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PLANTKINGDOM

I.PHYLUMTHALLOPHYTA
Thisgroupincludesthemostprimitiveforminplantsranginginsizefromsmall
singlemicroscopiccelltoseaweedofhugedimensions.Theformsincludedinthis
groupare of simple structures andthere is no differentiation into organs such as
stems,leaves,flowersetc.Thissimpleplantbodyiscalledthalus.Thatiswhyall
organismbelongingtothisgroupiscalledthalus.Itmaybeseparatedconveniently
intotwoartificialsubphylabasedinthemannerinwhichtheplantssecuretheirfood.
SubphylumI.AutophyticThallophytes
Thesearechlorophyllbearingthallophytes,thereforetheyareabletocarryon
photosynthesisandlivedoninorganicmatter.Therearethreeclasses:
CLASSI.CYANOPHYCEAE(bluegreenalgae)
Unicellular plants without definite nuclei occurring often in colonies held
together by a jellylike material. They possess blue pigment in addition to
chlorophyll.Somebluegreenalgaesecretelimeandthereforeareimportantasrock
builders.
CLASSII.DIATOMEAE
Diatomeaearethallophyteswhichmayberelatedtothegreenandbrownalgae.
Theyaremicroscopic,chlorophyllbearing,unicellularwithdefiniteordistinctnuclei.
Reproductioniseithersexualorasexual.Sexualisthroughtheunionoftwocells.
Theyoccurinbothfreshandsaltwater.Intheocean,theyformalargepartofwhat
wecallplanktons(microscopicorganismwhichmovebecauseofthemovementof
waterandnotthroughtheirowneffort),whicharedriftingmassesoforganismsonthe
surface of water and furnish the food of many marine animals. Extends in large
numbersatdepthofprobably20meters.Skeletonsofdiatomswhencastoffatgreat
depthsattheprocessofreproductionmaybedepositedatoceanbottomsorinany
bodyofwaterandtheyformdiatomaceousoozes.Skeletonsaremainlysilica,known
as siliceous oozes, and when they are formed in the rocks (ex. thru diagenetic
process),theserocksarediatomitesordiatomaceousearth.
CLASSIII.ALGAE
Algae are commonly known as seaweeds. Primitive waterdwelling plants
rangingfrommicroscopic,onecelledformtolargeandcomplexplants.Majoritylive
submergeinwater(fresh/salt),allothersarefoundinthewetsubstrateoratleast
carryonanactiveexistenceduringtheperiodswherewaterormoistureisabundant.
The greencoloring matter (chlorophyll) which is always found in algae is also
markedbysomebrown,redpigmentations.Thesealgaehavebeenobservedfromthe
Cambrianuptothepresent.

1.GreenAlgaeunicellularandmulticellular
Ex.a)Protococcusgreenalgaeabundantonsidesofrocksandshadedtrees.It
isthemostcommongreenalgaebecauseitisremarkablyresistanttodrought.
b)Desmidsabundantinfreshwater.
c)Halimedalimesecretingalgaeofthemodernwatersespeciallyoncoral
reefs connecting dead coral skeletons, and other organic remains. Forms
extensivelimestonedeposits.Itsanalysisshowsthatitgives90%limeand
4%oforganicmatterandbecauseofthatitisaveryimportantrockbuilder.
d)Charafreshwateralgae.Alsolimesecretingandwhentheorganismdies,
thelimesecreteddisintegratesandsettlesaslimemuds,whichisresponsible
formanylimestonedepositsoffreshwaterorigin.
2.BrownAlgae(green+brownpigmentation)
Ex.a)Fucusarockweedcommoninrockexposedduringalowtide.Foundin
intertidalsubstrata.
b)Laminarialargealgaegrowinginthedeeperwatersbeyondthelowtide.
Includes some of the largest known plants. Some having huge trunkline
stalksandreachingaheightofseveralhundredfeet.
c)Sorgassum
d)Nematophycusverylargeplantwhosefossilizedstemhavebeenfoundin
theSilurianandDevonianrocks.(Thereisnoimportantlimesecretingbrown
algae).
3.RedAlgae(green+redpigment).
Therearesomelimesecretingforms,andthemostimportantformisthe:
a)Corallinaplantsgrowingindelicatejointedfilamentswhichformlittleturfs
onrocksandseaweeds.
b)Lithothamniumlimesecretedbythatplantswhichusuallyformscrustson
thesurfaceofshells,coralsandrocksonwhichitgrows.Oneoftheprincipal
coralreef builders. Reefbuilders and binders (they put together organic
remains,shells,coralsandbrachiopods).
c)Cryptozooncalcareousmassesofunicellularorganismscalled cryptozoon.
EarlyPaleozoic.
SubphylumII.HeterophyticThallophytes
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Heterophytic Thallophytes are especially characterized by the absence of


chlorophyll,cannotcarryonphotosynthesis,andtheprincipalsourceofenergyisthe
organicmatter.Accordingly,theyliveas:
1)Sarphytesliveondecayingorganicmatter(livingorganism)orasparasites.
Significantly,withouttheactionoftheseplantsincausingthedelayofdead
organism,thesurfaceoftheearthwillbecoveredsodeeplywithdeadbodies
ofplantsandanimals.
CLASSI.SCHIZOMYCETES(Bacteria)
Schizomycetes aresimple onecelled plants without definite nuclei, averages
about2micronindiameter,andwithinthisverysmallbodiesofplantsiscarriedon
alltheactivitiesoflifelikerespiration,reproduction,excretion,etc.Reproductionis
usually asexual. Economically significant as agents of fermentation, decay and
disease.
Kinds:
1.Spherecoccus
2.Spiralspirillum
3.Rodbacillus
CLASSII.MYXOMYCETES(Slimefungi)
Myxomyctesarestickymassesenclosingmanynucleiandwithoutcellwalls.
Frequentlyoccurondecayingwoodandlivesintheforest.Somehavecombined
characteristicofplantsandanimals,thusitisquitedoubtfulwheretoclassifythem.
Theyliveondecayingmatter,andmorelikeamoeba.Theyaregenerallyterrestrial.
Noknownfossilforms.Ex.Acrytia.
CLASSIII.FUNGI(Truefungi)
Fungi consists essentially of a branching mass of thread called mycellum.
Resemblingthecobwebrootletsofthemushroom.Thesethreadspenetratethecell
wallsofthehostplantortheanimal,andliveuponitssubstance(that'swhytheyare
calledparasites).
Kindsoffungi:
1.Algaefungi(phycomycetes)includesthebreadmold,grapemildew>
2.Sacfungi(ascomycetes)representedbyyeast.

3. Club fungi (basidiomycetes) highest form of fungi, mushrooms,


toadstones,rarelypreservedasfossils.
Lichenswidelydistributedgraybrown,foundintreetrunksandrocks,madeupof
fungi(sacfungi)andgreenalgae(protococcus).

