You are on page 1of 34

Troubling Freedom

Antigu A A nd the Afterm A th of British e m A ncip A tion

Natasha Lightfoot

Troubling Freedom

Troubling Freedom

antigua and the aftermath of british emancipation

Natasha Lightfoot

duke university press

Durham and London

2015

© 2015 Duke University Press All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper ∞ Typeset in Quadraat by Westchester Publishing Ser vices

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lightfoot, Natasha, [date] author. Troubling freedom : Antigua and the aft ermath of British emancipation / Natasha Lightfoot. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 978-0-8223-5975-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) isbn 978-0-8223-6007-0 (pbk. : alk. paper) isbn 978-0-8223-7505-0 (e-book) 1. Slaves—Emancipation—Antigua and Barbuda—Antigua. 2. Slaves—Emancipation—Colonies—Great Britain. 3. Antigua—Race relations—History. I. Title. f2035.l54 2015

305.800972974—dc23

2015020931

Cover art: Moravian Church Mission, St. John’s Street (ca. 1830). Aquatint by Johann Stobwasser, Ansichten von Missions-Niederlassungen der Evangelishen Bruder-Gemeinde

(Basle, n.d.). Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University.

to the people of antigua & barbuda & for my sons

contents

illustrations

ac know ledg ments introduction

ix

xiii

“Me No B’longs to Dem”: Emancipation’s Possibilities and Limits in Antigua 1

chapter 1

“A Landscape That Continually Recurred in Passing”:

The Many Worlds of a Small Place 21

chapter 2

“So Them Make Law for Negro, So Them Make Law for Master”: Antigua’s 1831 Sunday Market Rebellion 57

chapter 3

“But Freedom till Better”:

Labor Struggles aft er 1834 84

chapter 4

“An Equality with the Highest in the Land”? The Expansion of Black Private and Public Life 117

chapter 5

“Sinful Conexions”: Christianity, Social Surveillance, and Black Women’s Bodies in Distress 142

chapter 6

“Mashing Ants”: Surviving the Economic Crisis aft er 1846 167

chapter 7

“Our Side”: Antigua’s 1858 Uprising and the Contingent Nature of Freedom 195

conclusion

“My Color Broke Me Down”:

Postslavery Violence and Incomplete Freedom in the British Ca rib be an 224

notes

233

bibliography

287

index

309

illustrations

Map 0.1

Present- Day Map of Antigua x

Map 0.2

Present- Day Map of the Ca rib bean Region xi

Map 1.1

Map of St. John’s (ca. 1840) 36

Fig. 1.1

Map of Antigua (1775) 24

Fig. 1.2

Map of Barbuda and Antigua (1842)

32

Fig. 1.3 Moravian Church Mission, St. John’s Street (ca. 1830) 37

Fig. 1.4

Long Street Court house (1823) 40

Fig. 1.5

Mill Yard on Gamble’s Estate, St. John Parish (1823) 42

Fig. 1.6

Ruin of a sugar mill on Rooms Estate, St. Philip’s Parish

(2009) 43 Fig. 4.1 Hyndman’s Village, St. John Parish (1914) 125

All Saints Harbour GEORGE Fitches Creek St. John’s Bay St. JOHN Parham St. PETER 5 km
All Saints
Harbour
GEORGE
Fitches
Creek
St. John’s
Bay
St. JOHN
Parham
St. PETER
5 km
Liberta
St. PAUL
English
Harbour
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
N
Nonsuch
Bay
CARIBBEAN
SEA
Harbour
Five Islands
Falmouth
St. PHILIP
St. MARY
St.
Bay
Freetown
Willoughby
0 3 mi
2
1
0 1
2
3
4

map 0.1. Present- day map of Antigua. Map by Bill Nelson Cartography.

Bermuda FLORIDA GULF OF MEXICO ATLANTIC Bahamas OCEAN N E Turks and Caicos Islands Cuba M
Bermuda
FLORIDA
GULF
OF
MEXICO
ATLANTIC
Bahamas
OCEAN
N
E
Turks and Caicos Islands
Cuba
M
Dominican
A
MEXICO
Republic
Cayman
Haiti
Islands
Jamaica
Puerto Rico
N
Saba
Virgin Islands, U.S.
Virgin Islands, British
Anguilla
Saint Martin
Saint Barthélemy
Antigua and Barbuda
BELIZE
Saint Eustatius
Guadeloupe
I
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Montserrat
Dominica
CARIBBEAN
SEA
HONDURAS
Martinique
R
Aruba
Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines
Saint Lucia
Curaçao
NICARAGUA
Barbados
Bonaire
Grenada
Trinidad and
COSTA RICA
PANAMA
U
Tobago
VENEZUELA
GUYANA
COLOMBIA
S
0
300 mi
0
500 km
BRAZIL

map 0.2. Present- day map of the Ca rib bean region. Map by Bill Nelson Cartography.

ac know ledg ments

Many people played integral parts in making this book happen to whom I am eternally grateful. I only have the space to thank some (apologies for not remembering everyone), but know that I trea sure all of you who helped me in big and small ways on the journey. I must fi rst thank those behind the incredible training that I have re- ceived as a historian, fi rst as a still-unsure undergraduate at Yale, where Glenda Gilmore saw the scholar in me before I even did, and then at nyu, where I came to intellectual maturity in the hands of so many skill- ful mentors. The exemplary scholarship and thoughtful insights of my advisor, Ada Ferrer, moved my research along through many stages; her work continues to inspire me. Michael Gomez provided a welcome, eye- opening space for all his students to think critically about the African diaspora as a frame for our work. The incredibly kind Sinclair Thom- son made a lasting mark on my thinking with his extensive knowledge of pop u lar re sis tance. My endless gratitude goes to the brilliant Jennifer Morgan for her pathbreaking scholarship and sage advice. I am indebted to her in too many ways, and still learn from her daily. The anthropolo- gist Constance Sutton reframed how I see the Ca rib bean. I trea sure her teaching and the many life lessons she has shared with me. Also many thanks to past and current nyu faculty whose presence was transfor- mative for my scholarship, including the consummate scholar Martha Hodes; Robin Kelley, with whom a few minutes of conversation changed my approach to everything; and Barbara Krauthamer, who taught me how to teach. nyu faculty off ered me great guidance, but my fellow graduate stu- dents made me smarter every day I worked alongside them. Thanks to Tanya Huelett, Aisha Finch, Edwina Ashie- Nikoi, Brian Purnell, Sherie Randolph, Marc Goulding, Maxine Gordon, Peter Hudson, Njoroge

