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PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION AND

CONTROL LAB (CCB3072)


EXPERIMENT 5:
FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF
COUPLE TANK GROUP 5
GROUP MEMBERS:
1. YOONG KAI BIN
2. NUR AININA BINTI YUSOH
3. KISHORTHAREN A/L VIJAYA CHANDRAN
4. NURUL ASYIQIN BINTI IBRAHIM
5. SARAVANAN A/L ELANGOVAN

LAB INSTRUCTOR:

SYED NASIR

LECTURER:

NASSER MOHAMED RAMLI

DATE OF EXPERIMENT:

1ST OCTOBER 2015

DATE OF SUBMISSION:

8TH OCTOBER 2015

1849
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TABLE OF CONTENT

NO

ITEM

PAGE

Summary

Introduction

Theory

Procedure

Results

10

Discussion

16

Conclusion

18

References

19

Appendices

20

1.1

SUMMARY

The main objective of this experiment are


i.

To demonstrate the amplitude frequency and amplitude phase


characteristics (frequency response characteristics) of single
pneumatic tank, and

ii.

To demonstrate the amplitude frequency and amplitude phase


characteristics (frequency response characteristics) of two pneumatic
tanks connected in series.

We used a Coupled tank system to measure frequency of a coupled system,


and a system using either small tank or big tank, please refer to a figure
below; this shows a coupled tank system.

Tank A or Tank B may be tested single or both Tank A and Tank B


can be connected together to give a series connected system. The air supply
to the system comes from a pneumatic sine wave generator. The pressure
in Tank A and Tank B can be measured using the digital manometers
provided and recorded in the Oscillographic Recorder.
From the frequency response data of tank A and tank B, it was found
that the log AR decreases as the frequency increases. It was also obtained
that the phase angle decreases as the frequency increases.
From the frequency response data of tank in series, it was found that
the amplitude ratio fluctuates as the frequency increases. The phase angle

also fluctuates up and down as the frequency increases from 0.01 to 0.1
Hz.

2.0

INTRODUCTION

A measure of the ability of a system to respond or transmit input


signals of various frequencies that are applied to it is called Frequency
response. Frequency response measures the ability of the device to respond
to changes in the input that are changing with respect to time. Therefore it
measures the dynamic characteristics of the system as against the first four
experiments in this series that measures the static characteristics like
accuracy and resolution of the device. Frequency response can also be
used as a technique for parameter estimation of unknown system. By
determining the frequency response of unknown system we can determine
the order of the system as well as its dynamic parameters like time constant,
gain and delay time.

3.0

THEORY

When the transfer function of a system is known; consider a first order


system represented by the transfer function,
Y
G(s)
K

X
s 1
Where;
X, Y

input and output variables respectively, in the

Laplace domain K =

system gain

time constant

Laplace operator

If the input in the time domain x is a sinusoidal signal such that,

X Asint
then, the corresponding Laplace domain input is given by

A
2
X 2
s
We can determine its frequency response by substituting jfor s and then
after rationalizing the complex function convert it to the polar form and
determine the magnitude and argument (angle) of the complex number in
the polar form.

G( j )

1
1
j

On rationalizing by multiplying the numerator and denominator by (1-j)


and separating the real and imaginary factors we get

G( j)

1
1

j 1 22

The complex numbers in the rectangular form a+jb can be converted to


polar form by the relationships,

a 2 b 2
z

and angle z tan

b
a

Converting into polar form using, we get

1
Amplitue ratio AR
22 1
1

Phase angle tan ()


The frequency response of a system is presented in the form of the Bode
diagrams.

4.0

PROCEDURE

Figure 1: Equipment connections


Before the experiment
1.

Please read Instruction Manual of FG120 Function Generator,


IM706011-01E for the operation

2.

Please read also Instruction Manual of OR100E/OR300E Handy


Oscillographic Recorder, IM OR100E-01E for the operation

3.

Please confirm input setting range of JH12 is set to 0 to 4 V.

4.

Please confirm air supply to PK200 I/P Converter is set to 240 kPa before
connection

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1. For recording device we can use
the LR recorder, X- Y-t plotter or the 2 channel Oscillograph. In the present
experiment we will be using the 2 channel Oscillograph.

Open the appropriate valves such that the Tank A is in the circuit. Close valve
MV-02 and MV-03. Open Valve MV-01 and RV-01.Set the FG120 Function
generator high amplitude to 4VDC and low amplitude to 0 VDC.
1.

