member shall be so proportioned that the
following limit is observed:

[ $I2 [
+

+)2

5 1

For beam webs with both bearing and intermediate transverse stiffeners satisfying the requirements
of 6.5, the member may be so proportioned that the following limits are observed:
MU
a) - I1;
Mr

b)

-VU5

1; and

vr
Mu
c) 0,6 Mr

vu 5 1,3 when Mu
Vr

Mr

VU > 0,7 ;
0,5 and Vr

where

Mu is the moment due to ultimate loads;


V,

is the shear stress due to ultimate loads;

M,

is defined in 6.4.1; and

V,

is the factored shear resistance from 6.4.5 but without the limit of 0,64 fy on fv

6.4.7 Web crippling


To avoid crippling of an unreinforced web of a member subject to bending, whose slenderness ratio
H is equal to or less than 200, concentrated loads and reactions P, shall not exceed the values of Pr
given in table 3 , 4 or 5. Webs of members in bending for which H exceeds 200 shall be provided with
adequate means of transmitting concentrated loads or reactions directly into the web(s).

In tables 3, 4 and 5, P, represents the load or reaction for one solid web connecting top and bottom
flanges. For webs consisting of two or more such sheets, P, shall be calculated for each individual
sheet and the results added to obtain the limiting load or reaction for the full section.
One-flange loading or reaction occurs when the clear distance between the bearing edges of adjacent
opposite concentrated loads or reactions exceeds 1 3 h, .
Two-flange loading or reaction occurs when the clear distance between the bearing edges of adjacent
opposite concentrated loads or reactions is equal to or less than 1,5 h, .
End loading or reaction occurs when the distance from the edge of the bearing to the end of the
member is equal to or less than 1 3 h, .
Interior loading or reaction occurs when the distance from the edge of the bearing to the end of the
member exceeds 1 3 h, .

36

SABS 0162-2: 1993


Table 3 - Values of f ,for built-up sections

tI-

P,= @,t2fyC2(10+1 2 5

One-flange
loading or
reaction

0)

Interior

P,= @,t2fYC,(0,88 + 0,063f) (15 + 3,25

Two-flange
loading or
reaction

(0,64 + 0,16t) (10 + 1 3

C
4
:F
:

0)

@,t2fyC, (0,82 + 0,079t) (15 + 3,25


R

fl )

4, N .c 200 and I, Ih, < 1.

NOTE -This table applies to I-beams made of two channels connected back-to-back by a line of connectors near each
flange or to similar sections that provide a high degree of restraint against rotation of the web, such as I-sections made
by welding two angles to a channel.

Table 4 -Values for f ,for sections having single webs


1

2
End

One-flange
loading or
reaction

For sections having stiffened flanges


10t2fy(1,33 - 0,33k)(1,15 - 0,15R)(1 + O,OIN)(I
P, =

- 0,0018H)

For sections having unstiffened flanges 7


P,= @,6,6t2fy(1,33-0,33k)(1,15-0,15R)(1 + O,OIN)(l -0,0013H)
interior**)
P,= @, 16t2fy(1,22 - 0,22k)(1,06 - 0,06R)(1 + 0,07N)(1

- 0,0014H)

End
Two-flange
loading or
reaction
*)

**)

P,= as7,4t2f, (1,33 - 0,33k)(1,15 - 0,15R)(1 + O,OIN)(l - 0,0023H)


Interior
P, = @, 16t2fy(1,22 - 0,22k)(1,06 - 0,06R)(1 + O,OlN)(l - 0,0029H)

When N > 60, the factor (1 + 0,Ol N) may be increased to (0,71 + 0,015 N).
When N > 60, the factor (1 + 0,007 N) may be increased to (0,75 + 0,011 N).

NOTE - The above equations apply when R < 4, N < 200 and I, lh,

5 1.

NOTE -This table applies to single-web sections such as channels and 2-shaped sections.

37

SABS 0162-2:1993
Table 5 -Values of P,for deck sections (multiple webs)
1

2
End

P, =

One-flange
loading or
reaction

as10 t2 fy(sin 8) (1 - 0 , l k) (1 - 0,l

@ ) ( I + 0,005 N)(1 - 0,002 H )

Interior

P, =

as18 t2 fy (sin 8) (1 - 0,l k) (1 - 0,075 fi ) ( I + 0,005 N)(1 - 0,001 H )

End

P,= ~ s 1 0 f 2 f y ( s i n 8 )-(0l , l k ) ( 1 - 0 , l ,&)(1+0,01N)(1-0,002H)

Two-flange
loading or
reaction

Interior

P, =
r

as18 t 2t; (sin 8)(l - 0,2 k) (1 - 0,03 ,& )(I

+ 0,ol N)(1 - 0,0015 H )

NOTES
1 The above equations apply when R < 10, N 4 200, I , Ih,
exceed 200 mm.

2, and the cell spacing of the sections does not

2 For single-hat sections, both webs shall be fastened to prevent spreading.

In tables 3, 4 and 5:
P, is the factored web crippling resistance;
C, = (1,49 - 0,53k) 1. 0,6;

C, = 1 + H/750 5 1,2;
C, = l / k when H 5 66,5;
C, = (1,l - H/665)/k when H > 66,5;
C, = (0,98 - H/865)/k ;
H = h,/t ;
h, is the flat dimension of the web measured in the plane of the web;

k = 883fjE ;
I, is the bearing length;

N = L,/t ;
R = r/t ;

r is the inside bend radius;

t is the web thickness; and


8 is the angle between the plane of the web and the plane of the bearing surface, 45" < 8 < 90"

3%

SABS 0162-2~1993
6.4.8 Combined web crippling and bending
Except where otherwise noted, unreinforcedflat webs of sections subject to a combination of bending
and web crippling shall be designed to comply with the following requirements:

P" + M" 5 1,3


Pr
where

Mr

P,

is the concentrated load or reaction due to ultimate loads;

P,

is the factored web-crippling resistance in accordance with 6.4.7;

Mu is the bending moment due to ultimate loads at the point of application of the concentrated
load or reaction: and
M,

is the factored moment resistance in accordance with 6.4.1 and 6.4.2.

Combined web crippling and bending does not need to be checked for multiple-web deck sections
except where Mr has been calculated in accordance with 6.4.2.2.