Njoroge, Rich Blint, Erik McDuffi e, Derek Musgrove, Harvey Neptune, Melina Pappademos, Yuko Miki, Marcela Echeverri, Laurie Lambert, Mireille Miller- Young, Maggie Clinton, and Sherene Seikaly, among others, for always raising my bar. My work was undertaken at many diff erent archives, whose incred- ibly gracious staff s deserve thanks, including the National Archives of Antigua and Barbuda (especially the past archivist Marian Blair and the late Noval Lindsay), the British National Archives at Kew, the School of Oriental and African Studies Archives, the Schomburg Center for Re- search in Black Culture, the American Antiquarian Society, the Moravian Church Archives (many thanks to Paul Peucker), and the Yale University Divinity School Archives. In addition, thanks to the several institutions that helped to fund my research, including New York University; the Tinker Foundation; the American Antiquarian Society Peterson Fel- lowship; Yale University’s Gilder- Lehrman Center for the Study of Slav- ery, Re sis tance, and Abolition; the Ford Foundation; the Schomburg Center’s Scholars- in- Residence Program; and numerous centers at Co- lumbia University, including the Department of History, the Institute for Research in African- American Studies, the Institute for Latin American Studies, the Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race, and the Center for the Study of Social Diff erence. I truly appreciate my fellow historians at Columbia University, in- cluding Christopher Brown, Mae Ngai, Eric Foner, Celia Naylor, Samuel Roberts, Barbara Fields, Betsy Blackmar, Alice Kessler- Harris, Pablo Piccato, and Karl Jacoby, all of whom have been dedicated mentors to me, as well the endless intellectual energy of many graduate students, including Katherine Johnston, Wes Alcenat, Yesenia Barragan, Nick Juravich, and Megan French- Marcelin. Thanks to my undergraduate re- search assistants, Gaia Goff e and Brandon Thompson, who helped me move through centuries- old rec ords much more quickly than I would have on my own. Beyond my department I have to thank the Columbia and Barnard faculty with whom I have found intellectual community, including Farah Griffi n, Saidiya Hartman, David Scott, Kaiama Glover, Alondra Nelson, Mabel Wilson, Tina Campt, Yvette Christianse, Jean Howard, the incomparable Kim Hall, and my sister- scholar Carla Shedd. My work is all the better because of the work and insights of many other scholars. I cherish Mark Naison for his unwavering and fi erce sup- port of my scholarship since my days at Fordham. Paget Henry introduced

xiv

ac know ledg ments

me and my research in its earliest iterations to a wonderful community of Antiguan and Barbudan intellectuals. I value his mentorship. Susan Lowes has been a model researcher and true friend. I must also thank Milton Benjamin, Mali Olatunji, Ellorton Jeff ers, Ermina Osoba, Marie Elena John- Smith, Edgar Lake, Robert Glen, and Dorbrene O’Marde for their work on Antiguan and Barbudan history and culture. Thanks as well to fellow scholars of the African diaspora whose research continues to in- spire me and whose insights have signifi cantly improved my work, includ- ing the ever- generous Herman Bennett, as well as Melanie Newton, Diana Paton, Rosanne Adderley, Bridget Brereton, Marisa Fuentes, Lara Putnam, Gad Heuman, Mimi Sheller, Tera Hunter, Martha Jones, Mia Bay, Barbara Savage, Denise Challenger, Ben Talton, Michael Ralph, Vanessa Perez- Rosario, Hlonipha Mokoena, and the lovely Natasha Gordon- Chipembere. Additionally my sincere gratitude goes to Gisela Fosado, Ken Wissoker, and the staff at Duke University Press for bringing this book to fruition. I also have undying praise and awe for Grey Osterud, a magician of the writ- ten word, who helped this book make sense. If you enjoy the read it is as much to her credit as it is to mine. I have too many friends to name who supported my work and some- times off ered welcome distractions from it, but some deserve special mention. My best friend of more than twenty years, Damaris De Los San- tos, and her entire family are my surrogate family. No words encapsulate what her friendship means to me. Tanya Huelett makes me laugh while changing how I see the world. She is my kindred spirit. Only for brevity’s sake will I list others who I cannot imagine myself without: Victor Vil- lanueva, Risa Rich, Najah Mustafa, Vanessa Fitt, Christine Rocco, Carlos Santiago, Desiree Gordon, Ryan Jean- Baptiste, and my sons’ West Coast aunts, Erica Edwards and Deb Vargas. My family has loved and encouraged me all along the way. My extended family at St. Andrew’s Episcopal Church in the Bronx will always hold a special place in my heart. The Swain and Gardenhire families have brought good food and good laughs into my life. The Lightfoot, Carr, and James families and their many branches in Antigua, New York, Canada, and the UK deserve so much more than thanks for their unending love and support. I am honored to be a part of them. I hold dear the memories of my late grandparents, Irene and William Carr and Mildred Bernard; they are my direct connection to the working people who fi ll the pages of this book. My sister, Michelle Lightfoot, is my greatest champion. My

aunts Heather Henry, Donnamae Carr, and especially Gwynneth Carr have always been my second mothers. I miss my late father, William Lightfoot, and his brilliance, his politics, and his sharp fashion sense. I hope the best parts of him live on in me. My mother and fi rst teacher, Jocelyn Lightfoot, is my greatest inspiration. I will always be in her debt. Matthew Swain’s love brings me joy. I cherish the life we have built to- gether. This book is for our children, Evan and Avery, who make my heart sing.

introduction

“ me no b ’ longs to dem ”

Emancipation’s Possibilities and Limits in Antigua

Antigua’s thirty thousand enslaved people, alongside those in all other British colonial territories, were freed on August 1, 1834. Shortly aft er emancipation, Juncho, an el derly black Antiguan woman previously en- slaved on MacKinnon’s Estate in the Parish of St. John, described the diff erences between slavery and freedom. 1 The very moment of freedom rendered Juncho both jobless and homeless. Abolition ended her daily toil in the fi elds but undermined her material security. Since 1834, she had lived in poverty with her daughter. Juncho declared: “So you see . . .  dat make me say me no [love] slabery. Now wen me [young], me hab to work hard, hab dig cane [h]ole, weed cane, pick grass, do ebery ting; but now me ole, and no able to work, dey take away me house, ’cause me no b’longs to dem, but den me [know] me free, and me bless God me am free.” 2 Juncho insisted that, despite the hunger and privation she encoun- tered in freedom, slavery had been worse. She mentioned examples of two harrowing situations that as an enslaved mother she typically faced. She could not nurse a sick child back to health because she was required to toil in the fi elds all day. When her child transgressed a rule of the plantation, she had to watch, powerless to intervene, as the owner tied Juncho’s child to a tree and meted out a violent whipping. In Juncho’s account, freedom relieved the sorts of stresses on the mother- child re- lationship that being the property of another oft en involved. The im- poverishment she endured while living with her daughter and several grandchildren, however, attests to other kinds of stresses black families encountered aft er 1834.

