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Rapid Hull Modeling in Rhinoceros

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This is a tutorial for rapid hull modeling in Rhinoceros (Rhino3D). This tutorial may

be freely copied and spread. Comments and improvements are very welcome and can

be send to Bas Goris (Bas.Goris@GustoMSC.com).

The underlined commands as given in this tutorial are the commands to be typed in

the command bar of Rhino. The commands can also be found in the menu-bar or via

the icons.

Rhino offers many more commands to create and manipulate curves or surfaces as

mentioned in this tutorial. Please use the Help function of Rhino or the tutorials to

learn more about them.

Drawing Tolerance

Before starting a project, the tolerance has to be set. Rhino rounds of the drawing

coordinates by the specified tolerance. If you do not set the tolerance right, you can

get problems with snapping, cutting or joining functions in Rhino and your result will

not be on production level.

To set the tolerance use the command DocumentProperties, than choose Units and set

the units on meters and the tolerance on 0.0001units.

Some Fairing Rules

This chapter explains the fairing rules for curves (using the command curve) and

surfaces (using the command loft). Every line, curve or surface contains control

points. Control points can be displayed via PointsOn.

A Line

To draw a straight line, all control points should be on a straight line too.

A Circle

To draw a circle, all control points can be placed on a square as per Figure 0-3, where

the control points on the corners have a weight of 0.707107 as per Figure 0-4.

Figure 0-4 How to create a circle; step 2 set point weight (Tip: Use multiple selection via the

‘Control’ button to set al corner points at once).

A faired curve is a curve or a combination of curves of which the mathematical

derivative is a smooth curve. In Rhino you can check this via the function

CurvatureGraph.

A Faired Curve

A line or a circle on its own is a faired curve. A line connected to a circle is not a

faired curve. See Figure 0-5.

Abrupt difference

in Curvature

Smooth Curvature

Figure 0-5 Difference in curvature:

Above a curve created from two straight lines and a quarter of a circle; This is not fair.

Below a continues curve with a ‘quarter of a circle’ look a like. This is a faired curve.

A faired curve can be made via Curve. The lesser points you use the smoother your

fairing will be. See example of Figure 0-6.

Note: The control points at the ends are the ends of the curve. All the other control

points are pulling to the curves as weights.

Figure 0-6 An example of a faired Curve, with the control points and the curvature shown via

PointsOn and CurvatureGraph.

Fairing into a straight line

Use at least three (3) control points in line to fair into a straight line. See Figure 0-7.

Use at least Four (4) control points in line to fair into a straight line from both sides.

See Figure 0-8.

Figure 0-7 Fairing into a straight line. (Tip: set Ortho on when drawing the control points in x, y

or z direction)

To create a fairing line in between straight lines see Figure 0-9 and Figure 0-10

Floating points

Figure 0-9 Fairing examples between two straight lines. Above with no extra floating point; mid

with one extra floating point; and below with two extra floating points. With floating points is

mend the extra point not part of the control points which create the straight line. Try to use as

less as possible floating points to get the shape you want.

Real Circle

Figure 0-10 Fairing between two straight ends with reduced weight for the control point on the

corner. This is a look-a-like for the quarter circle like a round bilge keel in the midship section.

Fairing Surfaces via Loose Loft

Fairing of surfaces via Loft (option Loose) is working via the same principles as

fairing with a curve. Instead of control points you have control curves. Look at the

example hulls created with loose loft method.

Note: Keep rid of the idea to work with transverse frames, try to think in 3D and try to

understand the way the commands Curve and Loft work.

This chapter gives tips about the use of Loft for fairing a ships hull. Figure 0-11 show

an example hull made in Rhino. The basis of this hull is created by 10 basic curves as

shown in Figure 0-12.

Figure 0-12 Basic lines for the example hull created in Rhino by Loft.

Ten basic curves are

required to create this hull.

Parallel mid ship

of side. This curve is

created from a midship

section curve. The vertical

part is pulled forward.

sections and the “flat of site

curve” to create the parallel

mid ship. Note that the

midship part is between two

of the midship sections.

stern and one floating curve

to manipulate the fairing

between the stern and the

parallel midship.

manipulate the fairing

between the bow and the

parallel midship.

line and one curve to

manipulate the rounding in

the bow and bulbous bow.

are all located on the

moulded breadth of the hull.

These points manipulate the

flat of site.

This is similar for the flat of

bottom.

Each control point on the bow curve has a twin point on

the “bow-help-curve” with the same X and Z position.

The difference in Y position rules the curvature of the

rounding.

For a sharp bow-line you need to have differences in X

positions as well.

If all the basic curves are drawn, use the command Loft.

In the command loft pop-up choose the style ‘Loose’ and ‘do not simplify’, press OK.

You now will have a half hull.

You can now measure angle of inflow and outflow, check the Hydrostatics, create a

deck line and mirror, a bow thruster tunnel etc.

You can use the command Contour to create a 3D lines plan and Make2D to make an

American or European projection of this lines plan.

Good Luck,

Bas Goris

Sr. Engineer

Naval Architecture Department

Gusto B.V.

Tel: +31 (0)10 2320 242

Fax: +31 (0)10 2320 101

E-mail: Bas.Goris@GustoMSC.com

Web: http://www.GustoMSC.com

This tutorial is made in cooperation with http://www.rhinocentre.nl

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