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Graphical method

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Minimize Z= 20X1 + 10X2

Subject to: X1 + 2X2 40

3X1 + X2 30

4X1 + 3X2 60

X1,X2 0

Solution

Replace all the inequalities of the constraints by equation

So, X1 + 2X2 = 40

If X1 = 0 => X2 = 20

If X2 = 0 => X1 = 40

Therefore,

3X1 + X2 = 30 passes through (0,30) (10,0)

4X1 + 3X2 = 60 passes through (0,20) (15,0)

C and D are points of intersection of lines.

From,

X1 + 2X2 = 40, 3X1 + X2 = 30 and 4X1 + 3X2 = 60

X1 + X2 = 30

On solving we get

C = (4,18)

D = (6,12)

Corner points

A(15,0)

B(40,0)

C(4,18)

D(6,12)

300

800

260

240 (Minimum Value)

Therefore, the minimum value of Z occurs at D (6, 12). Hence, the optimal solution is

X1=6, X2=12.

Problem 3.2 :

Solve graphically the following LPP

Maximize

Subject to

Z = 3X1 + 2X2

X1 + 2X2 6

2X1 + X2 8

X2 X1 1

X2 2

X1 0

X2 0

Solution

The following graph shows all the six constraints plotted as straight lines. The region in

which each constraint holds when the inequality is actuated by the direction of the arrow

on the associated straight line is the solution space. The solution space is thus determined.

The optimal solution can always be identified with one of the feasible corner points

A,B,C,D,E and F of the solution space .Thus

At A

At B

At C

At D

At E

At F

X1=0

X1=4

X1=3.33

X1=2

X1=1

X1=0

X2=0

X2=0

X2=1.33

X2=2

X2=2

X2=1

Z=0

Z=12

Z=12.66

Z=10

Z=7

Z=2

X1=3.33, X2=1.33, Zmax = 12.66

The optimal solution may be determined by another way. Plot the objective line passing

through the origin. Move this line as far away from the origin as possible and yet within

or touching the boundary of the solution space as in the graph. The optimum solution

occurs at the point C. The coordinates of the point C give the optimum values of X1 and

X2.

The coordinates of C may be noted from the graph. The coordinates may also be

determined analytically. Since C is the intersection of lines (1) and (2), the values of X1

and X2 may be determined by solving simultaneously the equations

X1+2X2 = 6 and

2X1+X2 = 8

The values are 3.33 and 1.33. Zmax = 3*3.33 + 2*1.33 = 12.66.

Problem 3.3

Find the maximum value of Z = 5X1 + 7X2

Subject to

X1 + X2 4

3X1 + 8X2 24

10X1 + 7X2 35

X1, X2 > 0

Solution

Replace all the inequalities of the constraints by forming the equations

X1 + X2 = 4

3X1 + 8X2 = 24

10X1 + 7X2 = 35

passes through (0, 2) (8, 0)

passes through (0, 5) (3.5, 0)

Plot these lines in the graph and mark the region below the line as the inequality of the

constraint is and is also lying in the first quadrant.

X1+X2 = 4, 10X1+7X2 = 35 and 3X1+8X2 = 24, X1+X2 = 4

On solving, we get

B = (1.6, 2.4)

C = (2.3, 1.7)

Corner points

O (0, 0)

A (3.5, 0)

B (1.6, 2.4)

C (2.3, 1.7)

D (0,3)

0

17.5

24.8 (Maximum Value)

23.4

21

Therefore, the maximum value of Z occurs at B (1.6, 2.4) and the optimal solution is

X1=1.6 and X2=2.4

Problem 3.3 a

A company produces 2 types of hats. Every hat A requires twice as much labor as the

second hat B. If the company produces only hat B it can produce a total of 500 hats a day.

The market limits daily sales of the hat A and hat B to 150 and 200 hats. The profits of

hat A and B are Rs.8 and Rs.5 respectively. Solve graphically to get the optimal solution.