The striking utterance “me no b’longs to dem” signals that she took solace in the self- mastery that legal freedom brought. As a freedwoman, she had control of her body and her time. Reportedly, Antigua’s freed- people used the phrase “me free, me no b’longs to you!” as a “constant boast” when they ignored or defi ed whites. 3 The phrase also evokes black women’s relief at the freedom to protect their bodies from sexual viola- tion. Juncho and her formerly enslaved compatriots relished their new status and the liberty to express it publicly to all whites within earshot. Yet Juncho’s story, rather than hailing abolition as an unalloyed bless- ing, also underlines the many diffi culties that black working people faced following their legal release from enslavement. She explained: “It true me better off den dan me am now, for since me free, me no get much; sometimes me no eat bread all day, for me daughter hab so many pic’nees (children) she no able to gib me much; but . . .  me [know] God gib me free, and slabery is one bad something sometimes.” 4 Juncho admitted that some aspects of her circumstances in bondage proved better than those she experienced in freedom. As a slave, she had access to her own house and a private garden, where she grew produce and raised poultry. When emancipation came, her then- former owner expelled her from her home and reclaimed her provision ground as his own. Too old to be employed profi tably, she became a liability in this new regime of wage labor. Her words poignantly convey the paradox of freedom for ex- slaves. Emancipation from chattel status into poverty and continued subjugation meant that freedom, while long awaited and celebrated, entailed material distress and personal uncertainty. Her story also highlights the par tic u lar diffi culties of freedom for Antigua’s black women, who faced an unreli- able labor market that favored black men, while the women shouldered responsibility for their children and extended kin, oft en without assis- tance from male partners. Essentially, these inadequacies meant that freedpeople similar to Juncho had to imbue freedom with deeper mean- ing through new social, po liti cal, and ontological struggles. Her testimony reveals that self- ownership marked only the beginning of such struggles. Freedpeople were still poor and bereft of the resources required to improve their material and social circumstances. Their con- tinued eff orts were central to the lived experience of emancipation. This book tells the story of how Antigua’s black working people struggled to realize freedom in their everyday lives, both before and aft er slavery’s

legal end, as well as the transformative nature of their many letdowns and few triumphs along the way.

An Unfi nished Freedom

Troubling Freedom explores how newly emancipated women and men de- fi ned freedom by tracing its uneasy trajectory in Antigua over nearly three de cades. Aft er an overview of the island in the nineteenth century, the book moves to a slave rebellion in 1831 that foreshadowed emancipa- tion’s complexities. It continues by chronicling freedpeople’s quotidian survival tactics from 1834 through the 1850s, and it closes with an 1858 labor riot that reinforced freedom as an incomplete victory. Studies of freedom in former slave societies throughout the Atlantic World fre- quently posit emancipation as the start of black people’s labor or ga niz- ing and pursuit of po liti cal rights. 5 Framing short- term strategies aft er slavery within the long- term struggle to obtain po liti cal and economic citizenship is vitally important, but it tells only part of freedom’s story. The moments just aft er slavery’s end, fl ooded with chaos and uncer- tainty for both former slaves and masters, formed a critical juncture that begs closer examination. In this time of fl ux, both groups made fi tful attempts to confi gure distinct practices of freedom, which bore stark diff erences that triggered clashes between them for de cades aft erward. Impoverished and illiterate freedpeople just emerging from bondage may have held far- reaching goals, but they were in no position to make drastic changes to their new status. Still, they conceived of a freedom that granted them own ership over their bodies and their time, autonomy in their labor, enjoyment of their leisure, and legal and economic inclusion in society—if not as equals with their erstwhile enslavers, then at least as protected subjects. Furthermore, historians have argued that there were greater po liti cal and economic constraints among freedpeople in small islands such as Antigua, because freedpeople’s universally blocked access to land immediately forced them into underpaid plantation labor. 6 While indeed their landlessness constrained freed Antiguans, this book compli- cates that sweeping narrative by highlighting their myriad eff orts to de- fi ne and expand their freedom in the face of such constraints. I ask how, despite being mired in poverty, subject to coercion, and denied even the most basic rights at every turn, freedpeople still found spaces in their ordinary lives to feel free. 7

Freedpeople had to carve out their own forms of liberation. De- spite unyielding obstacles, black working people practiced their freedom through struggles to claim space, uphold community, acquire property, and reor ga nize their time and labor. I have found that ordinary encoun- ters not only between blacks and whites but also among black people evidenced the transformative impact of emancipation in their daily lives. Freedpeople’s interactions within and beyond the plantation workplace— such as intermittent strikes, in de pen dent provisioning and marketing, the simultaneous practice of obeah and Christianity, eff orts to educate themselves and their children, public socializing and amusements, and the founding of all-black villages in Antigua— all show the many con- testations over freedom’s multiple meanings. Freedpeople’s practices of leisure, forms of spirituality, family relationships, and new modes of consumption complemented their struggles against the colony’s elites to assert their senses of freedom. Their quotidian survival strategies fed into black working people’s rare yet revelatory moments of collective and violent public protest. 8 Everyday life among black working people manifests the dynamics of British emancipation most profoundly, making plain the disruptions, possibilities, and failures wrought by freedom. 9 Through their daily ex- periences, freedpeople honed their ideas about freedom, making the exploration of ordinary life critical to our understanding of freedom’s complexities. Black working people’s quotidian acts reveal that, despite being legally free, constant eff orts were still necessary to secure and expand their material resources, their autonomy, and their sense of community. Prior to the genesis of formal, institutionalized modes of po litical and economic struggle, everyday life in postslavery Antigua was the laboratory for black working people’s politics. Existing histories of the transition to freedom in the Atlantic World do critical intellectual work to defi ne freedom, to expose its inconsis- tencies when juxtaposed with citizenship as a concept and a practice in former slave societies, and to refl ect on existing racial, gender, and class hierarchies that abolition’s passage built on and exacerbated. These sto- ries have framed freedpeople’s eff orts to give freedom meaning within a well- known dialectic of communal unity and consistent opposition to unsympathetic state structures and hostile former own ers. I trace black working people’s eff orts to achieve a more meaningful freedom by rein- terpreting a variety of ordinary acts that literate observers oft en viewed as “re sis tance” to colonial law and order. The two remarkable moments