ImportanceofThallophytes:
1.Thallophytesasrockbuildersspecificallyalgae.
2.Thallophytesasreefbuildersspecificallyalgae.
II.PHYLUMBRYOPHYTA(Greekwordbryonmoss,phytonplants)
Bryophytes exhibits a distinct characteristic from Thallophytes from the
following:
1.Theirterrestrialhabit
2.Thegreaterspecializationoftheplantbody.
3. The constant occurrence of alternation of generation in the life cycle or
methodsofreproduction.
Asmostthallophytesareessentiallywaterdwellingplantslikethealgae,there
isnonecessityforspecializationoforgans.Sinceanyoftheplantcellscanmovefor
absorbingthefoodwhichsurroundsit.Withtheevolutionofthebryophytes,there
came a change from aquatic to terrestrial conditions and thus goes a need for a
specializedorgansadoptedforgettingfoodfromthesoilandfromtheair.
Thenotveryinefficient"rootlike"hairscalledrhizoidstakewaterandother
necessarysubstancefromthesoil.Toprotectagainstexcessivelossofwater,thecells
atthesurfaceoftheplantareprovidedwithacuticlewhichislackinginthallophytes.
Theadaptationofterresrtialconditionsbeingstillimperfect,manybryophytes
suchassomeliverwortsstillhavethalloidplantbody,whilethegroupasawholeis
moistureloving.Duringdryperiodtheyalmostceasedvegetating.
CLASSI.HEPATICAE(Liverworts)

Hapaticaeincludethesimplestbryophyteswithmanysimilaritieswiththealgae.
Ex.RicciaandMachantia.Macanthiapolymorphaisthemostcommonandwidely
distributedamongtheliverworts.
CLASSII.MUSCI(Mosses)
The mosses today are more abundant than liverworts. The haircup moss
(Polytrichumcommune)andthepeatmoss(Sphagmum)arethecommonexamples.
InSphagmum,mostoftheleavesconsistofmanysmallchlorophyllbearingcellsand
afewlargeemptycellswhichareresponsibleforthelightgreencoloroftheleaves.
Andbecauseoftheirpresence,theSphagumhasagreatcapacitytoabsorbwater.Itis
probablethatancientrepresentativesofbryophytesweremoredelicatethanmodern
formsforonlyunderexceptionalconditionshavetheybeenpreserved.Remainsof
delicateplantssuchasRhyniaoccurintheEarlyDevonianseriesofsilicifiedpeat
beds.
III.PHYLUMPTERIDOPHYTA:(Greekword:pterisfern,phytonplants)
ThePteridophytesaremuchmorecomplexplant,whilethestructureofthemoss
plantsaresimpleandcellular,andthatofthepteridophyteshavevascularstructure.In
particular,likethehigherfloweringtypes,theplantpossessesaseriesofvesselwhich
formaconductingapparatusforthefoodandmanufactureofsap.Bryophytesand
Pteridophytes are sometimes called cryptogams, that is, without true flowers and
seeds.Theyaredistinguishedfromthephanerogramswhicharethehigherflowering
plants. The bryophytes are cellular cryptograms whereas the pteridophytes are
vascularcryptogams.Likethebryophytes,thepteridophytesproducesaconspicuous
alternationofgenerationbutdifferfromthebryophytesintherelativeimportanceof
thesexualreproductiveandasexualvegetativestages.
Inthedevelopmentofthelandflora,thepteridophytesaremoreadvancedthan
thebryophytesinthefollowing:
1.Theindependenceofsporophyticgeneration.
2.Thewellorganizedvascularsystem.
3.Themoreefficientepidermis(cuticle).
4. The development of roots which penetrate in a relatively deeper and
moistenedlayer.
CLASSI.FELICALES(Fern)
Theleafofthefernisgenerallybroadandisoftendividedintoleaflets,the
sporecasesaregatheredintoroundfruitdotsbornonmoreorlessmodifiedportions
oftheleaforontheindependentfruitingstalks.Fernsarewidelydistributedoverthe
earth.Theyflourishmostluxuriantlyinmoistandshadyhabitats.

CLASSII.EQUISITALIS(Horsetails)
Horsetailsarelowplantsgrowingusuallyinmoistlocalitiesbutoftenbutoften
inrailwayembankment.Theyhavesimpleorbranchingstalkswhicharestrongly
furrowedlongitudinallyandaredividedintosectionsbyverydistinctjointsknownas
nodes.Theyalsohavehollowinternodesteminacircleatitsjointbecauseofthe
peripheralleaves.Photosynthesisiscarriedonlargelybythestems.Thecarboniferous
representative of this class were large forest tree which bore large leaves. These
horsetailshaveexistedfromDevonianuptothepresent.Pennsylvanianfossilsoften
attainaheightof100ft.andareusuallypreservedintheformofcast.
CLASSIII.LYCOPODIALES(ClubMosses)
Livingclubmossesarelargelycreepingplantswithnumeroustinymosslike
leavesspirallyarrangedonthestems.Thesporebearingleavesarearrangedinaclub
likeformsasinhorsetail.Theyembraceonlyforlivinggeneraofwhichthemore
commonare:
1.Lycopodium
2.Selaginella
Includesnearly600speciesmostofwhichgrowinmoisttropicalforest.
Lepidodendron isanancientclubmoss.ItisaloftytreeoftheLatePaleozoic
appearing inthelowerDevoniananddyingoutinthePermian.Itwasespecially
abundantthroughouttheworldduringtheCarboniferous.
Sigillariaisatreethatresembleslepidodendroningeneralappearanceaswell
asingeologicrange.Itdifferedinthestructureofitsstemandinthearrangementof
itsleavesasindicatedbytheimpressionofthebarkcoveredwithleafcushion.The
leafcushionarehexagonalinoutlineandarrangedinaquiteverticalrows.Itscones
areknownasLigallariastrobus.
CLASSIV.SPHENEROPHYLLATES
Thesearepaleozoicgroupofslenderplantswithjointedstemsandleavesin
whorls. They are probably trailing and climbing in habit and are known from
DevoniantoPermian.Sphenophylumisasmallbranchingplantwithslenderribbed
stemrepresentedbymanyspeciesinthePennsylvaniancoalfieldsofEasternNorth
America.Theleavesaresixinawhorlandwedgeshaped.
IV.PHYLUMSPERMATOPHYTA