6.5 Transverse stiffeners for beam webs


6.5.1 Bearing stiffeners
Transverse stiffeners attached to beam webs at points of concentrated loads or reactions shall be
designed as compressive members. Concentrated loads or reactions shall be applied directly into the
stiffeners or each stiffener shall be fitted accurately to the flat portion of the flange to provide direct
load bearing into the end of the stiffener. Means for shear transfer between the stiffener and the web
shall be provided in accordance with clause 7. The factored compressive resistance C, of the stiffener
shall be the lesser of

where
A,

= b,t + A, for transverse stiffeners at interior supports and under a concentrated load;

A,

= b,t + A, for transverse stiffeners at an end support;

A,

= 18t * + A, for transverse stiffeners at an interior support and under a concentrated load;

A,

= 10t * + A, for transverse stiffeners at an end support;

A,

is the gross cross-sectional area of a transverse stiffener;

b,

= 25t [0,0024(LStlt ) + 0,721 5 25t ;

b,

= 12t [0,0044(L, l t ) + 0,831 5 12t;

39

SABS 0162-2:1993
is the compressive limit stress determined in accordance with 6.6 when the web stiffener
section having a cross-sectional area A, is designed as an axially-loaded compressive
member with K = 1;

fa

fy

is the lower value of the yield stress of the beam web or the stiffener section;

L,,

is the total length of the transverse stiffener; and

is the thickness of the beam web.

The flat width ratio Wof stiffened and unstiffened elements of cold-formed steel transverse stiffeners
shall not exceed Vk,,,, as defined in 5.6.2, with f = fy , the yield stress of the stiffener steel.

6.5.2 Intermediate stiffeners


Where intermediate stiffeners are required, the spacing shall be such that the web shear V, does not
exceed the value of V, permitted by 6.4.5, and the ratio slh, does not exceed (260/H)' or 3,O.
The moment of inertia of a pair of attached intermediate stiffeners or of a single intermediate stiffener,
with reference to an axis in the plane of the web, shall be at least

5h,t3 [h3/s - 0,7~1h,]2 (h3/50)4.

IS

The gross cross-sectional area of intermediate stiffeners shall be at least


A,

b3-

c,

s/h,

(s/h3)2
+

(1

(S/h3)' )Ot5

where
310 OOOk,

c,

when C, I0,8 , and

H'fy
500

c,

k,

5,34 + 4100 when slh, > 1,0 , and


(S/hJ2

k,

4,OO

when 0,8 < C, I 1,0 ;

5'34 when slh, I1,0

(s/h3)2

s
Y =
D

is the distance between transverse stiffeners:


fv of web steel

fy of stiffener steel '


= 1,O for stiffeners in pairs,
= 1,8 for single-angle stiffeners,

= 2,4 for single-plate stiffeners;


H

40

= hJt;

YDH,t

h,

is the flat dimension of the web measured in the plane of the web; and

is the web thickness.

6.5.3 Integral stiffeners


The factored resistance of members with integral stiffeners that do not comply with either 6.5.1 or
6.5.2, such as stamped or embedded transverse, inclined or longitudinal stiffeners, shall be
determined by tests in accordance with 9.3.3.

6.6 Members in compression (concentrically loaded)


6.6.1 General
6.6.1.1 Except as provided in 6.6.1.2, 6.6 applies to members subject to compression in which the
resultant of all loads and moments acting on the member is equivalent to a single force acting through
the centroid of the full cross-sectionalarea in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the member. For
such members, the compressive resistance C:, shall be determined in accordance with 6.6.1.3 and
subsequent subclauses, as applicable.
6.6.1.2 The following exceptions, additions and modifications to 6.6.1 .Ishall apply, as relevant:

a) members for which the loading criterion stated in 6.6.1.1 does not apply shall be designed in
accordance with 6.7;
b) members classified as structural hollow sections and manufactured in accordance with
SABS 657-1 (cold-formed non-stress-relieved)or in accordance with BS 4848-2 or I S 0 657-14
(hot-formed or cold-formed stress-relieved), and complying with clause 11 of SABS 0162-1 for
sections of class 1, 2 or 3, shall be designed in accordance with that standard;
c) members other than those referred to in (b) above that are cold-formed from material of thickness
exceeding 4 3 mm shall be designed as follows:
1)

the area of the member shall be the effective cross-sectional area calculated on the basis of
the effective width provisions of 5.6.;!; and

2)

the effective width shall be determined with the value of f set equal to the axial compressive
stress given by the applicable expression in SABS 0162-1, taking the radius of gyration as
that of the full cross-section of the member; and

d) additional requirements for members corisisting of channels, Z-shapes, or single angles with
unstiffened flanges are given in 6.6.3.2.
6.6.1.3 Except as noted in 6.6.5, in the case of members in which the maximum flat width ratio of
stiffened compressive elements does not exceed 200 and for which the maximum flat width ratio of
unstiffened compressive elements does not exceed 60, the compressive resistance C, shall be
determined by

where the compressive limit stress fais determined as follows:

41

SABS 0162-2:1993
a) when

fp > fy12,
f

f2
-2
4fp

= f
a

b) when fp 5 fy/2,

fa = fp
where
is the effective cross-sectional area, determined in accordance with 5.6.2 or 6.6.5, as
applicable, with f = fa ; and

A,

is the critical elastic buckling stress, being the least of the stresses for Euler-flexural, torsional
or torsional-flexural elastic buckling, multiplied by the coefficient 0,833, determined in
accordance with 6.6.2, 6.6.3, 6.6.4 or 6.6.5.

fp

6.6.2 Sections not subject to torsional-flexural buckling


For I-sections, closed cross-sections and any other sections that can be shown to be not critical in
torsional buckling or not subject to torsional-flexural buckling, fpis given by

fD= 0,833 fe
where
f, = x2E/(KL/r)'

KLIr is the the greater of the effective slenderness ratios about the principal axes;
K

is the effective length factor (see 5.3);

is the unbraced length of member; and

is the radius of gyration of the full cross-sectional area.

6.6.3 Singly-symmetric sections


6.6.3.1 For singly-symmetric open sections, such as plain and lipped channels and single or double
plain and lipped angles, that may be subject to torsional-flexural buckling, fpis given by
fp= 0,833 fstor 0,833 fe, whichever is less
where
is as defined in 6.6.2 or 6.6.7.1, as applicable, and

f,

fst

- fs

* [

28

fs = x2E/(KL/r)'

42

ft - J ( f s

ft)2

- 4Pfsf,

SABS 0162-2: 1993

is the full cross-sectional area of the member;

r,

1 - (xo/r0)

-/

r, ,ry are the radii of gyration of the full cross-sectional area about the centroidal principal axes;

is the effective length factor for torsional buckling;

L,

is the length of a member unsupported against twisting;

x,

is the distance from the shear centre ,to the centroid of the section;

KLIr is the effective slenderness ratio associated with bending about the axis of symmetry of the
full cross-sectional area; and

is the St. Venant torsion constant for open sections

0,33 ( I , t,3 + I, t Z 3 + ...

t-

I, t n 3 )

where

f,, f2, f,, are the steel thicknesses of the member segments; and
I,, 12, I,, are the middle line lengths of the member segments.

6.6.3.2 For channels, Z-shaped sections, and single-angle sections with unstiffened flanges, the
factored compressive resistance shall be further limited as follows:

c,

+akrc2EA

12(1 -

&w2

where
@a

= 0,90;

= 0,43;

is the full cross-sectional area of member; and

is the flat width ratio of unstiffened flange element.

