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UNIT 21: MATERIALS ENGINEERING

Unit code: F/601/1626


QCF level: 4
Credit value:

15

LEARNING OUTCOME 3
TUTORIAL 1
On successful completion of this unit a learner will:

Be able to select suitable materials and processing methods for a specific product
Design constraints: e.g. working conditions such as applied forces, environment electrical/magnetic
requirements, shape, form and function of the product
Materials, properties and processing: inter-relationship between product design, material selection and
processing methods; merit index/index of suitability; ability to be re-used
Processing limitations: effects of the manufacturing processing capabilities on the structure of materials
and preventing or facilitating product design, effect on environment (such as sustainability, emissions,
energy conservation)
MATERIALS AND PROCESS SELECTION

CONTENTS
1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

PRODUCT ANALYSIS

3.

DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
Properties
Processability
Performance Index
Materials Selection Chart

4.

COST RESTRAINTS
Cost Performance Index
Material cost chart
Raw Material
Storage
Availability
Quantity
Form of supply

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

5. DATA SOURCES
Textbooks
Data books
Manufacturers literature
Internet
Standards
Data Base
6. CHOICE OF PROCESS
Material removal
No Material removal

1. INTRODUCTION
The properties of materials and their processing methods have already been covered in previous tutorials.
The purpose of this tutorial is to get you to use the knowledge to choose appropriate materials and
manufacturing processes for specific cases. As there are so many examples you could study and so many
different areas of engineering and technology it is impractical to think that this tutorial could teach everyone
examples appropriate to their particular field of study. The designer of any product must get involved with
material selection. Only occasionally will the exact grade of material be specified by the customer. Even
then the designer must understand the material to be able to design the product. Often this will be decided in
consultation with the intended manufacturer. There are so many materials and so much information
available to a designer that it is quite bewildering. The question is how to decide? In the process of deciding
you will find there are constraints that are vital and produce a narrow selection (rigid requirements). Other
constraints may not be so vital (soft requirements) and can be left to the final stages of selection. One way to
summarise the process is like this.
PRODUCT ANALYSIS
What is its function?

A component has more than one


function such as strength to
carry the loads acting on it,
hardness to resist wear, conduct
heat, look good and so on.

CONSTRAINT
Identify specific constraints.

PERFORMANCE INDEX
Maximise
or
minimise
properties.

The component may be constrained to carry


a maximum force, work within a certain
range of temperatures, function in certain
environments and so on. The manufacturing
process may be a constraint.

You might want to minimise cost,


minimise
weight,
maximise
strength, hardness, conductivity,
magnetic strength and so on.

2. PRODUCT ANALYSIS
It is usual to start by just analysing the product. Here are some of the decisions you might have to make.
Is it performance or cost? Perhaps the first thing to ask is if the product is performance driven or cost
driven? This makes a huge difference when choosing materials (e.g. cheap steel for mass production,
carbon fibre for top of the range). Is the product intended to be a small production quality item or a
mass production regular item?
What must the product do? (Function) In many cases like cars, bicycles, TV sets and so on this is
obvious. In other cases it might not be obvious and if you are asked to design a specific part without
knowing what it is for you should find out. It might be part of a more complex system and its best to
understand its function in that system.
What is the intended lifespan of the product? Obviously some materials will last longer than others.
What level of reliability is required? A material may be more reliable than others if chosen so that a
system needs no or little maintenance thus eliminating human failing in keeping a system going.
Where will the product be used? The environment must be understood so that the product does not fail
prematurely.
Who uses it? This has safety implications such as being used by children who may abuse the system.
What should it cost? You need to have an idea what the customer is expecting to pay.
What should it look like (colours etc.)? Clearly the finishing process may have many purposes and
visual appearance is one of them.
Does ergonomics feature? (e.g. comfort, ease of use of product)
D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

3. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
Design engineers have a very large say in the choice of materials. The material selection will depend mainly
on the constraints imposed by function and performance expectations. Some of the things they should
consider in the design process are given here.
Properties
Mechanical properties
Strength - The component/structure/product must not fail under the action of expected stresses
and forces during its intended life span. Strength can mean many things, tensile, compression,
shear or torsional. The strength can be weakened due to service factors such as stress corrosion
and fatigue so there are many things to consider.