This includes the mosthighly organized plants andare distinguished bythe


productionofseeds.Thetwo(2)distinguishingcharacteristicsoftheSpermatophyta
whichsharplydifferentiatethemfromallotherplantsare:
1. The formation of a pollen tube (short in the gymnosperm; long in the
angiosperm)
2.Theproductionofseedstheseedisthebeginningofthesporophytestage;
theembryowithinitlaterunfoldsintothenaturalplant.
Inseedplants,fertilizationisnotconditionedbythepresenceofwaterforthe
malegametophyte(pollengrains)iscarriedbywindsorinsectstothevicinityofthe
megaspore,developsatube(pollentube)downwhichthemalegametesarecarriedby
theflowofprotoplasmtothefemalegametophyte.
Thespermatophytesaredividedintotwoclasses:
CLASSA.GYMNOSPERM(Greekwordgymnosnaked;spermseed)
Theseplantsaretypifiedbythepines.Inthefemalepinecone,eachscaleisa
leaf(thatisamegasporophyllknownaspistilorcarpil)uponthebaseofthesetwo
ovules develops. The surface of each of these becomes very hard and is often
extendedtoformawingwhichcatchesthemindandcarriesitsomedistancesfrom
theparenttree.
Underthegymnospermsaretreesandshrubsmostlyevergreen.Theyinclude
thefollowingorders:
ORDERCYCADALES
FamilyCycadeoideae
Thisextinctfamilyoftreesofshrubsresembledthelivingcycadsingeneral
outerappearance.Thesteminmostformswasthickandshortandcloselycovered
withanarmorofpersistentleafbases.
ThisorderformedthedominantvegetationoftheMesozoicrangingfromthe
JurassicCretaceousinNorthAmerica,Europe,IndiaandtheArcticregions.
FamilyCycadeae
Theseareexistingcycadsorsagopalms.Plantswiththick,columnarstems,at
timesattainingaheightof30to60ft.Thetrunksarecoveredwitharmorofoldleaf
bases.
Livingcycadsaretropical.Thereareninegeneraofcycads,thebestknownof
which are genus found in Australia and Asia. They existed in the Mesozoic and
thereforeMesozoicismarkedasthe"ageofthecycads".
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ORDERCORDIATALES
An extinct group of tall, slender trees which had a general distribution
throughouttheworldfromtheDevoniantoPermian,inclusive.Itisrepresentedbythe
genusCordaitales.Thetrunkrosetoaheightof30to100ft.withadensecrownof
branches bearing narrow roundlike leaves. Theleaves are distinguished bytheir
conspicuousparallelveinandtheirgreatsizeattainingattimesalengthof3ft.
The Cordaitales are more confined to the Paleozoic and furnished the
predominantmembersofthegymnospermduringtheDevonianandespeciallylater
duringtheCarboniferous.
ORDERGINKGOALES
Anisolatedgroupgroupofgymnospermrepresented atpresentbyonlyone
genusandonespecies Ginkgobilova knownasmaidenhairtreewithlongvaried
history.TheGinkgoisatreewhichingeneralappearanceandanatomyofthestem
closely resembles the conifers. The Ginkgoales is widespread in the Jurassic and
abundantintheCretaceous.
IntheearlierpartoftheTertiary,theGinkgoflourishedinAlaska,Greenland
and the northern part of the United Kingdom. Because of its great antiquity and
isolatedposition,ithasbeencalleda"livingfossil".Itissupposedtohaverisenfrom
thegroupCordaitales.
ORDERCONIFERALES
This order includes the conspicuous gymnosperm vegetation of northern
temperate regions made of trees and shrubs mostly evergreen. Usually with rigid
needleorscaleleavesandwithmaleandfemalecones.Theconiferswereprobably
derivedfromtheCordaitales ofthePaleozoic retaining fewerprimitive characters
thantheGinkgoales.Livingconifers arerepresented byabout40generaand300
species.Theyaredividedintotwo(2)families:
1.Taxaceae
2.Penaceae
ThegenusSequoiaistheonlylivingconiferthatwaswidelydistributedduring
CretaceousandTertiaryinCaliforniaandSouthOregonregions.
ORDERGNETALES
Thisgroupofsmalltreesandshrubsconsistof3livinggeneraincludingthe
Ephedra ofthedesertregionsofbothhemisphere.Thereisnofossilrecordofthis
order.

CLASSB.ANGIOSPERM
Tothisclassbelongstheplantsofthehighestrank.Thisgroup,thelatestto
cometoearth,comprisesoverhalfoftheknownlivingspeciesofplants.Itisthe
angiospermswhichclothesmostoftheearthwithvegetation.
In every climate and at almost all altitudes, they nearly always compete
successfullywithallothertypesofvegetation. Theynotonlycovertheearthbut
manyspecieshaveinvadedthefreshwaterrealmofthealgaewithwonderfulsuccess.
Thenumbersoftheangiospermarecommonlyknownasthe"floweringplants".
SubclassA.Monocotyledons
Theseplantsareusuallydistinguishedbythefollowingcharacteristics:
1.Theplantbeginswithasimpleleafletorcotyledon.
2.Theleavesareparallelveins.
3.Thestemiscylindricalwiththevascularbundlesscattered.
4.Acrosssectiondoesnotshowconcentricgrowthlines.
5.Therootsarefibrous.
6.Thepartsoftheflowersareinthrees.
Thissubclassincludestoday'smembersofvasteconomicimportancetoman.
Ex.grasses,especiallytheirfruits,thegrains,banana,coconutandsagopalms(tallest
grassonearthisbamboo).
Representativesofthesubclassarethefirstknownfortheupperpartofthe
lowerCretaceousofeasternNorthAmericaandPortugalinsuchlowlyformsasthe
"PondweedandLedge".ThelilyandpalmappearedintheCretaceous,whilenotuntil
theTertiarydidthegrassesmadetheirappearance.Paleontologicrecordofthepalm
datesbacktothemidCretaceous.
SubclassB.Dicotyledons
Dicotyledonsusuallypossessthefollowingcharacters:
1.Theplantsbeginwithtwo(2)seedlingleaves.
2.Theleavesareusuallynettedveins.
3.Thestemisusuallythickerbelowthanabove,withvascularbundlesarranged
toformacylinder,enclosingapitcenter.
4.Asgrowthproceeds,newcylindersareformed.
5.Sincethevascularbundlesformedinspringhavethinnerwallsthanthose
formedinlatesummerandfall.Theannualgrowthbecomesvisibleasaconcentric
ring.
6.Atoprootisusuallypresent.
7.Thepartsofflowersarein4'sor5's.

Dicotyledonsareregardedasmoreprimitivethanthemonocotyledonsandas
theirprobableancestors.
Example:
1.Liriodendrontulipiferaoneofthemostprimitivedicotyledon.Theyarein
theeasternandnorthAmericareachingadiameterof4'12'andaheightof60'190'.
GeologicrangefromCretaceoustopresent.
2.AssafrasfromlowerCretaceoustopresent
3.PoplarfromlowerCretaceoustopresent
EvolutionofPlants
Plantinitssimplestformisessentiallyaminuteprotoplasmencaseinafirm
roundedcell wall capable ofcarryingonthe fundamental activity ofalllife.The
storageandexpendituresofenergy.Someoftheseenergyisusedinthedivisionof
cellsandthemanycelledplantcameintoexistencewhensomeofthecellsremained
inthecontactafterdivision.Theresultinglargerorganismspossessedmoresurface
exposedtothesun'sraysandincontactwithfoodinsolutioninoceansandsoils,and
thus would avail themselves of larger storage than energy. Subdivision of labor
developamongthecellsoftheselargerplants(thallophytes).
Certain cells have protecting function, others reproductive, while others
manufacture starch. When plant branchout upontheplant, the cellular structure
graduallyevolveintoastrongertype(thevascularstructure),withthecellsarranged
endtoendinaseriesofminutepilesboundedtogetherinbundles.Thechangefrom
cellulartovascularisthusnecessaryinthedevelopmentofthelandfloras.Achange
thatopenupthepossibilityofincreaseinsizethatlaidthefoundationforthemighty
treesoftheCarboniferousforestandthegiantredwoodsofwesternUnitedStates.
Anotherdifficultythatplantshadtomeetinadaptingthemselvestolandisthatthey
mustdeveloparesistancetothedryingoutoftheair.Rolesplayedbythedifferent
phylaintheevolutionofplants:
1.Theearlyplantstiedtothewater.
2.Watergavethemfoodandheldthemupagainstthepullofgravity.
3.Waterkeptthemfromdryingupandunablethemtoreproduce.Thisisthe
stageofthethallophytes.
4.Thefirststeptothedevelopmentoflandflorasweremostprobablytakenby
someearlygroupoffreshwateralgae,thebryophytes.Inponds,subjecttoannual
drought,themoreplasticformoflifeextendedthemselvesincontactwiththedamp
soil downinto the root hairs, while the cells in contact with the air developed a
thickened surface. An early stage in such adaptation to air is exemplified by the
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liverworts.Slightlyresistanttodryairbutmustliveinmoistareasuchastheedgeof
waterfall.
5.Thechangefromcellulartovascularstructureandthelargerplantswhichled
to the development of roots that could secure foothold in the soil was taken by
Pteridophytes.Mammothtreefernsrearedloftystemsanddevelopdeepbranching
rootsintheLatePaleozoic.
6.Itisonlythespermatophyteswhichhaveevolvedadevicewhichhasfinally
freedtheplantsofthenecessityofexternalwaterfortheprocessoffertilization.
Since in these terrestrial phyla, the cellular cell walls are denser and more
resistanttodecaythanthoseofthethallophytes,theymayunderproperconditionsbe
preserved.Suchdepositsaspeat,ligniteandcoalareknownfromthelateDevonianto
thepresent.

