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CHE3162 Lecture 8

Introduction
To Feedback
Control Loops
Chapter 7&8: Marlin
Chapter 7: Seborg
Chapter 6-1: Smith & Corripio

Learning Objectives
Introduce feedback control and important
terms
Understand a feedback block diagram and
relationship to real world
Intro to PID control

CHE3162: where are we up to?


So far, we have studied system responses
A disturbance (step change,sine wave) enters
our process
Shown how process responds, depending on
1st order, 2nd order, dead time, etc

Ultimately, we want process control


Incoming disturbances have MINIMAL effect
on process outputs
Next step on to controlling the responses!

Control benefits:Reducing variability


Time (sec)

Time (sec)

-2.0

10

-2.0

-1.5

-1.5

-1.0
-1.0

-.5

-.5

.5

.5

1.0
1.0

1.5

1.5

2.0

2.0

Time
Plot

Plot

Good
control

10

Control of Tank Level


Want to keep
constant tank
level
Flowrate of inlet
stream is
fluctuating

Denn. Chem Eng Intro

Control of Tank Level


Inlet flowrate initially steady
at q*
Temporary step change in
inlet flowrate occurs
Inlet flowrate increases by
Q* then returns to original
value
No Control: Tank level
increases then plateaus
With Control: level
increases but by less and
returns to close to original
level
Denn. Chem Eng Intro

Constant inlet fluctuations


Inlet flowrate to tank

Tank level without and with control

Inlet varying
constantly
As a result, tank
level will also
vary (without
control)
Simple control
(solid line)
significantly
reduces tank
level changes
Denn. Chem Eng Intro

A FEEDBACK Control System


Temperature control of a heat exchanger
Steam or
condensate
exhaust

Cold
fluid

Temperature, flow changes


are DISTURBANCES
Set point

Feedback loop

Hot fluid
Sensor &
Transmitter

Exercise: Find another


disturbance variable

Steam
Valve

Controller

Piping and Instrument Diagram


(P&ID)
Heat exchanger
temperature control
Cold
Steam or
condensate
exhaust

Panel mounted
Computer
control
controller

fluid

SP

TC
101
Hot fluid

Field mounted
instrument

TT
101

Steam

Feedback Control System


Block Diagram
All variables are functions of
time. On the diagram we
represent them as Laplace
transforms of CHANGES
Ts

U
Controller

DISTURBANCE

F
VALVE

+
PROCESS
(Heat exchanger)

Tm
Error
detector

Summing
point
Measuring element
(sensor)

Feedback Control System


Block Diagram
Each block is described
mathematically by a
TRANSFER FUNCTION
Ts

U
Controller

DISTURBANCE

F
VALVE

+
PROCESS
(Heat exchanger)

U/E = Gc(s)
Tm
Error
detector

Measuring element
(sensor)

Summing
point

The Sensor and the Valve


A level measuring sensor usually has a fast
response so its time constant is small and can
be neglected (ie., = 0)
T
m
The sensor TF is just a gain:
=K
Km = Measurement Gain (or Ks)

A control valve is usually a pneumatic valve &


can be represented by a 1st order TF
K
F
v
=
U 1+ s
v

Typical V = 1 sec-1 min


(depends on valve size)

Closed Loop Block Diagram


Controller TF
decides what to do
about the error

TF of the final control


element e.g. a 1st
order valve
TF of
the
Process

Error=SP-MC

D(s)

TF of the
disturbance

GD (s)

Setpoint

SP

CV(s)
(or Y(s)
T(s)etc)
GM (s)

TF of the
Measuring device

Closed loop feedback control


DISTURBANCE
Gd

Controller
SP

Controller
Gc

VALVE
Gv

PROCESS
Gp

CV

Process equipment
Tm

See Tute 4 Q5 for how to


derive these two TF responses

Measuring sensor
Gs (or Gm)

Shortcut: CV =
forward
SP (1 + around the loop)

Marlin

Controllers
A controller calculates an output signal based
on the measured error and a control
algorithm
Error = Setpoint Measured value

A simple controller: Proportional Control


Output is proportional to the error
u(t) = Kc*e(t) + u(0)
U
Kc is called the (proportional) gain
u(0) is the output when error = 0

