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9/21/2015

PreparingChemicalSolutions
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PreparingChemicalSolutions

PreparingChemicalSolutions
CHEMICALS
LABGLASS&PLASTIC
LAB&SAFETYSUPPLIES

Labexperimentsandtypesofresearchoftenrequirepreparationofchemicalsolutionsintheirprocedure.Welookat
preparationofthesechemicalsolutionsbyweight(w/v)andbyvolume(v/v).Theglossarybelowcitesdefinitionstoknowwhen
yourworkcallsformakingtheseandthemostaccuratemolarsolutions.
TothisweaddinformationdesignedforunderstandinghowtousethepHscalewhenmeasuringacidityoralkalinityofa
solution.

MICROSCOPES&MAGNIFIERS
PHMETERS
REFRACTOMETERS
ULTRAVIOLETLAMPS
TELESCOPES
WEATHERINSTRUMENTS

Glossary,basictermstounderstand...
SoluteThesubstancewhichdissolvesinasolution
SolventThesubstancewhichdissolvesanothertoformasolution.Forexample,inasugarandwatersolution,wateristhe
solventsugaristhesolute.
SolutionAmixtureoftwoormorepuresubstances.Inasolutiononepuresubstanceisdissolvedinanotherpuresubstance
homogenously.Forexample,inasugarandwatersolution,thesolutionhasthesameconcentrationthroughout,ie.itis
homogenous.
MoleAfundamentalunitofmass(likea"dozen"toabaker)usedbychemists.Thistermreferstoalargenumberofelementary
23
particles(atoms,molecules,ions,electrons,etc)ofanysubstance.1moleis6.02x10 moleculesofthatsubstance.
(Avogadro'snumber).M
Introductiontopreparationofsolutions.

YOUTHLEARNING&FUN

IN FO& H OWTO

Manyexperimentsinvolvingchemicalscallfortheiruseinsolutionform.Thatis,twoormoresubstancesaremixedtogetherin
knownquantities.Thismayinvolveweighingapreciseamountofdrymaterialormeasuringapreciseamountofliquid.
Preparingsolutionsaccuratelywillimproveanexperiment'ssafetyandchancesforsuccess.

Solution1:Usingpercentagebyweight(w/v)
Formula

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Theformulaforweightpercent(w/v)is:[Massofsolute(g)/Volumeofsolution(ml)]x100
Example
A10%NaClsolutionhastengramsofsodiumchloridedissolvedin100mlofsolution.
Procedure
Weigh10gofsodiumchloride.Pouritintoagraduatedcylinderorvolumetricflaskcontainingabout80mlofwater.Once
thesodiumchloridehasdissolvedcompletely(swirltheflaskgentlyifnecessary),addwatertobringthevolumeupto
thefinal100ml.Caution:Donotsimplymeasure100mlofwaterandadd10gofsodiumchloride.Thiswillintroduce
errorbecauseaddingthesolidwillchangethefinalvolumeofthesolutionandthrowoffthefinalpercentage.

Solution2:Usingpercentagebyvolume(v/v)
Whenthesoluteisaliquid,itissometimesconvenienttoexpressthesolutionconcentrationasavolumepercent.
Formula
Theformulaforvolumepercent(v/v)is:[Volumeofsolute(ml)/Volumeofsolution(ml)]x100
Example
Make1000mlofa5%byvolumesolutionofethyleneglycolinwater.
Procedure
First,expressthepercentofsoluteasadecimal:5%=0.05
Multiplythisdecimalbythetotalvolume:0.05x1000ml=50ml(ethyleneglycolneeded).
Subtractthevolumeofsolute(ethyleneglycol)fromthetotalsolutionvolume:
1000ml(totalsolutionvolume)50ml(ethyleneglycolvolume)=950ml(waterneeded)
Dissolve50mlethyleneglycolinalittlelessthan950mlofwater.Nowbringfinalvolumeofsolutionupto1000mlwith
theadditionofmorewater.(Thiseliminatesanyerrorbecausethefinalvolumeofthesolutionmaynotequalthe
calculatedsumoftheindividualcomponents).
So,50mlethyleneglycol/1000mlsolutionx100=5%(v/v)ethyleneglycolsolution.

Solution3:MolarSolutions
Molarsolutionsarethemostusefulinchemicalreactioncalculationsbecausetheydirectlyrelatethemolesofsoluteto
thevolumeofsolution.
Formula
Theformulaformolarity(M)is:molesofsolute/1literofsolutionorgrammolecularmassesofsolute/1literofsolution.
Examples
Themolecularweightofasodiumchloridemolecule(NaCl)is58.44,soonegrammolecularmass(=1mole)is58.44g.
Weknowthisbylookingattheperiodictable.Theatomicmass(orweight)ofNais22.99,theatomicmassofClis35.45,
so22.99+35.45=58.44.
Ifyoudissolve58.44gofNaClinafinalvolumeof1liter,youhavemadea1MNaClsolution,a1molarsolution.
Procedure
TomakemolarNaClsolutionsofotherconcentrationsdilutethemassofsaltto1000mlofsolutionasfollows:
0.1MNaClsolutionrequires0.1x58.44gofNaCl=5.844g
0.5MNaClsolutionrequires0.5x58.44gofNaCl=29.22g

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9/21/2015

PreparingChemicalSolutions
2MNaClsolutionrequires2.0x58.44gofNaCl=116.88g

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