ANIMALKINGDOM
I.PHYLUMPROTOZOAinthisphylumoccursthelowestorfirstformof
animals.
Classes:
A.Sarcodina
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B.Mastigophora
C.Sporozoa
D.Infusoria
Characteristics:
1.Thereisnotraceofanervoussystem.
2.Itissensitivetochemicalchangeinthewatersurroundingit,andittendsto
moveawayfromthesourceofheatandthechemicallychangedarea.
3.Itmovesawaylikewisefromthesourceoflightandfromthenegativepole
whenthewatercontainingitischargedwithelectricity.
4. It avoids mechanical obstacle in the water by reversing the flow of its
protoplasmintotheoppositedirection.(propelsthemovement).
Thus,mechanical,chemical,andelectricalstimuliandvariationsinheatand
lightcontrolthedirectionofmovement.Methodofreproductionissingledivisionor
celldivision.
CLASSSARCODINA
These are marine or fresh water protozoan with a body which alternately
protrudes and retracts, first one and then another part into a fingerlike process
"pseudopodia".Methodofreproductionisbinaryormultiplefission.Thisisdivided
intotwo(2)subclasses:
SubclassRhizopoda
ThemostimportantmemberofwhichisForaminifera.IntheForaminifera,the
skeletonwhichisusuallyreferredtoasthetest,iscomposedofcalciumcarbonate
(CaCO3), more rarely of sand or of chitin, forming one or more openings. Most
Foraminiferaarebottomdwellingforms,usingnetlikepseudopodiatocapturefood.
They crawl slowly about, or attach to various objects at the bottom of the sea.
Although a few species have adapted to pelagic (freefloating) existence of
planktonics.
Onthebasisofhabitat,Foraminiferamaybeclassifiedas planktonic, nektonic
and benthonic. Planktonics are adopted to floating at or near the surface and are
widely distributed by current which made them excellent guide fossils for
stratigraphicwork.Nektonicsareadaptedtofloating.Benthonicsarethoseadaptedto
crawling.TheyconstitutethelargestnumberofthegeneraoftheForaminifera.
Factorsaffectingtheirreproduction:
1.Amountoflight
2.AvailabilityofO,CO
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3.Availabilityoffood
4.AvailabilityofCaCO3
MethodsofreproductioninForaminiferaarebothasexualandsexual.Majority
aremarine,veryfewsimplerformsliveinbrackishwater,orfreshwater,usually
bottomdwelling found in seas, seldom below 2,000 fathom. Occurs from the
Cambriantopresent.Relativelyimportantinthesearchforoil(datingrocks).
Ex.GlobigerinafromCretaceoustopresent
FusulinidsfromPennsylvaniantoPermian(foundintheCarabaoIslands
andMindoro,Philippines)
LepidocyclinafromEocenetoMiocene
SubclassActinopoda
Theseareusuallyfloatingforms,rarelychangeablepseudopodia,providedwith
uniaxialthreadandsubdividedintotwo(2)orders:
Order1.Heliosacombinedtofreshwaterandnofossilevidence.
Order 2. Radiolaria the more important order, marinesilica secreting
organisms.Usuallyfloatatthesurfaceoftheoceanevenatabyssaldepthsandpresent
inallclimates,afterdeathofanimalsaccumulatesformingasiliceousdepositknown
as"radiolarianoozes".TheseradiolariasoccurfromthepreCambriantothepresent.
CLASSMASTIGOPHORA
Theseprotozoanshavedefinitebodyoutline.Thebodybeingprotectedinsome
speciesbyaskeletonofcelluloseorchitin.Organsoflocomotionandforfoodcapture
aretheflagellaslenderthreadscapableofwhiplikeslushingmovement.Ex.Euglena
CLASSSPOROZOA
Parasiticprotozoans,nodefiniteorganoflocomotionorfoodgettingespecially
intheadultstage.Reproductionisbytheformationofseedlikebodieswhicharethe
sporeswhichcontainoneormoreminutegermswhichareknownassporozites.No
knownfossilrecord.Ex.Plasmodium
CLASSINFUSORIA
Hasadefinitebodyoutline,theorganoflocomotionandfoodgettingduringall
andpartofactivelifeare cilia whicharesmallvibratilethreadsmallerandmore
numerousthanflagella,unknowninfossilstate.Ex.Vorticella,Paramecium.

EvolutionofProtozoa

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Theseareonecelledanimalshavemettheirneedsbyradiatingintofour(4)
maindirections.InSarcodina,theprotoplasmsenseoutmoreorlesstemporaryfood
procuringdirections(pseudopodia).InMastigophora,theprotoplasmicprojectionis
confinedtooneormorepermanentextensionswhicharetheflagella.InInfusoria,the
protoplasmisextendedoutwardintonumerouspermanentcilia.InSporozoa,alarge
groupbecameparasites,donothaveorganforfoodgetting.
Protozoaasrockbuilders
Rockbuildingisnaturallyconfinedtothelimeandsilicasecretingordersofthe
ForaminiferaandRadiolaria.
ThemodernGlobigerinaoozesarecomposedlargelyoftherepresentativeofthe
pelagicfamiliesofForaminiferaoccurattheedgeofcontinentalshelforuptothe
depthof25,000fathom.PresentfromCambrianpresent.Reproductiontooslowto
enabletheirtesttoenterlargelytothecompositionofrocksbeforePennsylvanian.
DuringthePermianandPennsylvanian,FusulinidaeformedsolidmassesofFusulina
limestone at numerous horizons and such limestone is present in the Philippines
(CarabaoIslandandMindoro).
II.PHYLUMPORIFERA
These are exemplified by the sponges. Sponges are organisms consisting of
manycells.Theyareplantlikeinappearanceandvariableinshape.Whensponges
grow side by side with each other, usually they fuse into one, and almost any
fragmentofspongecangrowintoaperfectlynewindividual(reproduceasexually).
Almostallspongesaremarine,andtheyareabundantintheshallowpartsofthe
oceanwithanexceptionofsome.Ex.Venus'sflowerbasket(Euplectellaaspergellum)
which are found in abyssal depths. Spongilla example of fresh water sponge.
Skeletonofspongesmaybeofcalcareous,orsiliceousspicules,oritmaybehorny
fiber. When siliceous spicules are loosely bounded together and upon the
decompositionofthesoftpartsoftheanimals,theywillbecollectedinthedepositing
sedimentandsubstratum,andwhenveryabundant,theymayformsiliceousbeds.In
somecases,thespiculesarepartiallydissolvedinseawaterandwhenthisisso,this
dissolved silica are redeposited as siliceous cement, (which is later called chert)
bindingtheremainingspiculestogether.Spiculesareveryminuteandtheirdetection
isonlypossiblebymeansofahighpoweredmicroscope.Thespiculesmaybemade
upofsilica,fewaremadeupofCaCO3,andstillfeweronesaremadeupofleathery
substanceknownasspongin.Thesponginarerarelypreservedasfossilsandtherefore
arenoimportanceasrockbuilders.
CLASSCALCAREA
Skeletonsaremadeupofcalcareousspiculesfoundinshallowerpartsofthesea
today.AmongtherecentformsareGrantia.
14