Solution

Let X1 and X2 be the number of hats of type A and type B respectively

Max Z=8X1 + 5X2

Subject to 2X1 + 2X2 500

X1 150

X2 250

X1, X2 0

First rewrite the inequality of the constraint into an equation and plot the lines in the

graph

2X1 + X2 = 500

passes through (0,500) (250, 0)

X1 = 150

passes through (150, 0)

X2 = 250

passes through (0, 250)

We mark the region below the lines lying in the first quadrant as the inequality of the

constraints are . The feasible region is OABCD. B and C are the points of intersection of

lines.

2X1 + X2 = 500

X1 =150 and

2X1 + X2 =500

X2 = 250

Corner Points

O (0, 0)

A (150, 0)

B (150, 200)

C (125, 250)

D (0, 250)

0

1200

2200

2250 (Maximum)

1250

Therefore, the optimal solution is X1 = 125, X2 = 250

i.e. the company should produce 125 hats of type A and 250 hats of type B in order to get

a maximum profit of Rs. 2250/-

Example 3.4

By Graphical Method solve the following LPP.

Max Z = 3X1 + 4X2

Subject to

5X1 + 4X2 200

3X1 + 5X2 150

5X1 + 4X2 100

8X1 + 4X2 80

And X1, X2 0

Corner Points

O (20, 0)

A (40, 0)

B (30.8, 11.5)

C (0, 30)

D (0, 25)

60

120

138.4 (Maximum)

120

100

Therefore, the optimal solution is X1 = 30.8, X2 = 11.5

Example 3.5

Use graphical Method to solve the LPP

Maximize Z = 6X1+4X2

Subject to

-2X1+X2 2

X1- X2 2

3X1 + 2X2 9

X1, X2 0

Solution

Corner Points

A (2, 0)

B (3, 0)

C (13/5, 3/5)

12

18

98/5 = 19.6 (Maximum)

Therefore, the optimal solution is X1 = 13/5, X2 = 3/5.

Use graphical Method to solve the LPP

Minimize Z = 3X1 + 2X2

Subject to

5X1 + X2 10

X1 + X2 6

X1 + 4X2 12

X1, X2 0

Solution

Corner Points

A (0, 10)

B (1, 5)

C (4, 2)

D (12, 0)

20

13 (Minimum)

16

36

Note: In the above problem if the objective function is maximization then the solution is

unbounded, as maximum value of Z occurs at infinity.

There are some linear programming problems which may have:

1. a unique optimal solution

2. an infinite number of optimal solutions

3. an unbounded solution

4. no solution.

5. Redundant Case

The following problems will illustrate these cases.

Constrain case.

Solve the LPP by graphical method

Maximize Z = 100X1 + 40X2

Subject to

5X1 + 2X2 1000

3X1 + 2X2 900

X1 + 2X2 500

X1+ X2 0

Solution

Corner Points

O (0, 0)

A (200, 0)

B (125, 187.5)

C (0,250)

0

20000

20000

10000

Since there are infinite number of points on the line joining A and B gives the same

maximum value of Z.

Thus, there are infinite numbers of optimal solutions for the LPP.

Solve the following LPP

Maximize

Z = 3X1 + 2X2

Subject to

X1 - X2 1

X1 + X2 3

X1, X2 0

Solution

The solution space is unbounded. The value of the objective function at the vertices A and

B are Z (A) = 6, Z (B) = 8. But there exist points in the convex region for which the value

of the objective function is more than 8. In fact, the maximum value of Z occurs at

infinity. Hence, the problem has an unbounded solution.

No feasible Solution

When there is no feasible region formed by the constraints in conjunction with nonnegativity conditions, then no solution to the LPP exists.

Maximize

Subject to

Solution

Z = X1 + X2

X1 + X2 1

-3X1 + X2 3

X1, X2 0

There being no point common to both the shaded regions, we cannot find a feasible

region for this problem. So the problem cannot be solved. Hence, the problem has no

solution.

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