of civil strife in 1831 and 1858 that bookend this story are also critical to how I rethink this trajectory of re sis tance. I label these moments as riots, in line with colonial parlance of the time. I also name them as upris- ings, revolts, and rebellions interchangeably to indicate that they were wide- spread and prolonged, attracted many participants, targeted the white establishment as well as rival laborers on occasion, and threatened the social hierarchy embodied in property and enforced by law. 10 Ultimately I complicate the concept of re sis tance, in both mundane and spectacular forms, by pointing out its unintended and restrictive consequences for oppressed communities. 11 The narrative of valiant and unifi ed subaltern struggles against domination by the powerful, while recognizable and seductive, does not account for the range of acts chronicled in this book, which in this chaotic period were as ambiguous as they were courageous. While freedpeople constantly tried to protect their own interests, their eff orts were not always clear- cut acts of opposition to power and did not always advance the broader cause of social justice. Black work- ing people did not consistently subvert the control of colonial elites, as becoming free embedded them even more deeply in the structures of colonial domination. The end of enslavement prompted new forms of accountability to the state, Christian missions, and employers. At the same time, freedpeople tried— oft en in vain—to force that account- ability to fl ow reciprocally by becoming engaged with colonial law and the public sphere. They acted on an unfulfi lled hope that the Crown and local authorities would accept or even facilitate their desire to provide for themselves and their families and to conduct their lives as they wished. Their intermittent collusions, whether intended or not, with the same repressive structures they at other points opposed reveal the broad scope of black working people’s immediate practices of freedom. This book explicates the various forms of power that framed freedom, “the shaping quality of the power that comes to reconstruct, or make over, the lives of the ex- slaves.” 12 Freedpeople at times oppressed one another while navigating the mul- tiple forms of oppression that abolition unleashed. The desperation resulting from the subjugation that pervaded their public and private lives prompted them to commit individualistic and competitive acts along with cooperative and communal ones. People of the same race, class, or gender, living in the same plantation or neighborhood or even within the same family, experienced constant pressures to which they periodically responded with violence and confusion, aimed not only at the powerful

but also at each other. Release from enslavement did not automatically forge collective bonds of solidarity and struggle; rather, it linked the fates of similarly degraded individuals. Community, when it appeared among formerly enslaved Antiguans, did so in spite of the brutal economic, so- cial, and po liti cal constraints of the transition from slavery to freedom. Black working people’s eff orts to improve their circumstances, whether through collaboration or confl ict with their community, still largely re- sulted in their exclusion and degradation. Troubling Freedom off ers an unromanticized account of aspects of the past that have remained unstudied because of the discomfort that fac- ing them honestly entails. It recounts freedpeople’s experiences of free- dom as a truly human, complex, and at times contradictory story of lives conducted within the state- imposed limits of emancipation. As Juncho’s narrative so powerfully suggests, severe material privation, black work- ing people’s compromised volition, the treachery rife within the empty promise of emancipation, and the chronic violence that punctuated life’s rhythms within this plantation society all exacted a serious toll on rela- tions between freedpeople and colonial elites, and among freed men and women. However inconsistent their intent or results, such interactions reveal as much about what freedpeople thought freedom meant as do the laws, intellectual currents, and economic practices of the states and empires that institutionally oversaw the dismantling of black bondage.

On Violence

Public disorder and individual and collective violence were crucial ele- ments in freedpeople’s troubled pursuit of liberation. In a former slave colony such as Antigua, the power to wield violence was critical to the assertion of freedom. Positing violent acts as a window to freedpeople’s politics demands recognition of the centrality of violence to po liti cal ex- pression and social or ga ni za tion in societies with a history of slavery. Af- ricans’ incorporation into colonial life in the Atlantic World was marked by brutality at the hands of Eu ro pe ans at every moment, from capture through the pro cess of transport, sale, and seasoning, and culminat- ing in the toil of commodity production under the most terrorizing of circumstances. 13 From the earliest phases of Eu ro pean settlement in the Ca rib bean, the plantation determined the structure of life for people of all social classes. Each territory’s spatial layout, legal procedures, and local economy were shaped by the commercial enterprise of sugar, an in-

dustry built on the work of a commodifi ed, racialized, and dehumanized labor force of Africans and their descendants. Notoriously, Ca rib bean slave own ers extracted greater profi ts from working an enslaved person to death and purchasing a new one than from providing for a slave until old age and creating the conditions for natural reproduction. The men- tal, physical, and sexual abuse of Africans and their descendants fueled the expansion of Britain’s colonial economies. The advent of an abolitionist movement and legal emancipation did little to change the pervasive yet casual nature of violence in Ca rib bean life. 14 Black working people understandably resorted to violence to convey their grievances against the colonial state and society, not only seizing the public platform consistently denied them but also refl ecting their sense of violence as the language of power that everyone across the class and race spectrum readily understood. I tell a story of the violent undercurrents of everyday living in the context of a freedom so com- promised as to mirror slavery in endless ways. Violence punctuated in- teractions between freedpeople and powerful whites, as shown by the uncanny ease with which ordinary acts of survival were recast as crimes and the swift and excessive punishments meted out to those freedpeople deemed criminals. Brutality also underlined relations among diff erently placed sets of black people during the postslavery transition, as shown by instances of freedmen’s abuse of freedwomen and the collective as- sault in 1858 by Antiguan working people on working people from Bar- buda, Antigua’s sister island. This endemic violence and coercion demonstrates that the offi cial version of freedom in the British Empire was in theory and in practice a strictly bounded condition. Freedom as concocted by the state and ex- ecuted by colonial authorities did not guarantee stability and autonomy for black people. Rather, it amounted to a test that by design freedpeople would never pass. 15 Elites’ discourse about emancipation was rife with assumptions about the cultural defi ciencies of Afro- Caribbean people and their inability to function as fully free participants in colonial soci- ety. 16 In elites’ minds, freedpeople were always already failures at freedom from its very inception. Freedpeople constantly tried to expand freedom, but in many ways, their actions instead shaped how it would fail. While exploring the pitfalls of freedom as they aff ected all eman- cipated people, the book highlights moments in which men’s and women’s experiences diverged, exploring the gendered inequities that emancipation intensifi ed. 17 In the British Empire, metropolitan elites

and Christian missionaries envisioned that abolition would remake male subjects into waged workers, heads of nuclear house holds, and (eventual) po liti cal citizens while turning women into their domesti- cated dependents. Planters, in contrast, encouraged black women to labor exclusively within the sugar industry, as hard as men and for lesser wages. Freedpeople lived a diff erent reality from elites: women were equally present in the workforce and were substantial or sole contributors to their house hold livelihoods. They engaged in a multiplicity of occupa- tions within and beyond the sugar industry to make ends meet. Yet in other respects, freedpeople’s ways echoed colonial gendered hierarchies, as freedmen oft en asserted their dominance in freedwomen’s lives, espe- cially through physical violence. Ideologies and practices from both inside and outside their communities suppressed black women. Emancipation, while falling short of all black working people’s hopes, especially failed to free black women.

