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Original Lecture by Dr.

Glover

NA 5007

Problem (1)
A large single-screw vessel is to be propelled by a direct-drive diesel engine having a
maximum continuous rating of 23400 kW at 87.5 rpm and 6-bladed propeller. Values of
effective power ,PE, derived from model resistance experiments by means of the ITTC skin
friction formulation are as follows.
V (knots)

12

13

14

15

16

16

PE (KW)

6010

7460

9280

11470

14120

17430

Given that the torque identity wake fraction, wQ=0.40, the thrust deduction fraction, t=0.25,
the relative rotative efficiency, R=1.02, the power prediction factor, (1+x)=1.042, the
shafting efficiency, s=0.98 and using the diagram provided, determine the ship speed on trial
in the fully loaded condition with the engine developing 85% of the maximum continuous
power at 100% nominal r.p.m and the diameter and mean face pitch of the corresponding
optimum propeller.

N= rpm, PD = delivered power in kW, Va = advance speed in knots, D= diameter in metres.


Solution

PE(trial) = PE(service) x (1+x) = 1.042 PE(service)


V (knots)

12

13

14

15

16

16

PE (KW)

6010

7460

9280

11470

14120

17430

PE(trial)

6262.42

7773.32

9669.76

11951.74

14713.04

18162.06

20000

PE (KW)

15000
10000
5000
0
12

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14
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V (knots)

16

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Original Lecture by Dr.Glover

NA 5007

PD = 85%MCR s = 0.85 x 23400 x 0.98 = 19492.2 kW


PE = DPD = 19492.2D
Va = (1-w) Vs = 0.6Vs
1st Trial
Assume D

2nd Trial

3rd Trial

0.68

0.644

0.631

13254.7

12.552.98

12299.58

Vs from curve

15.7

15.15

15.1

Va = 0.6Vs

9.42

9.09

9.06

51.94

56.79

57.25

0.505

0.495

0.493

D=1.275o

0.644

0.631

0.631

PE = 6984.71D

Do= 8.62m
DB= 0.95Do = 8.62 x 0.95 = 8.19m

(P/D)B = 0.765
P = 0.765 x 8.19 = 5.53m

Problem (2)
A 30,000 DTW Product Tanker is to be fitted with 4-bladed propeller driven by a diesel
engine having a Maximum Continuous Power of 8385 kW at 117.4 rpm.
Values of effective power, PE, corresponding to the ship in full load condition as scaled from
model resistance experiments are as follows:

Calculation & Typing Ye Wint Thu

Original Lecture by Dr.Glover

NA 5007

V (knots)

12.64

13.79

14.36

14.94

15.51

16.09

PE (KW)

2890

3850

4460

5180

5980

6950

Given that the torque identity wake fraction, wQ=0.40, the thrust deduction fraction, t=0.20,
the relative rotative efficiency, R=1.02, the power prediction factor, (1+x)=0.939, the
shafting efficiency, s=0.98 and using the diagram provided, determine the ship speed on trial
in the fully loaded condition with the engine developing 85% of the maximum continuous
power and the diameter and mean face pitch of the corresponding optimum propeller.
In fact, the trial are to be run with the ship in ballast condition to which the following P E
value correspond:
V (knots)

12.64

13.79

14.94

15.51

16.09

16.66

PE (KW)

2470

3360

4590

5360

6260

7330

Given that the ballast condition, wQ=0.43, t=0.21, R=1.02, (1+x)=0.939 and s=0.98,
determine the ship speed on ballast trial with the engine developing 85% of the maximum
continuous power and with the prppeller dimensions derived above.

Where,

PD=delivered power in KW
N = rate of rotation in rpm
Va=advanced speed in knot
D =propeller diameter in meter

Solution

PE(trial) = PE(service) x (1+x) = 0.939 PE(service)


V (knots)

12.64

13.79

14.36

14.94

15.51

16.09

PE (KW)

2890

3850

4460

5180

5980

6950

PE(trial)

2713.71

3615.15

4187.94

4864.02

5615.22

6526.05

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Original Lecture by Dr.Glover

NA 5007

7000
6000

PE (kW)

5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
12.64

13.79

14.36
14.94
V (knot)