Elasticity - The elasticity of a component depends on its modulus and explanations of Elastic,
Shear and Bulk modulus along with the relationship with Poissons ratio will be found in other
modules that you should be studying.

Degradation - The material must not become degraded due to service or environmental factors.
This will reduce its intended life span. There are many things that cause a material to degrade
such as corrosion, wear, chemical attack and radiation.

Wear - Wear is a form of degradation due to surfaces rubbing together. The designer needs to
understand Tribology (friction and wear of rubbing surfaces). He must select materials with
suitable compatibility and wear resistance.

Impact resistance - This can be a form of degradation but also affects the strength. It occurs
when the surface becomes damaged due to being struck. This could lead to fatigue failure or to
sudden cracking in brittle materials. It also affects the visual appearance and may be important
in house hold goods such as work tops and cooker surfaces.

Surface finish - The final treatment of manufactured parts is called the finishing process and
materials must be suitable for the process. This is conducted in order to do the following.
Protect the part from corrosion and other chemical attacks.
Produce enhanced physical surface properties.
Produce an attractive appearance.

Aesthetic While a gear wheel needs not be aesthetic maybe the casing in which it will be
placed need to be attractive in form, texture, colour etc. This will also be considered in any
finish used for protection purposes.

Here is a list of finishing processes that might be used.

Galvanising
Sheradising
Calorising
Chromising
Chromating
Phosphating
Metal Spraying

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

Cladding
Anodising
Electroplating
Plastic Coating
Paint Coating
Plasma coating
Surface peening

Thermal and other physical properties


Melting point
Solidus
Latent heat of fusion
Thermal conductivity
Thermal expansion
Temperature coefficient of resistance
Brittle transition temperature
Glass Temperature
Maximum service temperature

Melt flow
Processing Temperature
Vicat softening Temperature
Emissivity
Reflection Coefficient
Refractive Index
Water Absorption
Oxygen Index
Solubility

Electrical and Magnetic

Resistivity/conductivity
Temperature coefficient of
resistance
Permittivity

Permeability
Break down voltage
Hysteresis characteristic

Processability
The materials to be used must be suited to the intended process of manufacture and manufacturing
properties may be a deciding factor such as:

Machineability
Weldability
Arc Resistance
Ability to be hot and cold
rolled
Ability to be drawn

Ability to be forging
Ability to be Extruded
Ability to be Cast
Mould Shrinkage
Melt flow rate

Performance Index
This is a way to choose a material based on the largest or smallest value of one or more of its properties. For
example we might be looking for a material with maximum strength, maximum stiffness, maximum
hardness, maximum thermal conductivity and so on. Further on you are introduced to property charts and
really its a case of picking the material with the right combination of properties. There are many learned
papers about performance index and its use but in the authors opinion, this only complicates an otherwise
simple process. Never-the-less it is covered in the following work which mainly applies to mechanical
engineering but the same principles work for other areas of study.
If we wanted a material that was as stiff as possible we would simply choose one with the largest modulus E
for direct stress or G for torsion. If we wanted a material that was as strong as possible we choose one with
the maximum stress criterion for direct stress or for torsion. If we wanted a material with maximum heat
conduction we look for the maximum conductivity and so on. Often we need to combine more than one
property. For example you might want the stiffest and lightest material for a beam or strut. In this case we
could use a performance index defined simply as P = E/ or P = G/ where is the density. The maximum
value of P is the material that is stiffest and lightest or strongest and lightest.
Whilst there is nothing wrong with this method, for reasons that are not clear many articles on the subject
use a performance index derived as shown in the following work. It is usual to define the performance index
as P = K/m. K is a constant that results from the applied forces and dimensions and m is the mass. If we use
P = K/m then the smallest mass yields the largest P and it is this definition used here.
Lets start by deriving the one based on strength for a tie or a strut with a uniform cross section.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

Strength per unit mass for a simple strut or tie

If a material is subjected to an applied force F the maximum allowable direct stress is = Force/ Area = F/A
For maximum strength we need to know the maximum allowable stress either in tension (tie) or
compression (strut).
A = F/
The mass : m = Volume x density m = AL L is the length and is the density.
Substitute for A
m = FL/
F and L are fixed properties regardless of the material FL = K
m = K (/)
/ is the value that varies with material based on strength and density.
P = /
If we have values of P for different materials we can see that the largest values are the strongest and lightest
and the smallest values are the weakest and heaviest.