Set the OR142 Oscillographic Recorder Channel 1 to 0.2 V/div and


Channel 2 to 0.5V/div.

For chart speed please select suitable

measurement range to record the input of the two channels.


2.

Set the input frequency as 0.01 Hz. Measure the amplitude of the
input signal from Channel 1 and the output signal from channel 2. A
typical trace in the recorder is shown in Figure 10.5.

3.

Record all the relevant amplitude data.

4.

Determine the horizontal displacement of the two sine wave in mm.


Convert this displacement to the phase angle in degrees.

5.

Increase the frequency to 0.02 Hz and repeat the experiment. Maintain


the input amplitude constant at if necessary by adjusting the function
generator output knob.

6.

Continue the experiment for at least 3 decades of frequency that is


up 1 Hz. As the frequency increases the chart speed also must be
increases to get good recording. Similarly as the frequency increases
the output amplitude decreases. Increase the sensitivity of channel 2
as the output sinusoid becomes smaller and smaller.

7.

Repeat the experiment using the tank B. Close valve RV-01, MV-03 and
MV-04. Open valve MV-01, MV-02 and RV-02. Record all the relevant
data.

8.

Connect the two tanks in series and repeat the experiment. Close valve
MV-02 and MV04. Open valve MV-01, RV-01, MV-03 and RV-02. Record all the relevant
data.

Figure 2: Recording of input and output sinusoids in the oscillograph


recorder

5.0

RESULTS
Amplitude V1

F (Hz)

Amplitude V2
Tc

AR

Log F

-9.80

5.79

-2.000

0.7626

-11.65

4.85

-1.699

0.6857

33

-11.74

4.09

-1.523

0.6117

1.17

24

-15.75

3.55

-1.398

0.5502

3.79

1.00

19

-17.74

3.13

-1.301

0.4955

4.76

3.85

0.90

17

-20.14

2.73

-1.222

0.4361

0.33

4.73

3.89

0.82

14

-21.92

2.49

-1.155

0.3962

0.24

0.33

4.66

3.94

0.71

12

-24.93

2.15

-1.097

0.3324

0.56

0.24

0.32

4.56

3.96

0.60

11

-28.07

1.88

-1.046

0.2741

0.56

0.25

0.31

4.56

4.00

0.57

11

-28.54

1.84

-1.000

0.2648

Max
V1

Min V1

0.01

0.55

0.22

0.02

0.57

0.03

V1 =

V2=V2m

Td

Max
V2

Min V2

0.33V1min

5.33

3.44

1.91V2min

102

0.24

0.33

5.16

3.46

1.60

51

0.57

0.24

0.33

5.01

3.64

1.35

0.04

0.57

0.24

0.33

4.91

3.73

0.05

0.56

0.24

0.32

4.79

0.06

0.57

0.24

0.33

0.07

0.57

0.24

0.08

0.57

0.09
0.10

V1max

Phase

Log AR

ax-

Table 1: Frequency response data for Experiment A (Tank A)

1
0

Amplitude Ratio, log AR

Diagram 1: Bode Diagram (Tank A only)

-2.5

Graph of log AR vs log F


0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

log F (Hz)

Phase angle,

Graph of vs log F
-2.5

0
-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

-5
-10
-15
-20
-25

log F (Hz)

1
1

-30

Table 2: Frequency response data for Experiment B (Tank B)


Amplitude V1
F (Hz)