CLASSHEXACTINELLIDA
Theskeletonismadeupofsixrayspicules.Totheseclassbelongmostofthe
fossilsponges.Althoughtheirpresentforms arefoundinthedeeperwaters,their
fossilformslivecomparativelyshallowwaters.Ex.Euplectellaasperellum.
CLASSDEMOSPONGIA
Theypossessskeletonsofsiliceousspiculesorofsponginorofboth.Thisclass
includesthemajorityofthelivingforms.Ex.Astylospongiaprimosia.
EvolutionofPoriferas
Thefirstgreatstepinthedevelopmentofalargeranimalandamorevariedone
appearstobethetransformationofaprotozoancolonyofsimilaronecelledorganism
intoasingleorganismofmanyindependentcells.Inthese,neworganism,eachcell
mustactforthewelfareofalltheothers.Therefore,inthesponges,certaincellscatch
indigestedfood,otherssecretespicules,othersexcretewastematerials.
Thereisalawoflifethatallfactorsbeingequal,thelargertheorganismthe
betteritschanceforsurvival.Therefore,aspongebecauseofitsgreatersizecannotbe
easilydestroyedbysettlingsedimentsnorcanitbereadilyeatenbyotherorganism
likethatofprotozoa.Spongesrepresentanevolutionfromprotozoanancestorswhich
ledhowevertonothingbeyondthespongesthemselves.Thelivingrepresentativeof
thisphylumarerarelyusedforfoodbyotheranimalsapparentlybecauseoftheir
objectionablespiculesanditsbeingpoisonousandthereforewasabletosurvivefirst
asacolonyandlateronasanindividualevolvedtosomethingmorecomplex.
Poriferaasrockbuilders
IntheUpperJurassicofEurope,manyreefsapparentlyareformedtoalarge
extentbylimesecretingsponges.Asarule,however,spongesaretoofewinnumber
allovertheworld,withhardpartstoosmallinamounttohavebeeneffectiveasrock
builders.
III.PHYLUMCOELENTERATA
Theseareaquatic,usuallymarineanimalswithradialsymmetry,themouthis
nearlysurroundedbytentacles(ex.seaanemone).Thetentaclesarehollowandor
solidoutgrowthsofthebodywall.Theseareanimalswhichareprovidedwithspecial
offensive weapons called nematocysts or nettlecells. (Portuguesemanofwar)
jellyfish.
CLASSHYDROZOA

15

Theseareaquaticanimalswithabodyconsistingofalargecentrallyplaced
digestivecavitybutwithonlyoneopeningwhichisthemouth,butthemouthisalso
surroundedbytentacles.TheyhadbeenobservedfromOrdoviciantothepresent.Ex.
Hydra
OrderStromatophroidea
Thisisthemostimportantcolonialorderofhydrozoawhichareextinctgroups
of coelenterates especially during the Paleozoic era particularly Silurian and
Devonian. They are important limestonebuilders, commonly associated with true
corals,bryozoansandalgae.Theyareresponsibleforbuildingbiohermsandreefsand
sometimesbeddedlimestones,knownonlyinitsfossilforms.
CLASSGRAPTOZOA
Thesearethegraptolites,extinctcolonialcoelenterateswhichmaybefloatingon
thesurfaceofthewaterattachedtoadriftingseaweed.Theysecreteaprotectingand
supportingskeletonofchitinandtheseanimalsareknownonlyfromtheircolonial
phase.Graptolitesliveinsuspendedlife,meaningtheydidnotlivefastenedtothesea
bottomasshownbythefactastheirremainsarealwaysconfinedtoembeddingplane,
neverpassingverticallyfromonebedtoanother,theyarealwaysspreadflat,although
foundinallkindsofsedimentsasfossilincludinglimestone,theyareverycommonin
finegrainedcarbonaceousshale.Theyhavebeenobservedtobeveryabundantduring
Ordovician.
CLASSSCYPHOZOA
These are the jellyfishes, either made up of large freeswimming umbrella
shapedindividualscalledthe medusae.TheyhavebeenknownfromPreCambrian
(?)tothepresent.Theyareentirelywithouthardpartsandisabout99%watersothat
onlyunderexceptionalconditionshavetheyleftrecordoftheirpresence.Whenthey
do,they left averyfinegrained mudimpression oftheir soft bodies which were
preserved,sometimesperhapsimprintsoftheirtentaclesmayhavebeenobserved.
CLASSANTHOZOA
They arecalled truecorals. Theyare colonial informand whenliving and
active,theymaylooklikeplantsandflowers.Afterdeathandthedecompositionof
flesh,nothingisseenbutCaCO 3massofastarlikecapcalledcorallites,isleftwith
anaveragediameterof3to5cm.forthecolonialform.
Ceolenteratesasrockbuilders
Members ofthe class hydrozoa andanthozoa are important as rockbuilders
fromCambriantopresent.

16

Economicimportanceofcorallimestone
Coral limestone have been extensively used as building materials for road
constructions, and many other decorative purposes even for interior decoration
trimmings. During the recent years, petroleum geologist became increasingly
interestedinreeflimestoneforreservoirrocksforpetroleumandhydrocarbon.Ex.
productionofpetroleumreservoirinAlberta,Canada,alsoinMexico,Texas.InIraq
andIran,reeflimestoneofCretaceousandTertiaryagehavebeenpreserved.
EvolutionofCoelenterates
Coelenterates haveperhapsrisenfromaprotozoangroupsomewhat likethe
dinoflagellates (Mastigophora)asindicatedbythesimilarityofcellstructure.The
primitivecoelenteratestocksaredividedintothefreelyfloatingScyphozoaandthose
formswhichareusuallyattachedduringonephaseoftheirexistence.
IV.PHYLUMECHINODERMATA
These are mainly marine organism typically radially symmetrical with a
skeletonofcalcareousplatesorspiculesembeddedintheskin.Thearrangementof
theskeletalplatesandtheinternalorgansisusuallypentamerous(madeupof5),the
number 5 being the governing number in the echinoderms. It represents an
advancementoverthecoelenteratesinthefollowingmanners:
1.Presenceofadigestivetubedistinctfromthebodycavity(Coelome).
2.Highlydevelopednervoussystem.
3.Possessionof"blood"vascularsystem.
4.Almostexclusively sexual modeofreproduction (reproduction ofentirely
newindividual).
CLASSCRINOIDEA
Theyaresealilies.Thebodyismoreorlessglobular,fastenedtemporarilyor
permanentlytosomeobjectbymassofastalkarisingfromitsdorsalside.Flower
like,plantlikeinappearanceandcomesinallcolorsoftherainbow.
ThewholeclassrangesfromCambriantopresent.AbundantinlaterPaleozoic
plantsduetogregarioushabits(livinginflocks).Theirskeletonmayformagreatpart
oflimestoneformationwhichwerereferredtoascrinoidallimestone.Abundantin
moderatedepths,infewcases,theymaybefoundinverydeepandshallowwaters,
andfossilremainscomposedmainlyofdetachedfragmentedportionsofstemofstalk
orscatteredbonyplates,madethemimportantimportantasrockbuilders.