The Wider Geography of Freedom

Freedpeople’s ways of life, oppositional acts, and protracted subjection in Antigua occurred within the cont ext of groundbreaking changes sweeping the entire Atlantic World in the era of abolition. Antigua’s emancipation pro cess remained distinctive while still fi tting into the broader trajectory of the postslavery Atlantic World. Signifi cantly, Antigua was the only Ca rib bean sugar- producing colony to reject the apprenticeship system devised by the British Parliament to give slave owners and their allies continued control over freedpeople’s labor and mobility; only Bermuda and the Cayman Islands, which did not depend on sugar plantations, also proceeded to immediate emancipation. The apprenticeship system suspended hundreds of thousands of the em- pire’s African- descended subjects in a liminal space between enslave- ment and freedom from 1834 to 1838. In theory, it apprenticed former slaves to their former owners to prepare them for free labor; in practice, it extended their bondage, requiring them to work for a stipulated num- ber of hours without pay in exchange for rations and housing. Although African- descended Antiguans avoided the experience of apprenticeship, the freedom bestowed on them remained quite restrictive. West Indian planters and colonial legislators across the islands shared strategies to contain and regulate freedpeople, and Antigua, the fi rst

sugar island to initiate “full” freedom, off ered authorities elsewhere a model for methods used to control black working people when appren- ticeship ended in 1838. 18 This island’s history confi rms that immediate emancipation foiled authorities’ and freedpeople’s divergent objectives as much as gradual abolition did, extending our understanding of black life as well as colonial power in the postslavery Anglophone Ca rib bean. Historians have heralded Jamaica as the economic and policy- making center of the region and asserted that its history is essential to our un- derstanding of British emancipation. 19 Yet Antigua demonstrates the acutely damaging eff ects of colonial peripherality on black working people as they transitioned to free status. In a place as small as Antigua, emancipation held diff erent implications for freedpeople’s mobility, land acquisition, socialization, and economic advancement compared with Jamaica, where a peasantry emerged and the path to in de pen dence from the estates, though equally impeded by poverty, was clearer. But, despite the distinct conditions and possibilities within various abolition pro cesses, freedpeople in former slave societies throughout the Americas met their emancipation without widespread access to land, citizenship, education, stable wages, or labor rights. Troubling Free- dom broadens our sense of the strategies for securing freedom in post- slavery societies by complicating freedom’s defi nition and the sites of its expression. Indeed, freedom rang hollow in the entire Atlantic World, and Antigua vividly exemplifi es freedpeople’s attempts to challenge free- dom’s contradictions. The struggle for freedom from multiple forms of degradation has animated black pop u lar politics throughout the African diaspora, from its beginnings in forced migration through the present. 20 Emancipation constituted a crucial transition in this longer- term pro cess. As nations and empires shift ed from slavery and into various kinds of for- mally free labor with many embedded unfreedoms, freedpeople protected themselves by strategically engaging this changing context. The book’s in- vestigation of the politicized intricacies within freedpeople’s survival strat- egies in Antigua allows us to better understand how emancipated women and men approached the many obstacles they encountered in various postslavery societies. A close look at everyday life aft er emancipation confi rms that self- defi nition and community formation among Antigua’s black residents did occur despite a milieu directly inimical to these developments. The conferral of freedom expanded their cognizance of the racial, gender,

and class inequalities impeding their progress. Freedom also enabled their eff orts to undo such inequalities, the eff ects of which both un- dermined and reinforced their internal hierarchies and external subju- gation. White elites anticipated unbroken economic productivity and social deference from blacks in response to the “gift ” of emancipation. But freedpeople troubled such visions in the ways they led their daily lives, as they tried to create the conditions for a tangible liberation. That freedpeople expressed their will to be free at all, however inconsistently, remains historically signifi cant given the harrowing circumstances that plagued their progress.

The Hostile Context

Black working people’s senses of freedom were framed not only by their everyday survival tactics but also by the conditions elites affi xed to eman- cipation. Understanding freedpeople’s struggles requires an exploration of both their self- interested eff orts and the hostile context within which they had to act, which was shaped by their fraught interactions with An- tigua’s other social groups. Local planters and their representatives, who held steadfastly to their socioeconomic dominance, and public offi cials, who advanced planters’ interests, thwarted black working people’s exer- cise of freedom. Protestant missionaries off ered freedpeople outlets for self- improvement but also evangelized to prompt submissiveness. Con- versations among these groups showed emancipation’s deliberate and insuperable limits. To white elites, the abolition of slavery did not translate into blacks’ full po liti cal or economic membership in colonial society. Antigua’s small but powerful circle of whites believed that abolition meant only that formerly enslaved people would be paid low wages for toiling obedi- ently. They were only to produce sugar, the singular crop on which the island’s entire economy hinged. According to local whites, emancipa- tion, instead of conferring automatic rights on blacks, entailed no more than the possibility of earning privileges in the distant future as freed- people lived up to the state’s and colonial society’s expectations for their public and private pursuits in their economic livelihoods, spiritual prac- tices, and personal conduct. Emancipation was intended to refashion African- descended slaves with strange habits and “uncivilized” culture into westernized, Christian, and industrious subjects. The standards for achieving this transformation, however, were exacting and undesirable

