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C Language Introduction
Languages :
A Set Of Statements Is Called A Language.There Are Four Types Of Languages According To Their Time.

I generation languages: these languages are machine languages. To write programs in these languages the
system technology must be required. The data is
Non-portable. That means a program written in a system does not work in
another systems.

Ii Generation Languages :These Are Assembly Languages. These Are Also system oriented that means to write
any program in a system that systems technology must be required and data is non-portable. But they used
MNEMONIC words in programs. That means they used a single word instead of more words.

III Generation Languages :In these languages programs are witten in


general english language.There is no need to know the system technology and the
data can be transfered anywhere.

IV Generation languages :These languages are defined in any one of the


above languages.These are also called as packages.
Here I & II Generation languages are called Low Level Languages and III & IV
generation languages are called High Level Languages.
For high level languages we have to use translaters to translate the source code
written in general english language into machine language. These translaters are
two types.
1)
Interpreters, 2) Compilers.
1) Interpreters :These translaters translate the source code step by step into machine language until any error.
If there is any error it stops and shows some message. After correction it can continue.
Ex: BASIC, DBase III+, ....

2) Compilers :These translaters translate the entire source code into machine language when it is error-free
and creates an object file in machine
language. If there is any error it shows the list of error. After debugging it creates the object file.

Ex: COBOL, C, C++, ...

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C LANGUAGE

The language C was designed by Dennis Ritchie at AT & T Bell Laboratories. The standardised C was released in
1979.

The C language is used to develop


i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

Scientific applications,
Business applications,
Graphical applications (Ex: WINDOWS ),
System programs,
Operating Systems (Ex: UNIX) , ...

Character Set :
alphabets

constants,

statements,

digits
==> variables, ==>
special symbols
keywords

==> Programs
instructions

Constants : The unchangeable quantities are called Constants.The constants are generally two types.
1) Character constants :

a) Characters Ex: a, 5, +, , ...


b) Strings
Ex: abc, 435, rama, ...
2) Numeric Constants :
a) integers
Ex: 435, -657, 65535, -32768,...
b) Real numbers
i) Fractional form Ex: 435.67, 345.00054, ...
ii) Exponential form Ex: 0.02e3, 1.17e-38, ...
Variables : The quantities which can be changed during the execution of program are called Variables. A variable can
be considered as the name of the cell which can hold the constants. To use any variable it must be declared with its data
type before the first executable statement and they can be initialised. Naming the variable is very important.
1) The variable name must be start with either alphabets or an underscore and may contain alphabets, digits,
hyphen or underscore.
2) The maximum length of a variable is 8 characters. But some compilers can accept upto 32 characters.
3) There must not be any blank spaces or special symbols in a variable name.
4) A variable name must not be a keyword.

Ex:

valid
eno
empname
emp-name

invlid
emp name
emp(name
45abc

Keywords : These are predefined words. There are 32 keywords in C language. These keywords can not be used as
user-defined variables.

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Operators : There are 42 operators in C language.


1) Arithmetic Operators :

+ - *

/ %

Ex:
100 + 40 ==> 140
100 - 40 ==> 60
100 * 40 ==> 4000
100 / 40 ==> 2
100 % 40 ==> 20
40 % 100 ==> 40

2) Assigning Operators : =
(variable)
=
(constant) / (variable) / (expression) ;
Ex: a = 5
b=a
c = a + b -2
3) Multiple operators :

+=

-= *= /= %=

Ex:
a = a + 3 ==> a += 3
a = a - 3 ==> a -= 3
a = a * 3 ==> a *= 3
a = a / 3 ==> a /= 3
a = a % 3 ==> a %= 3
4) Unary Operators :

++

--

Ex :

a = a + 1 ==> a += 1 ==> a ++ ==> ++ a


a = a - 1 ==> a -= 1 ==> a -- ==> -- a
5) Relational Operators :
6) Logical Operators :

==
&&

||

>

< >= <= !=

7)

, . : ; < > # { [ ( ) ] } ......

Structure of a C program :
preprocessor commands
3

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global declarations
main()

{
local declarations ;
statements ;

}
function(arguments)

{
local declarations ;
statements ;

The C program has a free formated structure.


Every statement must be terminated with a semicolon ;
A program is a collection of functions. There may be a lot of functions but at least one function must be there that
is main(), where the execution starts.
C has case sensitivity. All the keywords are defined in lower case.
So better to write entire program in lower case.

Preprocessor commands :
The commands which start with a hash(#) symbol are called Preprocessor commands.
Ex :
# include <stdio.h>
# include conio.h
# define PI 3.14159
Global declarations :
To use any variable it must be declared with its data type before the first executable statement. The variables which
declared in a block are available in that block only.
To use the variable in the entire program with same effect it must be declared as global.

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Data Types :

Type
signed char
unsigned char

Range
-128 to 127
0 to 255

occupied bytes
1
1

shortsigned int -32768 to 32767


short unsigned int
0 to 65535
long signed int
-2^31 to 2^31 -1
long unsigned int
0 to 2^32 -1

2
2
4
4

float
3.14e-38 to 3.14e38
double
1.17e-308 to 1.17e308
long double 1.17e-4932 to1.17e4932

4
8
10

format string
%c
%c
%i

%d %o
%u
%ld
%lu

%x

%f
%e
%lf
%Lf

Functions :The functions are two types.


1) derived functions, 2) user-defined functions.
The derived functions are defined by the C authors. They defined them in the header files. To use the function the
header file must be included as preprocessor statement.
1) clrscr() :This function is used to clear the screen. This functions prototype has defined in the header file CONIO.H
( CONIO ==> Console Input Output )
Syntax :
clrscr();
2) printf() :-

This function is used to display the text and the values of


variables. This functions prototype has defined in the header
file
STDIO.H To display the variables value the format string
must be used.
( STDIO ==>
Standard Input Output )
Syntax :
printf( format string , variables) ;
Ex :
printf( Hello \t World );
printf( %d %c, k, j);
printf(The marks are %d, %d, %d, m1, m2, m3 );
Note : The function printf() returns an integer value that is the number of arguments given to the statement.

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Remarks :To write any remarks or comments to the statements they must be enclosed with the symbols

/* */

Ex :

/*
sdfjkshadjfsdjkafkjsadjkfhkasdj
sdafhasdfhgasdhfgasdgfgasdfhasdfj
sdafjksadfjasdkhfjasdhkfjhksda

*/
Ex Programs :
1)

/* My First C Program */
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
clrscr() ;
printf(Hello );
printf(Bhanodaya ) ;
printf(Welcome ) ;
}
/*
Save this program (F2) as FIRST.C
After compilation(Alt-F9) it creates an object file, and an executable
file which can be executed at MS-DOS prompt.
By saving a modified file it creates a backup file.
FIRST.C
FIRST.BAK
FIRST.OBJ
FIRST.EXE
Output :
Hello Bhanodaya Welcome
*/

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TURBO C editor :
It is a compiler of C program and it can be also used as an general editor. To enter into editor first change into the
directory which contains the software and enter the command TC at the command prompt.
C:\> CD TC
C:\TC> tc
Then it opens the editor which contains a menu bar at the top, a status bar at the bottom and a main window to write the
programming statements and a sub window which shows the messages.
The menu bar contains some menu pads and they can be selected by pressing ALT and the highlighted character in the
required menu pad.
Then it shows the submenu which contains some bars and they can be selected using arrow keys.
The status bar shows online help and the keys information.
1) To write a new program select New command from File menu.
2) To save the working program select Save command from File menu
or press F2 and enter a name.
3) To compile the program select Compile to OBJ command from compile menu or press Alt + F9. Then it
shows the list of
errors or warnings. If the program is error-free then the compiler
creates an object file (.OBJ) and an executable file (.EXE).
4) To execute the program select Run command from Run menu or press Ctrl + F9.
5) To seee the output of the execution select User Screen command from Run menu or press Alt + F5.
6) To close the editor select Quit command from File menu or press Alt + X.

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Escape Sequences :

\0
\t
\l
\r
\n
\a
\
\
\\

==>
==>
==>
==>
==>
==>
==>
==>
==>

Null character
Tab ( 8 spaces)
Line feed
Carriage Return
New line character ( \n = \l + \r )
Alert (beep sound)
Single quotes
Double quotes
back slash

Ex Programs :
2)

/*

Using Escape Sequences

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
clrscr() ;
printf(Hello \t ) ;
printf(Udaya \n) ;
printf(Welcome ) ;
}
/*

Output :
Hello Udaya
Welcome
*/

3)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
clrscr() ;
printf(Hello \t Bhanu \n Welcome ) ;
}
/*

Output :
Hello Bhanu
Welcome
*/
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4) /* Using Variables

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k = 65 ;
char j = * ;
clrscr() ;
printf(\n The value of k is %i %d %c %o %x, k, k, k, k, k ) ;
printf(\n The value of j is %i %d %c %o %x, j, j, j, j, j ) ;
}
/* Output :
The value of k is 65 65 A 101 42
The value of j is 42
5)

/*

42

52 2a

*/

Formatting the output */

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a, b, c ;
clrscr() ;
a = 6 ;
b = 23456;
printf(\n %05d \t %d, a, a ) ;
printf(\n %05d \t %d, b, b ) ;
printf(\n %5d \t %d, c, c ) ;
}

c = 678 ;

/* Output :
00006
23456
678

*/
6)

/*

6
23456
678

Arithmetic Operations */

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
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{
int a, b, c, d, e, f ;
clrscr() ;
a = 100 ; b = 40 ;
c = a + b ;
d = a - b ;
e = a * b ;
f = a / b ;
printf(The given values are %d, %d, a, b ) ;
printf(\n The addition is %d, c) ;
printf(\n The subtraction %d, d) ;
printf(\n The product is %d, e) ;
printf(\n The division %d, f) ;
printf(\n The reminder is %d, a%b) ;
}
/*

Output :
The
The
The
The
The
The

given values are 100, 40


addition is 140
subtraction 60
product is 4000
division 2
reminder is 20

*/
Notes : The Arithmetic operations are three types depend on the types of the operands in the expression.

operand1
integer
integer
real

operand2
integer
real
real

result
integer
real
real

Ex Programs :
7)

/*

Type casting

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int m1, m2, m3, tot;
float avg ;
clrscr() ;
m1 = 65; m2 = 66; m3 = 68;
tot = m1 + m2 + m3 ;
/*
avg = tot / 3.0 ;
avg = (float) tot / 3 ;

*/

printf(The three subjects marks are %d, %d, %d, m1, m2, m3 ) ; printf(\n The total %d \t Average
%f, tot, avg ) ;
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}
/* Output :
The three subjects marks are 65, 66, 68
The total
8)