17

18

PLANTKINGDOM
I.PHYLUMTHALLOPHYTA
Thisgroupincludesthemostprimitiveforminplantsranginginsizefromsmall
singlemicroscopiccelltoseaweedofhugedimensions.Theformsincludedinthis
groupare of simple structures andthere is no differentiation into organs such as
stems,leaves,flowersetc.Thissimpleplantbodyiscalledthalus.Thatiswhyall
organismbelongingtothisgroupiscalledthalus.Itmaybeseparatedconveniently
intotwoartificialsubphylabasedinthemannerinwhichtheplantssecuretheirfood.
SubphylumI.AutophyticThallophytes
Thesearechlorophyllbearingthallophytes,thereforetheyareabletocarryon
photosynthesisandlivedoninorganicmatter.Therearethreeclasses:
CLASSI.CYANOPHYCEAE(bluegreenalgae)
Unicellular plants without definite nuclei occurring often in colonies held
together by a jellylike material. They possess blue pigment in addition to
chlorophyll.Somebluegreenalgaesecretelimeandthereforeareimportantasrock
builders.
CLASSII.DIATOMEAE
Diatomeaearethallophyteswhichmayberelatedtothegreenandbrownalgae.
Theyaremicroscopic,chlorophyllbearing,unicellularwithdefiniteordistinctnuclei.
Reproductioniseithersexualorasexual.Sexualisthroughtheunionoftwocells.
Theyoccurinbothfreshandsaltwater.Intheocean,theyformalargepartofwhat
wecallplanktons(microscopicorganismwhichmovebecauseofthemovementof
waterandnotthroughtheirowneffort),whicharedriftingmassesoforganismsonthe
surface of water and furnish the food of many marine animals. Extends in large
numbersatdepthofprobably20meters.Skeletonsofdiatomswhencastoffatgreat
depthsattheprocessofreproductionmaybedepositedatoceanbottomsorinany
bodyofwaterandtheyformdiatomaceousoozes.Skeletonsaremainlysilica,known
as siliceous oozes, and when they are formed in the rocks (ex. thru diagenetic
process),theserocksarediatomitesordiatomaceousearth.
CLASSIII.ALGAE
Algae are commonly known as seaweeds. Primitive waterdwelling plants
rangingfrommicroscopic,onecelledformtolargeandcomplexplants.Majoritylive
submergeinwater(fresh/salt),allothersarefoundinthewetsubstrateoratleast
carryonanactiveexistenceduringtheperiodswherewaterormoistureisabundant.
The greencoloring matter (chlorophyll) which is always found in algae is also
markedbysomebrown,redpigmentations.Thesealgaehavebeenobservedfromthe
Cambrianuptothepresent.

19

1.GreenAlgaeunicellularandmulticellular
Ex.a)Protococcusgreenalgaeabundantonsidesofrocksandshadedtrees.It
isthemostcommongreenalgaebecauseitisremarkablyresistanttodrought.
b)Desmidsabundantinfreshwater.
c)Halimedalimesecretingalgaeofthemodernwatersespeciallyoncoral
reefs connecting dead coral skeletons, and other organic remains. Forms
extensivelimestonedeposits.Itsanalysisshowsthatitgives90%limeand
4%oforganicmatterandbecauseofthatitisaveryimportantrockbuilder.
d)Charafreshwateralgae.Alsolimesecretingandwhentheorganismdies,
thelimesecreteddisintegratesandsettlesaslimemuds,whichisresponsible
formanylimestonedepositsoffreshwaterorigin.
2.BrownAlgae(green+brownpigmentation)
Ex.a)Fucusarockweedcommoninrockexposedduringalowtide.Foundin
intertidalsubstrata.
b)Laminarialargealgaegrowinginthedeeperwatersbeyondthelowtide.
Includes some of the largest known plants. Some having huge trunkline
stalksandreachingaheightofseveralhundredfeet.
c)Sorgassum
d)Nematophycusverylargeplantwhosefossilizedstemhavebeenfoundin
theSilurianandDevonianrocks.(Thereisnoimportantlimesecretingbrown
algae).
3.RedAlgae(green+redpigment).
Therearesomelimesecretingforms,andthemostimportantformisthe:
a)Corallinaplantsgrowingindelicatejointedfilamentswhichformlittleturfs
onrocksandseaweeds.
b)Lithothamniumlimesecretedbythatplantswhichusuallyformscrustson
thesurfaceofshells,coralsandrocksonwhichitgrows.Oneoftheprincipal
coralreef builders. Reefbuilders and binders (they put together organic
remains,shells,coralsandbrachiopods).
c)Cryptozooncalcareousmassesofunicellularorganismscalled cryptozoon.
EarlyPaleozoic.
SubphylumII.HeterophyticThallophytes
20

Heterophytic Thallophytes are especially characterized by the absence of


chlorophyll,cannotcarryonphotosynthesis,andtheprincipalsourceofenergyisthe
organicmatter.Accordingly,theyliveas:
1)Sarphytesliveondecayingorganicmatter(livingorganism)orasparasites.
Significantly,withouttheactionoftheseplantsincausingthedelayofdead
organism,thesurfaceoftheearthwillbecoveredsodeeplywithdeadbodies
ofplantsandanimals.
CLASSI.SCHIZOMYCETES(Bacteria)
Schizomycetes aresimple onecelled plants without definite nuclei, averages
about2micronindiameter,andwithinthisverysmallbodiesofplantsiscarriedon
alltheactivitiesoflifelikerespiration,reproduction,excretion,etc.Reproductionis
usually asexual. Economically significant as agents of fermentation, decay and
disease.
Kinds:
1.Spherecoccus
2.Spiralspirillum
3.Rodbacillus
CLASSII.MYXOMYCETES(Slimefungi)
Myxomyctesarestickymassesenclosingmanynucleiandwithoutcellwalls.
Frequentlyoccurondecayingwoodandlivesintheforest.Somehavecombined
characteristicofplantsandanimals,thusitisquitedoubtfulwheretoclassifythem.
Theyliveondecayingmatter,andmorelikeamoeba.Theyaregenerallyterrestrial.
Noknownfossilforms.Ex.Acrytia.
CLASSIII.FUNGI(Truefungi)
Fungi consists essentially of a branching mass of thread called mycellum.
Resemblingthecobwebrootletsofthemushroom.Thesethreadspenetratethecell
wallsofthehostplantortheanimal,andliveuponitssubstance(that'swhytheyare
calledparasites).
Kindsoffungi:
1.Algaefungi(phycomycetes)includesthebreadmold,grapemildew>
2.Sacfungi(ascomycetes)representedbyyeast.

21

3. Club fungi (basidiomycetes) highest form of fungi, mushrooms,


toadstones,rarelypreservedasfossils.
Lichenswidelydistributedgraybrown,foundintreetrunksandrocks,madeupof
fungi(sacfungi)andgreenalgae(protococcus).