= Kc

Proportional Temperature Control


using an FODT Model
Cold fluid
T change

TD
TSP
U

Hot fluid

Fs

TT
101

Steam

SP

TC
101

Use steam flow Fs


to control T at TSP
Incoming temp
disturbance TD
Assume FODT
models for:

T/Fs
T/TD
Start with a
Proportional
Controller for
TC101

Temperature Control of a
Heat Exchanger Block Diagram
oC/oC

TD

%/oC

Gd

oC/(kg/min)

TSP
+

Kc

Gv

Fs

Gp

oC/oC

Tm

(kg/min)/%

Km

Fast response

Exercise: Confirm that the product of all gains around the loop is dimensionless

Temperature Control of a
Heat Exchanger Block Diagram
Time units: minutes

oC/oC

TD

%/oC
oC/(kg/min)

Ts

Kc

+
-

0.5 Fs
1 +0.5s

oC/oC

Tm

1e-s
1+5s
+

4e-2s
1 + 15s

(kg/min)/%

Km = 1

Fast response

Exercise: Confirm that the product of all gains around the loop is dimensionless

PID response matches


common sense
1
de
u(t) = K [e(t) + e(t)dt + d ] + u(0)
c
T
dt
i
If a big error occurs:
You need a big response

Proportional P

But there is still a remaining error:


Adjust until you eliminate error

Integral I

Rapid change
rapid response required

Derivative D

PID algorithm
PID algorithm considers the weighting of the
following types of corrections:
Proportional P - Corrections based on the present error
e(t)
Integral I - Corrections based on the sum of the past
errors (integral of e(t))
Derivative D - Corrections based on future predictions of
errors, using the rate of change of errors over time (de/dt)

de
1
u(t) = K [e(t) + e(t)dt + d ] + u(0)
c
dt
T
i

PID Transfer Function


de
1
u(t) = K [e(t) + e(t)dt + d ] + u(0)
c
dt
T
i
U is the controller output
E is the difference between SP
& the measured value

Laplace transform

1
U
= K c 1 +
+ d s
E

TI s
Kc = controller gain

TI = Integral time

d = derivative time

Typical responses

Seborg

Feedback control loop:


CV and MV responses

Marlin

Error integrals

Smith & Corropio

Definition of Open Loop


Open loop = no controller
Controller is either off,
disconnected, or in manual

Gd

Controller

SP

Gc

Gv

Ym

Gm

Gp

Auto and Manual Control modes


Each controller can be set to auto (on) or manual
which means off
Auto mode: Controller output depends on e(t), controller
constants, and type of controller used. ( PI vs. PID etc.)
Manual Mode: Controller output is adjusted manually.
Manual Mode is very useful when unusual conditions
exist:
plant start-up
plant shut-down
emergencies
Percentage of controllers "on manual ??
(30% in 2001, Honeywell survey)
Seborg

Definition of Closed Loop


This is CLOSED-LOOP

With control
SP

Gc

Gv

Ym

Gd

Gm

Gp

Setpoint Change Closed Loop


Servo Control
Make a SP change,
triggers error between T & TSP,
so loop adjusts valve to drive
T towards TSP

SP

Gc

Gv

Tm

GS

Gd
Fs

Gp

CV

Disturbance Change Closed Loop


Regulatory Control
Regulates any disturbances
Disturbance upsets T
Results in difference between T and TSP
Controller sees error, adjusts valve to fix it

SP

Gc

Gv

Tm

Gm

Fs

Gd
+

Gp

CV

Proportional Control
Controller output signal is proportional to
the error input signal
U
= Kc
u(t) = Kc*e(t) + u(0)
E
Kc is called the (proportional) gain
u(0) is the output when error = 0
Called offset (or manual reset or bias)

Controller Gain Kc
Controller gain Kc is a number that we can set
Used by the controller during each control calculation
can be adjusted to make the controller output changes as
sensitive as desired to deviations from the set point;
the sign of Kc can be chosen to make the controller
output increase (or decrease) as the error signal
increases.
Positive Kc = direct acting controller ie if temp is too
high, valve open the opened.
Negative Kc = reverse acting controller. If temp is
too high, then close the valve.

Typical responses after a


disturbance step change

Seborg