/*

199

Average

66.33

*/

Formatting the output of floating point values

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
float bas, da, hra, pf, net ;
clrscr() ;
bas = 5000;
da = bas * 20 / 100 ;
hra = bas * 30 / 100 ;
pf = bas * 5 / 100 ;
net = bas + da + hra - pf ;
printf(The Basic Salary %f, bas) ;
printf(\n Da %.1f \t Hra %010.3f \t Pf %5.0f, da, hra, pf) ;
printf(\n Net Salary %10.2f, net) ;
}
/*

Output :

The Basic Salary 5000.000000


Da 1000.0
Hra 001500.000
Net Salary 7250.00

Pf 00250

*/

q) /*

Program to demonstrate the


*/

Increment / Decrement operators

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k = 5 ;
clrscr() ;

Output
5

printf(\n %d, k) ;
11

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k ++ ;
printf(\n %d, ++k) ;
printf(\n %d, k++);
printf(\n %d, k) ;

7
7
8

k -- ;
printf(\n %d, k--) ;
printf(\n %d, --k) ;

7
5

k = ++k + ++k + ++k ;

24 printf(\n %d, k) ;

k=5;
k = k++ + ++k + ++k + k++ + k++ ;
printf(\n %d, k) ;

38

getch() ;
}

Notes :
scanf() :
This function is used to accept the values for the variables while executing the program from keyboard. This functions
prototype has defined in the header file STDIO.H
The function printf() returns an integer value that is the number of arguments given to the statement.
Syntax:
scanf(formatstring , &(variables) );
Note :
To accept two or more values with a single scanf() they can be seperated by space or tab or enter key.
Ex :
i)

int a;
scanf(%d, &a);

ii) int m1, m2, m3;


scanf(%d%d%d, &m1, &m2, &m3);
iii) char ch;
scanf(%c, &ch);
getch() :
This function is used to accept a single character for the variable while executing the program. But this function does
not display the entered character. This functions prototype has defined in the header file CONIO.H
Note : To see the entered character the function getche() can be Used.
Syntax:
(variable) = getch() ;
Ex :
char c;
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c = getch();

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Ex Programs :
9) /* Program to demonstrate the difference between the functions
scanf(), getche(), getch()

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
char k ;
clrscr();
printf(Enter any character ) ;
scanf(%c, &k) ;
printf(You entered the character %c, k) ;
printf(\n\n Enter any character ) ; k = getche(); printf(\n You entered the character %c, k) ;
printf(\n\n Enter any character ) ; k = getch() ; printf(\n You entered the character %c, k) ;
getch();
}
/* Output :
Enter any character abcdef
You entered the chracter a
Enter any character g
You entered the chracter g
Enter any character
You entered the chracter d

*/

10) /* Write a program to calculate the total, average of a students three subjects marks

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int m1, m2, m3, tot;
float avg ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter three subjects marks \n) ;
scanf(%d%d%d, &m1, &m2, &m3 ) ;
tot = m1 + m2 + m3 ;
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/* avg = tot / 3.0 ; */


avg = (float) tot / 3 ;
printf(The three subjects marks are %d, %d, %d, m1, m2, m3 ) ; printf(\n The total %d \t Average
%f, tot, avg ) ;
}
/* Output :
Enter three subjects marks
65 66 68
The three subjects marks are 65, 66, 68
The total 199

Average 66.33

*/

11) /* Write a program to accept an employees basic salary, calculate da, hra, pf, net salary and print all
*/
Notes :
Conditional Statements :
In C language the conditional statement returns zero when the
condition is false. Otherwise it returns a non-zero(1) value when
the condition is true.
Ex Program :
12)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{

output

int k = 5 ;
clrscr() ;
printf(\n
printf(\n
printf(\n
printf(\n
printf(\n

%d,
%d,
%d,
%d,
%d,

k );
k<10) ;
k>10) ;
k+(k==5) );
k=10) ;

5
1
0
6
10

getch() ;
}

15

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Notes :
There are three types of conditional statements in C.
1) if, 2) switch, 3) conditional operators
1) if ... else :
Syntax :

if (condition)
{
(statements);
}

if (condition)
{
(statements);
or

else

{
(statements) ;

}
Ex Program :
13)/* Write a program to check whether the given number is zero or
not
*/
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%d, &k) ;
if(k==0) printf(The number is zero ) ;
else printf(The number is not zero ) ;
}

getch() ;

14) /* Write a program to check the given number is positive or negative

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k ;
clrscr() ;

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printf(Enter any number ) ;


scanf(%d, &k) ;
if(k==0)
printf(The number is zero ) ;
else if(k>0)
printf(The number is Positive );
else
printf(The number is Negative ) ;
getch() ;
}
15) /* Write a program to find the big number in the given two numbers

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a, b ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any two numbers \n) ;
scanf(%d%d, &a, &b) ;
if(a==b)
printf(\n Given both are equl ) ;
else
{
printf(\n The big is ) ;
if(a>b) printf(%d, a) ;
else printf(%d, b) ;
}
getch() ;
}
16) /* Write a program to find the biggest number in the given three
numbers
*/
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a, b, c ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any three numbers \n) ;
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scanf(%d%d%d, &a, &b, &c) ;


if(a==b && a==c)
printf(Given all are equal ) ;
else
{
printf(\n The biggest is ) ;
if(a>b && a>c)
printf(%d, a) ;
else if(b>c)
printf(%d, b);
else
printf(%d, c);
}
getch() ;
}
17) /* Write a program to find the smallest number in the given five numbers

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()

int a, b, c, d, e, t ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any five numbers \n) ;
scanf(%d%d%d%d%d, &a, &b, &c, &d, &e ) ;
if(a==b && a==c && a==d && a==e)
printf(\n Given all are equal ) ;
else
{
t=a;
if(t>b)
t = b;
if(t>c)
t = c ;
if(t>d)
t = d ;
if(t>e)
t = e ;
printf(\n The biggest is %d, t) ;
}
getch( );
}
18)/* Write a program to find the biggest and smallest numbers in the
given five numbers */
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# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a, b, c, d, e, x, y ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any five numbers \n) ;
scanf(%d%d%d%d%d, &a, &b, &c, &d, &e ) ;
if(a==b && a==c && a==d && a==e)
printf(\n Given all are equal ) ;
else
{
x = a ;
y = a ;
if(x<b)
x = b;
else y = b;
if(x<c) x = c ;
else if(y>c) y = c ;
if(x<e) x = e ;
else if(y>d) y = d ;
if(x<e) x = e ;
else if(y>e) y = e ;
printf(\n The biggest is %d, x) ;
printf(\n The smallest is %d, y) ;
}
getch( );
}
19) /* Write a program to accept three subjects marks of a student, calculate total, average find the result,
division and print all details
*/
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int m1, m2, m3, tot ;
float avg ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter three subjects marks \n) ;
scanf(%d%d%d, &m1, &m2, &m3 ) ;
tot = m1 + m2 + m3 ; avg = (float) tot / 3 ;

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printf(The three subjects marks %d, %d, %d, m1, m2, m3 ) : printf(\n The Total %d \t Average
%03.2f, tot, avg ) ;
if(m1<35 || m2<35 || m3<35)
{
printf(\n Result is Fail ) ;
printf(\t division is NIl ) ;
}
else
{
printf(\n Result is Pass \t) ;
if(avg>=60)
printf(Division is I class ) ;
else if(avg>=50) printf(Division is II class) ;
else
printf(Division is III class) ;
}
getch() ;
}
20) /* Write a program to accept an employees basic salary, calculate da, hra, pf, net salary using the
following conditions and print all details
if bas >= 10000
10000 > bas >= 5000
5000 > bas >= 2000
bas < 2000

==>
==>
==>
==>

da
da
da
da

=
=
=
=

40%,
35%,
30%,
25%,

net = bas + da + hra - pf

hra
hra
hra
hra

=
=
=
=

50%,
45%,
40%,
35%,

pf
pf
pf
pf

=
=
=
=

25%
20%
15%
10%

*/

Notes :

2)

switch... case :

Syntax:
switch(variable)

{
case (value) :
case (value) :

(statements) ;
(statements) ;

default : (statements) ;

}
break :
This keyword stops the execution in the given block and come out.
statements and looping

Generally this is used in switch..case


20

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Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

Statements.
Ex Programs :
21)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number );
scanf(%d, &k) ;

switch(k)
{
case 0 : printf(\n Number is zero );
case 1 :
case 2 :
case 3 :
case 4 : printf(\n Number is less than five ) ;
break ;
case 5 : printf(\n Number is five );
break ;
default : printf(\n Number is greater than five ) ;
}
getch() ;
}
22)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
char k;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any one of the alphabets );
k = getche() ;
21

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Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

switch(k)
{
case a :
case A : printf(\n A for Active ) ;
break ;
case b :
case B : printf(\n B for Brave ) ;
break ;
case c :
case C : printf(\n C for Courage );
break ;
case d :
case D : printf(\n D for Dare ) ;
break ;
default : printf(\n You are timid ) ;
}
getch() ;
}
23)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a, b, k ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter two numbers \n) ;
scanf(%d%d, &a, &b) ;
printf(\n\n 1. Addition ) ;
printf(\n 2. Subtraction ) ;
printf(\n 3. Multiplication ) ;
printf(\n 4. Division ) ;
printf(\n\n Select your choice ) ;
scanf(%d, &k);
printf(\n) ;
switch(k)
{
case 1 : printf( The addition %d, a+b) ; break ;
22

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Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

case 2 : printf( The subtraction %d, a-b) ; break ;


case 3 : printf( The multiplication %d, a*b); break ;
case 4 : printf( The division %d, a/b); break ;
default : printf( Invalid choice );
}
getch() ;
}
Notes :
3) Conditional Expressions : ( ? : ; )
Syntax :
(condition) ? (statement1) : (statement2) ;
Ex Programs :
24)/* Write a program to check whether the given number is zero or not

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k;
clrscr() ;
pritnf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%d, &k);
(k==0) ? printf(Number is zero ) : pritnf(Number is not zero ) ;
getch() ;
}

23

NeoSoft Technologies
nd

Floor, K.K.Arcade, OPP:Konark Theatre, Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.


Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

25)/* Write a program to find the biggest number in the given three numbers

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a, b, c, t ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any three numbers \n) ;
scanf(%d%d%d, &a, &b, &c);
t = (a>b) ? a : b ;
printf(The biggest is %d, (t>c)?t:c );
getch() ;
}
Notes :
gotoxy() :
This function locates the cursor position to the given place on the screen. This functions prototype has defined in the
header file CONIO.H
Syntax:
gotoxy(column, row) ;
Generally in MS-DOS mode the screen contains 80 columns and 25 rows.
Ex Programs :
26)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
clrscr() ;
gotoxy(20, 3) ;
printf(Hello );
gotoxy(70, 5);
printf(Bhanodaya ) ;
gotoxy(35,12);
printf(Welcome );
gotoxy(50,20);
printf(To smile );
getch() ;
}
24

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Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

Notes :
goto :
This command changes the execution control to the given statement.
Syntax:
goto (label) ;
(label) :
(statements) ;
Ex Programs :
27)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
clrscr() ;
printf(Hello ) ;
printf(World ) ;
goto abc ;
printf(Go out ) ;
xyz :
printf(To smile ) ;
goto end ;
abc :
printf(Welcome ) ;
goto xyz ;
end :
getch() ;
}
/* Output :
Hello World Welcome To smile

*/

Note :
Looping Statements :
Repeating a block of statements number of times is called Looping.
There are three types of looping statements defined in C language.
1) do..while, 2) while, 3) for.
Note :
25

NeoSoft Technologies
nd

Floor, K.K.Arcade, OPP:Konark Theatre, Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.


Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

The keyword goto cn be also used to repeat a block of statements number of times.
Ex Programs :
28)
# include <stdio.h>
main()
{
abc :
printf(Welcome ) ;
goto abc ;
}
29) /* Program to display the first 10 natural numbers

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k ;
clrscr() ;
k=1;
abc :
printf(%d , k) ;
k++ ;
if(k<=10) goto abc ;
getch() ;
}

Notes :
1) do ... while() :
Syntax :
do
{
(statements);
} while(condition) ;

26

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Floor, K.K.Arcade, OPP:Konark Theatre, Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.


Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

Ex Programs :
30) /* Write a program to display the first 10 natural numbers */
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k ;
clrscr() ;
k=1;
do
{
printf(%d , k) ;
k++ ;
}while(k<=10) ;
getch() ;
}
31) /* Write a program to display the even numbers upto the given number and find the sum of them
*/
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k, n, s ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%d, &n) ;
k = 2 ; s = 0;
do
{
printf(%d , k) ;
s += k ;
k += 2 ;
}while (k<=10) ;
printf(\n The sum is %d, s) ;
getch() ;
}

27

NeoSoft Technologies
nd

Floor, K.K.Arcade, OPP:Konark Theatre, Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.


Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

Notes :
There is a draw-back in do.. while() staement. It executes the conditional statement after executing the statement.
2) while() :
Syntax:
while(condition)

{
(statements);

}
Ex Programs :
32) /* Write a program to display the first 10 natural numbers

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k ;
clrscr() ;
k=1;
while(k<=10)
{
printf(%d , k) ;
k++ ;
}
getch() ;
}
33) /* Write a program to display the even numbers upto the given number and find the sum of them
*/
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k, n, s ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%d, &n) ;
k = 2 ; s = 0;
while (k<=10)
28

NeoSoft Technologies
nd

Floor, K.K.Arcade, OPP:Konark Theatre, Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.


Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

{
printf(%d , k) ;
s += k ;
k += 2 ;
}
printf(\n The sum is %d, s) ;
getch() ;
}
34) /* Write a program to check whether the given number is Prime or not
Prime Number :
A number which is divisible by 1 and itselft.
/*

I method

*/

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int n, k, s;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%d, &n) ;
k = 1;
s = 0;
while(k<=n)
{
if(n%k==0) s++;
k++ ;
}
if(s==2) printf(\n Number is Prime );
else printf(\n Number is not a Prime )
getch( );
}
/* II method

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int n, k, s;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
29

NeoSoft Technologies
nd

Floor, K.K.Arcade, OPP:Konark Theatre, Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.


Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

scanf(%d, &n) ;
k = 2;
s = 0;
while(k<=n/2)
{
if(n%k==0) { s++; break ; }
k++ ;
}
if(s==0) printf(\n Number is Prime );
else printf(\n Number is not a Prime )
getch( );
}
35) /* Write a program to find the number of digits, sum of digits, and reverse order of the given number

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
long int a, b ;
int n, s, r ;
clrscr( );
printf(Enter any big number ); scanf(%ld, &a) ;
n = 0; s = 0; b = 0;
while(a>0)
{
n ++ ;
r = a % 10 ;
s += r ;
b = (b*10) + r ;
a /= 10 ;
}
printf(\n The number of digits %d, n) ;
printf(\n The sum of digits %d, s) ;
printf(\n The Reverse number %lu, b) ;
getch( );
}
36) /* Write a program to check whether the given number is Armstrong or not
Armstrong Number :
A number which is equal to the sum of the cubes of the digits
30

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Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

is called Armstrong Number.


Ex: 1, 153, 370, 371, 407

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
# include <math.h>
main()
{
int a, b, r, s ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%d, &a) ;
b = a ; s = 0;
while(a>0)
{
r = a % 10 ;
s = pow(r, 3);

/*

s += r * r * r ;

*/

a /= 10;
}
if(b==s) printf(\n The number is an Armstrong ) ;
else printf(\n The number is not an Armstrong ) ;
getch() ;
}
Notes :
3) for() :
Syntax:
for ( initialisation ; condition ; iteration )

{
(statements) ;

}
Ex Programs :
37)
/*

Write a program to display the odd numbers upto the given number

*/

# include <stdio.h>
31

NeoSoft Technologies
nd

Floor, K.K.Arcade, OPP:Konark Theatre, Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.


Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int n, a ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number );
scanf(%d, &a );
/* n = 1 ;
for ( ; a>=n ; )
{
printf(%d , n);
n += 2 ;
}
*/
for(n=1; n<=a ; n+=2)
printf(\n %d , n) ;
getch() ;
}

38)
/* Write a program to display the even numbers upto the given number
and find the sum of them */
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a, n, s ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%d, &a) ;
/*

n=2;s=0;

for( ; n<=a ; )
{
printf(%d , n) ;
s += n ;
n += 2 ;
*/
/*

32

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Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

s=0;
for(n=2; n<=a; n+=2)
{
printf(%d , n );
s += n;
}
*/
for(n=2, s=0 ; n<=a ; s+=n, n+=2 )
printf(%d , n) ;
printf(\n The sum is %d, s) ;
getch() ;
}

39) /* Write a program to find the sum of natural numbers, even numbers, odd numbers upto the given
number
*/
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a, n, s, odd, even ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%d, &a) ;
for(n=1, s=0, odd=0, even=0 ; n<=a ; s+=n, n++)
if(n%2==0) even += n;
else odd += n;
printf(\n The sum of natural numbers %d, s) ;
printf(\n The sum of even numbers %d, even ) ;
printf(\n The sum of odd numbers %d , odd ) ;
getch() ;
}
40) /* Write a program to find the factorial value of the given number
n! = n * (n-1) !
*/

33

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nd

Floor, K.K.Arcade, OPP:Konark Theatre, Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.


Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
long int a, f ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%ld, &a) ;
/*

*/

f = 1 ;
for( ; a>1 ;)
{
f *= a ;
a -- ;
}
for(f=1; a>1; f*=a, a--) ;
printf(\n The factorial is %ld , f) ; getch() ;
}

41)
/* Write a program to display the multiplication table of the given number
using all types of loopings.
*/
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int n, k;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number );
scanf(%d, &n) ;
/*

k = 1 ;
do
{
printf(\n %d x %2d = %3d, n, k, n*k );
k ++ ;
} while (k<=10) ;

*/
/*
k=1;
while( k<= 10 )
{
printf(\n %d x %2d = %3d , n, k, n*k );
34

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Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

k ++ ;
}

*/

for(k=1; k<=10; k++)


printf(\n %d x %2d = %3d, n, k, n*k);
getch() ;
}
42) /* Write a program to display the ASCII chart
ASCII ==> American Standard Code for Information Interchange

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k ;
clrscr() ;
/*

k=0;
do
{
printf(\t %d %c, k, k) ;
k ++ ;
if(k%50==0) getch() ;
} while(k<=255 ) ;

*/
/*

*/

k = 0 ;
while(k<=255)
{
printf(\t %d %c, k, k) ;
k ++ ;
if(k%50==0) getch() ;
}
for(k=0; k<=255; k++)
{
printf(\t %d %c, k, k) ;
if(k%50==0) getch() ;
}
getch() ;
}

43) /* Write a program to display the multiplication table of the given number using all types of Loopings.

*/
35

NeoSoft Technologies
nd

Floor, K.K.Arcade, OPP:Konark Theatre, Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.


Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

Notes :
Nested Loops :
Looping in a loop is called Nesting of Loops.
Ex Programs :
44)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int n, k, j ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%d, &n) ;
for(k=1; k<=n; k++)
{
printf(\n ) ;
for(j=1; j<=k; j++)
printf(%d , j) ;
}
getch() ;
}
/*

output :
Enter any number
1
1 2
1 2 3
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 5

*/
45)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int n, k, j ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
36

NeoSoft Technologies
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Floor, K.K.Arcade, OPP:Konark Theatre, Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.


Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

scanf(%d, &n) ;
for(k=1; k<=n; k++)
{
printf(\n ) ;
for(j=1; j<=k; j++)
printf(%d , k) ;
}
getch() ;
}
/*

output :
Enter any number
1
2 2
3 3 3
4 4 4 4
5 5 5 5 5

*/

46)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int n, k, j ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%d, &n) ;
for(k=n; k>=1; k--)
{
printf(\n ) ;
for(j=1; j<n-k; j++)
printf( ) ;
for(j=1; j<=k; j++)
printf(%d , j) ;
}
getch() ;
}
/*

output :
Enter any number
1 2 3 4 5

37

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Ph: 65552136, 9000078308
1 2 3 4
1 2 3
1 2

*/

47)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int n,j,k,a;
clrscr();
printf(Enter the any number);
scanf(%d,&a);
for(n=a;n>0;n--)
{
printf(\n);
for(k=1;k<=n;k++)
printf(%c,64+k);
for(k=1;k<=2*(a-n)-1;k++)
printf( );
k=(a==n)?n-1:n;
for (;k>=1;k--)
printf(%c,64+k);
}
getch();
}
/* Output :
Enter any number 5
ABCDEDCBA
ABCD DCBA
ABC
AB
A

CBA
BA
A

*/

48)
/* Write a program to display the multiplication tables upto
the given number
*/
38

NeoSoft Technologies
nd

Floor, K.K.Arcade, OPP:Konark Theatre, Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.


Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a, n, k ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%d, &a) ;
for(n=1; n<=a; n++)
{
for(k=1; k<=10; k++ )
printf(\n %d x %2d = %3d , n, k, n*k);
getch() ;
clrscr() ;
}
}

49)
/* Write a program to display the list of Prime numbers upto
the given number
*/
# include <conio.h>
# include <stdio.h>
main()
{
int a, n, k, s ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any number ) ;
scanf(%d, &a ) ;
for(n=2; n<=a; n++)
{
for(k=2, s=0; k<=n/2; k++)
if(n%k==0) { s++; break ; }
if(s==0) printf(%d , n) ;
}
getch() ;
}
50) /* Write a program to display the list of Armstrong Numbers upto the given number

*/
39

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Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

51) /* Write a program to display the Fibonacci Series upto the given number
Fibonacci Series :
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, ....
In this series every element is the sum of its previous two numbers

*/

52)/* Write a program to display a box with the given character,


length and width using arrays

*/

/* Output :
Enter box length 10
Enter box width 5
Enter any character *
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*

*/

Notes :
Arrays :
An array is a collection of similar data type elements. It stores the elements in contiguous locations. To use any array it
must be declared with its size and they may be initialized. The size must be a constant.
The indexing is start from 0. The arrays are two types.
1) Single Dimensional arrays, 2) Multi Dimensional Arrays.
1) Single Dimensional Arrays :
Syntax :
(type) (variable) [size] ;
Ex:
int eno[5] = { 56, 67, 45, 89, 45};
char ena[] = { a, b, c, d } ;
float bas[] = { 56.67, 900.45, 567 } ;
Ex Programs :
53) /* Write a program to create a 5 cells single dimensional array, store 7 in cells and print all

*/

# include <conio.h>
# include <stdio.h>
main()
{
int k, a[5] ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any five numbers \n) ;
for(k=0; k<=4; k++)
40

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Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

a[k] = 7 ;
printf(\n The array elements are \n) ;
for(k=0; k<5; k++)
printf(%d , a[k]) ;
getch() ;
}
/*

Output: 7 7 7 7 7

*/

54) /* Write a program to accept 5 numbers and print all in reverse order

*/

# include <conio.h>
# include <stdio.h>
main()
{
int k, a[5] ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any five numbers \n) ;
for(k=0; k<=4; k++)
scanf(%d, &a[k]) ;
printf(\n The array elements in reverse order \n) ; for(k=4; k>=0; k--)
printf(%d , a[k]) ;
getch() ;
}
55)
/* Write a program to accept 5 numbers print all, and find the sum of them

*/

# include <conio.h>
# include <stdio.h>
main()
{
int k, s, a[5] ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any five numbers \n) ;
for(k=0, s=0; k<=4;s+=a[k], k++)
scanf(%d, &a[k]) ;
printf(\n The array elements are \n) ; for(k=0; k<5; k++)
printf(%d , a[k]) ;
printf(\n The sum of elements is %d, s) ; getch() ;
41

NeoSoft Technologies
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Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

}
56) /* Write a program to create 10 cells single dimensional array,
accept 9 cells values, assign the sum of them to the
last cell and print all
*/
# include <conio.h>
# include <stdio.h>
main()
{
int k, a[10] ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any nine numbers \n) ;
for(k=0,a[9]=0; k<=8;a[9]+=a[k], k++)
scanf(%d, &a[k]) ;
printf(\n The array elements are \n) ; for(k=0; k<10; k++)
printf(%d , a[k]) ;
getch() ;
}

Notes :
2) Multi Dimensional Arrays :
Ex:
int a[5][3], b[4][5][6][7], .....
char na[3][20] = { abcdefgh, ramakrishna, Bhanodaya };
A multi dimensional array is a collection of another arrays. That means a double dimensional array is a collection of
single dimensional arrays.
Ex:
The array a[5][3] is a collection of 5 single dimensional arrays with size 3.
Ex Programs :
57)
/* Write a program to create a 5x5 double dimensional array,
store 7 in all cells and print them as a matrix
*/
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k, j, a[5][5] ;
clrscr() ;

output:
42

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Ph: 65552136, 9000078308

for(k=0; k<5; k++)


for(j=0; j<5; j++)
a[k][j] = 7;
for(k=0; k<=4; k++)
{
printf(\n);
for(j=0; j<=4; j++)
printf(%d , a[k][j] );

7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7

}
getch() ;
}
58)
main()
{
(same as above)
for(k=0; k<5; k++)
for(j=0; j<5; j++)
a[k][j] = (k==j || k+j==4) ? 7 : 0;
(same as above)
}
/* Output :
70007
07070
00700
07070
70007

*/

59)
main()
{
(same as above)
for(k=0; k<5; k++)
for(j=0; j<5; j++)
a[k][j] = (k==0 || k==4 || j==0 || j==4) ? 7 : 0;
(same as above)
}
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/* Output :
77777
70007
70007
70007
77777

*/

60) /* Write a program to display a box with the given character,


length and width using arrays

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
char ch, a[25][80] ;
int k, j, len, w ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter the box length );
scanf(%d, &len) ;
printf(Enter the box width ) ;
scanf(%d, &w );
printf(Enter a character );
ch = getche() ;
printf(\n\n) ;
for(k=0; k<w; k++)
for(j=0; j<len; j++)
a[k][j] = (k==0 || j==0 || k==w-1 || j==len-1) ? ch : 32 ;
for(k=0; k<w; k++)
{
printf(\n);
for(j=0; j<len; j++)
printf(%c , a[k][j] );
}
getch() ;
}
/* Output :
Enter box length 10
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Enter box width 5


Enter any character *
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*

*/

61)/* Write a program to find the addition matrix of


two 3x3 matrices

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a[3][3], b[3][3], c[3][3], k, j ;
clrscr();
printf(Enter 9 numbers for firs array \n) ;
for(k=0; k<3; k++)
for(j=0; j<3; j++)
scanf(%d, &a[k][j] );
printf(\n Enter 9 numbers for second array \n) ;
for(k=0; k<3; k++)
for(j=0; j<3; j++)
scanf(%d, &b[k][j] );
for(k=0; k<3; k++)
for(j=0; j<3; j++)
c[k][j] = a[k][j] + b[k][j] ;
printf(\n The Addition matrix is \n);
for(k=0; k<3; k++)
{
printf(\n );
for(j=0; j<3; j++)
printf(%3d , c[k][j] );
printf();
}
getch();
}

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62) /* Write a program to find the multiplication matrix of


two 3x3 matrices

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a[3][3], b[3][3], c[3][3], k, j, t ;
clrscr();
printf(Enter 9 numbers for firs array \n) ;
for(k=0; k<3; k++)
for(j=0; j<3; j++)
scanf(%d, &a[k][j] );
printf(\n Enter 9 numbers for second array \n) ;
for(k=0; k<3; k++)
for(j=0; j<3; j++)
scanf(%d, &b[k][j] );
for(k=0; k<3; k++)
for(j=0; j<3; j++)
for(t=0, c[k][j]=0 ; t<3; t++)
c[k][j] += a[k][t] * b[t][j] ;
printf(\n The multiplication matrix is \n);
for(k=0; k<3; k++)
{
printf(\n );
for(j=0; j<3; j++)
printf(%3d , c[k][j] );
printf();
}
getch();
}

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Notes:
STRINGS :
A string is an array of characters. It ends with a null character. ( \0 ==> Null character )
Ex :
char na1[6] = { a, b,c, d, e, \0 } ;
char na2[6] = abcde ;
char names[][] = { rama, krishna, abcd } ;
char str1[20], str2[40] ;
Note :
The format string for a string variable is %s .
Ex programs :
63)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
char str[80];
clrscr();
printf(Enter any string );
scanf(%s, str) ;
printf(\n You entered the string %s, str) ; getch() ;
}
/* Output :
Enter any string udaya bhanu
You entered the string udaya

*/

Notes :
scanf() function can accept the string values. But it does not allow spaces in the string. To avoid this problem gets()
can be used.
gets() :
This function is used to accept the value for a string variable. This functions prototype has defined in the header file
STDIO.H.
Syntax :
gets(varaible) ;
Ex :
gets(str) ;
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puts() :
This function is used to display the string value of the variable. This functions prototype has defined in the header file
STDIO.H
Syntax :
puts(string) ;
Ex :
puts(The string is );
puts(str) ;
Ex Programs :
64)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
char str[80] ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any string ) ;
gets(str) ;
printf( You entered );
puts(str);
getch() ;
}
/* Output :
Enter any string udaya bhanu
You entered the string udaya bhanu

*/

65) /* Write a program to find the length of a string */


# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
char str[80]; int k;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any string );
gets(str) ;
/* k = 0;
while(str[k]!=\0)
k++ ;
*/
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for(k=0; str[k] !=\0; k++) ;


printf(\n The length is %d, k);
getch() ;
}
66)/* Write a program to change the given string into upper case

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
char str[80] ;
clrscr() ;

int k ;

printf(Enter any string \n) ;


gets(str) ;
for(k=0; str[k]!=\0; k++)
if(str[k]>=97 && str[k]<=122)
str[k] -= 32 ;
/*
if( str[k] >=a && str[k] <=z )
str[k] -= a - A;
*/
printf(\n In upper case %s, str) ;
getch() ;
}
/* Output :
Enter any string Udaya Bhanu
In upper case

UDAYA BHANU

*/

67)/* Write a program to change the given string into lower case */
68)/* Write a program to change the given string into Sentence case
that means the first character into upper case and the remaining
into lower case
*/
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
char str[80] ; int k ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any string ) ;
gets(str) ;
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if(str[0]>=a && str[0]<=z ) str[0] -= a - A ;


for(k=1; str[k]!=\0; k++)
if(str[k]>=65 && str[k]<=90)
str[k] += 32 ;
printf(\n In sentence case %s, str) ;
getch() ;
}
/* Output :
Enter any string UDAYA BHANU
In upper case Udaya bhanu
69)

/*

Write a program to change the given string into

/* Output :
Enter any string UDAYA BHANU
In upper case Udaya Bhanu
70) /*

*/
Title Case

*/

*/

Write a program to copy a string to another

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
char s[80], t[80] ;
int k;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter the source string to copy ) ;
gets(s) ;
k=0;
while(s[k]!=\0)
{
t[k] = s[k] ;
k++ ;
}
t[k] = \0 ;
printf(\n The new string is %s, t) ;
getch() ;
}
71)/* Write a program to concatenate two strings */
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
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main()
{
char a[80], b[80] ;
int k, j ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter two strings \n) ;
gets(a) ; gets(b);
for(k=0;a[k]!=\0; k++) ;
for(j=0; b[j]!=\0; k++, j++)
a[k] = b[j] ;
a[k] = \0 ; printf(\n The concatenated string is %s, a) ; getch() ;
}
72)/* Write a program to reverse the given string */
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
char a[80], b[80] ;
int k, j ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any string ) ;
gets(a) ;
for(k=0; a[k]!=\0; k++) ;
for(k--, j=0; k>=0; k--, j++)
b[j] = a[k];
b[j] = \0 ;
printf(\n In reverse order %s, b) ;
getch();
}
/* Output :
Enter any string bhanodaya
In upper case
73)/*

ayadonahb

*/

Program to move the given name around the screen

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
# include <string.h>
main()
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int k, r, c, DL;
char str[80];
clrscr();
puts(Enter your name ); gets(str);
k = strlen(str);
DL = 10000;

while(!kbhit())
{
for(r=1; r<=23; r++)
{
gotoxy(1,r); printf(%s, str);
delay(DL); clrscr();
}
for(c=1; c<=80-k; c+=3)
{
gotoxy(c,23); printf(%s, str);
delay(DL); clrscr();
}
for(r=23;r>0; r--)
{
gotoxy(80-k,r); printf(%s, str);
delay(DL); clrscr();
}
for(c=80-k;c>0; c-=3)
{
gotoxy(c,1); printf(%s, str);
delay(DL); clrscr();
}