Stiffness per unit mass for simple strut or tie

For the same situation as before the stiffness (elasticity) depends on the modulus of elasticity E.
E = / = F/A

is the strain in the material. Rearrange A= F/E

m = AL= L F/E = (FL/)(/E) = K(/E)


F, L and are the constraints that do not depend on the material.
K = (FL/) This will be the same for any material for the same loads and dimensions.
P = E/
We can see that the largest values are the lightest and stiffest and the smallest values are the most elastic and
heaviest.

Strength per unit mass for simple torsion of a round shaft.

This applies to a uniform round shaft in torsion (being twisted).

If you have studied shear stress and torsion you will know that the strength is based on the ultimate shear
stress . The shaft twists an angle when a toque T is applied. The torsion formula is

D 4
J
32

D is the diameter.

The mass is m = AL = LD2/4


K is the constant part that is the same for all materials with the same loading and dimensions.
If we have values of P for different materials we can see that the largest values are the lightest and strongest
and the smallest values are the weakest and heaviest.
D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

Strength per unit mass for simple torsion of a round shaft.

This applies to a uniform round shaft in torsion as before. The torsional stiffness depends on the modulus of
where is the angle twisted by the torque.

rigidity G. The formula that that links it to the torque is

This is the same for materials with the same load and dimensions.
This tells us which materials are stiff and light or elastic and heavy.

Stiffness per unit mass for a beam in bending

A typical beam is shown. Due to a combination of loads and end


fixings the bending moment M may be found and the stress and
deflection calculated. There are various ways to arrive at the
performance index. This method assumes you understand beam
theory. The usual formula relating all the parameters is:

I is the second moment of area of the section depending on its


shape and dimensions. R is the radius of curvature at a point and relates the deflection and hence stiffness of
the beam. y is normally the dimension from the neutral (unstressed) layer to the extreme edge.
For stiffness we use
For a uniform round section I = D4/64 and y = D/2

A = D2/4 so I = A2/4

The mass of a uniform length L is m = AL


K contains all the constants placed by the dimensions and forces. The performance index is

Strength per unit mass for a beam in bending

For strength we use

Many other cases could be examined but here is a list of the main performance indexes used in Mechanical
Engineering.
STIFFNESS
Tie (tension)
Strut (compression)
Solid shaft in Torsion
Hollow Shaft in Torsion
Beam Bending
Flat Plate Bending
Pressurised hollow thin walled cylinder

P
/E
/E
/G
/G1/3
/E
/E1/3
/E

Pressurised hollow thin walled sphere

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

STRENGTH
Tie (tension)
Strut (compression)
Shaft in Torsion
Hollow Shaft in Torsion
Beam Bending
Flat Plate Bending
Pressurised hollow thin walled cylinder
Pressurised hollow thin walled sphere

P
/
/
/2/3
/1/2
/2/3
1/2/
//
//

Using Performance Indexes

In the design stage the forces, stresses and deflections are calculated and so an index can be determined for
the particular case and property. In the cases examined previously we would need the values of Modulus,
design stress (e.g. yield stress in tension) and density of all possible materials and compile a list of the
performance factor. This is a bit impractical but software can be purchased with a comprehensive list of
properties. With such a list the materials need to be narrowed down. This can be done with property charts
covered further on in this tutorial. Here is a list of indexes for many materials. The values given are typical
or average and should not be used seriously for design purposes. The table was simply created with a
data base. This can be used to sort the contents in order to suit your search. Note the performance ratio
figure depends on the units used and these must be the same for all materials being compared.
Material property
Material
Alumina, ceramic
Aluminium
Aluminium strong alloy
Brass (70Cu/30Zn)
Carbon Fibre
Cast Iron
Concrete
Copper
Diamond (approx)
Epoxy resin
Fluon (PTFE)
Glass (crown)
Glass Fibre
Iron, cast grey
Lead
Magnesium
Melamine Formaldehyde
Nickel
Nickel Iron Alloy
Nickel, strong alloy
Nylon (6)
Perspex
Phenol formaldehyde
Polyethylene (high den)
Polyethylene (low den)
Polypropylene
Polystyrene
PVC (non-rigid)
PVC (rigid)
Rubber (polyisoprene)
Silicon Carbide
Spruce (with grain)
Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni)
Steel, mild
Titanium Alloy (Grade 5)
Titanium carbide
Tungstun Carbide
Wood, oak (with grain)
Zinc

