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2.

Deep Foundation (Pile) PAD-BH-01, PAD-BH-02 and CPP.

According to the general discussion presented above and taking into consideration
the type and particulars of the proposed structure, ground conditions and ground
water level, Deep foundation, i.e., piling in rock which will transmit the applied
loads to a good bearing stratum are recommended.

It is considered that bored cast-in-situ piles would be suitable for the ground
conditions encountered at this site.
The ultimate skin friction/adhesion for the various materials as well as the ultimate
end bearing capacities at various toe depths were estimated and presented in
Table 10 and Table 11, respectively considering the design UCS with 95% level of
confidence as per Figure 8B. Accordingly, the total allowable working loads for
various pile diameters were calculated considering a factor of safety of three (F.S. =
3.0) and are presented in Table 12. The ultimate uplifting resistance taking into
consideration a factor of safety of two and half (F.S. = 2.5) were calculated and
included in Table 13. For more details on the design of piles on rock, refer to
Appendix F.

The values in Tables 10, 11, 12, and 13 are estimated for the pupose of
preliminary design only. A detailed final design should be carried out by piling
specialist taking into consideration all possible loading conditions. The load
carrying capacity of small diameter concrete piles can be further limited by the safe
working load which can be carried out by the shaft when considered as a structural
member.
Pile load tests are considered the most satisfactory method to assess the carrying
capacity of a pile. It is therefore recommended that such tests be performed
according to British Standard Code of Practice 8004 on specially constructed piles
installed before the start of the general construction works during the foundation
construction period. However, if pre-contract testing is carried out, significant
savings may result from a more economical pile design based upon specific test
data.

With any form of the pile, it is recommended to consult with specialist contractors to
access the cost and performance characteristics of particular form of piles with
particular reference to the proposed method of installation in the ground conditions
encountered at the site. The piling construction should be carried out by specialist,
well-experienced and equipped piling contractor, who must submit a method

statement for the construction of the piles and should be requested to confirm the
actual working loads for his particular piling system before foundation design is
finalized, since the theoretical design methods provide an approximate working
load. The contractor should also demonstrate the piles performance and its load
settlement characteristics by conducting load tests.

A) Area represented by Pad boreholes

Table 1: Estimated Ultimate Skin Friction


Average
Ground
Level, ADD
(m)

Average
Depth
Below
EGS

Ultimate Skin
Geologic Description

Friction/Adhesi
on (kg/cm2)

(m)
28.15 to
23.0

0.0 to 5.15

Medium dense to dense becoming very


dense Gravelly Silty SAND.

Negligible

23.0 to
19.30

5.15 to
8.85

Very weak SILTSTONE interbedded with


very weak SANDSTONE

1.4

19.30 to
15.50

8.85 to
12.65

Very dense gravelly silty SAND with


cemented bands.

0.2

15.50 to
8.15

12.65 to
20.0

Weak SILTSTONE interbedded with weak


SANDSTONE.

3.0

Table 2: Estimated Ultimate End Bearing Capacity


Average
Ground
Level, ADD
(m)

Average
Depth
Below
EGS

Ultimate End
Bearing
Capacity

Geologic Description

(kg/cm2)

(m)
15.50 to
8.15

12.65 to
20.0

Weak SILTSTONE interbedded with weak


SANDSTONE.

69

FIGURE

Table 3: Calculated Allowable Working Loads (Factor of Safety = 3.0)


Average Toe Level, ADD (m)
Average Depth below E.G.L upto the Toe Depth
(m)
Minimum Socket Length in Intact Rock
(m)
Pile Diameter (m)

14.50

13.50

12.50

11.50

13.65

14.65

15.65

16.65

8.50

9.50

10.50

11.50

Allowable Working Loads (tons)

0.50
0.60
0.75
0.90
1.00
1.20

Table 4: Calculated Uplifting Resistance (Factor of Safety = 2.5)


Average Toe Level, ADD (m)
Average Depth below E.G.L upto the Toe Depth (m)
Minimum Socket Length in Intact Rock (m)
Pile Diameter (m)

14.50
13.50
13.65
14.65
8.50
9.50
Allowable Uplifting

12.50
11.50
15.65
16.65
10.50
11.50
Loads (tons)

0.50
0.60
0.75
0.90
1.00
1.20
*Average Ground Level is 28.15 ADD (m)

A) Area represented by CPP borehole

Table 5: Estimated Ultimate Skin Friction


Average
Ground
Level, ADD
(m)

Average
Depth
Below
EGS
(m)

Ultimate Skin
Geologic Description

Friction/Adhesi
on (kg/cm2)

Table 6: Estimated Ultimate End Bearing Capacity


Average
Ground
Level, ADD
(m)

Average
Depth
Below
EGS

Geologic Description

(m)

Ultimate End
Bearing
Capacity
(kg/cm2)

Table 7: Calculated Allowable Working Loads (Factor of Safety = 3.0)


Average Toe Level, ADD (m)
Average Depth below E.G.L upto the Toe Depth
(m)
Minimum Socket Length in Intact Rock
(m)
Pile Diameter (m)

Allowable Working Loads (tons)

0.50
0.60
0.75
0.90
1.00
1.20

Table 8: Calculated Uplifting Resistance (Factor of Safety = 2.5)


Average Toe Level, ADD (m)
Average Depth below E.G.L upto the Toe Depth (m)
Minimum Socket Length in Intact Rock (m)
Pile Diameter (m)
0.50
0.60
0.75
0.90

Allowable Uplifting Loads (tons)

1.00
1.20
*Average Ground Level is 28.15 ADD (m)
Notes:
1. The above allowable pile working loads are calculated based on geotechnical consideration only
and should therefore, be limited on the basis of structural capacity of the pile.
2.

These values are estimated for preliminary design only. A detailed final design should be carried
out by the structural engineer taking into consideration all possible loading conditions which may
be applied on the piles.