}
74)/* Program to fall and replace the given name character by character

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
# include <string.h>
# include <dos.h>
main()
{
char na[80];
int r, c, k, n, DL;
clrscr();
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printf(Enter your name ); gets(na);


k = strlen(na);
DL = 2000;
clrscr();
for(n=1; n<5; n++)
{
for(c=0; c<k; c++)
{
for(r=1; r<=15; r++)
{
gotoxy(c+20,r);printf( );
gotoxy(c+20,r+1);printf(%c, na[c]);
delay(DL);
}
}
for(c=0; c<k; c++)
{
for(r=16; r>1; r--)
{
gotoxy(c+20, r); printf( );
gotoxy(c+20, r-1); printf(%c, na[c]);
delay(DL);
}
}
}
}
75 )/* Program to display the given name as a box

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
char str[20], a[25][20];
int k, j, n ;
clrscr( );
printf(Enter Your name ) ;
gets(str) ;
for(n=0; str[n]!=\0; n++) ;
for(k=0; k<n; k++)
for(j=0; j<n; j++)
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if(k==0) a[k][j] = str[j] ;


else if(j==0) a[k][j] = str[k];
else if(j==n-1) a[k][j] = str[n-k-1] ;
else if(k==n-1) a[k][j] = str[n-j-1] ;
else a[k][j] = 32 ;
for(k=0; k<n; k++)
{
printf(\n);
for(j=0; j<n; j++)
printf(%c , a[k][j] ) ;
}
getch() ;
}
/* Output :
Enter Your name Bhanodaya
B h a n o d a y a
h
a
n
o
d
a
y
a y a d o n a h B

y
a
d
n
a
h
*/

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Notes :
STRING.H functions :
To manipulate the strings the C authors designed some functions in the header file STRING.H
1) strlen():
This function returns an integer value that is the length of the string. length means the number of characters.
Syntax:
int strlen(string) ;
2) strupr() :
This function changes the given string into uppercase characters.
Syntax :
strupr(string) ;
3) strlwr() :
This function changes the given string into lowercase characters.
Syntax :
strlwr(string) ;
4) strcpy() :
This function copies the string to another string.
Syntax :
strcpy(target, source) ;
5) strcat() :
This function adds two strings.
Syntax :
strcat(destination, second) ;
6) strrev() :
This function change the given string into reverse order.
Syntax :
strrev(string) ;
7) strcmp() :
This function compares two strings and returns zero when both are same.
Syntax :
int strcmp(first, second) ;
Ex Programs :
77) /* Program to demonstrate the library functions of STRING.H

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
# include <string.h>
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main()
{
char a[80], b[80] ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter a string ) ;
gets(a) ;
printf(\n The given string is %s, a);
printf(\n The length of string is %d, strlen(a) ) ;
printf(\n In Upper case %s, strupr(a)) ;
printf(\n In Lower case %s, strlwr(a) );
strcpy(b, a) ;
printf(\n The new string is %s, b) ;
strrev(b);
printf(\n In reverse order %s, b) ;
printf(\n The difference is %d, strcmp(a,b) );
getch();
}
/* Output :
Enter a string Bhanodaya
The given string is Bhanodaya
The length of string is 9
In Upper case BHANODAYA
In Lower case bhanodaya
The new string is bhanodaya
In reverse order ayadonahb
The difference is 1
*/

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FUNCTIONS :
The function is a piece of code. These functions are used to reduce the repetition of coding.
The functions are two types.
1) Derived functions,
2) User-defined functions.
The derived functions are provided by the C writers and they defined them in header files. To use these functions the
header file must be included at the top of the program.
We can create our own functions. To write any function there are three steps.
1) Functions declarations, 2) Functions calling, 3) Function definition.
or
1) Function definition, 2) Function calling.
In the function declaration and/or in the definition the name must be follow the return data type, and it should be
followed by parenthesis. In the parenthesis there may be arguments with their data types. If the function does not
return any value it must be declared as void. The default return type is int.
Syntax:
(datatype) (functionname) (argumentstype) ; /* Function declaration */

functionname(arguments) ;
calling */
(datatype)
definition */
{

(functionname) (arguments)

/* Function
/* Function

(statements) ;

}
These functions are three types.
1) No arguments with no return value functions,
2) Arguments with no return value functions,
3) Arguments with return value functions.
1) No arguments with no return value functions :
78)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
void first(void) ;
void second(void) ;
void third(void)
{
printf(\n This is in third function ) ;
}
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void fourth(void)
{
printf(\n This is in fourth function ) ;
}
void main()
{
clrscr() ;
printf(This is in Main ) ;
first() ;
second() ;
third() ;
fourth() ;
printf(\n This is in main again ) ;
getch() ;
}
void first(void)
{
printf(\n This is in first function ) ;
}
void second(void)
{
printf(\n This is in second function ) ;
}
/* Output :
This is in Main
This is in first function
This is in second function
This is in third function
This is in fourth function
This is in mainagain

*/

79)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
void replicate(void)
{
int k;
for(k=1; k<=50; k++)
printf(*) ;
}
void main()
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{
clrscr() ;
replicate() ;
printf(\n Hello \n) ;
replicate() ;
printf(\n World \n) ;
replicate() ;
printf(\n Welcome \n) ;
replicate() ;
getch();
}
/* Output :
Hello
World
Welcome
*/

/* 2) Arguments with No Return value functions

*/

80)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
void replicate(int n, int ch)
{
int k;
for(k=1; k<=n; k++)
printf(%c, ch) ;
}
void main()
{
clrscr() ;
replicate(30,*) ;
printf(\n Hello \n) ;
replicate(60,#) ;
printf(\n Bhanodaya \n) ;
replicate(50,%) ;
printf(\n Welcome \n) ;
replicate(40,@) ;
getch();
}
/* Output :
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Hello
Bhanodaya
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Welcome
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
*/
81)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
void add(int, int) ;
void subtr(int, int) ;
void mult(int a, int b)
{
printf(\n The multiplication %d, a*b) ;
}
void div(int k, int j)
{
printf(\n The division %f, (float)k / j ) ;
}
void main()
{
int a, b ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any two numbers \n) ;
scanf(%d%d, &a, &b ) ;
add(a, b) ; subtr(a, b) ;
mult(a, b) ; div(a, b) ;
getch() ;
}
void add(int m, int n)
{
int k;
k=m-n;
printf(\n The addition is %d, k) ;
}
void subtr(p, q)
int p, q ;
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{
int r ;
r=p-q;
printf(\n The subtraction %d , r) ;
}

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/*

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3. Arguments with Return value functions

*/

82)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
int add(int x, int y)
{
int z ;
z = x + y;
return z ;
}
int subtr(int p, int q)
{
return p-q ;
}
int mult(int, int ) ;
int div(int, int) ;
int main()
{
int a, b, c ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any two numbers \n );
scanf(%d%d, &a, &b) ;
c = add(a, b) ; printf(\n The addition is %d, c ); printf(\n The subtraction %d, subtr(a,b) ) ;
c = mult(a,b) ; printf(\n The multiplication %d, mult(a,b) ); printf(\n The division %d, div(a,b) );
getch() ;
return 0;
}
int mult(int a, int b)
{
return a*b;
}
int div(int m, int n)
{
int p = m / n;
return p;
}

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83) Important :
/* Program to demonstrate all types of functions

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
/* No arguments with No return value functions

*/

void looping(void) ;
void condition(void) ;
/* Arguments with No return value functions */
void add(int, int) ;
void mult(int, int) ;
/* Arguments with Return value functions

*/

int subtr(int, int) ;


int div(int, int) ;
int main()
{
looping() ;
return 0;
}
void looping()
{
char ch = y ;
while(ch==y || ch==Y)
{
clrscr() ;
condition() ;
gotoxy(45, 22) ;
printf( Do you want to cotinue (y/n) ) ;
ch = getche ();
}

void condition()
{
int a, b, k;
printf(\n Enter any two numbers \n) ;
scanf(%d%d, &a, &b) ;
gotoxy(30,
gotoxy(30,
gotoxy(30,
gotoxy(30,
gotoxy(30, 10 );

5)
6)
7)
8)

;
;
;
;

printf(1.
printf(2.
printf(3.
printf(4.

Addition );
Subtraction ) ;
Multiplication ) ;
Division ) ;

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printf(Enter Your choice ) ;


scanf(%d, &k) ;
gotoxy(10, 15);
switch(k)
{
case 1 : add(a, b) ; break ;
case 2 : printf( The subtraction %d, subtr(a,b) );
break ;
case 3 : mult(a,b ); break ;
case 4 : printf( The division %d, div(a,b) ) ;
break;
default : printf( Invalid choice ) ;
}
}
void add(int a, int b)
{
printf(\n The addition %d, a+b) ;
}
int subtr(int x, int y)
{
int z = x - y;
return z ;
}
void mult(int p, int q)
{
int r ;
r=p*q;
printf(The multiplication %d, r) ;
}
int div(int a, int b)
{
int c ;
c=a/b;
return c;
}
Notes :
PREPROCESSOR COMMANDS :
The commands which start with hash (#) are called Preprocessor
Commands.
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Ex :
# define PI 3.14159
# include <stdio.h>
# include conio.h
# define A 1.7

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define :
This command is used to define our own constants and macros.
Ex Programs :
84)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
# define MN main()
# define pf printf
# define cls clrscr()
# define wait getch()
# define sf scanf
# define PI 3.14159
# define msg Enter the radius of circle
# define area(g) PI*g*g
# define per(g) 2*PI*g
MN
{
float r ;
cls ;
pf(msg) ;
sf(%f, &r) ;
pf(\n The area of circle is %f, area) ; pf(\n The perameter of circle %f, per ) ; wait ;
}
Notes :
include :
This command is used to include the files which contains the definition
of functions.
There are two types to include the files.
1) # include < name >
This type of command includes the file which is located in the
specified directory. These specifications are set by selecting
the Directories command from Options menu.
2) # include name
This type of command includes the file which is located in the
current directory and/or in the specified directory.