Amplitude V2
Phase

AR

Log F

Log A

18

-15.95

3.50

-2.000

0.5441

50

10

-25.02

2.14

-1.699

0.3304

0.46

33

-37.27

1.31

-1.523

0.1173

3.96

0.35

25

-44.17

1.03

-1.398

0.0123

4.21

3.94

0.27

20

-52.35

0.77

-1.301

-0.1135

0.33

4.21

3.98

0.23

17

-55.12

0.70

-1.222

-0.1549

0.25

0.33

4.29

4.07

0.22

15

-56.31

0.67

-1.155

-0.1739

0.57

0.24

0.33

4.19

4.01

0.18

12

-61.39

0.55

-1.097

-0.2596

0.09

0.57

0.24

0.33

4.19

4.04

0.15

-65.56

0.46

-1.046

-0.3372

0.10

0.57

0.26

0.31

4.16

4.02

0.14

-65.70

0.45

-1.000

-0.3467

Max
V1

Min V1

0.01

0.59

0.25

0.02

0.59

0.03

V1 =

Tc

V2 =

Max
V2

Min V2

0.34V1min

4.85

3.66

1.19V2min

99

0.24

0.35

4.69

3.94

0.75

0.59

0.24

0.35

4.37

3.91

0.04

0.59

0.25

0.34

4.31

0.05

0.59

0.24

0.35

0.06

0.58

0.25

0.07

0.58

0.08

V1max

Td

V2max

1
2

Amplitude Ratio, log AR

Diagram 2: Bode Diagram (Tank B only)

-2.5

Graph of log AR vs log F

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1 0
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4

log F (Hz)

Phase angle,

Graph of vs log F
-2.5

0
-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70

log F (Hz)

1
3

Table 3: Frequency response data for Experiment C (Tank A and Tank B in series)
Amplitude V1
F (Hz)

0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10

Max
V1

Min V1

0.50

0.25

0.52

V1 =

Amplitude V2
V2 =

Tc

Td

Phase

AR

Max
V2

Min V2

0.25V1min

0.90

0.70

0.20V2min

100

29

-51.34

0.80

0.30

0.22

1.00

0.80

0.20

50

22

-48.37

0.88

0.60

0.50

0.10

1.00

0.80

0.20

33

15

-26.57

2.00

0.62

0.37

0.25

1.10

0.80

0.30

25

-39.81

1.20

0.62

0.50

0.12

1.20

0.90

0.30

21

-22.62

0.24

0.67

0.50

0.17

1.10

0.90

0.20

16

-41.19

1.14

0.52

0.25

0.27

1.20

0.80

0.40

14

-34.51

1.45

0.75

0.52

0.22

1.20

0.70

0.50

15

-24.23

2.22

0.60

0.25

0.35

1.00

0.90

0.10

11

-74.05

0.29

0.75

0.52

0.22

0.90

0.80

0.10

12

-66.04

0.44

V1max

Log F

Log AR

V2max

1
4

-2.000
-1.699
-1.523
-1.398
-1.301
-1.222
-1.155
-1.097
-1.046
-1.000

-0.10
-0.06
0.30
0.08
-0.62
0.06
0.16
0.35
-0.54
-0.36

Amplitude Ratio, log AR

Diagram 3: Bode Diagram (Tank A and B in series)

-2.5

Graph of log AR vs log F


0.6
0.4
0.2
0

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8

log F (Hz)

Phase angle,

Graph of vs log F
-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

log F (Hz)

1
5

-0.5

0
-10 0
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80

6.1
6.2

DISCUSSION

1 Frequency Response Data of Tank A

From the experiment, we can see in the methodology use the range of frequency
from 0.01Hz until 0.1Hz. However, in this part we only used it for the Tank A. This
tank size is smaller than the Tank B. The frequency response that we get from the
oscillograph consists of Channel 1 (input) and Channel 2(output). For the Channel
1, the highest peak that we get is 0.57 and the lowest one is 0.22. As for the
Channel 2, the highest peak is 5.33 and the lowest one is 0.57. From the above
result, we can calculate what is the Amplitude Ratio and as for this part, the AR is
decreasing due to the increasing the input frequency. Other than the Amplitude
Ratio, the time delay and time between 2 peak also decrease when the increase
the input frequency. Therefore, this phenomenon is known as attenuation. For your
information, this phenomenon will happen when the signal strength is reducing
during transmission from input to output point. That is why we using the repeater
or a coupled tank system so that we can avoid this phenomena. However, we were
using the small tank and the frequency response for this tank is smooth. As the
frequency increases the phase angle decreases.

6.3

2 Frequency Response Data of Tank B


Now for the experiment 2, which is using the Tank B and it is longer than the Tank A.
As for this experiment, we will using the same procedure from the lab manual
which is need to put the frequency input from 0.01Hz to 0.1Hz. For the Channel 1
(input), the highest peak is 0.59 and the lowest is 0.24. For the Channel 2 (output)
the highest peak is 4.85 and the lowest one is 3.66. We calculated the Amplitude
Ratio and observed that the attenuation still occur in the Tank B. The different is
only the time delay and time between two peaks. Therefore, we can say that the
bigger the tank, the longer the time between two peaks and the time delay
between the output and input. As the frequency increases the phase angle
decreases.

