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thermodynamics

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Generation.

Common Geometries:

The Plane Wall: Described in rectangular (x) coordinate. Area

perpendicular to direction of heat transfer is constant (independent of x).

The Tube Wall: Radial conduction through tube wall.

The Spherical Shell: Radial conduction through shell wall.

Plane Wall

(2.19)

control volume (inflow-outflow)

Thermal energy

generation

Change in thermal

energy storage

Heat Equation:

(3.1)

Implications:

Boundary Conditions:

(3.3)

(3.5)

(3.4)

Thermal Resistances

(3.6)

Convection:

(3.9)

(3.12)

(3.11)

Radiation Resistance:

(1.9)

Contact Resistance:

Values depend on: Materials A and B, surface finishes, interstitial conditions, and

contact pressure (Tables 3.1 and 3.2)

Contact Resistance:

(3.14)

shown, kA > kB < kC.

A modified form of Newtons law of cooling to encompass multiple resistances

to heat transfer.

(3.17)

(3.19)

Tube Wall

Heat Equation:

(3.28)

What does the form of the heat equation tell us about the variation of

r in the wall?

with

How does

vary with ?

(3.31)

[W/m2]

[W/m]

[W]

(3.32)

Conduction Resistance:

(3.33)

Why doesnt a surface area appear in the expressions for the thermal

resistance?

Negligible Contact

Resistance

(3.35)

shown, kA > kB > kC.

(3.37)

Spherical Shell

Spherical Shell

Heat Equation

What does the form of the heat equation tell us about the variation of

with ? Is this result consistent with conservation of energy?

How does

vary with

(3.40)

(3.41)

Composite Shell:

radioactive wastes in oceanic waters.

PROPERTIES: Table A-1, Lead: k = 35.3 W/mK, MP = 601 K; St.St.: k = 15.1 W/mK.

<

of turbine blades. Determine maximum blade temperature

with and without TBC.

Schematic:

ANALYSIS: For a unit area, the total thermal resistance with the TBC is

<

<

Involves a local (volumetric) source of thermal energy due to conversion

from another form of energy in a conducting medium.

electrical to thermal energy (Ohmic heating):

(3.43)

passing through a semi-transparent medium.

For a plane wall,

the heat rate to vary with location, thereby precluding inclusion of

the medium in a thermal circuit.

Consider one-dimensional, steady-state conduction

in a plane wall of constant k, uniform generation,

and asymmetric surface conditions:

Heat Equation:

(3.44)

independent of x?

General Solution:

(3.45)

What is the temperature gradient

at the centerline or the insulated

surface?

gradient increase with increasing x?

Temperature Distribution:

(3.47)

How do we determine

(3.51)

How do we determine the heat rate at x = L?

Radial Systems

Cylindrical (Tube) Wall

Solid Sphere

Heat Equations:

Cylindrical

Spherical

with Convection Cooling:

Temperature Distribution

Surface Temperature

for plane, cylindrical and spherical walls, as well as for solid

cylinders and spheres. Note how boundary conditions are specified

and how they are used to obtain surface temperatures.

with a tubular thorium fuel rod and a concentric

graphite sheath: (a) Assessment of thermal integrity

for a generation rate of

. (b) Evaluation of

temperature distributions in the thorium and graphite

for generation rates in the range

.

Schematic:

properties, (4) Negligible contact resistance, (5) Negligible radiation.

Properties:

Analysis: (a) The outer surface temperature of the fuel, T2 , may be determined from the rate equation

where

The heat rate may be determined by applying an energy balance to a control surface about the fuel

element,

or, per unit length,

Since the interior surface of the element is essentially adiabatic, it follows that

Hence,

With zero heat flux at the inner surface of the fuel element, Eq. C.14 yields

Since T1 and T2 are well below the melting points of thorium and graphite, the prescribed

operating condition is acceptable.

(b) The solution for the temperature distribution in a cylindrical wall with generation is

(C.2)

(C.14)

(C.17)

(3.37)

The following results are obtained for temperature distributions in the graphite.

Operation at

thorium would be exceeded. To prevent softening of the material, which would occur

below the melting point, the reactor should not be operated much above

The small radial temperature gradients are attributable to the large value of

.

.

Using the value of T2 from the foregoing solution and computing T3 from the surface condition,

(3.31)

Operation at

are due to the small value of

.

Comments: (i) What effect would a contact resistance at the thorium/graphite interface have on

temperatures in the fuel element and on the maximum allowable value of ? (ii) Referring

to the schematic, where might radiation effects be significant? What would be the influence of such

effect on temperatures in the fuel element and the maximum allowable value of ?

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