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Ex Programs :
85)
/* Save this progam as SUB.C

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
int add(int x, int y)
{
int z ;
z = x + y;
return z ;
}
int subtr(int p, int q)
{
return p-q ;
}
/* Save and execute this program as MAIN.C

*/

# include sub.c
int mult(int, int ) ;
int div(int, int) ;
int main()
{
int a, b, c ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter any two numbers \n );
scanf(%d%d, &a, &b) ;
c = add(a, b) ; printf(\n The addition is %d, c ); printf(\n The subtraction %d, subtr(a,b) ) ;
c = mult(a,b) ; printf(\n The multiplication %d, mult(a,b) ); printf(\n The division %d, div(a,b) );
getch() ;
return 0;
}
int mult(int a, int b)
{
return a*b;
}
int div(int m, int n)
{
int p = m / n;
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return p;
}

Notes :
STORAGE CLAUSES :
The declared variables are generally stored in memory devices. But by
using the storage clauses they can be stored either in memory devices or
in CPU registers.
These storage clauses are 4 types. The variables initialisation
depends on this type.
1) auto, 2) register, 3) static, 4) extern
1) auto :
This keyword is an option. It stores the variable in memory device.
It assigns a junk(garbage) value to the variable. The variable which
declared in a block that is available in that block only. The default
type is auto.
Ex Programs :
86)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
auto int k;
{
int k = 5 ;

output :

{
auto int k = 20 ;
clrscr() ;
printf(\n %d, k );

20
5

}
printf(\n %d, k );

456

getch() ;
}

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87)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k ;
clrscr() ;
printf(%d \n, k) ;
for(k=1; k<=5; k++)
display() ;
getch() ;
}
display()
{
auto int k = 20 ;
printf( %d , k);
k += 3 ;
}
/* Output :
4567
20 20 20 20 20

*/

Notes :
2) register :
This keyword stores the variable in CPU registers. It assigns a junk(garbage) value to the variable. In CPU registers it
cant store more and big values like floats, doubles,..etc. It can store Only chars and integers. These variables are also
local that means the variables which declared in a block are available in that block only.
Generally these variables are used to generate the looping statements.
Ex Programs
88)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
register int k ;
clrscr() ;
printf(%d \n, k );
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for(k=1; k<=100; k++)


printf(%d , k) ;
getch() ;
}

Notes :
3) static :
This keyword stores the variable in memory device. It initialises the
variable as 0. The scope of variable is local that means
the variables which declared in a block are available in that block
only. But it does not destroy the variables value when end that block.
It takes the previous value when the controller entered into that
block again.
Ex Programs :
89)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
static int k ;
clrscr() ;
printf(%d \n, k) ;
for(k=1; k<=5; k++)
display() ;
getch() ;
}
display()
{
static int k = 20 ;
printf( %d , k);
k += 3 ;
}
/* Output :
0
20 23 26 29 32

*/

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Notes :
4) extern :
This keyword stores the variable in memory device. It initialises the
variable as 0. The scope of variable is global. This variable is
declared before the main() . The variables value can be changed
in the functions.

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Ex Programs :
90)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
int k ;
main()
{
clrscr() ;
printf(\n %d, k) ;
k=5;
disp1() ;
disp2() ;
printf(\n %d, k) ;
getch() ;
}
disp1()
{
printf(\n %d, k );
k += 3 ;
}
disp2()
{
int k = 20 ;
printf(\n %d, k );
disp3() ;
}
disp3()
{
printf(\n %d, k );
}
/* Output
0 5 20 8 8

*/

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Notes :
STRUCTURES

A structure is a collection of variety of data type elements. This is created with the keyword struct.
struct (name)

{
(elements declaration);

} ;
struct (name) (variable) ;
(variable).(element)
Ex :
1) struct employee

{
int eno;
char ename[80];
float bas;

};
struct employee emp = { 5, rama, 5600 } ;
2) struct employee

{
int eno;
char ename[80];
float bas;
} emp = { 5, rama, 5600 } ;
3) struct

{
int eno;
char ename[80];
float bas;
} emp = { 5, rama, 5600 } ;

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Ex Programs :
91)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
struct book
{
int pages;
char title[40] ;
float price ;
} ;
struct book bk = { 500, Let us C, 175 } ;
clrscr() ;
printf(\n The title of book %s , bk.title ); printf(\n The number of pages %d , bk.pages ) ; printf(\n The
price of book %.2f , bk.price ) ; getch( );
}
92)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
struct book
{
int pages;
char title[40] ;
float price ;
} ;
struct book bk ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter the number of pages of book ) ;
scanf(%d , &bk.pages ) ;
printf(Enter the book title ) ;
scanf(%s, bk.title ) ;
printf(Enter the cost of book ) ;
scanf(%f, &bk.price);
printf(\n The title of book %s , bk.title ); printf(\n The number of pages %d , bk.pages ) ; printf(\n The
price of book %.2f , bk.price ) ; getch( );
}
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93)
/* Array of Structures */
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
struct book
{
int pages;
char title[40] ;
float price ;
} ;
int k ;
struct book bk[3] = { { 500, Let us C, 175 },
{ 350, Graphics under C, 235 } ,
{ 800, Datastructures through C and C++ , 350 }
} ;
clrscr() ;
for(k=0; k<3; k++)
{
printf(\n\n The title of book %s , bk[k].title );
printf(\n The number of pages %d , bk[k].pages ) ;
printf(\n The price of book %.2f , bk[k].price ) ;
getch( );
}
}
94)

/*

Structures to Functions

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
struct book
{
int pages;
char title[40] ;
float price ;
} ;
main()
{
struct book bk = { 500, Let us C, 175 } ;
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clrscr() ;
display(bk.pages, bk.title, bk.price );
dispstrct(bk) ;
getch( );
}
display(int pg, char na[], float pr)
{
printf(\n The title of book %s, na);
printf(\n The number of pages %d, pg);
printf(\n The price of book %f, pr );
}
dispstrct(struct book b)
{
printf(\n The title of book %s, b.title);
printf(\n The number of pages %d, b.pages);
printf(\n The price of book %f, b.price );
}
95) /* Structures in structure

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
struct book
{ int pages; char name[40]; float price ; } ;
struct pens
{ int qty; char name[40]; float price ; } ;
struct shop
{
char name[40], street[40] ;
struct book bk ;
struct pens pn ;
} ;
main()
{
struct shop sh = { Udaya Book world , Chintal ,
{ 1200, Test your skills in C, 175 } ,
{ 50, Reynolds, 12 }
} ;
clrscr() ;
printf(\n The shop name %s , sh.name ) ; printf(\n The shop address %s , sh.street);

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printf(\n\n The book title %s , sh.bk.name ) ; printf(\n The number of pages in the book
%d,sh.bk.pages ) ; printf(\n The cost of each book %.2f , sh.bk.price ) ;
printf(\n\n The name of pen %s , sh.pn.name ) ; printf(\n The quantity of pens %d , sh.pn.qty ) ;
printf(\n The cost of each pen %.2f , sh.pn.price ) ;
getch() ;
}
96) /* Write a program to interchange the values of two variables */

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Notes :
POINTERS
This topic is the most important in C.
To use any variable it must be declared with its data type before the first executable statement. By declaring a variable
the compiler reserves the required space in memory between 64 kb and 128 kb. Every cell has a unique address in
memory. This address is a number,that is an integer.
The variables stored in the memory can be accessed with their addresses using pointers.To access with pointers we have
to use two new operators.

&
*

==>
==>

Address of
Value at address of

Ex :
int a = 5;
a ==> 5
&a ==> 65500
*(&a) ==> 5
These address value can be stored in another variable. But that must be a pointer variable of the same type to the
variable.
Ex Programs :
97)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k, *p, **q ;
clrscr() ;
k = 7; p = &k; q = &p;
printf(The value of k is %d, k) ; printf(\n The address of k is %u, &k); printf(\n The value at address
%u is %d, &k, *(&k) ) ;
printf(\n The value of P is %u, p) ; printf(\n The value at address %u is %u, &p, *(&p) ) ;
printf(\n The value at address %u is %d, p, *p );
printf(\n The value of q is %u, q) ; printf(\n The value at address of %u is %u, &q, *(&q) ) ;
printf(\n The value at address %u is %u, q, *q);
printf(\n The integer value is %d, *(*q) ) ;
getch() ;
}
/* Output :
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The value of k is 7
The address of k is 65524
The value at address 65524 is 7
The value of P is 65524
The value at address 65522 is 65524
The value at address 65524 is 7
The value of q is 65522
The value at address of 65520 is 65522
The value at address 65522 is 65524
The integer value is 7

*/

98)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a, *ap ;
float b, *bp ;
char c, *cp ;
clrscr() ;
printf(\n The size of int is %d and pointer is %d, sizeof(a), sizeof(ap) ) ; printf(\n The size of float is %d and
Pointer is %d, sizeof(b),sizeof(bp) ) ; printf(\n The size of char is %d and Pointer is %d, sizeof, sizeof(cp) ) ;
getch() ;
}
Notes :
Pointers in Functions :
The functions can be send some arguments to the definition and may
take a return value. If the value of these variables changed in the
functions that does not effected to the function calling.
To change the value after calling the function the values can be send by reference. That means the address of the
variable can be send to change the value.
Ex Programs :
98) /* Write a program to interchange the values of two variables using
functions
A) CALL BY VALUE :