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

kg/m3
3800
2710
2800
8500
1750
7000
2400
8930
3300
1120
2200
2600
2600
7156
11340
1740
1500
8900
8900
8500
1150
1190
1300
955
920
900
1050
1250
1700
910
3200
600
7930
7860
4420
4.9
15.8
650
7140

MPa
150
80
600
550
4300
1000
4
150
150000
50
22
100
3400
100
15
190
70
300
490
1300
70
50
50
260
13
35
50
15
60
17
3340
84
600
460
1000
258
334.8
60
150

0.34
0.34
0.35
0.2
0.22
0.15
0.35
0.2
0.37
0.46
0.21
0.23
0.27
0.44
0.29
0.23
0.36
0.38
0.38
0.35
0.39
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.45
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.48
0.19
0.29
0.29
0.36
0.188
0.24
0.25

E GPa
345
71
71
100
181
211
14
117
1200
4.5
0.34
71
42
110
18
44
9
207
200
110
3
3
6.9
0.43
0.18
1.2
3.1
0.01
2.8
0.02
450
14
210
210
110
300
534.4
12
110

Performance Index
Tensile (strut)
Bending (Beam)
/
E/
2/3/
E1/2/
0.0395
0.0908
0.0074
0.0049
0.0295
0.0262
0.0069
0.0031
0.2143
0.0254
0.0254
0.0030
0.0647
0.0118
0.0079
0.0012
2.4571
0.1034
0.1511
0.0077
0.1429
0.0301
0.0143
0.0021
0.0017
0.0058
0.0010
0.0016
0.0168
0.0131
0.0032
0.0012
45.4545
0.3636
0.8555
0.0105
0.0446
0.0040
0.0121
0.0019
0.0100
0.0002
0.0036
0.0003
0.0385
0.0273
0.0083
0.0032
1.3077
0.0162
0.0870
0.0025
0.0140
0.0154
0.0030
0.0015
0.0013
0.0016
0.0005
0.0004
0.1092
0.0253
0.0190
0.0038
0.0467
0.0060
0.0113
0.0020
0.0337
0.0233
0.0050
0.0016
0.0551
0.0225
0.0070
0.0016
0.1529
0.0129
0.0140
0.0012
0.0609
0.0026
0.0148
0.0015
0.0420
0.0025
0.0114
0.0015
0.0385
0.0053
0.0104
0.0020
0.2723
0.0005
0.0427
0.0007
0.0141
0.0002
0.0060
0.0005
0.0389
0.0013
0.0119
0.0012
0.0476
0.0030
0.0129
0.0017
0.0120
0.0000
0.0049
0.0001
0.0353
0.0016
0.0090
0.0010
0.0187
0.0000
0.0073
0.0002
1.0438
0.1406
0.0698
0.0066
0.1400
0.0233
0.0320
0.0062
0.0757
0.0265
0.0090
0.0018
0.0585
0.0267
0.0076
0.0018
0.2262
0.0249
0.0226
0.0024
52.6531
61.2245
8.2709
3.5348
21.1899
33.8228
3.0516
1.4631
0.0923
0.0185
0.0236
0.0053
0.0210
0.0154
0.0040
0.0015

Materials selection charts

You will find an interactive tutorial at this link.


You can download a useful tutorial on this link.
You can download some worked examples on this link.
This link is another full tutorial on Ashbys methods.
This link allows you to download a range of charts.
Performance indicators and selection charts are the result of work done by Ashby. For example if we plotted
Modulus E against density we would get a scatter chart with a point on it for every material. It is then
possible to draw an envelope around the points for all similar materials (metals, polymers and so on) and the
result is as shown. We could do the same for other properties (e.g. and ). These are simple to use but
should only be used to make a rough selection. We can see immediately which class of materials has the
two values that you require. The usefulness can be increased by plotting lines representing a given value of
performance factor P so it is then possible to see which materials meet the performance criteria. As these
charts are copyrighted they cannot be shown fully here but click on the thumbnail chart to download them
free.
Software can be purchased to create these charts at this link.
Click on the chart to download the full size version.