15.51

16.09

PD = 85%MCR s = 0.85 x 8385 x 0.98 = 6984.71 kW

PE = DPD = 6984.71D
Va = (1-w) Vs = 0.6Vs
1st Trial
Assume D

2nd Trial

3rd Trial

0.68

0.699

0.711

4749.6

4882.31

4966.13

Vs from curve

14.8

15.15

15.25

Va = 0.6Vs

8.88

9.09

9.15

48.35

45.6

44.86

6.95

6.75

6.69

0.514

0.523

0.5235

D=1.63o

0.699

0.711

0.711

PE = 6984.71D

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Original Lecture by Dr.Glover

NA 5007

Do= 5.82m
DB= 0.95Do = 5.82 x 0.95 = 5.53m

(P/D)B = 0.81
P = 0.81 x 5.53 = 4.48m
PE(ballast) = PE(service) x (1+x) = 0.939 PE(service)
V (knots)

12.64

13.79

14.94

15.51

16.09

16.66

PE (KW)

2470

3360

4590

5360

6260

7330

PE (ballast)

2319.33

3155.04

4310.01

5033.04

5878.14

6882.87

8000
7000

PE (kW)

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
12.64

13.79

14.94
15.51
V (knot)

16.09

16.66

PD = 85%MCR s = 0.85 x 8385 x 0.98 = 6984.71 kW

PE = DPD = 6984.71D
Va = (1-w) Vs = 0.57Vs

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Original Lecture by Dr.Glover

NA 5007

1st Trial
Assume D

2nd Trial
0.7

0.712

4889.297

4973.11

15.25

15.3

8.69

8.721

51.03

50.58

7.14

7.11

245.11

244.23

0.505

0.506

D=1.41o

0.712

0.712

PE = 6984.71D
Vs from curve
Va = 0.57Vs

Problem (3)
A large single screwed tanker was originally designed to achieve a service speed of 15 knots
with a steam turbine developing 23900 kW at a propeller rate of rotation of 85 rpm. The 6
bladed propeller corresponding to those conditions has a diameter of 8.23m and mean face
pitch ratio of 0.82.
For economic reasons the service speed of the ship has been reduced to 13.5 knots
corresponding to machinery power of 16800 kW. Assuming that the torque identity wake
fraction, wQ=0.40, the shafting efficiency, s=0.98, and using the diagram provided,
determine the propeller rate of rotation in reduced power condition and the corresponding
open water propeller efficiency.
It is anticipated that further economic gains could be achieved by fitting a new propeller, the
rate of rotation is reduced such that in the reduced power condition. Determine new propeller
rate of rotation, the diameter and mean face pitch of the proposed propeller and the increase
in open water efficiency.

Calculation & Typing Ye Wint Thu

Original Lecture by Dr.Glover

NA 5007

Solution

Original

Economic

Vs

15 knots

Vs

13.5 knots

Ps

23900 kW

Ps

16800 kW

85 rpm

0.98

8.23 m

0.4

P/D

0.82

PD

Ps s=16800x0.98=16464 kW

Va

(1-w) Vs=(1-0.4)Vs=8.1 knot

P/D

6.91

199.98

1.15

55.72

7.46

233.31

0.985

80

63.68

7.98

266.64

0.78

90

71.64

8.46

299.97

0.66

Bp

60

47.76

70

1.4
1.2

P/D

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
60

70

80

90

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Original Lecture by Dr.Glover

NA 5007

At P/D=0.82, N=78 rpm

From chart, o=0.985

Form chart, P/D=0.625, o=0.552, =252


D = 252/24.2 = 10.41m
Increase in o = 0.985-0.522 = 0.463
Problem (4)
A large gas carrier has the following values of effective power corresponding to ideal trial
conditions
Va (knot)

17

18

19

20

PE (kW)

12560

15370

18390

22110

A ship is fitted with direct drive machinery and a 4 bladed propeller with diameter D=7.71m,
pitch ratio P/D=0.86.
On trial with the engine developing 29400 kW at 105 rpm, the ship achieved of 19.33 knots
and the analyzed value of the torque identity wake fraction, wQ=0.33.
Assuming that in average service conditions the effective 20% higher than that for trial and
the wake fraction is increased by 10%, calculate, using the following data and the diagram
provided, the speed of the ship in service and the corresponding rate of rotation of the

Calculation & Typing Ye Wint Thu

Original Lecture by Dr.Glover

NA 5007

propeller with the engine developing 29400 kW. Thrust deduction fraction = 0.19, relative
rotative efficiency = 1.01, shafting efficiency=0.98

N= rpm, PD = delivered power in kW, Va = advance speed in knots, D= diameter in metres.