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
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{
int a=20, b=30 ;
clrscr() ;
printf(The initial values are \n) ;
printf(a = %d \t b = %d, a, b) ;
swap(a,b) ;
printf(\n\n After swapping in main \n) ;
printf( a = %d \t b = %d, a, b) ;
getch() ;
}
swap(int x, int y)
{
int t ;
t = x; x = y ; y = t ;
printf(\n\n After swapping \n);
printf( x = %d, y = %d, x, y);
}
/* Output :
a = 20
x = 30
a = 20

b = 30
y = 20
b = 30

*/

B) CALL BY REFERENCE :
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int a=20, b=30 ;
clrscr() ;
printf(The initial values are \n) ;
printf(a = %d \t b = %d, a, b) ;
swap(&a,&b) ;
printf(\n\n After swapping in main \n) ;
printf( a = %d \t b = %d, a, b) ;
getch() ;
}
swap(int *x, int *y)
{
int t ;
t = *x; *x = *y ; *y = t ;
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printf(\n\n After swapping \n);


printf( x = %d, y = %d, *x, *y);
}
/* Output :
a = 20
x = 30
a = 30

b = 30
b = 30
b = 20
*/

Notes :
Arrays with Pointers :
An array is a collection of similar data type elements mentioning with a single variable. The address of first element is
considered the address of the array. The array elements can be accessed using the address of array and the index value.
Ex Programs :
q)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int k, a[5] = { 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 } ;
clrscr() ;
for(k=0; k<5; k++)
{
printf(\n the addres of %d element %u %u, k, &a[k], a+k ) ;
printf(the value is %d %d %d %d, a[k], *(a+k), *(k+a), k[a] ) ;
}
getch () ;
}
q)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
main()
{
int *a, n ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter the number of elements you want ) ;
scanf(%d, &n) ;
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accept(a, n) ;
display(a, n) ;
getch() ;
}
accept(int *p, int n)
{
int k;
printf(Enter %d numbers \n , n) ;
for(k=0; k<n; k++)
scanf(%d, p+k) ;
}
display(int *p, int n)
{
int k;
printf(\n The elemetns are \n) ;
for(k=0; k<n; k++)
printf(%d , *(p+k) ) ;
}
q)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
# define M 5
main()
{
int a[M] ;
clrscr() ;
accept(a, M) ;
display(a, M) ;
getch() ;
}
accept(int *p, int k)
{
int n ;
printf(Enter any %d numbers \n, k) ;
for(n=0; n<k; n++)
scanf(%d, p+n) ;
}
display(int d[], int k)
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{

int n ;
printf(\n The array elements are \n) ;
for(n=0; n<k; n++)
printf(%d , d[n] ) ;
}
Notes :
malloc() :
This function is used to allocate the required space in the memory while executing the program. This functions
prototype was defined in the header file ALLOC.H
There is an another function to allocate memory. that is calloc().
The malloc() assigns junk values the allocated space. But calloc() assigns 0 to the allocated space.
Syntax:
(pointer) = (pointertype) malloc( size * number) ;
(pointer) = (pointertype) calloc( size , number ) ;
Note :
If the compiler failed to allocate the required space this function returns a NULL value.
Ex Programs :
q)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
# include <alloc.h>
main()
{
int *p, n, k, s;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter the number of elements ) ;
scanf(%d, &n) ;
p = (int *) malloc(sizeof(int) * n) ; if(p==NULL)
{
printf(Unable to allocate the required space ) ;
exit(0) ;
}
printf(Enter %d numbers \n, n) ;
for(k=0, s=0; k<n;s+=p[k], k++)
scanf(%d, p+k );
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printf(\n The elements are \n) ;


for(k=0; k<n; k++)
printf(%d , p[k] );
printf(\n The sum is %d, s) ;
getch() ;
}
q) /* Write a program to sort the given numbers using Linear Sort technique

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
# include <alloc.h>
main()
{
int *p, n;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter the number of elements ) ;
scanf(%d, &n) ;
p = (int *) malloc(2*n) ;
if(p==NULL)
{
printf(\n Unable to allocate the required space ) ;
exit(0);
}
accept(p, n) ;
linear(p, n) ; /* bubble(p, n) ; */
display(p, n) ;
getch() ;
}
accept(int *p, int n)
{
int k ;
printf(Enter %d numbers \n, n) ;
for(k=0; k<n; k++)
scanf(%d, p+k) ;
}
display(int *p, int n)
{
int k ;
printf(\n The elements are ) ;
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for(k=0; k<n; k++)


printf(%d , *(p+k) ) ;
/*

}
linear(int a[], int n)
{
int k, j, t ;
for(k=0; k<n; k++)
for(j=k; j<n; j++)
if(a[k]<a[j])
{
t = a[k] ; a[k] = a[j] ; a[j] = t ;
}

*/
linear(int *a, int n)
{
int k, j, t ;
for(k=0; k<n; k++)
for(j=k; j<n; j++)
if(*(a+k) < *(a+j) )
{
t = *(a+k) ;
*(a+k) = *(a+j) ;
*(a+j) = t ;
}
}

bubble(int a[], int n)


{
int t, k, j ;
for(k=0; k<n-1; k++)
for(j=0; j<n-1; j++)
if(a[j] < a[j+1] )
{
t = a[j] ;
a[j] = a[j+1] ;
a[j+1] = t ;
}
}
/*

bubble(int *a, int n)


{
int t, k, j ;
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for(k=0; k<n-1; k++)


for(j=0; j<n-1; j++)
if(*(a+j) < *(a+j+1) )
{
t = *(a+j) ;
*(a+j) = *(a+j+1) ;
*(a+j+1) = t ;
}
}
*/

Notes :
String Pointers to Functions :
Ex Programs :
q)

/*

Moving the given string as a Banner

#
#
#
#

include
include
include
include

*/

<stdio.h>
<conio.h>
<string.h>
<dos.h>

void main()
{
char *str = Bhanodaya is a super hero ;
clrscr();
while(!kbhit())
{
substr(str);
gotoxy(20, 12); printf(%s,str);

delay(100);

}
getch();
}
/*
substr(char *str)
{
char *dst, c; int i=1, j=0;
c = *str;
while(*(str+i)!=\0)
{
*(dst+j) = *(str+i);
i++; j++;
}
*(dst+j) = c;
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*(dst+j+1) = \0;
strcpy(str,dst);
}
*/
substr(char str[])
{
char dst[80], ch ;
int k, j ;
ch = str[0] ;
k=1; j=0;
while(str[k]!=\0)
{
dst[j] = str[k] ;
k++; j++;
}
dst[j++] = ch ;
dst[j] = \0 ;
strcpy(str, dst) ;
}
Notes :
Structures with Pointers :
The elements of a structure variable can be accessed using a period operator between the variable and the element. To
access the elements using the address of the variable the -> operator must be used.
(variablepoitner) -> (element)
Ex Programs :
q)
# include <conio.h>
# include <stdio.h>
struct book
{ int pages; char title[40]; float price ; } ;
main()
{
struct book bk = { 500, Pointers in C, 175.00 } ;
struct book *b ;
clrscr() ;
b = &bk ;
printf(\n The book title %s , bk.title ) ; printf(\n The number of pages %d , bk.pages ) ; printf(\n The
cost of book %.2f , bk.price ) ;
printf(\n\n The book title %s , b->title) ; printf(\n The number of pages %d, b->pages ) ; printf(\n The
cost of book %.2f , b->price ) ;
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printf(\n\n The size of structure variable %d,sizeof(bk) ); printf(\n The size of structure pointer %d,
sizeof(b) ) ;
getch() ;
}
q) /* Structure Pointers to Functions

*/

# include <conio.h>
# include <stdio.h>
struct book
{ int pages; char title[40]; float price ; } ;
main()
{
struct book bk = { 500, Pointers in C, 175.00 } ;
clrscr() ;
dispvar(bk) ;
disppntr(&bk) ;
getch() ;
}
dispvar(struct book bk)
{
printf(\n The book title %s , bk.title ) ;
printf(\n The number of pages %d , bk.pages ) ;
printf(\n The cost of book %.2f , bk.price ) ;
printf(\n The size of structure variable %d , sizeof(bk) );
}
disppntr(struct book *b)
{
printf(\n\n The book title %s , b->title) ;
printf(\n The number of pages %d, b->pages ) ;
printf(\n The cost of book %.2f , b->price ) ;
printf(\n The size of structure pointer %d, sizeof(b) ) ;
}
Notes :
FILE HANDLING IN C
Using C programs the data files and text files can be manipulated. To use any file it must be loaded into memory.
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In C programs the file pointer where the file stored can be found.
fopen():
This function is used to open the required file in the required mode and returns the file pointer where the file stored. If
it is unable to open in the given mode it returns a constant value NULL.
Syntax :
FILE * (filepointer) ;
(filepointer) = fopen(filename, mode );
modes :

- - - w ==> To create the file and store the data


a ==> To add the data to the file
r ==> To read the data from the file
Ex :
FILE *fp;
fp = fopen(data.txt, w);
fclose() :

The file, which opened in memory must be closed to avoid the


data corruption. To close the file the function fclose() must be
used.
Syntax :
fclose(filepointer);
Ex :
fclose(fp) ;
fputc():
This function is used to store the characters in the data file opened in the filepointer.
Syntax :
fputc(char, filepointer) ;
Ex :
fputc(ch, fp) ;
fgetc() :
This function is used to read a character to the variable from the file pointer.
Syntax :
char variable = fgetc(filepointer) ;
Ex :
ch = fgetc(fp) ;
Ex Programs :

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q) /* Write a program to create a text file DATA and store some data.

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
main()
{
FILE *fp ;
char ch ;
fp = fopen(DATA, w) ;
if(fp==NULL)
{
printf(\n Unable to open the given file ) ;
exit(0) ;
}
while(1)
{
ch = getchar();
if(ch==EOF) break ;
fputc(ch, fp) ;
}
fclose(fp) ;
}
q) /* Write a program to read the text from the file DATA */
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
main()
{
FILE *fp ;
char ch ;
clrscr() ;
fp = fopen(DATA, r) ;
if(fp==NULL)
{
printf(\n File not found ) ;
exit(0) ;
}
while(1)
{
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ch = fgetc(fp);
if(ch==EOF) break ;
putchar(ch) ;
}
fclose(fp) ;
getch() ;
}

q)/* Write a program to read the text from the file DATA display in
Upper case characters

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
main()
{
FILE *fp ;
char ch ;
clrscr() ;
fp = fopen(data, r) ;
if(fp==NULL)
{
printf(\n File not found ) ;
exit(0) ;
}
while(1)
{
ch = fgetc(fp);
if(ch==EOF) break ;
if(ch>=97 && ch<=122) ch -= 32 ;
putchar(ch) ;
}
fclose(fp) ;
getch() ;
}
q)/* Write a program to read the text from the file DATA copy to another
in file in upper case characters

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
main()
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{
FILE *fs, *ft ;
char ch, *src, *trg ;
clrscr() ;
printf(Enter the source file to copy ) ;
scanf(%s, src) ;
fs = fopen(src, r) ;
if(fs==NULL)
{
printf(\n Source File not found ) ;
exit(0) ;
}
printf(\n Enter the target file to copy ) ;
scanf(%s, trg) ;
ft = fopen(trg, w) ;
if(ft==NULL)
{
printf(\n Unable to open the target file ) ;
exit(1) ;
}
while(1)
{
ch = fgetc(fs);
if(ch==EOF) break ;
if(ch>=97 && ch<=122) ch -= 32 ;
putchar(ch) ;
fputc(ch, ft) ;
}
fclose(fs) ; fclose(ft) ;
getch() ;
}
Notes :
fprintf() :
This function stores the data in the file.
Syntax :
fprintf(filepointer, format string, variables);
Ex :
fprintf(fp, %d %s %f, eno, ena, bas);
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fscanf() :
This function reads the data from the file.
Syntax :
fscanf(filepointer, format string, variables);
Ex :
fscanf(fp, %d%s%f, &eno, ena, &bas);
Ex Programs :
q)/* Write a program to create a data file EMP.DAT, accept employee number,
name, basic salary and store all in the data file*/
# include <conio.h>
# include <stdio.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
main()
{
FILE *fp ;
int eno; char ena[40]; float bas ;
char ans=y ;
clrscr() ;
fp = fopen(EMP.DAT, w) ;
if(fp==NULL)
{
printf(\n Unable to open in the required mode ) ;
exit(0) ;
}
while(ans==y || ans==Y)
{
printf(\n Enter Employee Number ) ;
scanf(%d, &eno) ;
printf( Enter Employee Name ) ;
scanf(%s, ena) ;
printf( Enter Basic Salary ) ;
scanf(%f, &bas) ;
fprintf(fp, \n %d %s %f, eno, ena, bas) ;
printf(Do you want to continue ) ;
ans = getche() ;
}
getch();
}
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q)/* Write a program to read the records from the data file EMP.DAT,
calculate da, hra, pf, net salary and print all

