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A process control loop consists of four control blocks which are controller, final control

element, process and sensor. When all these blocks connected, the process control loop is called

closed loop system. When any of the blocks is disconnected, the process control loop is called

open loop system. In closed loop system is basically the controller compares the process

measurement signal (PV) from set point (SP) and makes necessary corrective action to the final

control element. In the other hand, open loop system is the controller that has no control over the

final control element. The adjustment of the final control element is made manually by an

operator (Abdul Aziz & Zalizawati, 2013). The objectives of the experiments are to perform

open loop and closed loop test and to study the effect of load disturbance and set point change to

the process variable using Foxboro and Emerson controllers systems. The open loop test was

conducted first by set the set point and change the controller to auto mode then the manipulated

variable (MV) was then increased by 10-20%. After that the value of RR and Td were calculated

using reformulated tangent method for flow and tangent method for level. The value of P, I and D

were calculated using Ziegler-Nichols method and also CohenCoon. The closed loop test was

done by entering the P, I and D values calculated into the controller in auto mode. After the

response was stabilize, the load disturbance and set point test were performed and wait until the

response stable to make sure the value of P, I and D calculated was correct.

RESULTS

Ziegler-Nichols:

MODE

P

PI

PID

P

31.2

34.66

25.99

8.66

5.2

1.3

7.85

6.38

0.95

CohenCoon:

MODE

P

PI

PID

P

30.7

31.06

22.87

Load distribution

D,I,P

Tr

Ts

OV

US

UCL

LCL

15:02

50%

35%

2.2

2.0

Tr

Ts

OV

US

UCL

LCL

15:06

47%

34.5%

2.8

2.6

Graph

Type

QAD

Set point

D,I,P

Graph

Type

QAD

DISCUSSIONS

In open loop test, the controller has no effect to the final control element as the

adjustment must be conduct by the operator in order to see the differences. Flow is a self

regulating system and it has achieved the steady state. From the graph, we used reformulated

tangent method to determine the respond rate (RR), time delay (Td) and time constant (Tc) for

flow control. By doing some calculation, the value of RR is 0.12, Td is 2.6 s while Tc is 53.3 s.

Then, the values of RR and Td were used to calculate P and I values by using the Ziegler

Nichols method and also Cohent- Coon method. The values for PI mode using Ziegler nichols

were 34.66 and 8.66 while for cohent coon 31.06 and 7.85 for level control loop.

In closed loop test, the value of P and PI that have been calculated in the open loop test

are used as a base values to increase the accuracy with high integration activity. For load

distribution test, the values of rise time (Tr) is 15:02, the percentage overshoot (OV), is 50%, the

percentage of undershoot (US) is 35%, the upper control limit (UCL) IS 2.2 And the Lower

control limit is 2.0. There is no value for the Settilng time (Ts) because the line is not settled on

the set point. For set point test, the values of rise time (Tr) is 15:06, the percentage overshoot

(OV), is 47%, the percentage of undershoot (US) is 34.5%, the upper control limit (UCL) IS 2.8

And the Lower control limit is 2.6. There is also no value for the Settilng time(Ts) because the

line is not settled on the set point.

i.1 RECOMMENDATIONS

i.

ii.

Use other methods to calculate RR and Td for the open loop and compared with the

iii.

current method used in this experiment so that the data could be more feasible

Let the process in man mode for 3 second before turn it into auto mode after the

iv.

When fine tuning, adjust the P (by dividing by 4) if process oscillates and keep reducing

v.

Values of RR should be four or more decimal places to give more accurate data and leads

to better values of P, I and D

CALCULATIONS

OPEN LOOP SYSTEM

Flow

Reformulated tangent method

RR=

tan a

MV b

RR=

tan 36 5.26

20 1.33

= 0.12

Dead time,

T d=T d ( length ) b

T d=2 1.3

=2.6

Time constant

T c =T c ( length ) b

T c =41 1.3

= 53.3

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