ImportanceofThallophytes:
1.Thallophytesasrockbuildersspecificallyalgae.
2.Thallophytesasreefbuildersspecificallyalgae.
II.PHYLUMBRYOPHYTA(Greekwordbryonmoss,phytonplants)
Bryophytes exhibits a distinct characteristic from Thallophytes from the
following:
1.Theirterrestrialhabit
2.Thegreaterspecializationoftheplantbody.
3. The constant occurrence of alternation of generation in the life cycle or
methodsofreproduction.
Asmostthallophytesareessentiallywaterdwellingplantslikethealgae,there
isnonecessityforspecializationoforgans.Sinceanyoftheplantcellscanmovefor
absorbingthefoodwhichsurroundsit.Withtheevolutionofthebryophytes,there
came a change from aquatic to terrestrial conditions and thus goes a need for a
specializedorgansadoptedforgettingfoodfromthesoilandfromtheair.
Thenotveryinefficient"rootlike"hairscalledrhizoidstakewaterandother
necessarysubstancefromthesoil.Toprotectagainstexcessivelossofwater,thecells
atthesurfaceoftheplantareprovidedwithacuticlewhichislackinginthallophytes.
Theadaptationofterresrtialconditionsbeingstillimperfect,manybryophytes
suchassomeliverwortsstillhavethalloidplantbody,whilethegroupasawholeis
moistureloving.Duringdryperiodtheyalmostceasedvegetating.
CLASSI.HEPATICAE(Liverworts)

22

Hapaticaeincludethesimplestbryophyteswithmanysimilaritieswiththealgae.
Ex.RicciaandMachantia.Macanthiapolymorphaisthemostcommonandwidely
distributedamongtheliverworts.
CLASSII.MUSCI(Mosses)
The mosses today are more abundant than liverworts. The haircup moss
(Polytrichumcommune)andthepeatmoss(Sphagmum)arethecommonexamples.
InSphagmum,mostoftheleavesconsistofmanysmallchlorophyllbearingcellsand
afewlargeemptycellswhichareresponsibleforthelightgreencoloroftheleaves.
Andbecauseoftheirpresence,theSphagmumhasagreatcapacitytoabsorbwater.It
isprobablethatancientrepresentativesofbryophytesweremoredelicatethanmodern
formsforonlyunderexceptionalconditionshavetheybeenpreserved.Remainsof
delicateplantssuchasRhyniaoccurintheEarlyDevonianseriesofsilicifiedpeat
beds.
III.PHYLUMPTERIDOPHYTA:(Greekword:pterisfern,phytonplants)
ThePteridophytesaremuchmorecomplexplant,whilethestructureofthemoss
plantsaresimpleandcellular,andthatofthepteridophyteshavevascularstructure.In
particular,likethehigherfloweringtypes,theplantpossessesaseriesofvesselwhich
formaconductingapparatusforthefoodandmanufactureofsap.Bryophytesand
Pteridophytes are sometimes called cryptogams, that is, without true flowers and
seeds.Theyaredistinguishedfromthephanerogramswhicharethehigherflowering
plants. The bryophytes are cellular cryptograms whereas the pteridophytes are
vascularcryptogams.Likethebryophytes,thepteridophytesproducesaconspicuous
alternationofgenerationbutdifferfromthebryophytesintherelativeimportanceof
thesexualreproductiveandasexualvegetativestages.
Inthedevelopmentofthelandflora,thepteridophytesaremoreadvancedthan
thebryophytesinthefollowing:
1.Theindependenceofsporophyticgeneration.
2.Thewellorganizedvascularsystem.
3.Themoreefficientepidermis(cuticle).
4. The development of roots which penetrate in a relatively deeper and
moistenedlayer.
CLASSI.FELICALES(Fern)
Theleafofthefernisgenerallybroadandisoftendividedintoleaflets,the
sporecasesaregatheredintoroundfruitdotsbornonmoreorlessmodifiedportions
oftheleaforontheindependentfruitingstalks.Fernsarewidelydistributedoverthe
earth.Theyflourishmostluxuriantlyinmoistandshadyhabitats.

23

CLASSII.EQUISITALIS(Horsetails)
Horsetailsarelowplantsgrowingusuallyinmoistlocalitiesbutoftenbutoften
inrailwayembankment.Theyhavesimpleorbranchingstalkswhicharestrongly
furrowedlongitudinallyandaredividedintosectionsbyverydistinctjointsknownas
nodes.Theyalsohavehollowinternodesteminacircleatitsjointbecauseofthe
peripheralleaves.Photosynthesisiscarriedonlargelybythestems.Thecarboniferous
representative of this class were large forest tree which bore large leaves. These
horsetailshaveexistedfromDevonianuptothepresent.Pennsylvanianfossilsoften
attainaheightof100ft.andareusuallypreservedintheformofcast.
CLASSIII.LYCOPODIALES(ClubMosses)
Livingclubmossesarelargelycreepingplantswithnumeroustinymosslike
leavesspirallyarrangedonthestems.Thesporebearingleavesarearrangedinaclub
likeformsasinhorsetail.Theyembraceonlyforlivinggeneraofwhichthemore
commonare:
1.Lycopodium
2.Selaginella
Includesnearly600speciesmostofwhichgrowinmoisttropicalforest.
Lepidodendron isanancientclubmoss.ItisaloftytreeoftheLatePaleozoic
appearing inthelowerDevoniananddyingoutinthePermian.Itwasespecially
abundantthroughouttheworldduringtheCarboniferous.
Sigillariaisatreethatresembleslepidodendroningeneralappearanceaswell
asingeologicrange.Itdifferedinthestructureofitsstemandinthearrangementof
itsleavesasindicatedbytheimpressionofthebarkcoveredwithleafcushion.The
leafcushionarehexagonalinoutlineandarrangedinaquiteverticalrows.Itscones
areknownasLigallariastrobus.
CLASSIV.SPHENEROPHYLLATES
Thesearepaleozoicgroupofslenderplantswithjointedstemsandleavesin
whorls. They are probably trailing and climbing in habit and are known from
DevoniantoPermian.Sphenophylumisasmallbranchingplantwithslenderribbed
stemrepresentedbymanyspeciesinthePennsylvaniancoalfieldsofEasternNorth
America.Theleavesaresixinawhorlandwedgeshaped.
IV.PHYLUMSPERMATOPHYTA

24

This includes the mosthighly organized plants andare distinguished bythe


productionofseeds.Thetwo(2)distinguishingcharacteristicsoftheSpermatophyta
whichsharplydifferentiatethemfromallotherplantsare:
1. The formation of a pollen tube (short in the gymnosperm; long in the
angiosperm)
2.Theproductionofseedstheseedisthebeginningofthesporophytestage;
theembryowithinitlaterunfoldsintothenaturalplant.
Inseedplants,fertilizationisnotconditionedbythepresenceofwaterforthe
malegametophyte(pollengrains)iscarriedbywindsorinsectstothevicinityofthe
megaspore,developsatube(pollentube)downwhichthemalegametesarecarriedby
theflowofprotoplasmtothefemalegametophyte.
Thespermatophytesaredividedintotwoclasses:
CLASSA.GYMNOSPERM(Greekwordgymnosnaked;spermseed)
Theseplantsaretypifiedbythepines.Inthefemalepinecone,eachscaleisa
leaf(thatisamegasporophyllknownaspistilorcarpil)uponthebaseofthesetwo
ovules develops. The surface of each of these becomes very hard and is often
extendedtoformawingwhichcatchesthemindandcarriesitsomedistancesfrom
theparenttree.
Underthegymnospermsaretreesandshrubsmostlyevergreen.Theyinclude
thefollowingorders:
ORDERCYCADALES
FamilyCycadeoideae
Thisextinctfamilyoftreesofshrubsresembledthelivingcycadsingeneral
outerappearance.Thesteminmostformswasthickandshortandcloselycovered
withanarmorofpersistentleafbases.
ThisorderformedthedominantvegetationoftheMesozoicrangingfromthe
JurassicCretaceousinNorthAmerica,Europe,IndiaandtheArcticregions.
FamilyCycadeae
Theseareexistingcycadsorsagopalms.Plantswiththick,columnarstems,at
timesattainingaheightof30to60ft.Thetrunksarecoveredwitharmorofoldleaf
bases.
Livingcycadsaretropical.Thereareninegeneraofcycads,thebestknownof
which are genus found in Australia and Asia. They existed in the Mesozoic and
thereforeMesozoicismarkedasthe"ageofthecycads".
25