Solution

Since effective power is 20% higher than that for trial, PE(service) = 1.2 PE(trial)
Va (knot)

17

18

19

20

PE (kW) (trial)

12560

15370

18390

22110

PE (kW) (service) 15072

18444

22068

26532

wQ = 1.1 x 0.33 = 0.363


PD = 29400 x 0.98 = 28812 kW

30000
25000

PE (kW)

20000
15000
10000
5000
0
17

18

19

20

V (knot)

PE = DPD = 28812D
Va = (1-0.363) Vs = 0.637Vs

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Original Lecture by Dr.Glover

NA 5007

1st Trial
Assume D

0.68

PE

19592.16

Vs from curve

18.3

Va

11.6

Bp

0.423N

2.71N

P/D

38.07 6.13

195.3

1.15

100

42.3

217

0.9

110

46.53 6.82

283.7

0.78

120

50.70 7.12

260.4

0.68

Bp

90

6.5

1.2
1

P/D

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
90

100

110

120

At P/D = 0.86, N = 103


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Bp

43.57

223.51

0.513

0.65

1st Trial
Assume D

0.65

PE

18727.8

Vs from curve

18.8

Va

11.53

Bp

0.435N

2.19N

Bp

P/D

90

6.26

197.1

1.045

100

6.59

219

0.88

110

6.92

240.9

0.72

120

7.22

262.6

0.63

1.2
1

P/D

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
90

100

110

120

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At P/D = 0.86, N = 101


Bp

43.635

221.19

0.514

0.65

Problem (5)
A research vessel is to be propelled by the direct drive machinery and a 4 bladed propeller.
The engine speed corresponding to the maximum continuous power is 188 rpm and the ship
is required to achieve a speed of 15.5 knots on trial with the engine developing 85% of
maximum continuous power.
Using the diagram provided and using the following information, determine the required
maximum continuous power if the machinery and the diameter, the face pitch, surface area
and BAR of the propeller.
Effective power at 15.5 knots

2950 kW

Power prediction factor, (1+x)

1.01

Torque identity wake fraction

0.23

Thrust deduction wake fraction

0.17

Relative rotative efficiency

1.04

Shafting efficiency

0.98

Immersion to shaft centerline

3.95

p e = 99629 + 10179 H N/m2


qT = (11.66 x Va)2 + (0.828 x ND )2 = 310875 N/m2

Ap = AD x (1.067 0.229 P/D) m2


N= rpm, PD = delivered power in kW, Va = advance speed in knots, D= diameter in metres,
H=immersion to shaft centerline (m), P=mean face pitch (m)
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Solution

PE = DPD , PD= PE/D=2950/D


Va = (1-w) Vs = (1-0.13) x 15.5 = 11.935 knots
1st Trial
Assume D

2nd Trial
0.68

0.65

PD

4338.24

4358.46

Bp

29.112

29.78

5.4

5.46

0.58

0.579

0.65

0.65

At Bp=29.78, (P/D)o=0.8,

o=200,

DB = 0.95Do = 0.95 x 3.87 = 3.68m

(P/D)B = 0.92

p e = 99629 + 10179 x 3.95 = 139836.05 N/m2


qT = (11.66 x 11.935)2 + (0.828 x 188 x 3.68 )2 = 347517 N/m2
(p e) / qT = = 0.402, c = 0.17
T / Ap = qT x c = 347515 x 0.17 = 59077.5

Ap = 7.46 m2
AD = 7.46 / (1.067-0.229 x 0.92) = 8.712
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Original Lecture by Dr.Glover

BAR = AD / Ao = 8.71 / ( x 3.682/4) = 0.82


Calculated BAR > Design BAR, Risk of cavitation cannot be minimized.