for freedpeople to fulfi ll. As freedpeople attempted to comprehend and respond to the conditions that local and metropolitan authorities built into abolition, whites altered those conditions to maintain their own power. In addition to dealing with whites, Antigua’s newly freed people had to negotiate with the numerically small but socially visible set of middle- class people of color, who had been born into freedom or were manumit- ted before 1834. The leading members of this group, who were of mixed Eu ro pean and African heritage, had some property and social stand- ing, as did their counterparts in most other British Ca rib bean isles. 21 Mixed-race middle- class Antiguans oft en fl uctuated between advocat- ing for the advancement of black working people as they transitioned out of slavery and heaping as much disdain on them as did local white elites. Their ambivalence toward freedpeople stemmed from the uncer- tainty of their own position in Antigua’s social hierarchy. Whites viewed people of color either as a buff er class to manage the “unruly” emanci- pated masses or as hostile competitors who, despite their ancestry, had the education, resources, and savvy to challenge white dominance in the colony. Newly emancipated people could make only intermittent alliances with this group during their quest to secure a more meaningful freedom. Freedpeople could just as oft en encounter onerous demands from mixed- race middling Antiguans that they become “civilized” subjects and willing workers, amid the latter’s unyielding maintenance of their status distinctions. The complexities of Antiguan emancipation also stemmed from the structures of and fi ssures within British imperial control in the Ca rib- bean. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Atlantic slaveholding states were engaged in an international dialogue about the relative merits of enslaved versus formally free labor. 22 The British, who oft en led this conversation, chose to experiment with state- regulated emancipa- tion and a wage- labor economy long advocated by many metropolitan thinkers and policy makers. State oversight helped the empire avoid the pitfalls of freedom achieved by force, as exemplifi ed by Haiti’s unpre- ce dented slave- led re volution. Metropolitan and colonial authorities agreed that emancipation should produce a tidy social order and a cheap and willing proletariat to continue the sugar enterprise. It should not disrupt the structures of white privilege in the West Indies. 23 In turn, local administrators managing British colonies in Antigua and across the Ca rib bean craft ed a freedom replete with customary and legal inequities

that delimited blacks’ livelihoods and blocked their progress beyond the lowest rung of the social order. Emancipation in theory guaranteed black working people’s bodily freedom as individuals and freedom of contract as wage laborers. But their extreme disadvantage relative to their employers and their severe disfranchisement through law and social custom, which fl owed from the Ca rib be an’s legacy of slavery, severely limited those freedoms. It hin- dered the formal or ga niz ing necessary to surmount these obstacles and secure citizenship for many generations to follow. Antigua’s black work- ing people did not gain universal adult suff rage or legalized labor unions until a full century aft er abolition, which mirrors the prolonged delay in obtaining these rights that the descendants of slaves endured through- out the Atlantic World. 24 Emancipated people’s beleaguered eff orts at self- preservation aft er 1834 were further inhibited by the declining profi tability of British Ca rib- bean sugar within the world economy through the rest of the nineteenth century. Cuba and Brazil, as slaveholding territories, brought stiff com- petition to the En glish colonies, generating greater quantities of cheaper sugar. Comparatively, British Ca rib bean sugar plantations were under- capitalized and technologically outdated. Overall, from the 1840s on, the Ca rib bean region found itself increasingly on the periphery of rapidly shift ing global trade networks. The centers of Eu ro pean empire were moving eastward to Africa and Asia. Both increasing challenges within the global market and Antigua’s continuous economic decline aft er 1834 exacerbated internal confl icts over the meaning of freedom. All social groups had a limited range of options for their advancement in the postslavery era, which rendered freedpeople’s struggles even more diffi cult. Missionaries operated on shoestring budgets; people of color increasingly slipped out of middle- class status and into fi nancial and social insecurity; planters balanced precariously on the brink of ruin— all at the same time that black working people were even more deeply ensnared in poverty. In such desperate times, freedpeople who encoun- tered their supposed social superiors were oft en met with disdain and suppression, as planters and local authorities criminalized their con- duct. The island’s legislature blocked freedpeople’s search for new occu- pations and their attempts to modify the routine of estate work through the passage of coercive labor legislation. Missionaries policed freed- people’s personal interactions and frequently condemned their ways of life as unChristian. Continued pursuit of their self- interest as the sugar

economy plummeted made freedpeople into adversaries of the state- sponsored emancipation project and disqualifi ed them from citizenship.

Interrogating the Archive and Framing the Narrative

Troubling Freedom assembles many seemingly incongruous documents to construct its detailed portrait of black working people’s besieged quest to realize freedom. Most of the sources used in this study— including gov- ernment correspondence among public offi cials in Antigua and Britain, planters’ rec ords and letters, missionaries’ correspondence, and local newspapers— display ambivalence or even outright hostility to black working people’s eff orts. Such rec ords originate from and represent the power of colonial elites as they impeded freedpeople’s progress. 25 These sources mostly obscure the depth and heterogeneity of black thought and action, as black voices appear in the record in brief and secondary fashion. Without reexamining these fl awed documents, however, their stories would remain permanently silenced. Troubling Freedom explores freedpeople’s lives and labors by inverting the perspectives of the liter- ate observers who chronicled Antigua’s past to excavate black survival tactics, ways of life, po liti cal beliefs, and senses of self. The archives of the immediate pre- and post-1834 era remain distinct from other periods in their intense focus on black life. The buildup to and passage of emancipation in the British Empire fostered a rare visibil- ity of black working people in the rec ords, as white elites’ concerns about public safety and economic productivity aft er 1834 bred greater scrutiny of black communities’ ordinary aff airs. Elites’ obsessive documenta- tion of black people’s labor and public comportment formed a means of control aimed at ensuring that emancipation maintained existent social inequalities, but inadvertently created an abundance of informa- tion on otherwise invisible subjects. Yet these rec ords still share with the broader archive of Atlantic slavery and freedom an acute lack of insight into black working people’s interiority and their ideological perspectives on freedom. To examine how Antigua’s working people tried to stretch freedom’s possibilities and circumvent its limits using such challenging sources, I investigate the plausible politics behind their self- interested acts. The responses such acts elicited among literate observers allow me to parse in detail the signifi cance of mundane black life. Elites knew all too well that freedpeople regularly attempted to contest the status quo as they

lived, labored, and socialized in the towns and on rural estates. Elites’ disdain at the changes they perceived in freedpeople’s labor practices, consumer habits, demeanor, and lifestyles provides rich evidence of these changes as they occurred. On rare occasions, sources feature the lives of specifi c freedpersons that lend particularity to the broader issues considered in this book. But, more oft en than not, the study engages the indirect and generalized ways in which freedpeople’s daily lives surface in archival documents, retelling elites’ anxieties through a diff erent ana- lytical lens, as stories of black working people’s survival, aspirations for self- determination, and ultimate frustration. My interpretation of the sources explores the complex interplay be- tween elite power and subaltern subversion within many aspects of co- lonial Antiguan public and private life. In this vein, elite laments over freedpeople’s expensive new clothing document freedpeople’s sartorial expression of their new status and desire for a life beyond fi eldwork, but the laments also reveal notions of illegitimacy that haunted black attempts to mimic the fashions of their social superiors. Elites’ anxi- ety over the pervasiveness of “superstition” among freedpeople evinces their continued adherence to obeah despite the vigor of Christian evan- gelizing, as well as whites’ claims of black “savagery” that undercut any eff orts to assert their rights in freedom. This book extracts multilayered connotations from the actions and interactions that elites recorded, and it shows that there was far more to black working people’s story than has previously been told. 26 Troubling Freedom engages two interconnected scholarly conversations central to the study of the African diaspora in the Atlantic World: the quotidian lives and cultures of African- descended people and their ideas about freedom. The fi rst has been dominated by scholars of slavery, who have debated the infl uence of African antecedents as against the eff ects, both productive and destructive, of forced migration on the identities and cultures of diasporic communities. 27 This book does not focus on that debate, but such scholarship has helped to shape my understand- ing of African- descended Antiguans’ cultural identity from the 1830s on- ward. At the time of emancipation, the island’s largely creolized freed- people shaped their lives and cultures from a blend of West African and Eu ro pean customs in a Ca rib bean colonial setting. Aft er the close of the international slave trade in the fi rst de cade of the nineteenth century ended the steady stream of African- born slaves arriving on the island, cultural hybridity intensifi ed. 28

