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VPN TROUBLESHOOT

By Deb Shinder and Dr. Thomas Shinder

Virtual private networking provides a secure and networks, but plenty of things can go
wrong. Here connections and what you can do about them.

1. Users can't access file servers


If the user can access the file server using an IP address but not a name, then the
most likely reason for failure to connect is a name resolution problem. Name
resolution can fail for NetBIOS or DNS host names. If the client operating system
is NetBIOS dependent, the VPN clients should be assigned a WINS server
address by the VPN server. If the client operating system uses DNS preferentially,
VPN clients should be assigned an internal DNS server that can resolve internal
network host names.

When using DNS to resolve internal network host names for VPN clients, make
sure that these clients are able to correctly resolve unqualified fully qualified
domain names used on the corporate network. This problem is seen most often
when non-domain computers attempt to use DNS to resolve server names on the
internal network behind the VPN server.

2. Users can't access anything on the corporate network


Sometimes users will be able to connect to the remote access VPN server but are
unable to connect to any resources on the corporate network. They are unable to
resolve host names and unable to even ping resources on the corporate network.

The most common reason for this problem is that users are connected to a
network on the same network ID as the corporate network located behind the
VPN server. For example, the user is connected to a hotel broadband network and
is assigned a private IP address on network ID 10.0.0.0/24. If the corporate
network is also on network ID 10.0.0.0/24, they won't able to connect because the
VPN client machine sees the destination as being on the local network and will
not send the connection to the remote network through the VPN interface.

Another common reason for communications failures is that the VPN clients are
not allowed access to resources on the corporate network due to firewall rules on
the colocated VPN server/firewall device to which they are connected. The
solution is to configure the firewall to allow the VPN clients access to the
appropriate network resources.

3. Users can't connect to VPN server from behind NAT devices


Most firewalls and NAT routers support the PPTP VPN protocol from behind a
NAT. However, some high profile network equipment vendors don't include a
NAT editor for the PPTP VPN protocol. If the user is located behind such a
device, the VPN connection will fail for PPTP attempts but may work for
alternate VPN protocols.

All NAT devices and firewalls support IPSecpassthrough for IPSec-based VPN
protocols. These VPN protocols include proprietary implementations of IPSec
tunnel mode and RFC compliant L2TP/IPSec. These VPN protocols can support
NAT traversal by encapsulating the IPSec communications in a UDP header.

If your VPN client and server support NAT traversal and the client attempts to use
L2TP/IPSec to connect to a NAT-T compliant VPN server from across a NAT,
the most likely reason for this failure is that the client is running Windows XP
Service Pack 2. Service Pack 2 "broke" NAT traversal for L2TP/IPSec VPN
clients. You can solve this problem with a Registry entry on the VPN client
computer, as described in a Microsoft Knowledge Base article 885407.

4. Users complain of slow performance


Slow performance is one of the most difficult problems to troubleshoot. There are
a number of reasons for why VPN clients appear to perform poorly and its critical
to have the users describe exactly what they are doing when they experience poor
performance.

One of the more common reasons for poor performance for VPN clients is when
those clients are located behind DSL networks employing PPPoE. These network
connections often encounter MTU problems that can cause both connectivity and
performance issues. For more information on MTU issues for Windows clients,
check out Microsoft Knowledge Base article 283165.

5. Users can connect via PPTP but not L2TP/IPSec


PPTP is a simple protocol to set up on both the VPN server and client. All the
user requires is the built-in VPN client software included with all versions of
Microsoft operating system and a valid user name and password for an account
that has remote access permissions. The VPN server component, if based on
Windows Routing and Remote Access Service (and just about any other VPN
server supporting PPTP remote access VPN client connections) is easy to set up
and usually works automatically after running a short configuration wizard.

L2TP/IPSec is more complex. Both the user and the user's machine must be able
to authenticate with the VPN server. Machine authentication can use either a pre-
shared key or machine certificate. If you use pre-shared keys (not recommended
for security reasons), check that the VPN client is configured to use the same pre-
shared key as the server. If you use machine certificates, confirm that the VPN
client machine has a machine certificate and that is also trusts the certificate
authority that issued the VPN server's machine certificate.
6. Site-to-site VPNs connect but no traffic passes between the VPN
gateways
When creating site-to-site VPN connections between Windows RRAS
servers, you may find that the VPN connection seems to be established,
but traffic does not move between the connected networks. Name
resolution fails between the networks and hosts are unable to even ping
hosts on the remote site network.

The most common reason for this failure is that both sides of the site-to-
site network connection are on the same network ID. The solution is to
change the IP addressing scheme on one or more networks so that all
networks joined by the site-to-site VPN are on different network IDs.

7. Users can't establish IPSec tunnel mode connections from behind


some firewalls
Often, the VPN server and clients are correctly configured to use IPSec
tunnel mode or L2TP/IPSec NAT-T connection to connect to a remote
VPN server and the connection fails. Sometimes, you'll see this happen
after a first client makes a successful connection, but subsequent clients
from behind the same NAT device fail.

The reason for this problem is that not all IPSec NAT-T VPN servers are
RFC compliant. RFC compliance requires that the destination NAT-T
VPN server support IKE negotiations from source port UDP 500 and that
they be able to multiplex connections from multiple clients behind the
same VPN gateway.

The solution to this problem is to contact your VPN server vendor and
confirm that their implementation of VPN IPSec NAT-T is RFC
compliant. If not, ask if there is a firmware update.

8. Users can't reach some network IDs on the corporate network


Users sometimes report that they can connect to some servers after
establishing the VPN connection but not to other servers to which they
should have access. When they test the connection, they can't ping the
destination server using either a name or IP address.

A common reason for this problem is that the VPN server does not have
routing table entries for all network IDs that the VPN clients need to
connect to. Users are able to connect to servers that are on-subnet with the
VPN server but are unable to connect to network IDs remote from the
VPN server. The solution to this problem is to populate the routing table
on the VPN server so that it has a gateway address for all network IDs that
VPN must be able to connect.

9. Users can't connect to the Internet when connected to the VPN server
Sometimes, users are unable to connect to the Internet after the VPN link
is established. Once the VPN link is disconnected, the users have no
problem connecting to the Internet.

This problem arises when the VPN client software is configured to use the
VPN server as its default gateway. This is the default setting for the
Microsoft VPN client software. Since all Internet hosts are remote from
the VPN client's location, Internet connections are routed to the VPN
server. If the VPN server is not configured to allow Internet connections
from VPN clients, the Internet connection attempts fail.

The solution to this problem is to configure the VPN server to allow VPN
clients access to the Internet. The Windows RRAS server supports this
configuration, and so do many firewalls. Resist the urge to disable the
setting configuring the VPN client to use the VPN server as its default
gateway, as this enables split tunneling, which is a well-known VPN client
security risk.

10. Multiple users connect to the VPN server using the same PPP
authentication credentials
A risk for all organizations implementing remote access VPN servers is
that users will share username and password information with one another.
Most VPN server implementations enable you to not only authenticate
users before allowing a VPN connection, but also to authorize a VPN
connection. A user might be able to successfully authenticate, but if that
user is not authorized to access the network via VPN, the connection
request is dropped. If users share credentials, this creates a situation where
an unauthorized user can access the network with an authorized user's
credentials.

A solution to this problem is to use an extended authentication scheme.


For example, you can assign users client (user) certificates for
authentication, so that user credentials are never entered by the user. Other
schemes include smart card authentication, biometric authentication, and
other forms of two-factor authentication