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MMSR DISTRITO CAPITAL SEPTEMBER 19, 2015.

LECTURE NOTES AND SUMMARY


SYNTAX CLAUSE STRUCTURE TYPES
1. Remember that a SENTENCE must have at least ONE CLAUSE, which is considered as an
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE. In this case, we refer to a SIMPLE SENTENCE.
When a SENTENCE has TWO OR MORE CLAUSES, one of the CLAUSES must be INDEPENDENT, but
the second or the others can be either INDEPENDENT or SUBORDINATED. In the first case, we are
referring to COMPOUND SENTENCES; in the second case, we refer to COMPLEX SENTENCES.
TO SUM UP:
Simple Sentence = ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
Compound Sentence = ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE + ONE OR MORE INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
Complex Sentence = ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE + ONE OR MORE SUBORDINATED CLAUSES

2. In my description of the CLAUSE STRUCTURE TYPES, according to the bibliography consulted, I


have NOT considered the function of MODIFIERS (MOD) in the clauses, because these are
adverbial elements that are OPTIONAL; in other words, they are not essential to understand the
meaning of the clause.
So, in my description I am considering the following functions:
SUBJECT (S)

VERB (V)

OBJECT (O) either Direct (DO), or Indirect (IO)

COMPLEMENT (C) either subject complement (Cs) or object complement (Co)


ADVERBIAL (A) a mandatory, essential or obligatory element in the sentence
I am now going to present the seven clause structure types we analyzed in class:
Type SV: Subject + Verb Intransitive verb, followed by NO obligatory element.
Someone was laughing.
Prices rose.

Type SVO: Subject + Verb + Object Monotransitive verb that requires and takes ONE object, the
Direct Object, DO.
My mother enjoys parties.
Elizabeth enjoys classical music.

By: Dr. Audy Y. Castaeda C.

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MMSR DISTRITO CAPITAL SEPTEMBER 19, 2015. LECTURE NOTES AND SUMMARY
Type SVOO: Subject + Verb + Object +Object Ditransitive verb that requires and takes TWO
objects, the Indirect Object, IO, and the Direct
Object, DO.
Mary gave the visitor a glass of milk.
We wish you a Merry Christmas.

Type SVOC: Subject + Verb + Object + Complement Complex transitive verb that requires an
Object, DO, and a subject complement (Cs)
Most people consider these books rather expensive.
The president declared the meeting open.

Type SVOA: Subject + Verb + Object + Adverbial Complex transitive verb that requires an
object, DO, and an obligatory Adverbial (A)
You must put all your toys upstairs.
The doorman showed the guests into the drawing room.

Type SVC: Subject + Verb + Complement copular or linking verb, followed by a subject
Complement (Cs)
Your face seems familiar.
The country became totally independent.

Type SVA: Subject + Verb + Adverbial copular or linking verb, followed by an obligatory
Adverbial (A)
I have been in the garden.
My sister lives next door.

By: Dr. Audy Y. Castaeda C.

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MMSR DISTRITO CAPITAL SEPTEMBER 19, 2015. LECTURE NOTES AND SUMMARY
3. Indirect Objects (IO) and Prepositional Phrases (PP) in clauses type SVOO (ditransitive verbs)
SVOO clauses can be converted into SVOA clauses by the substitution of a PP following the DO for
the IO preceding it:
SVOO

SVOA

She sent Jim a card


(Jim is the IO)

She sent a card to Jim.


(to Jim is the PP)
The Prepositional Phrase becomes and
Adverbial (A)

She left a gift for Anthony


(for Anthony is the PP)
The Prepositional Phrase becomes and
Adverbial (A)

She left Anthony a gift.


(Anthony is the IO)

An alternative analysis, by other experts in Syntax, declares that these prepositional phrases, as in
to Jim and for Anthony, are prepositional objects, or simply, Indirect Objects (IO).
Another alternative analysis states that such prepositional phrases should be considered as
OBLIQUE COMPLEMENTS.

SENTENCES FOR ANALYSIS:


1. The woman that I met yesterday has written and interesting book.
Analysis by categories: [The woman]NP [that I met yesterday]NC [ [has written]V [an interesting
book]NP ]VP
The element that I met yesterday is NOT a phrase but a clause that describes or gives specific
information about the preceding noun phrase.
Analysis by functions: [The woman that I met yesterday]SUBJECT [has written]VERB [an interesting
book.]DIRECT OBJECT
This sentence is Type SVO, and the verb is Monotransitive.
2. A very frightened young girl nearly escaped from the hungry wolf.
3. Johnny was playing tennis when he slipped and broke his arm.
4. The next plane to arrive is from Lima.
5. That abandoned factory near the river belongs to my uncle Fred.
6. Ill see you at home when I get there.
7. She suddenly ran away.
By: Dr. Audy Y. Castaeda C.

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