Exploring freedom’s meanings sheds equal light on the culture of black working people. Just as knowledge of precolonial African cultures can il- luminate community formation in Atlantic slavery, much can be gleaned about diasporic people’s social worlds by examining their culture- building practices immediately aft er emancipation. Troubling Freedom reconstructs the material culture of black working people as a means to better comprehend their concepts of freedom, which distinguishes this book from many Atlantic postslavery studies that strictly focus on po liti- cal and economic activities. Literate elites of postslavery Antigua were not always reliable reporters of black working people’s folkways. Yet even with their limited knowledge of and biases against black communities, elite observers recognized that the conferral of freedom was transforma- tive, reverberating in all aspects of freedpeople’s lives. Indeed, to assess who black people were becoming and how they lived in the de cades aft er 1834 is to investigate the signifi cance of freedom. In engaging the second major scholarly conversation on how freed- people themselves defi ned freedom, I build on the fi tting characteriza- tion of freedom as “no fi xed condition but a constantly moving target.” 29 Over time, black colonial subjects found their ideals of freedom increas- ingly difficult to attain, since British imperial ideas about freedom contracted markedly rather than continuing to expand. In Britain, the project of freeing the slaves was begun in the late eigh teenth century by an assemblage of disparate interests, including lawmakers, evange- lists, economists, and the literate public. Abolition served as the strategic means to many po liti cal ends, including economic modernization and imperial unity, that were equally if not more important than the goal of liberating Africans. 30 Upon abolition’s legal enactment by Parliament in the 1830s, imperial reformers implemented a freedom for Ca rib bean en- slaved people based on liberal, abstract notions of how proletarian work- ers should labor and live. When freedmen and - women did not respond as expected, colonial elites ascribed the problem to an ever- present sense of blacks’ cultural and social “defi ciencies.” 31 The depressed sugar economy from the mid-1840s onward further impaired freedpeople’s ability to challenge freedom’s limitations. By the late 1850s, whites in Antigua concluded that emancipation was a failure and that freedpeople were unfi t for citizenship. They were destined instead for poverty, crime, and civil exclusion. Given the impossible circumstances freedpeople faced from the moment of abolition, this amounted to a self- fulfi lling prophecy.

Despite this predicament, black working people harbored a po liti- cal awareness bred in the context of their quotidian strategies for sur- vival. Contrary to the opinions of whites, black working people before and aft er 1834 did not enjoy their freedom primarily through “criminal” acts. They also sought to change the colonial order by claiming rights in accordance with their sense of the law and of themselves as Crown sub- jects. Freedpeople’s assertions of their legal rights were based on their belief in the law as a protector of their interests. They were developing a “legal sensibility,” a conception of “how things ought to be and what to do if they are not.” 32 Antiguan freedpeople attempted to use colonial law to attain their objectives despite their familiarity with its inequities. At the same time, freedpeople per sis tently engaged in illicit activities in response to the exclusionary tactics of the state and white- dominated so- ciety. Their simultaneous legal and illegal acts took place in the yawning gap between what they believed freedom should mean and what freedom actually allowed. Tactics such as theft , arson, and the serial quitting of estate employment all buttressed their eff orts to expand their freedom. The moments of open pop u lar re sis tance that came in 1831 and 1858 were forceful reiterations of the politicized confl icts and the routine violence that marked black ordinary life in freedom. Antigua’s moments of collective protest that challenged freedom’s contradictions refl ect a broader trend in British Ca rib bean history. Be- tween 1800 and 1834, mass uprisings in Barbados in 1816, Guyana (De- merara) in 1823, and Jamaica in 1831 were precipitated by infl ammatory ideas that slaves held about freedom and revealed to imperial authori- ties the problems that would accompany general abolition. Almost every colony in the Anglophone chain was rocked by violent uprisings aft er 1834, including riots in St. Kitts and mass strikes in Trinidad in response to the inauguration of apprenticeship. The infamous 1865 Morant Bay Rebellion in Jamaica, a bloody struggle with a high death toll, prompted a drastic restructuring of British colonial governance in the Ca rib be an. 33 Freedpeople consistently used physical aggression to express their anger at emancipation’s many inadequacies. The divergent targets of Antiguan black working people’s violent acts in the 1831 and 1858 uprisings, the fi rst instance destroying whites’ property and the second attacking other black working people, show the stark shift between their hopefulness on the eve of emancipation and their despair aft er several de cades of liv- ing with its shortcomings. Violent confl ict showcased freedpeople’s re- sponses to the conditional nature of colonial abolition, a conditionality

that eventually delimited their own visions of freedom and their sense of who could share in its practice.

Charting Freedom’s Course

The language I use to tell this story of emancipated people’s frustrated eff orts before and aft er 1834 is deliberately chosen to highlight how race and class, as well as gender, played critical roles in shaping Antigua’s so- cial hierarchy and delimiting freedom. I refer to Antiguans with any Af- rican ancestry as African- descended people because skin color was the most salient marker of diff erence in the colony. Racial categories defi ned distinct groups subject to white planter control. Those Antiguans who had both African and Eu ro pean ancestry are termed mixed- race people, people of color, or the mixed- race middle class, a status held by the leading members of this stratum. I refer to Antiguans of Eu ro pean ancestry as whites or as white elites, which indicates the economic and social control over the colony’s aff airs exercised by prominent planters and offi cials. I also call white and mixed- race middle- class observers elites to denote these two groups’ shared demand that slaves- turned- freedpeople adopt “civilized” ways and act in accordance with elite conceptions of law and order. For the period prior to 1834, I call the historical actors most central to my study slaves or enslaved people. For the period aft er 1834, I refer to these women and men as freedpeople, newly freed people, or emancipated people to signify the paramount importance of emancipation in their daily lives. I also call them black working people to connote their racial and class status in the colony while still centering their humanity. 34 In contrast, the sources show British colonial offi cers, planters, missionaries, and other literate white and mixed- race observers calling them laborers, Negroes, or, later, the peasantry. The Eu ro pean term peasant especially did not apply to the condition of black working people on this island. Lack of access to land and the dominance of sugar planting prevented Antigua’s freedpeople from practicing the in de pen dent subsistence and commercial agricul- tural production that characterizes a peasantry. At best, Antigua had a semipeasantry, with a signifi cant proportion of people pursuing multiple occupations, combining small- scale provisioning with employment in the sugar industry or other jobs in the parishes and towns. 35 Elites’ use of this misnomer rings ironic in light of their endeavors to prevent black working people’s self- suffi ciency and in de pen dence from the

