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8.

5 Design Examples
8.5.1 Design example (slab base)
A built-up steel column comprising two ISWB 400 RSJ sections with their
webs spaced at 325mm and connected by 10 mm thick battens transmits an
axial load of 2000 kN. SBC of boil at site=300kN/m 2. The safe permissible stress
on the concrete bed= 4N/mm 2. Design a suitable foundation for the column
adopting a slab base, and sketch the details of the foundation.
1. Data
Axial load on column = 2000kN
Permissible compressive stress on concrete = 4N/mm2
Column built up of two ISWB 400 RSJ sections connected by 10 mm thick
battens.
2. Column base
Area of base plate = (2000 / 4000) = 0.5 m 2
using a square base plate,
Side length of base plate =

= 0.706 m

Adopt a base plate of size 750mm x 750mm.

Referring to figure 8.10, the projection of the base plate from the edge of the
column is obtained as
a = greater projection
= 0.5(750 - 420) = 165 mm
b = smaller projection
= 0.5(750 - 525) = 112.5 mm

Intensity of pressure on base plate


= 3.56 N/mm2
Permissible bearing stress in base plate sbs = 185N/mm2
The thickness of the base plate is obtained from the relation

3w
bs

b 2
2
a

Aiming the thickness of base plate

t s 2.5w a 2 0.3b 2

m0

fy

tf

Figure 8.10 Column base plate

2
3 x 3.56
2 112.5
165
37mm
185
4

Adopt a base plate of size 750mm x 750mm x 40mm.

3. Cleat angle
For connecting the column section to the base plate, adopt ISA 100 x 100
x 10 mm angles with four 22mm diameter rivets on flange side and ISA 75 x 75 x
8 mm with three 22mm diameter rivets in the webs.

8.5.2 Design example (gusseted base)


For the built-up column of design example 8.5.1, design a suitable
foundation adopting a gusseted base.
1. Size of base plate
Area of base plate = (2000 / 4000) = 0.5 m2
Adopt ISA 150 x 100 x 12 mm gusset angles on the flange side with
100mm leg horizontal, gusset plate 12mm thick, 10 mm batten, and cover plates.
Minimum length required allowing 30mm projection on either side in the direction
parallel to the webs

= (400 + 20 + 24 + 200 + 60) = 704mm


Length of base plate parallel to the flanges = 750mm.
Adopt a base plate of size 750mm x 750mm as shown in Fig 5.2a

2. Thickness of base plate


Intensity of pressure below the plate

w = (2000 x 103 / 750 x 750) = 3.55 Nmm2


Referring to Fig 5.2b, cantilever projection of plate from the face of the
gusset angle = 141 mm.
3.55 x 1412
wL2

35288 N / mm

2
2

Bending moment M

If t = thickness of plate required,


bs bt 2
M

6M

bs b

6 x 35288
33.8 mm
185 x 1

In LSD, No allowable being stress,


In WSD b allow =0.75 fy

Thickness of base plate = (t - thickness of angle leg) = (33.8 - 12) = 21.8mm


Adopt 750 x 750 x 22 mm base plate.

3. Connections
Outstand

on each side = (750 - 400)/2 = 175 mm

Load on each connection = (175 x 750 x 3.55)/1000 = 466 kN


Using 22mm diameter rivets,
x 23.52 x 100
43.4 kN
4 x 1000

Rivet value in single shear =

23.5 x12 x 300


84.6 kN
1000

Rivet value in bearing =

Therefore least value of rivet = 43.4kN


Number of rivets = (466/43.4) = 11
Adopt 16 rivets connecting gusset angles with plate and the same number of
rivets to connect the gusset plate with the column. The arrangement of rivets and
the details of the gusseted base are shown in Fig 8.12

8.12 (a) Details of base plate

(b) Cantillever projection


Fig 8.12 Gusset and base plate details

8.5.3 Design example (grillage foundation)


Design a suitable grillage foundation for the gusseted column of design
example 8.5.2 which supports an axial load of 2000kN. Assuming SBC of soil at
site = 300 kN/m2, draw the elevation and plan of the grillage foundation.
1. Area of grillage

Using gusseted base for the column,


Total load on foundation
= (2000kN + 10% for self weight of foundation)
= 2200 kN

Two tiers of girders will be used.


Bottom-tier area = (2200/300) = 7.33 m2
Using a square grillage, side length = 7.33 = 2.72 m

Adopt a grillage of size 2.75m x 2.75m.

Allowing 125mm concrete cover on all the sides, the overall size of the grillage
block = (3.0m x 3.0m)

Fig 8.13 Arrangement of rivets and details of gusseted base

2. Design of top-tier girders


The bending moment is obtained as M = W/8 (L - L1)
Where W = axial load on column = 2000kN
L = length of grillage = 2.75m
L1 = length of base plate = 0.75m
M = 2000/8 (2.75 - 0.75) = 500kNm
Allowable stress can be increased by 33.33% since the beams are encased
in concrete.
Therefore bt = (165 x 1.33) = 220 N/mm2
500 x106
M
Z
227 x104 mm3

220
bt

Section modulus

Using three beams in top tier,


Z for each beam = (227 x 104 / 3) = 756600mm3
Use ISBM 350 having the section properties
Zxx = 778900 mm3
tf = 14.2 mm
tw = 8.1 mm
W
L L1
2L

The maximum shear force is given by V

V = (2000 / 2 x 2.75) (2.75 - 0.75) = 730 kN


Shear force per beam = (730 / 3) = 243.33 kN
Average shear stress v = (243.33 x 103 / 8.1 x 350)
= 78 N/mm2 < 100 N/mm2
minimum gap between two beams = 75mm
3. Design of bottom-tier girders

BM is obtained as
W
L L2
8
2000

2.75 0.75
8
500 x106
M
Z

227 x104 mm3

165
x1.33
bt

Using eight beams in the bottom tier,


Z for each beam = (239 x 104 / 8) = 298 x 103
Use ISLB 250, Zxx = 297 x 103mm3
Spacing of beams = 1 / 7(2.75 - 0.125) = 0.375 m
Use eight beams of ISLB 250 spaced at 375 mm c/c.
Maximum shear force is given by
V

2000
W
L L2
2.75 0.75 730kN
2L
2 x 2.75

Shear force per beam = (730 / 8) = 91.25 kN


Shear stress = v = (91.25 x 103 / 6.1 x 250 ) = 60 N/mm2 < 100N/mm2
Adopt separators made up of angles ISA 50 x 50 x 6mm and 2.75 m long,
welded or bolted with 12mm diameter bolts to the flanges of the lower-tier girders
at two ends to prevent displacement of girders.
The plan and elevation of the grillage foundation is shown in figure 8.14.

Fig 8.14 Plan and elevation of grillage foundation