*/

# include <conio.h>
# include <stdio.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
main()
{
FILE *fp ;
int eno; char ena[40];
float bas, da, hra, pf, net ;
clrscr() ;
fp = fopen(EMP.DAT, r) ;
if(fp==NULL)
{
printf(\n File not found ) ;
exit(0) ;
}
while( fscanf(fp, %d%s%f, &eno, ena, &bas) > 0)
{
da = bas * 20 / 100 ;
hra = bas * 30 / 100 ;
pf = bas * 10 / 100 ;
net = bas + da + hra - pf ;
printf(\n\n Employee Number %d, eno) ;
printf(\n Employee Name %s, ena) ;
printf(\n Basic Salary %.2f, bas) ;
printf(\n Da %.2f \t Hra %.2f \t Pf %.2f, da, hra, pf ) ;
printf(\n Net Salary %.2f, net) ;
getch() ;
}

Notes :
fwrite() :
This function is used to store the structures in the file in binary
mode.
Syntax:
fwrite ( (pointer to variable), (size of variable),
(numberofvariables),(filepointer) );
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Ex:
fwrite( &emp, sizeof(emp), 1, fp);
fread() :
This function is used to read the structures from the file in binary level.

Syntax:

fread ( (pointer to variable), (size of variable),


(numberofvariables),(filepointer) );

Ex:

fread(&emp, sizeof(emp), 1, fp);

Ex Programs :
q)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
struct employee
{ int eno; char ena[20]; float bas ; } ;
main()
{
struct employee emp ;
FILE *fp ;
char ans ;
clrscr() ;
fp = fopen(empbn.dat, wb) ;
if(fp==NULL)
{
printf(Unable to open the data file ) ;
exit(0) ;
}
do
{
printf(\n\n Enter employee Number ) ;
scanf(%d, &emp.eno) ;
printf(Enter Employee Name ) ;
scanf(%s, emp.ena) ;
printf(Enter Basic Salary ) ;
scanf(%f, &emp.bas) ;
fwrite(&emp, 1, sizeof(emp), fp) ; printf(Do you want to add more ) ;
ans = getche() ;
} while(ans==y || ans==Y) ;
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}

q)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
struct employee
{ int eno; char ena[20]; float bas ; } ;
main()
{
struct employee emp ;
FILE *fp ;
clrscr() ;
fp = fopen(empbn.dat, rb) ;
if(fp==NULL)
{
printf(Unable to open the data file ) ;
exit(0) ;
}
while( fread(&emp, 1, sizeof(emp), fp) > 0)
{
printf(\n\n Employee Number %d, emp.eno) ;
printf(\n Employee Name %s, emp.ena) ;
printf(\n Basic Salary %.2f, emp.bas) ;
getch() ;
}
}
q)
# include <stdio.h>
# include <conio.h>
struct employee
{ int eno; char ena[20]; float bas ; } ;
main()
{
struct employee emp ;
FILE *fs, *ft ;
clrscr() ;
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fs = fopen(empbn.dat, rb) ;
if(fs==NULL)
{
printf(Unable to open the data file ) ;
exit(0) ;
}
ft = fopen(emp.dat, w) ;
if(ft==NULL)
{
printf(\n Unable to open the target file ) ;
exit(1);
}
while( fread(&emp, 1, sizeof(emp), fs) > 0)
{
printf(\n\n Employee Number %d, emp.eno) ;
printf(\n Employee Name %s, emp.ena) ;
printf(\n Basic Salary %.2f, emp.bas) ;
fprintf(ft, \n %d %s %f, emp.eno, emp.ena, emp.bas);
getch() ;
}
}
Notes :
COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS :
The arguments can be passed to any function when they are calling.The main() is also a function and some arguments
can be passed to it from the MS-DOS prompt.

Here we have to use the words argv, args[] .


Here argv is the an integer value and it is the number of arguments passed and *args[] is an array of strings contain
the arguments
Syntax:
main(int argv, char *args[])

Ex Programs :
q) /* This program demonstrates about the arguments passed to
the function main() */
# include <stdio.h>
void main(int argv, char *args[])
{
int k ;
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printf(\n The number of arguments given %d, argv) ;


printf(\n The arguments are \n) ;
for(k=0; k<argv; k++)
printf(\n %s, args[k] ) ;
}

/* Save this program as ARG.C


After compilation it creates an object file ARG.OBJ and
an executable file ARG.EXE, which can be executed at MS-DOS
prompt
[prompt] ARG abc lkj xyz mnb
q)/*

*/

Program to create a file which can create text file

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
void main(int argv, char *args[])
{
char ch;
FILE *fp ;
if(argv!=2)
{
printf(\n Invalid number of arguments ) ;
exit(0) ;
}
fp = fopen(args[1], w) ;
if(fp==NULL)
{
printf(\n Unable to create the given file ) ;
exit(1) ;
}
while(1)
{
ch = getchar() ;
if(ch==EOF) break ;
fputc(ch, fp) ;
}
printf(\n 1. file created \n) ;

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}
/*
Save this program as CREATE.C
After compilation it creates an executable file CREATE.EXE, which
can be executed at MS-DOS prompt.
[prompt]
q) /*

CREATE

(filename)

*/

Program to create a file which can read a text file

*/

# include <stdio.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
void main(int argv, char *args[])
{
char ch;
FILE *fp ;
if(argv!=2)
{
printf(\n Invalid number of arguments ) ;
exit(0) ;
}
fp = fopen(args[1], r) ;
if(fp==NULL)
{
printf(\n File not found - %s, args[1] ) ;
exit(1) ;
}
while(1)
{
ch = fgetc(fp) ;
if(ch==EOF) break ;
putchar(ch) ;
}
}

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/* Save this program as SHOW.C


After compilation it creates an executable SHOW.EXE
[prompt] SHOW (filename)
q)/*

*/

Program to create a file which can copy the text from a file to another */

# include <stdio.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
void main(int argv, char *args[])
{
FILE *fs, *ft ;
char ch ;
if(argv!=3)
{
printf(Invalid number of arguments );
exit(0) ;
}
fs = fopen(args[1], r) ;
if(fs==NULL)
{
printf(\n Unable to open the source file ) ;
exit(1) ;
}
ft = fopen(args[2],w) ;
if(ft==NULL)
{
printf(\n This target file %s not found , args[2] ) ;
exit(2) ;
}
while( (ch=fgetc(fs)) != EOF)
fputc(ch, ft) ;
fclose(fs) ; fclose(ft) ;
printf(\n 1. File copied ) ;
}

/*

Save this file as

FLCP.C

[prompt] FLCP (source) (target)

*/
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Notes :
random() :
This function returns the value which is between 0 and 1 less than the given number. This functions prototype has
defined in the header file STDLIB.H
Syntax :
random(n);
This function returns any number from 0 to n-1 .
textattr() & textbackground() :
This function changes the text color to the given color.

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GRAPHICS
Generally the screen is in textmode. It can be changed by
the display adopters. There are a number of adopters like VGA, CGA,EGA, ...
The normal text mode has 25 rows and 80 columns. It can be changed using the MODE command in MS-DOS.Using
C programs we can design some graphics by changing the screen from text mode to graphics mode.
initgraph() :
This function changes the screen from text mode to graphics mode. But here we have to mention the display driver and
mode. To use this command the file EGAVGA.BGI must be in the current directory. This functions prototype has
defined in the header file GRAPHICS.H
Syntax:
initgraph( (address of driver), (address of mode), (path to file) );
Ex :
int gdr = DETECT, gmd;
initgraph(&gdr, &gmd, C:\TC );
detectgraph() :
This function detects the using graphic driver and modes. It assign the values to the variables.
Syntax :
detectgraph( (address of graphic driver), (address of graphic mode) );
Ex :
int gdr, gmd;
detectgraph(&gdr, &gmd);
closegraph() :
This function closes the graphics mode and changes to text mode.
Syntax:
closegraph();
setcolor() :
This function changes the displaying color of screen. In VGAHI we can use 16 colors. The color can be mentioned as
integer.
Syntax:
setcolor(integer) ;
Ex :
setcolor(RED) ;
setcolor(4) ;
setbkcolor() :
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This function changes the background color of screen .


Syntax :
setbkcolor(integer) ;
Ex:
setbkcolor(YELLOW) ;
setbkcolor(15);
putpixel() :
This function highlights the pixel(picture element) at the given co-ordinates to the given color .
Syntax :
putpixel(x-coordinate, y-coordinate, color) ;
Ex :
putpixel(320, 240, 5) ;
line() :
This function displays a line between the given coordinates.
Syntax :
line(x1, y1, x2, y2 );
Ex :
line(200,300, 240, 370 );
lineto() :
This function displays a line to the given coordinates from the current coordinates.
Syntax :
lineto(x2, y2) ;
Ex :
lineto(400, 600) ;

circle() :
This function displays a circle with the given center coordinates and the radius.
Syntax :
circle(x, y, radius) ;
Ex :
circle(320, 240, 100) ;
ellipse() :
Syntax :
ellipse(x, y, st-angle, end-angle,x-radius, y-radius );
Ex :
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ellipse( 320, 240, 0, 360, 200, 100 );


arc() :
Syntax :
arc(x, y, st-angle, end-angle, radius );
Ex :
arc(320, 240, 45, 135, 200 ) ;
rectangle() :
Syntax :
rectangle( x1, y1, x2, y2 );
Ex :
rectangle( 200, 150, 440, 320 );
settextstyle() :
This function sets the displaying text style .
Syntax :
settextstyle( font, direction, size );
fonts : direction : HORIZ_DIR, VERT_DIR size :
Ex : settextstyle( 3, 0, 5 );
outtextxy() :
This functions displays the given text at the given coordinates with the setted style.
Syntax :
outtextxy(x, y, text) ;

104