Problem (6)
The propeller of an oil product tanker is to have diameter and fixed pitch in relation to full
load trial performance and its blade surface area is to be adequate to minimize the risk of
cavitation in service in ballast condition. It is estimated that on trial with the engine
developing 8650 rpm at 212.5 rpm, the ship speed will be 16.03 knots. Using the diagram
provided and following data, determine the diameter and mean face pitch of the propeller to
satisfy these conditions.
Torque identity wake fraction = 0.32
Shafting efficiency = 0.98
In the service ballast condition with the engine developing the same power, the ship speed is
predicted to be 16.9 knots and the propeller rate of rotation, 119.0 rpm. Using the following
data and the diagram provided determine the required blade surface area and the
corresponding BAR,
Torque identity wake fraction = 0.4
Immersion to shaft centerline, H = 4.25m
Propeller efficiency = 0.53
On the cavitation diagram:
p e = 99629 + 10179 H N/m2
qT = (11.66 x Va)2 + (0.828 x ND )2 = 310875 N/m2

Ap = AD x (1.067 0.229 P/D) m2


Solution

For trial condition


PD = 8650 x 0.98 = 8477 kW
Va = (1-w) Vs = (1-0.32) x 16.03 = 10.9 knots

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At Bp=33.02, (P/D)o=0.76,

o=213,

DB = 0.95Do = 0.95 x 5.82 = 5.53m

(P/D)B = 0.86
For service condition
p e = 99629 + 10179 x 4.25 = 14288.75 N/m2
Va = (1-w) Vs = (1-0.4) x 15.5 = 10.14 knots
qT = (11.66 x 10.14)2 + (0.828 x 119 x 5.53 )2 = 310875 N/m2
(p e) / qT = = 0.46, c = 0.182
T / Ap = qT x c = 310875 x 0.182 = 56579.25

Ap = 15.2m2
AD = 15.2 / (1.067-0.229 x 0.86) = 17.47
BAR = AD / Ao = 17.47 / ( x 5.532/4) = 0.73
Problem (7)
An ore patrol vessel is to be fitted with two diesel engines geared to a single shaft and driving
a 4 bladed controllable pitch propeller. Each engine has a break power of 1501 kW and the
propeller rate of rotation is kept constant at 225 rpm.
Using the diagrams provided, determine the diameter, mean face pitch and blade surface area
of a propeller suitable for one engine cruise condition for which the ship speed Vs=15 knots
and the torque identity wake fraction, wQ=0.24, immersion to shaft centerline, H=3.05 and
shafting efficiency = 0.98.
In two engine condition the ship speed increased to 16.5 knots and the wake fraction remains
unchanged. Using the propeller diameter previously determine, calculate the increased
propeller pitch and the propeller efficiency and plot the operating condition on the cavitation
diagram. What conclusion would you draw from the result of the later calaulation?

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p e = 99629 + 10179 H N/m2


qT = (11.66 x Va)2 + (0.828 x ND )2 = 310875 N/m2

Ap = AD x (1.067 0.229 P/D) m2


N= rpm, PD = delivered power in kW, Va = advance speed in knots, D= diameter in metres,
H=immersion to shaft centerline (m), P=mean face pitch (m)

Solution

For one-engine condition


Vs = 15 knots, wQ = 0.24, H=0.35, s = 0.98
PD = PB s = 1510x 0.98 = 1479.8 kW
Va = (1-w) Vs = (1-0.24) x 15 = 11.4 knots

0.1739Bp1/2 = 0.89
Form B4-85 chart, 1/J = 1.9
= 101.3 / J = 101.3 x 1.9 = 192.47
Fo

cha

o=192.47

DB = 0.95Do = 0.95 x 2.97 = 2.8215m

1 / J = 182.7 / 101.3 = 1.8


From chart, at 0.1739Bp1/2 = 0.89 and 1 / J = 1.8,
o = 0.558, (P/B)o = 0.935, P = 0.935 x 2.8215 = 2.64m
p e = 99629 + 10179 x 3.05 = 130675 N/m2
qT = (11.66 x 11.4)2 + (0.828 x 225x 2.64 )2 = 259567.5 N/m2
(p e) / qT = = 0.5, form Burrills diagram, c = 0.183
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T / Ap = qT x c = 259567.5 x 0.183 = 47500.85

Ap = 2.96m2
AD = 2.96 / (1.067-0.229 x 0.935) = 3.47
BAR = AD / Ao = 3.47 / ( x 2.82152/4) = 0.56
For two-engine condition
Vs = 16.5 knots, wQ = 0.24, D = 2.8215
PD = PB s = 2 x 1510 x 0.98 = 2959.6 kW
Va = (1-w) Vs = (1-0.24) x 16.5 = 12.54 knots