This additional limit shall be waived if the channel or Z-shaped sections are fully restrainedwith respect
to torsion and flexural buckling about the asyrrimetric axis.

43

SABS 0162-2:1993
6.6.4 Point-symmetric sections
For point-symmetric open sections, such as cruciform and Z-shaped sections, or such built-up sections
that may be subject to torsional buckling and that are not braced against twisting, 6.6.1 shall be used
to obtain the factored resistance, with fpequal to the lesser of 0,833 fe (from 6.6.2) and 0,833 ( (from
6.6.3).

6.6.5 Circular hollow sections


The outside-diameter-to-wall thickness ratio dlt shall not exceed 0,441If, . The compressive
resistance shall be calculated in accordance with 6.6.1.3, with A, determined as follows:
a) when fp s f,l2:

A, = A
b) when fp > f,l2 and dlt s 0,113 Elf,:

A, = A
c) when fp > f,l2 and 0,113 Elf, < dlt s 0,441 Elf,:
where
=

0,037Elf,,
d/t

0,666 A ;

fe = n2N(KLlr)2; and
fp = 0,833 f,.

6.6.6 Other sections


For asymmetric sections whose cross-sections do not have any symmetry either about an axis or a
point, and for sections formed with any stiffened element whose flat width ratio exceeds 200 or any
unstiffened elements whose flat width ratio exceeds 60, the factored compressive resistance shall be
determined by rational analysis. Alternatively, compressive members composed of such sections may
be tested in accordance with 9.3.3.

6.6.7 Built-up members


6.6.7.1 For compressive members composed of two or more sections connected together at discrete
points, such as double angles and battened channels, thefactored compressive resistancefor buckling
about the built-up member axis shall be given by 6.6.1, using

fD= 0,833 fe
where
fe

44

X2E

(KL I

r)2

+ ( s I r,)*

SABS 0162-2: 1993


KUr

is the overall slenderness ratio of the entire section about the built-up member axis;

is the fastener spacing; and

r1

is the radius of gyration of the full cross-sectional area of an individual section in a


built-up member.

6.6.7.2 Each discrete connection shall be c,apable of transmitting a longitudinal shear force of
0,05 times the force in one section of a built-up member.
6.6.7.3 For torsional-flexural buckling of singly-symmetric sections, 6.6.1 shall be used to obtain the
factored compressive resistance, except that in 6.6.3, fe shall be as determined in 6.6.7.1, and this fe
replaces 5 in the expression for .

ct

6.7 Combined axial load and bending


6.7.1 Doubly-symmetric sections (including circular hollow sections)
When subject to both axial compression and bending, members shall be proportionedto comply with
the following:

where
C, is the axial force in the member due to ultimate loads;
Cr = @,A& ;

A, is the effective cross-sectional area determined in accordance with 5.6.2, with f = fy ;

Mr is the factored moment resistance calculated in accordance with 6.4.1; and


Muis the factored moment at the point under consideration;

is as defined in 6.6;

are the factored moment resistances determined in accordance with 6.4.1 and
6.4.3, with C, = 1;
are the maximum calculated moments due to ultimate loads occurring either at or
between braced points;
are the coefficients used to determine equivalent uniform bending stress defined
in 6.7.3:
are the amplification factors, equal to 1 - Cu/Ce;

45

SABS 0162-2:1993
CU

is the axial compressive force in the member due to ultimate loads; and

Ce

= Afe , where feis as defined in 6.6.2, with KL/r being the slenderness ratio in the
plane of bending for which is calculated (i.e. x-axis or y-axis) and A being the full
cross-sectional area.

6.7.2 Singly-symmetric sections


When subject to both axial compression and bending, members shall be proportioned to comply with
the following:
a)

cu

Mux

Cr

Mrx

- + -

M
31. l,o
MV

where C, Cr, M,, My, Mu, and Muyare as defined in 6.7.1(a);

where
CU

is the axial compressive force due to ultimate loads;

C,

is as defined in 6.6;

Mu, Mu,

are the maximum calculated moments due to ultimate loads occurring


either at or between braced points;

w, , w, , a,, ay are as defined in 6.7.l(b);


is the lesser of @Z,fyor aUZtnfu
, as defined in 6.4.1, and @Zcfb,,,where Z, is
the compressive section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the
effective cross-sectional area about the axis of symmetry, calculated in
accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to
the extreme compressive fibre and fbxis determined as follows:

Mrx

-when fcr> f42 ,

fbx= fy

- when

fy
4 fcr

fcrsf42,
fbx

= fcr

fcr

where

0,833cro A
I X

46

SABS 0162-2:1993

is as defined in 6.6.3.1;

I,

is the moment of inertia of the full (cross-sectionalarea about the axis of symmetry;

is the distance from the centroidal x-axis to the fibre with maximum compressive stress;

is the full cross-sectional area of the member;

r., =

,/-

; and

KyLy is the effective length of the member about the y-axis.


Mryis the lesser of $Ztfyand QUZtnfu
, as defined in 6.4.1, and @Zcfby,
where fbyis determined as follows:

- when fcr> fJ2 ,

-when

fcr5 f 4 2 ,
fby

= fcr

where

fc,= 0,833 fbcfor bending causing compression on the shear-centre side of the centroid;

cr = 0,833 fbtfor bending causing tension on the shear-centre side of the centroid;
fbt= Mt = maximum compressive!bending stress caused by M, ;
I Y

Mcc

fbc= - = maximum compressive bending stress caused by M, ;

I,

A, r,, x,,

6 and

are as defined in 6.6.3.1 ;

Iyis the moment of inertia of the full cross-sectional area about the asymmetric axis; and
c is the distance from the centroidal y-axis to the fibre with maximum compressive stress.

47

SABS 0162-2:1993
6.7.3 Coefficients of equivalent uniform bending
6.7.3.1 General

The coefficients of equivalent uniform bending w, and w, shall be determined by analysis, or the
values specified in 6.7.3.2 and 6.7.3.3 may be used. The symbol w refers to either w, or w, .
6.7.3.2 Members not subject to transverse loads between supports
6.7.3.2.1 For compressive members in frames that depend on their own flexural stiffness to prevent
sidesway in the direction being considered:

w = 0,85 for members bent in double curvature or subject to moment at one end only; and
w = 1,Ofor members bent in single curvature due to moments at both ends.
6.7.3.2.2 For compressive members in frames that are braced against joint translation in the direction
being considered:
w = 0,6+ 0,4 M,lM, for members bent in single curvature; and

w = 0,6 - 0,4 Ml/M, for members bent in double curvature, but not less than 0,4
where Ml/M2is the ratio of smaller to larger moment at opposite ends of the unbraced length in the
plane of bending considered.
6.7.3.3 Members subject to transverse loads between supports

For compressive members in frames braced againstjoint translation in the plane of loading and subject
to transverse loading between their supports, the value of w may be determined by rational analysis.
However, in lieu of such analysis, the following values may be used:

w = 0,85 for members whose ends are restrained; and


w = 1,OO for members whose ends are unrestrained.