ORDERCORDIATALES
An extinct group of tall, slender trees which had a general distribution
throughouttheworldfromtheDevoniantoPermian,inclusive.Itisrepresentedbythe
genusCordaitales.Thetrunkrosetoaheightof30to100ft.withadensecrownof
branches bearing narrow roundlike leaves. Theleaves are distinguished bytheir
conspicuousparallelveinandtheirgreatsizeattainingattimesalengthof3ft.
The Cordaitales are more confined to the Paleozoic and furnished the
predominantmembersofthegymnospermduringtheDevonianandespeciallylater
duringtheCarboniferous.
ORDERGINKGOALES
Anisolatedgroupgroupofgymnospermrepresented atpresentbyonlyone
genusandonespecies Ginkgobilova knownasmaidenhairtreewithlongvaried
history.TheGinkgoisatreewhichingeneralappearanceandanatomyofthestem
closely resembles the conifers. The Ginkgoales is widespread in the Jurassic and
abundantintheCretaceous.
IntheearlierpartoftheTertiary,theGinkgoflourishedinAlaska,Greenland
and the northern part of the United Kingdom. Because of its great antiquity and
isolatedposition,ithasbeencalleda"livingfossil".Itissupposedtohaverisenfrom
thegroupCordaitales.
ORDERCONIFERALES
This order includes the conspicuous gymnosperm vegetation of northern
temperate regions made of trees and shrubs mostly evergreen. Usually with rigid
needleorscaleleavesandwithmaleandfemalecones.Theconiferswereprobably
derivedfromtheCordaitales ofthePaleozoic retaining fewerprimitive characters
thantheGinkgoales.Livingconifers arerepresented byabout40generaand300
species.Theyaredividedintotwo(2)families:
1.Taxaceae
2.Penaceae
ThegenusSequoiaistheonlylivingconiferthatwaswidelydistributedduring
CretaceousandTertiaryinCaliforniaandSouthOregonregions.
ORDERGNETALES
Thisgroupofsmalltreesandshrubsconsistof3livinggeneraincludingthe
Ephedra ofthedesertregionsofbothhemisphere.Thereisnofossilrecordofthis
order.

26

CLASSB.ANGIOSPERM
Tothisclassbelongstheplantsofthehighestrank.Thisgroup,thelatestto
cometoearth,comprisesoverhalfoftheknownlivingspeciesofplants.Itisthe
angiospermswhichclothesmostoftheearthwithvegetation.
In every climate and at almost all altitudes, they nearly always compete
successfullywithallothertypesofvegetation. Theynotonlycovertheearthbut
manyspecieshaveinvadedthefreshwaterrealmofthealgaewithwonderfulsuccess.
Thenumbersoftheangiospermarecommonlyknownasthe"floweringplants".
SubclassA.Monocotyledons
Theseplantsareusuallydistinguishedbythefollowingcharacteristics:
1.Theplantbeginswithasimpleleafletorcotyledon.
2.Theleavesareparallelveins.
3.Thestemiscylindricalwiththevascularbundlesscattered.
4.Acrosssectiondoesnotshowconcentricgrowthlines.
5.Therootsarefibrous.
6.Thepartsoftheflowersareinthrees.
Thissubclassincludestoday'smembersofvasteconomicimportancetoman.
Ex.grasses,especiallytheirfruits,thegrains,banana,coconutandsagopalms(tallest
grassonearthisbamboo).
Representativesofthesubclassarethefirstknownfortheupperpartofthe
lowerCretaceousofeasternNorthAmericaandPortugalinsuchlowlyformsasthe
"PondweedandLedge".ThelilyandpalmappearedintheCretaceous,whilenotuntil
theTertiarydidthegrassesmadetheirappearance.Paleontologicrecordofthepalm
datesbacktothemidCretaceous.
SubclassB.Dicotyledons
Dicotyledonsusuallypossessthefollowingcharacters:
1.Theplantsbeginwithtwo(2)seedlingleaves.
2.Theleavesareusuallynettedveins.
3.Thestemisusuallythickerbelowthanabove,withvascularbundlesarranged
toformacylinder,enclosingapitcenter.
4.Asgrowthproceeds,newcylindersareformed.
5.Sincethevascularbundlesformedinspringhavethinnerwallsthanthose
formedinlatesummerandfall.Theannualgrowthbecomesvisibleasaconcentric
ring.
6.Atoprootisusuallypresent.
7.Thepartsofflowersarein4'sor5's.

27

Dicotyledonsareregardedasmoreprimitivethanthemonocotyledonsandas
theirprobableancestors.
Example:
1.Liriodendrontulipiferaoneofthemostprimitivedicotyledon.Theyarein
theeasternandnorthAmericareachingadiameterof4'12'andaheightof60'190'.
GeologicrangefromCretaceoustopresent.
2.AssafrasfromlowerCretaceoustopresent
3.PoplarfromlowerCretaceoustopresent
EvolutionofPlants
Plantinitssimplestformisessentiallyaminuteprotoplasmencaseinafirm
roundedcell wall capable ofcarryingonthe fundamental activity ofalllife.The
storageandexpendituresofenergy.Someoftheseenergyisusedinthedivisionof
cellsandthemanycelledplantcameintoexistencewhensomeofthecellsremained
inthecontactafterdivision.Theresultinglargerorganismspossessedmoresurface
exposedtothesun'sraysandincontactwithfoodinsolutioninoceansandsoils,and
thus would avail themselves of larger storage than energy. Subdivision of labor
developamongthecellsoftheselargerplants(thallophytes).
Certain cells have protecting function, others reproductive, while others
manufacture starch. When plant branchout upontheplant, the cellular structure
graduallyevolveintoastrongertype(thevascularstructure),withthecellsarranged
endtoendinaseriesofminutepilesboundedtogetherinbundles.Thechangefrom
cellulartovascularisthusnecessaryinthedevelopmentofthelandfloras.Achange
thatopenupthepossibilityofincreaseinsizethatlaidthefoundationforthemighty
treesoftheCarboniferousforestandthegiantredwoodsofwesternUnitedStates.
Anotherdifficultythatplantshadtomeetinadaptingthemselvestolandisthatthey
mustdeveloparesistancetothedryingoutoftheair.Rolesplayedbythedifferent
phylaintheevolutionofplants:
1.Theearlyplantstiedtothewater.
2.Watergavethemfoodandheldthemupagainstthepullofgravity.
3.Waterkeptthemfromdryingupandunablethemtoreproduce.Thisisthe
stageofthethallophytes.
4.Thefirststeptothedevelopmentoflandflorasweremostprobablytakenby
someearlygroupoffreshwateralgae,thebryophytes.Inponds,subjecttoannual
drought,themoreplasticformoflifeextendedthemselvesincontactwiththedamp
soil downinto the root hairs, while the cells in contact with the air developed a
thickened surface. An early stage in such adaptation to air is exemplified by the
28

liverworts.Slightlyresistanttodryairbutmustliveinmoistareasuchastheedgeof
waterfall.
5.Thechangefromcellulartovascularstructureandthelargerplantswhichled
to the development of roots that could secure foothold in the soil was taken by
Pteridophytes.Mammothtreefernsrearedloftystemsanddevelopdeepbranching
rootsintheLatePaleozoic.
6.Itisonlythespermatophyteswhichhaveevolvedadevicewhichhasfinally
freedtheplantsofthenecessityofexternalwaterfortheprocessoffertilization.
Since inthese terrestrial phyla, the cellular cell walls are denserandmore
resistanttodecaythanthoseofthethallophytes,theymayunderproperconditionsbe
preserved.Suchdepositsaspeat,ligniteandcoalareknownfromthelateDevonianto
thepresent.

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