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SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING

STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 1 of 18

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

Issue 02

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

1.
2.

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 2 of 18

Issue 02

INTRODUCTION
3
NORMATIVE REFERENCES
3
2.1
BASIC CODES .................................................................................................................... 3
2.2
REFERENCE STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 3
2.3
CLIENTS PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................................... 3
3. SCOPE OF STRESS ANALYSIS VERIFICATIONS
4
4. CATEGORIES OF LINES AND STRESS ANALYSIS LEVELS
4
4.1
CATEGORY 1 ..................................................................................................................... 4
4.2
CATEGORY 2 ..................................................................................................................... 4
4.3
CATEGORY 3 ..................................................................................................................... 4
5. ACTIONS COMING FROM STRESS ANALYSIS VERIFICATION
5
6. DEFINITION OF SIGNIFICANT ACTIONS FOR STRESS ANALYSIS
CALCULATIONS
5
6.1
WEIGHT ............................................................................................................................ 6
6.2
TEMPERATURE .................................................................................................................. 6
6.2.1 Definitions .................................................................................................................... 6
6.2.2 Flexibility analysis........................................................................................................ 6
6.2.3 Equipment and machines reactions ............................................................................... 7
6.2.4 Flanged couplings loads ............................................................................................... 7
6.2.5 Spring supports sizing................................................................................................... 7
6.3
PRESSURE.......................................................................................................................... 7
6.4
DISPLACEMENT OF RESTRAINTS (DIS) ............................................................................... 8
6.5
OCCASIONAL LOADS ......................................................................................................... 8
6.5.1 Wind ............................................................................................................................. 8
6.5.2 Earthquake ................................................................................................................... 8
6.6
TEST CONDITION VERIFICATION ...................................................................................... 10
6.7
ALTERNATIVE CONDITION ................................................................................................ 10
6.8
DISPLACEMENTS AT BATTERY LIMITS .............................................................................. 10
6.9
LOAD COMBINATION CASES ............................................................................................ 10
7. PULSATION STUDY
11
8. LEAKAGE ANALYSIS FOR FLANGES
12
9. COEFFICIENT OF STATIC FRICTION
12
10. SPRING SUPPORT
12
11. EXPANSION JOINTS
13
12. VERIFICATION OF EQUIPMENT AND MACHINES REACTIONS
13
13. LOADS TRANSMISSION TO CIVIL DEPARTMENT
14
14. STRESS ANALYSIS REPORT
15
15. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NUMERICAL MODEL AND FOR CALCULATION
15
APPENDIX 1: CATEGORIES OF LINES ................................................................................. 16
APPENDIX 2: TABLE FOR ALLOWABLE EQUIPMENT NOZZLE LOADS ......................... 18

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

1.

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 3 of 18

Issue 02

INTRODUCTION

Scope of the present document is to explain the practices establishing the minimum requirements
that the piping stress analyst shall adhere to when performing activities intended to ensure
adequate engineering review of piping systems. The general scope of these activities is to verify
that every piping arrangement is sufficiently flexible to allow each line to thermally expand or
contract without overstressing pipes or connected equipment, and adequately supported so that no
damage occurs due to loads resulting from weight, pressure, wind, earthquake, shocks, foundation
settlement etc. The purpose of this specification is to ensure the sound and uniform approach to the
review of the mechanical safety of piping and related systems, and to give guidelines to producing
evidence that this has been done satisfactorily.

2.

NORMATIVE REFERENCES

2.1

Basic Codes

The following ASME Code shall be entirely applied as the basis of the piping system stress analysis
in conjunction with this specification.
ASME B31.3 Process Piping

2.2

Reference Standards

The following standards (according to &ZA-A-LX 0001 Codes & Standards for Olefinas III y
Polietilenos Ana Maria Campos Complex) shall be applied in conjunction with the requirements set
forth in this specification.
ANSI B16.5
API 560
API 610
API 611
API 617
API 618
API 650
API 660
API 661
NEMA SM 23

2.3

Pipe flanges and flanged fittings


Fired Heaters for General Refinery Service
Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Heavy Duty Chemical, and Gas Industry
Services
General-Purpose Steam Turbines for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas
Industry Services
Centrifugal Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical, and
Gas Service
Industries
Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry
Services
Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Services
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Services
Steam turbines for Mechanical Drive Service

Clients Project Specifications

No stress specification has been issued by Client or PMC.

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

3.

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 4 of 18

Issue 02

SCOPE OF STRESS ANALYSIS VERIFICATIONS

The main purposes of stress analysis activities are the following:

To identify, basing on the criteria described in paragraph 4, all those piping systems that are
critical from the thermal behaviour point of view, or require deep verifications because of
particular operating conditions.

To identify according to the different grades of line criticality the most suitable verification
method.