sugar industry. The term also signifi es the misfortunes of black working people enduring a freedom that functioned too much like slavery. Chapter 1 begins with an overview of the social, spatial, and legal con- tours of colonial Antigua and Barbuda in the late slavery period. This chapter orients readers to the geography, topography, and demography of both places, and the racial and gendered boundaries circumscribing enslaved people’s lives and forms of subversion. Chapter 2 examines An- tigua’s 1831 slave rebellion, in which enslaved people protested the out- lawing of their Sunday market with riots in the capital and a series of fi res across several rural estates. This uprising shows that metropolitan and colonial conversations about slavery’s po liti cal future aff ected slaves’ ap- proaches to their daily lives. The events considered in subsequent chapters illuminate both conti- nuities and changes in black people’s everyday practices as they sought to defi ne the terms of their freedom. While their new status bestowed new opportunities, crucial pitfalls of bondage remained well aft er aboli- tion. Chapter 3 examines the transformations in labor aft er abolition. Working people contested the offi cial version of freedom through infor- mal and oft en extralegal negotiations with their employers over issues such as wages, work schedules, workplace duties, the labor of women and children, and the pursuit of livelihoods beyond the plantations. Freedpeople’s growing mobility and refashioned work routines prompted planters and lawmakers to respond with severe legal and customary strat- egies of containment. Chapter 4 investigates black working people’s changing leisure prac- tices as opportunities in the local marketplace expanded, their wages on and off plantations rose (however temporarily), and they asserted their presence in public space in novel ways. Freedpeople’s pursuit of improved housing, expanded amusements, and new forms of consumption an- nounced their conviction that freedom should also transform their social lives. But their new religious and secular public engagements opened up further subjection to church and state authority, and were met with sharp criticism from local elites that reiterated discourses of race, class, and gender in operation since slavery. The next chapter fi rst documents the surge in Christian conversion among freedpeople amid their continued adherence to the African spiri- tual practice of obeah, and then explores the prevalence of nonmonog- amous informal partnerships over Christian wedlock, both of which complicate any assumptions about freedpeople’s complete Christian-

ization. Drawing on hitherto unstudied archival rec ords of Moravian Church disciplinary proceedings against what they deemed adulterous relations, the chapter argues that emancipation as a gendered project intensifi ed the inequities of slavery to which black women were espe- cially subject. These proceedings reveal the regularity of surveillance and violence aimed at freedwomen’s bodies and their sexuality, as it was dif- ferently practiced by Christian missionaries and by the black men with whom they were intimate. Black women’s bodies were continually under duress. Legal abolition and the varied eff orts to expand freedom aft er- ward particularly generated little in the way of liberation for black working women. Chapter 6 investigates the successive and severe setbacks to black working people’s progress between the late 1840s and mid-1850s. The Sugar Duties Act of 1846 that gradually eliminated protection for British Ca rib bean sugar in the En glish market depressed sugar prices and pre- cipitated a fi nancial crisis. Amid such dire circumstances, black working people employed a variety of legal and extralegal strategies to maintain livelihoods both within and outside the sugar industry. Setting cane fi res, practicing obeah, and committing petty theft — though deemed criminal by authorities and white elites— appear to have had more economic and po liti cal significance than their detractors recognized. These illicit actions represent freedpeople’s protest against the retraction of the all- too- brief benefi ts they had gained during the early 1840s. Chapter 7 tells the story of the 1858 uprising. Job competition between Antiguan and Barbudan dockworkers sparked the outburst. Over sev- eral days, Antiguans progressed from attacking Barbudans to targeting Portuguese immigrant retailers, white planters, and, most prominently, black and mixed- race policemen. Gendered violence also unfolded as Antiguan workingwomen assaulted Barbudan women in ways refl ecting the pervasive devaluation of black women’s bodily integrity in slavery and in freedom. The rioters’ goals and the changing targets of their violence hint at their varied and contradictory conceptions of freedom and who should enjoy its privileges. Ultimately, Antigua’s working people launched a futile protest against such a narrowly construed freedom. Troubling Freedom presents freedpeople’s eff orts to form an effi cient workforce, devout families, and in de pen dent communities in response to elite prescriptions for acceptable behavior, all of which failed to con- vince whites that blacks were worthy of full economic and po liti cal inclu- sion in the colony. Freedpeople’s multifaceted conceptions of freedom

are revealed in their shift ing yet per sis tent responses to white elites’ strategies of domination. As emancipation unfolded in the early 1830s, Antigua’s freedpeople appealed to colonial structures of power to try to claim their perceived rights, invoking their perceived legal subjecthood before the Crown. They continued during the late 1830s and early 1840s by asserting their rights as laborers and as participants in public institu- tions. At later and more repressive junctures, they had to abandon their new strategies altogether and employ familiar practices to maintain their lives and livelihoods. Freedom degenerated to a bare minimum of sur- vival as sugar’s profi tability declined during the late 1840s. In turn, the legal and public identities black working people cultivated fell away as they continued the extralegal tactics in which they had always engaged. Moreover, some freedpeople’s eff orts to secure material improvement and social power undercut those of others. As a wide range of eff orts proved inadequate to expand local and metropolitan authorities’ narrow constructions of freedom, freedpeople struggled against one another, sometimes violently, to seize what little spoils they could. By the 1850s, the idealism that had fl ourished on the eve of emancipation was all but gone. Ultimately, this book explores the contentious nature of black commu- nity building, asking how it simultaneously supported and derailed the goals that working people pursued in freedom, and how it was repeatedly thwarted by the empire’s powerful Others. Though they launched many oppositional eff orts that upend a simple narrative of imperial subjuga- tion aft er slavery, freedpeople still reifi ed the troubled forms of freedom embedded in Britain’s emancipation project. This contradictory and dy- namic range of activities off ers a rare window into black working people’s lives and their politics.