6.7.4 Single angles loaded through one leg


For single angles loaded at each end through the same leg by bolts or welds, the factored compressive
resistance shall be given by 6.6.1.3, using fp = 0,833 fe , but shall not exceed 0,5 AfYfor members
loaded through a single bolt, or 0,67 Af, for members loaded through welds or multiple bolts,
where

48

is the unbraced length of member;

r,

is the least radius of gyration of the full cross-sectional area;

is the larger leg width;

is the leg thickness; and

SABS 0162-2:1993
K

is the effective length factor = 0,8 for 1:ranslation-fixedconnections using a single bolt and 0,7
for translation-fixed connections using welds or two or more bolts.

6.8 Wall studs


6.8.1 General
The factored compressiveresistanceof a stud may be calculated in accordance with 6.6 (disregarding
sheathing) or on the assumption that the sheathing attached to both flanges of the stud furnishes
adequate lateral and rotational support to the stud in the plane of the wall, provided that the stud,
sheathing and attachments comply with the following requirements:
both ends of the stud are braced against rotation about the stud axis and against horizontal
displacement perpendicularto the stud axis; however, the ends may or may not be free to rotate
about the axes perpendicular to the stud axis;
sheathing is connected to the top and blottom members of the wall assembly to enhance the
restraint provided to the stud and to stabilize the overall assembly;
sheathing retains adequate strength and stiffness for the expected service life of the wall;
steel bracing is installed as requiredfor adequate structural integrity during constructionand in the
completed structure; and
steel studs do not exceed 152 mm in depth, 1,91 mm in base steel thickness, 5 m in length, and
345 MPa in yield stress, and the stud spacing is not less than 300 mm and not more than 600 mm.

6.8.2 Studs in compression

6.8.2.1 For studs that have identical sheathing material (having limit shear rigidity ) attached to both
flanges, and where any rotational restraint provided by the sheathing is ignored, the factored
compressive resistance shall be determined Iby

C,= w,A,fa
where

A,

is the effective cross-sectional area determined in accordance with 5.6.2,with f = fa ; and

fa

is the least of the values for the following three provisions:

Provision 1
To preclude column buckling between fasteners in the plane of the wall, fa is determined as in 6.6.1,
with KL equal to twice the distance between fasteners.
Provision 2
To preclude flexural or torsional overall column buckling, or both, fa is determined as follows:
a) when fp> f42,
(fJ2

f a = f - -

4fp

49

SABS 0162-2~1993
b) when fp5 fJ2,
fa = fD
where
fp

is the critical elastic buckling stress under concentric loading, which shall be taken as
specified below for each section type:

1)

for singly-symmetric channels, fp is the lesser of

= 0,833 (fey+

fp

2)

6,) and

for Z-shaped sections, fp is the lesser of


fp

= 0,833 (< +

6,)and

3 ) for doubly-symmetric I-shaped sections, fp is the lesser of


fp = 0,833 (fey +

6,)and

fp = 0,833 fex
where, for items (I),
(2) and ( 3 ) ,

fey = n2E/(L/r,)*

fex = n2 E/(L/r,)
fexy = n2 ElwlAL2

Q = gB is the limit shear rigidity with sheathing on both flanges of the studs;

is the stud spacing;

q = g o ( 2 - ~ 1 3 0 0is) the limit shear rigidity per unit length of stud spacing, with sheathing
on both flanges of studs, based on the actual fastener spacing (see table 6);

Q, = -;
A

50

is the full cross-sectional area of a stud;

SABS 0162-2: 1993

= 1 - (x,/r,)* ;

x,

is the distance from the shear centre to the centroid of the section (absolute value);

ro

rx

ry

x,

r,, ry are the radii of gyration of the lull cross-sectional area about the centroidal principal
axes;

is the overall depth of the sectiomn;

is the St. Venant torsion constant;

C,

is the warping constant of torsio'n;

is the length of a stud; and

Zv

is the product of inertia of the full cross-sectional area

Provision 3

To preclude shear failure of the sheathing, fa shall also not exceed 0,where a is determined (by
iteration), to satisfy the requirement that y, the shear strain in the sheathing corresponding to 0,does
not exceed the limit shear strain of the sheathing 7 given in table 6. To initiate the iterative calculations
required to establish the strain compatibility of ,y and 7 , 0 can initially be taken as the lesser value of
fa as calculated in provisions 1 and 2 of this subclause. The shear strain y shall be determined as
follows:

where C, and E, are the absolute values of C,and E, specified for each of the following types:
a) singly-symmetric channels

c, =

(Jco fey

(J

+Qa

b) Z-shaped sections

51

SABS 0162-211993
c) I-shaped sections

E, = 0
where, for items (a), (b) and (c),
fex, fey, fexy, ftQ,

0 , ro and xo are as defined in provision 2 of this subclause;

CO,E, and Do are initial column imperfections, which shall be assumed to be at least as follows:
CO = L/350, in a direction parallel to the wall;
Do = L/700, in a direction perpendicular to the wall, and
15, = L/10 000 h, a measure of the initial twist of the stud from the ideal configuration.
If U > fy/2,then in the definitions for fey, fex, fexy
and fta , the parameters E and G shall be replaced by
E' and G', respectively, given by
E' = 4E a (fy- a )/f: and
G' = G(E

'/a.
4,

For types of sheathing other than those given in table 6,


and 7 may be determined conservatively
from representative small-scale tests as described by published, documented methods.

9,

Sheathing parameter values


and 7 , determined from representative full-scale tests described by
published, documented methods may also be used instead of the small-scale test values given in
table 6.

52

SABS 0162-21
1993
Table 6 - Sheathing parameters)

Sheathing material)

Nlmm

9 3 to 15 mm thick
Lignocellulosic
board
gypsum board

Limit shear rigidity

-3

Limit shear strain

mmlmm
0,008

0,009

Fibreboard (regular or impregnated)


Fibreboard (heavy, impregnated)

315

0,007
0,010

6.8.2.2 Studs with sheathing on one flange only, non-identical sheathing, or when the rotational
restraint is included, or any combination of the above, shall be designed in accordance with the same
basic principles of analysis used in deriving the provisions in 6.8.2.1.

6.8.3 Studs subject to combined axial load and bending


The factored resistance of studs subject to (combined axial compression and bending shall be
determined by

When

% 5 1,O , the following formula may be used in lieu of the above:


C,

where

C,

is the axial compressive load in the stud due to ultimate loads;

C,

is the factored compressive resistanc:e under concentric loading in accordance with 6.8.2;

Mu, is the maximum calculated moment about the x-axis due to ultimate loads;
Mm is the factored moment resistance calculated in accordance with 6.4.1 and 6.4.2;

53

SABS 0162-2:1993
C,

=AY,,;

is the full cross-sectional area of member;

is the length of the wall stud; and

r,

is the radius of gyration of the full cross-sectional area about the x-axis.