MODULUS DENSITY CHART

TENSILE STRENGTH DENSITY CHART

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS MODULUS CHART

THERMAL EXPANSION THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY CHART

Consider the Modulus - Density Chart. Click on it to see it. This has a logarithmic scale in order to cope
with a range from very small to very large. If we want a light and stiff material we need to choose materials
near the top left corner of the chart and composites look a possibility. If we want a heavy elastic material we
need the region in the lower right corner and this looks like rubber. There are charts for many combinations
of properties, e.g. 'strength - toughness' and 'electrical resistivity - cost'.
If we plotted lines of constant P on any of these charts they would be straight lines. For example if take the
case of P = /E
Rearrange and E = 2/ P2 and taking logs
the chart with gradient 2.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

log E = 2 log 2 log P and this is a straight line on

4. COST RESTRAINTS
You may be restricted in choice by the cost you have to achieve. There are some tools that link cost to
materials in the form of an index. The cost of the product depends on the design and manufacture
(processing) as covered in the preceding work.

Cost Index
Various cost indexes have been devised to assist in selection. These are basically the same as the
performance index but modified as follows. P was defined as P = K/m so m = P/K
The material cost is c per unit mass then the cost is c M = c P/K
Because material prices fluctuate usually the cost is based on relative cost to a reference material
such as steel plate. Relative cost is c r = c/cref
Because performance indexes are selected for maximum values and cost indexes for minimum
values we define the cost index as C = cr /P The cheapest material has the smallest value of C.
Consider the one based on strength in tension (Tie). P = / Cost Index = cr/
Consider the one based on stiffness in tension (Tie). P = E/ Cost Index = cr/E

Cost chart
These are similar to the performance indicator charts but based on cost instead of density. Click on
the thumbnails below to see the various charts on www-materials.eng.cam.ac.uk
Click on the chart to download the full size version.

STRENGTH COST CHART


ALL MATERIALS

METALS AND ALLOYS

CERAMICS

POLYMERS

WOOD PRODUCTS

COMPOSITES

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

Raw material
When more than one material meets the required specifications, the cheapest material would be
logically chosen and these depend largely on the price of the raw material. For example when copper
is expensive, there is a tendency to make electrical conductors from aluminium even though the
cable diameter has to be increased to meet the resistance criteria.

Storage
The material to be used and the end product may have to be stored and transported so the material
must not degrade whilst in storage. Steel stock, for example should not be stored in the open where
rain will accelerate rust. If a supplier can reliably supply stock quickly, then you need not bear the
cost of storage.

Availability
Again if more than one material meets the required specification, the final choice of material may
depend on the availability and the one most readily available would be chosen.

Quantity
The price of materials may well depend on contractual arrangements with discount for quantities and
regularity of orders. The choice of material, all other being equal, is not so important for small
quantities. The manufacturing cost is reduced by large scale production so an investment in mass
production moulds and dies would be worth while. For small quantities, modern machine tools can
produce items fairly cheaply especially if the component design has been produced in a form that
can be downloaded direct to the machine.

Forms of raw material supply


The choice of material may depend on the form of supply. The manufacturing process governs this
to a large extent. For example a cylindrical component might be made from stock tube or made from
flat sheet. The latter is cheaper but extra costs are involved in forming it. The material may be
supplied in a form close to required finished product so cost can be saved in the manufacture.
Standard extrusions and standard sections may be cheaper to buy and modify than fabricating or
machining the shape from cheaper forms such as bar stock. Other forms of material might include
ingots, castings and mouldings, forgings and pressings, granules and powders and liquids.
Here are some of the many forms of material

Plate

Coil

Tube and Hollow sections

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

10

Bar

Extruded Sections

Ingots

Polymer Granules

WORKED EXAMPLE 1
A designer has determined that the material for a certain component should have a tensile strength of at least
100 MPa and should be as light as possible. It should also be tough. What are the possibilities from the
chart? Using the cost chart, determine the cheapest raw material available.

