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You are on page 1of 5

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

B.ENG.(HONS.) IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

YEAR II SEMESTER II

MAY/JUNE 2014 SESSION OF EXAMINATIONS

This paper contains FOUR questions. You are to attempt THREE.

Stationery:

Mathematical booklet

Laplace tables

Use of calculators is allowed

C

R1

vi(t)

R2

R3

vo(t)

Figure 1

a. Show that the voltage transfer function

Vo (s)

Vi (s)

is given by

Vo (s)

(CR2 R3 )s + R3

=

Vi (s)

(CR1 R2 + CR2 R3 )s + (R1 + R2 + R3 )

(12 marks)

b. Given that R1 = R2 = R3 = 1 and the capacitor is initially discharged:

i. Obtain an expression for vo (t) in terms of C, when vi (t) is a unit-step.

(6 marks)

ii. Sketch the resulting unit-step response, and label clearly the initial and

final values of vo (t).

(3 marks)

iii. Show that the initial and final values of vo (t) can also be obtained by

using Vo (s) i.e. without using the time-domain expression vo (t).

(5 marks)

iv. Determine an inequality for C, if the unit-step response is required to

decay to 0.4 V in one second or less.

(7 marks)

Page 1 of 5

its own center via the side thrusters which produce a resultant torque (Nm)

about the center. The angular displacement with reference to the vertical axis

(the dotted line) is (radians), and the moment of inertia of the spacecraft is J

(kgm2 ). The spacecraft operates in a frictionless environment.

Figure 2

a. Show that the transfer function

(s)

(s)

is given by

1

(s)

= 2

(s)

Js

(4 marks)

b. In an attempt to control the spacecrafts angular displacement , the closedloop control system depicted in Figure 3 has been proposed.

ref

1

Js2

Figure 3

By examining the closed-loop poles, show that irrespective of the value of

the controllers gain A, this proportional control scheme is inadequate to

stabilize the system.

(5 marks)

c. Subsequently, it is was decided that a proportional control system with

velocity feedback is used. This is depicted in Figure 4.

ref

A

+

+

Kv

1

Js2

Figure 4

Quest. 2 cont . . . / 3

Page 2 of 5

Quest. 2 . . . contd.

i. Derive the closed-loop transfer function of this control system.

(4 marks)

2

ii. Given that J = 1000 kgm , determine the controller parameters A and

Kv if the control system is required to exhibit a maximum overshoot of

5% and a settling time of 10 seconds.

(12 marks)

iii. Determine the steady-state error of the control system for step reference

inputs.

(4 marks)

iv. In light of the scenario described in this question, explain briefly the

main role of velocity feedback in control systems.

(4 marks)

Page 3 of 5

systems input) is the displacement of point P , and x (m) (the systems output)

is the displacement of mass m (kg). Moreover, k (N/m) is the spring constant

and b (Ns/m) is the dashpots coefficient of viscous friction.

u

b

P

k

Figure 5

Given that

k

b

= 7 and

= 10:

m

m

Y (s)

U (s)

is given by

7s + 10

Y (s)

=

U (s)

(s + 2)(s + 5)

(10 marks)

b. Obtain an expression for y(t) if the input displacement u(t) is a unit-step.

Assume that the system is initially at rest and y(0) = u(0) = 0.

(6 marks)

c. Provide a rough sketch of the resulting unit-step response, and label clearly

the initial and final values of y(t).

(3 marks)

d. Use a method of your choice to derive a state-space model for this system.

Express your result in matrix form.

(14 marks)

Page 4 of 5

Controller

0.2

Plant

+

+

1

s+4

1

Ts

0.2

Figure 6

a. Show that this closed-loop system is equivalent to a unity-feedback system

with a feedforward transfer function given by

0.2A s + T1

G(s) =

s (s + 4)

(8 marks)

b. Does this control system exhibit any steady-state error when subjected to

step reference inputs? Why?

(2 marks)

c. Obtain an expression for the static velocity error constant Kv , and use

it to derive the systems steady-state error (in terms of A and T ) when

1

R(s) = 2 .

s

(4 marks)

d. Determine the values of the controller parameters A and T such that the

closed-loop system exhibits real and equal poles, and a steady-state error

of 0.1 for a unit-ramp reference input.

(14 marks)

e. Name the kind of controller used in this control system, and briefly explain

its main purpose and operation.

(5 marks)

Page 5 of 5

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