7 Connections
7.1 General
7.1.1 Design
Connections shall be designed to transmit the effects of ultimate loads in connected members with due
regard for eccentricity.

7.1.2 Connections subject to force reversal


Connections subject to sudden reversal of force due to moving loads, other than loads caused by wind
or earthquake, shall be proportioned for a force reversal equal to the sum of the forces of each sign.

7.1.3 Fastening methods


Any suitable mechanical fastener, weldment, special device or other effective means may be used to
join component parts together, provided that the fastening method is compatible with the service
conditions. Fastening methods that are not covered by requirements in clause 7 shall be subject to
evidence of suitability prior to use.

7.1.4 Resistance factor


The value of the resistance factor I$
as 0,67.

c ,

when connection resistance is being determined, shall be taken

7.2 Welded connections


7.2.1 Qualification
Arc welding shall be performed by a fabricator or erector qualified in accordance with AWS D1.l.
Resistance welding shall be performed by a fabricator or erector qualified in accordance with
AWS D1.l.

7.2.2 Arc welds


7.2.2.1 Thickness limitations
7.2.2.1.1 Thicknesses exceeding 3 3 mm

Where each connected part exceeds 3,5mm in thickness, welding shall comply with the provisions of
SABS 044.

54

SABS 0162-2: 1993


7.2.2.1.2 Thickness from 0,7 mm to 3 3 mm
Where at least one of the connected parts is between 0,7 mm and 3,5mm in thickness, welding shall
conform to the requirementscontained in this p,artof SABS 0162 and shall be performed in accordance
with the applicable requirements of AWS D1.I.
7.2.2.1.3 Thickness less than 0,7 mm
Where at least one of the connected parts is less than 0,7 mm in thickness, welds shall be considered
to have no structural value unless a value is substantiated by appropriate tests.
7.2.2.2 Butt welds
The resistance of butt welds in tension or in cornpression shall be the same as prescribedfor the lower
strength of the parent metal being joined. The butt weld shall fully penetrate the joint.
7.2.2.3 Arc spot and seam welds
7.2.2.3.1 General
Arc spot welds (circular in shape) and arc seam welds (oval in shape) covered by this part of
SABS 0162 are for welding steel sheet to thicker supporting members in the flat position. The weld is
formed by melting through the steel sheet to fuse with the underlying supporting member, whose
thickness at the weld location shall be at least 2,5 times the steel sheet thickness (aggregate sheet
thickness in the case of multiple plies). The materials to be joined shall be of weldable quality and the
electrodes to be used shall be suited to the materials, the welding method, and the ambient conditions
during welding.
7.2.2.3.2 Maximum and minimum sheet thickness
For arc spot and seam welds:
a) the maximum single sheet thickness shall 15e 2,O mm;
b) the minimum sheet thickness shall be 0,7 mm; and
c) the maximum aggregate sheet thickness of double sheets shall be 2,5 mm.
7.2.2.3.3 Minimum weld size
The minimum surface diameter of an arc spot weld shall be 12 mm and the minimum surface width and
length of an arc seam weld shall be 10 mm and 25 mm, respectively.
7.2.2.3.4 Minimum distance to end of sheet
The distance from the centreline of the weld to the end or boundary of the connected sheet shall be at
least 25 mm.
7.2.2.3.5 Factored resistances
The factored resistances shall be determined by
a) for an arc spot weld,

55

SABS 0162-2:1993
Tr =@,0,67t(d- t)fu ;
where

V,

is the factored shear resistance;

T,

is the factored tensile resistance;

fu

is the specified minimum tensile strength of sheet;

fuw is the specified minimum ultimate strength of the welding electrode;


f

is the thickness of the sheet; one sheet thickness in the case of multiple plies;

is the surface width (diameter) of the weld; not to be taken as greater than 20 mm;

d,

is the effective width of the weld = 0,7d -

If

is the total sheet thickness to be fused to the supporting member.

1 3 If

; and

b) for an arc seam weld

V, = @,2,10t[0,25L+ 0,96(d- f)fu5 4, [:(de)2 + Ld, 0,75f,,


Tr

@, 0,70t [ 0,25L

+ 0,96(d

t ) ] fU

where

L is the length of the seam weld excluding the circular ends (but which shall not exceed 3d ); and

d is the surface width (diameter) of the weld (but which shall not exceed 16 mm).
7.2.2.4 Fillet welds
Fillet welds covered by this part of SABS 0162 apply to the welding of joints in any position, either
sheet-to-sheet or sheet-to-thicker-steel-member.
The factored shear resistance V, of a fillet weld in lap and T-joints shall be determined as follows:
a) for welds parallel to the direction of loading,
when Llt 5 2 5 :

v, = @,fL(l - 0,OI))

f"

when Llt > 25:


V, = @,0,75tLfu

b) for welds perpendicular to the direction of loading,

v, = acfLf,
where
L is the length of the fillet weld;

56

SABS 0162-2:1993
t is the thickness of the thinner sheet; ancl
fu is the tensile strength of the thinner sheet.

7.2.2.5 Flare-bevel groove welds


Flare-bevel groove welds covered by this pait of SABS 0162 apply to the welding of joints in any
position, i.e. sheet-to-sheet for f1are-V groove welds, and sheet-to-sheet or sheet-to-thicker-steelmember for flare-bevel groove welds.
The factored shear resistance of the welds V, shall be governed by the thickness t of the steel sheet
adjacent to the welds and shall be determined by
a) for flare-bevel groove welds perpendicular to direction of loading (see figure 7(a))

where
L is the length of the weld;

fu is the specified minimum tensile strength of the thinner sheet; and

t is the thickness of the thinner sheet,


b) for flare-bevel groove welds parallel to the direction of loading (see figures 7(b) and 7(c)), if the
effective throat t ,is equal to or exceeds t but is less than 2t, or if the lip height d is less than the weld
length L, then

V, = @,0,75tLfu
If t, is equal to or greater than 2t and the lip height is equal to or greater than L, then

where t, is the effective throat of the flare-bevel groove weld as shown in figure 7(c).

7.2.3 Resistance welds


For sheets joined by spot welding, the factored shear resistance per spot weld in newtons shall be
determined by

V, = @,4000t1*5
where t is expressed in millimetres.
This equation applies to welds in sheets of thickness between 0,7 mm and 6 mm (inclusive).

7.3 Mechanical fasteners (bolts, rivets and screws)


7.3.1 General
7.3.1.IThe following requirementsapply where the thickness of the thinnest connected part does not
exceed 4 3 mm, where there are no gaps between the connected parts, and where fasteners are
installedwith sufficient tightness to achieve satisfactory performanceof the connection under expected

57

SABS 0 162-2:1993
service conditions. The design of mechanically fastened connections in which the thickness of all
connected parts exceeds 4 3 mm shall be in accordance with SABS 0162-1.

7.3.1.2 For screws and special fasteners not covered by 7.3.2,7.3.3 and 7.3.4, the factored resistance
shall be taken as 0,75@, times the average ultimate resistance considered, as determined by the
manufacturer.

