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06.04.

2014

MAK302
ELEKTRONK
Chapter 4

MAK302-Elektronik

BJT Structure
The BJT has three regions called the emitter, base, and collector.
Between the regions are junctions as indicated. The term bipolar
refers to the use of both holes and electrons as current carriers in
the transistor structure
The base is a thin lightly doped region compared to the heavily doped
emitter and moderately doped collector regions.
C (collector)

n
B
(base)

Base-Collector
junction

p
n

p
B

Base-Emitter
junction

E (emitter)

npn

n
p

pnp

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BJT Operation
In normal operation, the base-emitter is
forward-biased and the base-collector is
reverse-biased.
For the npn type shown, the collector is more
positive than the base, which is more positive than
the emitter.
For the pnp type, the voltages
are reversed to maintain the
forward-reverse bias.

BC reversebiased
BC reversebiased +

++

BE forward- +

biased
BE forwardbiased

npn
pnp

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BJT Currents
The direction of conventional current is in the direction of the arrow
on the emitter terminal. The emitter current is the sum of the
collector current and the small base current. That is, IE = IC + IB.

+
IC

IC

IC

IC

IB

IB

IB

p
n

IB

p
IE

IE
IE

IE

npn

pnp

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BJT Characteristics
The collector characteristic curves show the relationship
of the three transistor currents.
The curve shown is for a fixed
based current. The first region is
the saturation region.
IC

Breakdown
region

When both junctions are forwardbiased, the transistor is in the


saturation region of its operation.

Saturation is the state of a BJT


in which the collector
current has reached a maximum
and is independent of the base
current.

Active region

Saturation
region
A
0

VCE(max)

0.7 V

VCE

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BJT Characteristics
As VCE is increased, IC increases until B. Then it flattens in
region between points B and C, which is the active region.
Ideally, when VCE exceeds 0.7 V, the base-collector junction becomes
reverse-biased and the transistor goes into the active, or linear, region
of its operation.
Once the basecollector junction is
reverse-biased, IC levels off and
remains essentially constant for a
given value of IB as VCE continues
to increase.
For this portion of the characteristic
curve, the value of IC is determined
only by the relationship expressed
as

IC

Breakdown
region
B

Active region

Saturation
region
A
0

0.7 V

VCE(max)

VCE

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BJT Characteristics
After C, is the breakdown region.
When VCE reaches a
sufficiently high voltage, the
reverse-biased base-collector
junction goes into breakdown;
and the collector current
increases rapidly as indicated
by the part of the curve to the
right of point C.

A transistor should never


be operated
in this breakdown region
IC

Breakdown
region
B

Active region

Saturation
region
A
0

VCE(max)

0.7 V

VCE

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BJT Characteristics
By setting up other values of base current, a family of
collector curves is developed.
b DC is the ratio of collector
current to base current.
IC

b DC

IC
IB

I B6
I B5
I B4

It can be read from the curves.


The value of b DC is nearly the
same wherever it is read.

I B3
I B2
I B1
Cutoff region

IB = 0
VCE

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BJT Characteristics
What is the bDC for the transistor shown?
I C (mA)

10.0

IB6 = 60 mA
IB5 = 50 mA

Choose a base current near the


center of the range in this
case IB3 which is 30 mA.
Read the corresponding
collector current in this case,
5.0 mA. Calculate the ratio:

b DC

8.0
IB4 = 40 mA

6.0

I B3 = 30 mA

4.0

IB2 = 20 mA

2.0

IB1 = 10 mA
IB = 0

VCE

I C 5.0 mA

167
I B 30 m A
MAK302-Elektronik

BJT Circuit Analysis


When the base-emitter junction is forward-biased, it is like
a forward-biased diode and has a nominal forward voltage
drop of.

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Cutoff
In a BJT, cutoff is the condition in which there is no base
current, which results in only an extremely small leakage
current (ICEO) in the collector circuit. For practical work, this
current is assumed to be zero.
In cutoff, neither the base-emitter
junction, nor the base-collector
junction are forward-biased.

RC

RB

ICEO

VCE VCC
IB = 0

VCC

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Saturation
In a BJT, saturation is the condition in which there is
maximum collector current. The saturation current is
determined by the external circuit (VCC and RC in this case)
because the collector-emitter voltage is minimum ( 0.2 V)
In saturation, an
increase of base
current has no effect
on the collector
circuit and the
relation IC = bDCIB is
no longer valid.

RC

IC

RB

+
VCE = VCC IC RC

+
VBB

IB

VCC

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DC Load Line
The DC load line represents the circuit that is external to
the transistor. It is drawn by
connecting the saturation
and cutoff points.
I
C

Saturation

The transistor
characteristic curves are
shown superimposed on
the load line. The region
between the saturation
and cutoff points is called
the active region.

IC(sat)

Cutoff

IB = 0
0 VCE(sat)

V CE

VCC

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DC Load Line

What is the saturation current and


the cutoff voltage for the circuit?
Assume VCE = 0.2 V in saturation.

RC

VCC 0.2 V 15 V 0.2 V

4.48 mA
RC
3.3 kW

Is the transistor saturated? I B

+
DC = 200

V BB
3V

ISAT

3.3 kW

RB
220 kW

VCC
15 V

VCO VCC 15 V

3.0 V 0.7 V
10.45 m A
220 kW

IC = b IB = 200 (10.45 mA) = 2.09 mA

Since IC < ISAT, it is not saturated.

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Maximum Transistor Ratings


The product of VCE and IC must not exceed the maximum power
dissipation.
Both VCE and IC cannot be maximum at the same time. If VCE is
maximum, IC can be calculated as

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If IC is maximum, VCE can be calculated by rearranging the previous


equation as follows:

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Power Derating

Data Sheets
Data sheets give manufacturers specifications for maximum operating
conditions, thermal, and electrical characteristics. For example, an
electrical characteristic is bDC, which is given as hFE. The 2N3904 shows
a range of bs on the data sheet from 100 to 300 for IC = 10 mA.

Characteristic

ON Characteristics
DC current gain
( IC = 0.1 mA dc, VCE = 1.0 V dc)

Symbol

2N3903
2N3904

hFE

Min

Max

20
40

( IC = 1.0 mA dc, VCE = 1.0 V dc)

2N3903
2N3904

35
70

( IC = 10 mA dc, VCE = 1.0 V dc)

2N3903
2N3904

50
100

150
300

( IC = 50 mA dc, VCE = 1.0 V dc)

2N3903
2N3904

30
60

( IC = 100 mA dc, VCE = 1.0 V dc)

2N3903
2N3904

15
30

Unit

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MAK302-Elektronik

End

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