0.1739Bp1/2 = 0.877

1 / J = 166.091 / 101.3 = 1.64


From chart, at 0.1739Bp1/2 = 0.877 and 1 / J = 1.64,
o = 0.542, (P/B)o = 1.095, P = 1.095 x 2.8215 = 3.0895m
Increase in pitch = 3.0895 2.64 = 0.4495
qT = (11.66 x 12.54)2 + (0.828 x 225x 2.8215 )2 = 297682.37 N/m2
(p e) / qT = = 0.44, form Burrills diagram, c = 0.17
T / Ap = qT x c = 297682.37 x 0.11 = 50606

Ap = 4.91m2
AD = 4.91 / (1.067-0.229 x 1.095) = 6.02
BAR = AD / Ao = 6.02 / ( x 2.82152/4) = 0.96
Design BAR = 0.85 < calculated BAR, Risk of cavitation cannot be minimized.

Problem (8)
The propeller for a large bulk carrier was designed to absorb 9500kW, which corresponds to
90% of maximum continuous power, at 100% nominal speed, 122 rpm and a ship trial speed
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of 14 knots. In making the design the torque identity wake fraction was to be 0.37 and the
diameter and the mean face pitch ratio were determined as 6.07m and 0.70 respectively.
On trial, with the engine developing 9500 kW, the ship achieved a speed of 14.05 knots, but
the propeller run slow at 118.7 rpm.
Use the following open water data to determine the value of wake fraction corresponding to
the trail conditions.
J

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.40

kQ

0.0268

0.0250

0.0231

0.0211

And use the diagram provided to calculate the pitch reduction required propeller speed on
trial to 122 rpm.
Assume shafting efficiency = 0.98.

N= rpm, PD = delivered power in kW, Va = advance speed in knots, D= diameter in metres


Solution
PD = Ps s = 9500 x 0.98 = 9310 kW
PD = 2 n QD

By interpolation, J = 0.3625
J = Va / ND, Va = 0.3625 x 118.7 x 3.07 / 60 = 4.35 m/s
wT = 1 ( Va / Vs) = 1- (8.45 / 15.05) = 0.399

From B4-65 chart, P/D = 0.69


P = 0.69 x 6.07 = 4.19m
Original pitch = 0.7 x 6.07 = 4.249 m
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Reduction in pitch = 4.249 4.19 = 3.059m

Problem (9)
(a) Assuming that

is a linear of the advance coefficient J, show that, for a given

constant wake, wT

(b) A twin screw container ship has propellers of 6200mm with a pitch of 7500mm.
On trial the power transmitted by one shaft Ps as measured by a torsion-meter is 40550 HP
(metric) at 122 rpm and transmission efficiency is 98%.
With the dimensions used above the values of A and B in the above relations are 0.0578 and
0.0212 respectively.
Determine the apparent slip and hence the ship speed.
If the Taylor wake wT=0.07 what is the effective of propeller?
Solution
(a)

KQ is a linear function of J.
KQ = a J + b
( )

a
PD = 2 n Q

Q = PD / 2 eq (2)
Vs = P n (1-Sa) eq (3)
Va = Vs (1- wT) ... eq (4)
Sub: eq (3) in (4)
Va = P n (1-Sa) (1- wT) . eq (5)
Sub: eq (5),(2) in (1)
a

)(

)
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PD / n3 = a D4 2 P (1-Sa) (1- wT) + 2 D b

(b)
Ps = 40550 x2
PD = 0.98 x 40550 x2 = 59290.588 kW

Sa = 0.36
Vs = P n (1-Sa) = 7.5 x 112 x (1-0.36) /60 = 8.96 m/s = 17.39 knots
Va = Vs (1- wT) = (1-0.07) x 17.39 = 16.71 knots
Problem (10)

On trial, at a speed of 21 knots the measured delivered power is 11186 kW at 96 shaft rpm.
The propeller diameter is 6.7 m and the sea water density was 1026 kg / m3.
Form open water curve of the propeller the following pairs of values can be obtained:
10 KQ

0.33

0.21

0.7

0.9

What is trial analysis wake?


Solution
PD = 2 n QD

10KQ = 0.313
By interpolation, J = 0.73
J = Va / ND, Va = 0.73 x 1.6 x 6.7 = 7.826 m/s = 15.196 knots
wT = 1 ( Va / Vs) = 1- (15.196 / 21) = 0.276

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