50

SABS 0162-2: 1993

NOTE

-t,

= Lesser O F

t,

and

t2

Org.12840-ec/00-05

Figure 7 - Flare-bevel groove welds

59

SABS 0162-2:1993
7.3.2 Factored shear resistance
For bolts and solid rivets, the factored shear resistance V, of the fastener is given by

v, =

@,0,6A,f

where

A, is the cross sectional area of fastener based on nominal diameter; and


fu is the specified minimum tensile strength of fastener.
If bolt threads are in a shear plane, the afore-mentioned value of V, shall be multiplied by 0,75.

7.3.3 Factored tensile resistance (bolts)


The factored tensile resistance T, of a bolt is given by

A, is the cross sectional area of bolt based on nominal diameter; and


f, is the specified minimum tensile strength of bolt.
NOTE - The pullover strength of the connected sheet at the bolt head, nut, or washer shall be considered where bolt
tension is involved.

7.3.4 Factored combined shear and tensile resistance (bolts)


For bolts subject to both shear and tension (exclusive of tension due to tightening), the reduced
factored tensile resistance T, is given by

T, = 1,25 T, - kV, 5 T,
where

T, is the factored tensile resistance given in 7.3.3;


V, is the shear force on bolt due to ultimate load; and
k = 1,8, except that where bolt threads are excluded from each shear plane, k may be taken as
1,40.

7.3.5 Factored bearing resistance (single fasteners)


7.3.5.1 The factored bearing resistance of the connected part for each loaded fastener shall be
determined from

60

SABS 0162-2: 1993


where

t is the thickness of the part;


d is the nominal diameter of the fastener;

fu is the specified minimum tensile strength c the connected part;


a is the distance from the hole centre to the edge towards which the force is directed; and

C is the the appropriate value from table 7.


Although a washer should be used under the element of the fastener (i.e. head or nut) that is turned
during installation, the values of table 7 shall be applied whether or not washers are used.
Bearing resistance is independentof any tension in the fastener, or of whether the thread or the shank
bears on the connected part.
Table 7 - Factor C for bearing resistance of fasteners

Ratio of fastener
diameter to thickness
of part dlt

dlt

5 10

10 < dlt

15

30 tld

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SABS 0162-2:1993
7.3.6 Factored bearing resistance (groups of fasteners)
7.3.6.1 Where the force is directed away from the edge of the connected part or the group of
fasteners is remote from an edge, the bearing resistance of a group of fasteners in which the
centre-to-centre distance between fasteners is at least Cd shall be equal to the sum of the individual
resistances.

If the spacing is less than Cd but not less than 2,5d, the resistance shall be reduced proportionately.
7.3.6.2 For fastener groups where the force is directed towards an edge, the factored resistance shall
be the lesser of that given by 7.3.6.1 and that given by
a) for rectangular groups as shown in figure 8(a):
B,

act[(rn

l)(g

d h )+ ( n

l)(S

dh) + e] fu

b) for staggered groups as shown in figure 8(b):

B, = act[2(m

l)(g

d , + $149) + e]

fu

where
g, s are the spacings of rows of fasteners measured normal and parallel to the direction of force,
respectively;
rn

is the number of fasteners in the first row parallel to the edge;

is the number of rows of fasteners:

is the edge distance of the first row; if e =- Cd, e should be replaced by Cd in the equation;

d,

is the diameter of a fastener hole;

is the appropriate value from table 7;

is the thickness of the connected part; and

fu

is the specified minimum tensile strength of the connected part.

The above equations represent the force required to tear out the portion bounded by the failure planes
ABCD indicated in figure 8. For other fastener patterns, the tear-out resistance shall be shown to be
adequate.

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SABS 0162-2:1993

D
-

s
I

e
T

s- e

1-

(b)

la)

Figure 8

- Tear-out of bolt groups

7.3.7 Dimensions of fastener holes


Unless otherwise specified, circular holesfor bolts shall not exceed nominal bolt diameter dplus 1 mm
for bolt sizes up to 13 mm, and plus 2 mm for bolt sizes over 13 mm.

7.3.8 Minimum edge distance and spacing


The centre-to-centre distance between fasteners shall be at least 2,5d, and the distance from the
centre of a fastener to an edge shall be at least 1 , 5 d , where d is the nominal diameter of fastener.

7.4 Connections in built-up members


7.4.1 The number of fasteners joining components together to form a beam or column shall be
sufficient to transfer the shear forces developed, and the fastener spacing shall be such that the
calculated resistance is not invalidated by the buckling of the members between fasteners.
7.4.2 In columns composed of two or more sections, 6.6.7 shall apply.
7.4.3 In built-up beams, the fasteners shall be capable of transferring any force applied to one
element only, at the point of application of the force.
In double-channel beams at points of load application, the connection shall be capable of resisting a
force Vm/2g tending to separate the flanges,
where

V is the locally applied ultimate load on the beam;


rn is the distance between the shear centre of the channel and the mid-plane of the web; and

g is the distance from the fastener to flanges that are tending to close.

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SABS 0162-2:1993
In the case of uniformly distributed loading, the value of Vshall be given by V = 3sp
where
s is the fastener spacing along the beam; and

p is the ultimate load per unit length of the beam.


The beam shall be fastened at spacings not greater than L/4.

7.5 Spacing of fasteners in compressive elements


The spacing sin the line of force of welds, rivets or bolts connecting a compressive cover plate or sheet
to a non-integral stiffener or other element shall not exceed the lesser of s, and s, for stiffened
elements, or the least of s,, s, and s, for unstiffened elements, where
a) s, is the spacing required to transmit the shear between the connected parts on the basis of the
specified design strength per connection;
b)

sb =

1,5t J E I f

where

is the thickness of the cover plate or sheet; and

is the compressive stress in the cover plate or sheet calculated using ultimate loads and
effective section properties;

c) s , is the greater of 3w and 1,37t ,/E / fy


where

is the flat width of the narrowest unstiffened compressive element in the portion of the
cover plate or sheet that is tributary to the connections; and

f,

is the yield stress of the cover plate or sheet.

In the case of intermittent fillet welds parallel to the direction of stress, the spacing shall be taken as the
clear distance between welds, plus 13 mm. In all other cases, the spacing shall be taken as the
centre-to-centre distance between connectors.
The above does not apply to cover sheets that act only as sheathing material and are not considered
as load-carrying elements.

8 Bracing
8.1 General
8.1.1 Structural members and assemblies shall be adequately braced to prevent collapse and to
maintain integrity during the expected service life of the structure. Care shall be taken to ensure that
the bracing of entire structural systems is complete, particularly when there is interdependence between
walls, floors, or roofs acting as diaphragms.

64

SABS 0162-2:1993
8.1.2 Design drawings shall show the details of the essential bracing requirements, including any
details necessary to assure the effectiveness of the bracing or bracing system.
8.1.3 The spacing of braces shall not exceed the unbraced length assumed in the design of the
member or component being braced.