SOLUTION
The chart indicates that a small chance of using parallel grain wood or polymer but composites and
magnesium alloy are also very possible. We can rule out stone because it is strong in compression and weak
and brittle in tension. On the cost chart it seems that metals and alloys are the cheaper but you would need a
more detailed chart to see if magnesium alloy is in this range because the alloy region spreads from low to
very high cost.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

11

WORKED EXAMPLE 2
A solid circular section beam is put into bending. From the list of materials given below which is the
strongest for the same size beam?
Given the relative material cost shown below which material would be the cheapest?
Material
Carbon fibre composite
Glass fibre composite
Aluminium alloy
Titanium alloy
Mild Steel

cr
80
40
15
110
5

SOLUTION
Select the properties from the table given earlier but note more realistically you would use a precise material
specification and manufacturers data. The data below is typical but can vary widely. Select on the basis of
the strongest possible per unit mass.
Material
Carbon fibre composite
Glass fibre composite
Aluminium alloy
Titanium alloy
Mild Steel

Density
1750 kg/m3
2600 kg/m3
2800 kg/m3
4420 kg/m3
7860 kg/m3

Max tensile stress


4 300 MPa
3 400 MPa
600 MPa
1 000 MPa
460 MPa

Calculate the performance index for simple bending.


Material
P = 2/3/
cr
Carbon fibre composite
0.155
80
Glass fibre composite
0.087
40
Aluminium alloy
0.0254
15
Titanium alloy
0.0226
110
Mild Steel
0.0076
5

cr
80
40
15
110
5

C = cr/P
516
458
472
4867
658

For maximised strength Carbon Fibre is the best. (Remember this is based on the same dimensions and load
for each material).
The cheapest material will be Glass fibre composite.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

12

5. DATA SOURCES
The main sources of data are textbooks, data books, internet, manufacturers literature and appropriate
standards. These days, all this is available in electronic form to be accessed on you computer.
TEXT BOOKS
Good for general information and always on hand to refer to. Some have tables of properties but these are
not usually detailed and only general.
DATA BOOKS
These are one of the quickest sources of detailed information and often contain grades and specifications as
well as properties. Often pocket sized data books are obtained from manufacturers and professional
institutes and provide a handy source of data.
MANUFACTURERS AND STOCKISTS and DATA BASES
These vary in quality and usefulness but can be very useful. They are likely only to have their own materials
in it and so cannot be easily used to compare materials. They are good for final selection before ordering.
INTERNET
The internet is a handy source of information but the information available is vast and often hard to narrow
down as a lot of useless information comes back in the search. The information is sometimes wrong and
data should be used with care.
Finding actual properties on the web is difficult. Here are some you might find useful.
Mechanical data Steel stock at Corus Properties of a range of copper, nickel and beryllium alloys Aluminium alloy properties Plastics and information about polymers Comprehensive materials data base Search tool for polymers Material search including compatibility Data base for noble metals General material properties Useful information on AluminiumDownloads on properties of metals Properties and calculator tools for material failures International standards and materials
DATA BASES
These are probably the best way to check out a material. A data base might be on the internet (e.g. Matweb
www.matweb.com) or it may be purchased and stored on your computer. Usually a purchased data base is
updated regularly for a subscription and it may even be linked into a design package used to construct your
2D or 3D model.
This link has a powerful software package that runs on your desktop PC. It combines information on
materials and process properties with a series of powerful tools for browsing and searching that information,
and for using it to compare and select materials.
D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