6.4

3 Frequency Response Data of Tank A and Tank B in Series

As for the experiment 3, we will conduct the same procedure, which is the
frequency input from 0.01Hz until 0.1Hz. However, in this experiment we will
combine the 2 tank in series. For the Channel 1 (input) the highest peak is 0.75 and
the lowest is 0.25. For the Channel 2 (output) the highest peak is 1.2 and the lowest
is 0.70. The Amplitude Ratio from this experiment is still show the same result that is
attenuation.

However, start from input frequency of 0.04; we can see that the output frequency is
starting to become constant. For the time also, if we combine both of the tank, it
will make the time longer. As for the frequency increases the phase angle
decreases. There is a point of inflexion in the -curve.

7.0

CONCLUSION
By conducting the experiment, we managed to fulfil all of the objective stated

earlier. For tank A, the highest peak that we get is 0.57 and the lowest one is 0.22
for Channel 1 and the highest peak is 5.33 and the lowest one is 0.57 for Channel 2.
After doing some calculations, it shows that AR, time delay and time between 2
peaks is decreasing due to the increasing in the input frequency. For tank B which
was bigger than Tank A, the highest peak is 0.59 and the lowest is 0.24 for Channel
1 and for Channel 2, the highest peak is 4.85 and the lowest one is 3.66. We
observed that the attenuation still occur in the Tank
B. The different is only the time delay and time between two peaks. Therefore, we
can say that the bigger the tank, the longer the time between two peaks and the
time delay. For tank C (two tank connected in series), for the Channel 1, the highest
peak is 0.75 and the lowest is 0.25. For the Channel 2, the highest peak is 1.2 and
the lowest is 0.70. The Amplitude Ratio from this experiment is still show the same
result that is attenuation. However, start from input frequency of 0.04; we can see
that the output frequency is starting to become constant and the time also become
longer. For all three type of tank, we can conclude that as the frequency increases
the phase angle decreases.

8.0

REFERENCES

Seborg, D., & Edgar, T. (2011). Process Dynamics and Control (Third ed.).
New York: Wiley.

Lab manual, Frequency response of couple tank, 2015.

9.0

APPENDICES

Raw data
F (Hz)

Amplitu V1
de
Max V1
Min V1

Amplitude V2
Max V2

Min V2

0.01

0.55

0.22

5.33

3.44

0.02

0.57

0.24

5.16

3.46

0.03

0.57

0.24

5.01

3.64

0.04

0.57

0.24

4.91

3.73

0.05

0.56

0.24

4.79

3.79

0.06

0.57

0.24

4.76

3.85

0.07

0.57

0.24

4.73

3.89

0.08

0.57

0.24

4.66

3.94

0.09

0.56

0.24

4.56

3.96

0.10

0.56

0.25

4.56

4.00

Table 4: Frequency response data for Experiment A (Tank A)

F (Hz)

Amplitude V1
Max V1

Min V1

Amplitude V2
Max V2

Min V2

0.01

0.59

0.25

4.85

3.66

0.02

0.59

0.24

4.69

3.94

0.03

0.59

0.24

4.37

3.91

0.04

0.59

0.25

4.31

3.96

0.05

0.59

0.24

4.21

3.94

0.06

0.58

0.25

4.21

3.98

0.07

0.58

0.25

4.29

4.07

0.08

0.57

0.24

4.19

4.01

0.09

0.57

0.24

4.19

4.04

0.10

0.57

0.26

4.16

4.02

Table 5: Frequency response data for Experiment B (Tank B)

2
0

F (Hz)

Amplitude V1
Max V1

Min V1

Amplitude V2
Max V2

Min V2

0.01

0.59

0.25

4.85

3.66

0.02

0.59

0.24

4.69

3.94

0.03

0.59

0.24

4.37

3.91

0.04

0.59

0.25

4.31

3.96

0.05

0.59

0.24

4.21

3.94

0.06

0.58

0.25

4.21

3.98

0.07

0.58

0.25

4.29

4.07

0.08

0.57

0.24

4.19

4.01

0.09

0.57

0.24

4.19

4.04

0.10

0.57

0.26

4.16

4.02

Table 6: Frequency response data for Experiment C (Tank A and Tank B


in series)

2
1