8.2 Sections that are symmetric relative to the plane of loading


8.2.1 General
The provisions of 8.2 apply to members subject to compression and members subject to bending and
that consist of symmetric sections in which the applied load does not induce twist.

8.2.2 Discrete bracing


The factored resistance of braces shall be at least 0,02 times the ultimate compressive force in the
member subject to compressionat the braced locationor at least 0,02 times the ultimate compressive
force in the compressive flange of the member subject to bending. When more than one brace acts
at a common location and the nature of the braces is such that combined action is possible, the
bracing force may be shared proportionately.The slenderness ratio of compressive braces shall not
exceed 200.

8.2.3 Bracing by deck, slab or sheathing


The factored resistance of the attachments along the entire length of the braced member shall be at
least 0,05 times the ultimate maximum compressive force in the member subject to compression or
at least 0,05times the ultimate maximum compressive force in the compressiveflange of the member
subject to bending.

8.3 Channel and 2-shaped members in bending


8.3.1 General
The provisions of 8.3 apply to members subject to compression and members subject to bending in
which the applied load in the plane of the web induces twist. Braces shall be designed to avoid local
crippling at the points of attachment to the member.

8.3.2 Discrete bracing


8.3.2.1 Braces shall be so connected as to effectively restrain both flanges of the sections at the ends
and at intervals not exceeding one-quarter of the span length and in such a manner as to prevent
tipping at the ends and lateral deflection of either flange in either direction at intermediate braces.
Fewer braces may be used if this approach can be shown to be acceptable by rational analysis or by
testing, taking into account the effects of both lateral and torsional displacements.
8.3.2.2 If fewer braces are used (when shown to be acceptable by rational analysis or by testing) for
those sections used as purlins with "floating" type roof sheeting that allows for expansion and
contraction independent of the purlins, the number of braces per bay shall be at least one for spans
up to 7,Om and at least two for spans exceeding 7,O m.
8.3.2.3 If one-third or more of the total load on a beam is concentrated over a length of one-twelfth
or less of the span of the beam, an additional brace shall be placed at or near the centre of this loaded
length.

65

SABS 0162-2~1993
8.3.2.4 Braces to restrain flanges shall be designed to resist a lateral force PL,determined as follows:
a) for a uniformly loaded beam, fL
= 1,5K' times the load within a distance of 0,5a on each side of
the brace: and
b) for concentrated loads, PL= K'times the concentrated load P within a distance of 0,3a on each
side of the brace, plus 1,5(1 - x/a)PK'for each such concentrated load P, located further than 0,3a,
but not further than the distance a, from the brace,
where
x is the distance from the concentrated load P, to the brace; and

a is the length of the bracing interval.

For channels, K' = m/h


where

rn

is the distance between the shear centre and the mid-plane of web; and

is the depth of the channel.

For Z-shaped members, K' = ZJIX


where
Ixy is the product of inertia of full cross-sectional area; and

1,

is the moment of inertia of full cross-sectional area about the centroidal axis.

8.3.3 One flange braced by deck, slab or sheathing


8.3.3.1 The factored resistance of the attachment of a continuous deck, slab or sheathing shall be in
accordance with 8.2.3.
8.3.3.2 Discrete bracing shall be provided to restrain the flange that is not braced by the deck, slab
or sheathing.
8.3.3.3 The spacing of discrete bracing shall be in accordance with 8.3.2.1
8.3.4 Both flanges braced by deck, slab or sheathing
The factored resistance of the attachment shall be in accordance with 8.2.3.

9 Testing
9.1 General
9.1 . I Testing facilities shall be suitable for the type of test required (see 9.2). Tests may be made at
a manufacturer's or an independent testing facility.
9.1 -2 Test results and reports for types C and D tests shall be certified by a Professional Engineer.

66

SABS 0162-2:1993
9.1.3 The provisionsof clause 9 do not apply to steel deck diaphragms, composite steel components
or composite steel assemblies.

9.2 Types of tests


9.2.1 Type A tests are tensile tests to determine the mechanical properties of virgin steel.
9.2.2 Type B tests are tests to determine the modified mechanical properties of steel after cold
forming for use of the change in strength that is permitted in 5.2.2(a) and 5.2.3.
9.2.3 Type C tests are structural performancetests to establish the limit states of structural elements
or assemblies for which the composition or configuration is such that the calculation of their factored
resistance or deformation cannot be made in accordance with the provisions of this part of
SABS 0162.
9.2.4 Type D tests are confirmatory tests to verify the resistance to the specified ultimate loads of
structural elements or assemblies designed in accordance with the provisions of this part of
SABS 0162. These tests shall not be used to establish resistances exceeding those calculated in
accordance with the provisions of this part of SABS 0162.

9.3 Test procedures


9.3.1 Type A - Virgin steel properties
Tensile testing procedures shall comply with the provisions of SABS 054. Two test specimens for
tensile tests shall be taken from each coil of steel. A test specimen shall be taken longitudinallyfrom
each quarter point of the width near the outer end of the coil. The yield stress fy and the tensile
strength fu shall be taken as the average of the test values. For the determination of fy and fufor use
in design, see 3.2.

9.3.2 Type B - Cold-formed steel properties


9.3.2.1 Tensile testing procedures shall comply with the provisions of SABS 054. The yield stress of
the material shall be adjusted by multiplying the test values by the ratio of the design yield stress fy
(see 3.2) to the actual virgin yield stress.
9.3.2.2 The yield stress ffl of flat elements in a formed section to be used in 5.2.3 shall be established
by means of a weighted average of the yield stresses of standard tensile samples taken longitudinally
from the flat portions of a cold-formed member. The weighted average shall be the sum of the
products of the average yield stress for each flat portion times its cross-sectionalarea, divided by the
total area of flats in the cross-section. The exact number of such samples will depend on the shape
of the member, i.e. on the number of flats in the cross-section. At least one tensile sample shall be
taken from the middle of each flat. The actual virgin yield stress of the flat shall be determined in
accordance with 9.3.2.1.
9.3.2.3 Compressive yield stress determinations shall be made by means of compression tests of
short specimens of the full section. The compressive yield stress shall be taken as the smaller value
of either the maximum compressive strength of the section divided by the gross cross-sectionalarea
and the stress defined by one of the following methods:

a) for sharp yielding steel, the yield stress shall be determined by the autographic diagram method
or by the total-strain-under-loadmethod. When the total-strain-under-loadmethod is used, there
shall be evidence that the yield stress so determined agrees within 5 % with the yield stress that
would be determined by the 0,2 % offset methods; and

67

SABS 0162-2:1993
b) or gradual yielding steel, the yield stress shall be determined by the total-strain-under-load method
or by the 0,2 % offset method. When the total-strain-under-load method is used, there shall be
evidence that the yield stress so determined agrees within 5 % with the yield stress that would be
determined by the 0,2 % offset method.
9.3.2.4 Where the principal effect of the loading to which the member will be subject in service will be
to produce bending stresses, the yield stress shall be determined for the flanges only. In the
determining of such yield stresses, tests shall be made on specimens cut from the section. Each such
specimen shall consist of one complete flange plus a portion of the web such that the specimen is fully
effective.
9.3.2.5 For acceptance and control purposes of full sections to be used with 5.2.2, two full-section tests
shall be made from each lot of not more than 50 000 kg and not less than 30 000 kg of each section,
or one test from each lot of less than 30 000 kg of each section. For this purpose, a lot may be defined
as that quantity of one section that is formed in a single production run of material from one heat or cast.
9.3.2.6 At the option of the manufacturer, either tension or compression tests may be used for routine
acceptance and control purposes, provided the manufacturer demonstrates that such tests reliably
indicate the yield stress of the section when it is subjected to the kind of stress under which the member
is to be used.