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STANDARDS ORGANISATIONS
A designer should always adhere to standards set down for the use, safety, legal requirements etc. by
various organisations, they contain much useful information. Here are some of them.
British standards specifications (BS) - This specifies sizes and properties to which manufacturers
should conform. For example BS4 gives the dimensions of standard rolled steel universal beams.
These standards are available for purchase.
International standards organisation (ISO) - Most British Standards now conform to ISO and
when viewing BS the equivalent ISO is given.
American national standards institution (ANSI) - As the voice of the U.S. standards and
conformity assessment system, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
empowers its members and constituents to strengthen the U.S. marketplace position in the
global economy while helping to assure the safety and health of consumers and the
protection of the environment.
American society for testing and materials (ASTM) - ASTM International, formerly known as the
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is a globally recognized leader in the
development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards. Today, some 12,000
ASTM standards are used around the world to improve product quality, enhance safety, facilitate
market access and trade, and build consumer confidence.
6. CHOICE OF PROCESS
Although we usually choose materials first, sometimes it is the shape and process which is the limiting
factor. For each component we need to decide how it will be made. This is a key question which has a
massive influence on materials selection.
The cost of producing the component is always a big factor and the designer must consider how the
component/structure/product is manufactured. To a large extent, the manufacturing process is governed by
the material but the material is also influenced by the method of manufacture. The shape, size and quantities
of the component are a major factor governing the manufacturing process.
The mechanical properties of the finished component are affected by the manufacturing method. For
example forging a crankshaft is better than turning one on a lathe because it produces a grain flow that
makes it stronger and more resistant to fatigue failure. Grinding and polishing also produces better fatigue
strength.
The tolerance on the finished size also governs the method. Casting and moulding does not produce a high
tolerance and generally material removal is the best way to produce an accurate size or fit. (e.g. grinding the
outer and inner ring of a bearing race). If a mass produced component with a high tolerance is to be made,
special machine tools such as broaches might be best.
Here is a list of manufacturing processes. It is not a complete list. The processes are described fully in
earlier tutorials.
MATERIAL REMOVAL
WITHOUT REMOVING MATERIAL
Turning (lathes)
Broaching
Casting
Drawing
Milling
Blanking
Moulding
Bending
Drilling
Electrical erosion
Forging
Pressing
Shaping
Chemical erosion
Grinding
D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

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WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Choose a suitable material for a telescopic antenna pole. The length and wall thickness
of the section is specified.
SOLUTION
Function
Each part is a hollow long and slender tube that must support a vertical compressive
load so it is strut and it will be prone to buckling. It will also have to survive outside
in a variety of atmospheric conditions.
Constraints
The length is specified. It must not buckle or corrode.
We will need to minimise the mass and maximise the stiffness to prevent buckling.
Free Variables
Diameter and choice of materials
From the list of performance indicators for a strut we must maximise P = E /
The weight is minimized by selecting materials with the greatest value P
On the modulus - density chart a line of constant P = 0.00316 passes through the group of materials in the
top right corner where we have the stiffest and lightest materials.

Candidate materials include some ceramics, but rule these out as they are brittle. Other possibilities are
metal alloys or even carbon and glass composites.
Durability and Manufacture
Composites do not corrode or deteriorate in the atmosphere but are difficult to form into tubes cheaply.
Aluminium alloys are readily available in tubular form and have good resistance to degradation in the
atmosphere. Steel is prone to degradation and would need surface treatment. Other alloys are expensive.
Cost
Examining the cost charts available on the internet there is not a great deal to choose between these
materials but manufacturing would make aluminium alloy the most likely candidate.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

15

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 1


1. Go to the Website Matweb.com and search for the materials listed below. Print off a copy of what you
find. For each material find out the following:

The exact composition


The tensile strength
The yield strength
The elongation %

Materials to be found are as follows.


Aluminium 1050-0
Copper UNS C10200 soft
Grey cast iron.
Magnesium alloy AZ 31B-0
Aluminium Alloy 1201 20 mm Plate
For each material, find an example of what it is used to make.

2.

The resistance of an electric conductor is Calculated by the formula R = eL/A where e is the electrical
resistivity.
The mass is given by M = d LA where d is the density.
A is the cross sectional area and L the length.
What is the ratio of the price per kg of aluminium and copper when used to make electric wires of the
same length and resistance? Show your strategy for working this out.

3. Find a suitable polymer material for making carbonated (fizzy) drink bottles. Decide the properties that
are needed and show how you arrive at the decision.
4. A large heat exchanger shell will contain radioactive hot carbon dioxide gas at a fairly high pressure.
Discuss the things to be considered in the material selection and method of manufacture.
5.

A flywheel basically as shown in the diagram is to be used to for high energy density storage. Show
how to select a suitable material taking into account the energy stored and the possibility of the wheel
bursting under the stress.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk

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