9.3.3 Type C - Performance tests


9.3.3.1 Procedures for testing shall be established with due consideration given to the loading and
boundary conditions in which the elements or assemblies are intended to be used. Tensile testing
procedures shall be in accordance with the provisions of SABS 054.
9.3.3.2 The factored resistance shall be taken as

where

at is the resistance factor corresponding to the appropriate limit state given in 6.2; and
R , is the tested strength limit state.
The virgin yield stress shall be determined. The performance test results shall be adjusted to the design
yield stress fy (see 3.2) of the steel that the manufacturer intends to use. The test results shall not be
adjusted upward if the yield stress of the test specimen is less than fy . Similar adjustments shall be
made on the basis of tensile strength instead of yield stress where tensile strength is the critical factor.
Consideration shall also be given to any variation or difference that may exist between the design
thickness and the actual thickness of the specimens used in the tests.
The tested serviceability limit state R, is equal to Rt .
9.3.3.3 The tested strength limit state Rt shall be established based on the mean values resulting from
tests of not fewer than three identical specimens, provided that the deviation of any individual test result
from the mean value obtained from all tests does not exceed 10 %. If such deviation from the mean
exceeds 10 %, at least three more tests of the same kind shall be made. The average of the lowest
three values of all tests made shall then be regarded as the tested strength limit-state value Rt.

68

SABS 0162-2:1993
9.3.4 Type D - Confirmatory tests
9.3.4.1 Procedures for testing shall be established with due consideration given to the loading and
boundary conditions in which the elements or assemblies are intended to be used.
9.3.4.2 The test shall be considered successful if the following conditions are met:

a) for strength determination,

atRt 2 effect of ultimate loads;


b) for deformation determination,
R , 2 effect of serviceability loads;

where for (a) and (b) above,

R , and

atare as defined in 9.3.3.2; and

R, is the tested serviceability limit-state value.


9.3.4.3 The tested strength limit state Rt shall be established based on the mean values resulting from
tests of not fewer than three identical specimens, provided that the deviation of any individualtest result
from the mean value obtained from all tests does not exceed 10 %. If such deviation from the mean
exceeds 10 %, at least three more tests of the same kind shall be made. The average of the lowest
three values of all tests made shall then be regarded as the tested strength limit-state value Rt.

10 Fabrication
10.1 General
All aspects of fabrication, both in the workshop and on site, shall comply with the provisions of 5.2 and
5.3 of SABS 1200-H, insofar as they are applicable to cold-formed structural members, and the
provisions of the following subclauses. Where the provisions of the following subclauses differ from
those of 5.2 and 5.3 of SABS 1200-H, the following subclauses shall govern.

10.2 Forming, cutting, punching and drilling


Members shall be formed at ambient temperature by a method that does not result in work-hardening
to an extent that would limit the intended service and, where applicable, that does not result in damage
to protective coatings that have been applied to the unformed material. Care shall be taken not to
stretch, bend or otherwise distort parts of cold-formed members except as a necessary feature of the
cold-forming operation. Components may be cut by splitting, shearing, sawing, flame or laser cutting
or by friction disc. Holes and openings may be punched or drilled.

10.3 Fastenings
Steel components may be assembled by welds, mechanicalfasteners (such as bolts, rivets or screws)
or a combination of these. Assembly by other means (such as metal stitching and clinching) may also
be used where suitable. The strength offastenings shall be establishedby test in accordance with 9.3.3,
unless values are specified elsewhere in this part of SABS 0162.

69

SABS 0162-211993
Where dissimilar metals are in contact, attention should be paid to insulation of the metals and the
selection of suitable fasteners in order to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

10.4 Straightening and flattening


If straightening or flattening of material, members or parts is necessary, it shall be done by a process
and in a manner that will not damage the material, including protective coatings, if present.

10.5 Provision for expansion and contraction


Where thermal expansion and contraction of cold-formed steel components in an assembly will
adversely affect the structural safety or serviceability of that assembly, provision shall be made in the
assembly to accommodate the anticipated range of thermal expansion and contraction.

10.6 Tolerances
Structural sections, deck, cladding and other load-carrying members shall be to the full dimensions
claimed by the manufacturer. Fabrication tolerances shall be in accordance with established practice
(see SABS 1200-H) unless more stringent requirements are specified. In no case shall tolerances
exceed those necessary to ensure the specified strength and serviceability requirements of a member
or assembly.

11 Erection
11. I Handling requirements
Attention shall be paid to the handling of cold-formed members so as not to nick, gouge or dent the
material, or damage the protective coating. Adequate precautions shall be taken when loading,
unloading and handling long, slender members.

11.2 Temporary loads during erection


Erection and installation procedures shall be such as to avoid excessive temporary loads and
deformations.

11.3 Marking of members


Tags, paint, ink marks or other suitable means shall be used to identify members of unassembled
components or parts. Erection marks that damage the material or finished surfaces exposed to view
shall not be used.

11.4 Setting out and erection


Setting out and erection of steelwork and grouting of supports shall comply with the provisions of 5.4,
5.5 and 5.6 of SABS 1200-H.

11.5 Tolerances
Tolerances on accuracy of erection of steelwork shall be as given in the relevant parts of clause 6 of
SABS 1200-H.

70

SABS 0162-2:1993

12 Cleaning, surface preparation and protective treatment


12.1 Storage and handling
All uncoated stock shall be stored in a dry place before being processed and, except for weathering
grades, shall be protected by a rust-inhibitive coating immediately after having been processed.

12.2 Surface preparation and protective treatment


Members and components, other than those made of weathering grades of steel, shall be protected
against corrosion by means of paint, zinc, aluminium, porcelain, enamel or other effective means,
either singly or in combination.
Cleaning, surface preparation and protective treatment of steelwork shall comply with the provisions
of SABS 1200-H. Paints and protective coatings shall comply with the same specification. Careful
consideration shall be given to the selection cif coating systems to ensure that all procedures are
compatible and will be such as to ensure adequate adhesion of the coating film.

sabs pta

71