For piping systems classified as critical (as per paragraph 4.3):


-

4.

to verify that the maximum stress levels are below the maximum allowable values stated
by the governing code for the different load combinations;
to verify that reaction forces on machines and equipment nozzles are below the limits
described in paragraph 12;
to calculate the loads transferred to the structures by the piping supports, in order to
allow the civil designer to verify them;
to verify that the piping thermal expansion or contraction will not cause interference with
adjacent pipes and structures.

For piping systems belonging to the categories described in paragraphs 4.1 and 4.2, to
perform visual check or simplified analysis based on the routing of the line.

CATEGORIES OF LINES AND STRESS ANALYSIS LEVELS

All pipes of the plant shall be reviewed during the design. The level of investigation can be more or
less detailed as specified below, according to the category each line belongs to.

4.1

Category 1

These lines are characterized by a combination of temperature diameter as shown in appendix 1


(figure 1, category 1). A visual investigation (based on knowledge / experience) or a simplified
method analysis can be carried out for this piping.

4.2

Category 2

These lines are characterized by a combination of temperature diameter as shown in appendix 1


(figures 1 and 2, category 2). A simplified method analysis can be carried out for this piping.

4.3

Category 3

Formal computer analysis (by means of calculation software CAESAR II) shall be performed on
lines belonging to this category taking into account the pipe diameter, the maximum temperature

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 5 of 18

Issue 02

expected in any condition, the type of equipment or machine the pipe is connected to, the type of
fluid, the pipe material. A report of this analysis shall be produced according to what specified in
paragraph 13.
This category includes:

air cooler piping 4 and larger;


lines connected to rotating machines with the couple of values (NPS, T) as per appendix 1
(figure 2, category 3);
lines 3 and larger connected to equipment (tanks) or structures subject to excessive
settlement and/or displacements;
lines subject to mixed phase flow (liquid and vapor) and identified as critical by Process
Department, because of dynamic phenomena such as slug flow, vibrations occurrence etc.;
lines identified as vibrating service (reciprocating compressors suction and discharge);
lines connected to pressure safety valves, selected by Stress Analysis Engineer basing on
valve size and potential reaction;
lines defined as category III in the appendix 1 (figure 1);
all high pressure piping (PN 500 and above), except tubing.

All the lines belonging to this category shall be grouped in stress systems and listed in a Stress
Critical Line List indicating all relevant information for each line involved in the analysis.

5.

ACTIONS COMING FROM STRESS ANALYSIS VERIFICATION

The stress analysis results may require changes of the analyzed piping system. These changes,
always substantiated by project savings, process and piping requirements, may include:

6.

change in piping routing;


introduction of expansion loops in the piping run;
introduction of special items like expansion joints, spring supports, shock absorbers;
use of either different or additional or differently located restraints in contrast with initial
provisions;
development of special supports.

DEFINITION OF SIGNIFICANT ACTIONS FOR STRESS ANALYSIS


CALCULATIONS

The computer-aided analysis shall take into account different internal and external actions, whose
effects in terms of stress and loads on restraints have to be properly combined.
International system of S.I. units shall be used. Exceptions are the following: pressure units in
bar(g) and temperature units in Celsius degrees (C).

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

6.1

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 6 of 18

Issue 02

Weight

Weight of piping and its components, including internal fluids and insulation, shall be considered as
uniform distributed loads. Other weights as flange, valves or similar can be considered as
concentrated loads.
Special consideration shall be given to possible alternative values for fluid density. All possible
values shall be defined by Process Department and listed in the Line List. For each possible density
value, Process Department shall also define wheter corresponding fluid weight has to be
considered as a sustained load or as an occasional one (see paragraph 6.5).

6.2

Temperature

6.2.1

Definitions

Tworst
Tmax
Tope
Tdes
Tinst

= worst temperature scenario for the piping system


= maximum temperature of the line
= operating temperature of the line (according to the Line List)
= design temperature of the line (according to the Line List)
= plant installation temperature (defined by project environmental specification)

Tworst is the most severe temperature scenario that the piping system will be subject to during its
operating life, and it shall be evaluated considering normal operating condition and all possible
alternative conditions (e.g. steam-out, regeneration, shutdown, start-up etc.). Tworst shall be equal to
Tmax (or to Tdes, if the value of Tmax is not available).
Tinst (installation temperature) shall be assumed to be +28 C, i.e. the average annual temperature
according to document &ZA-A-SB 0001 "Meteorological Conditions for Olefinas III y Polietilenos
Ana Maria Campos".
Note: metal temperature due to solar radiation shall be assumed to be +87 C for uninsulated lines
subject to solar exposition.
6.2.2

Flexibility analysis

The analysis shall be implemented using the worst differential temperature T, where:
T = Tworst - Tinst
For line connected to pumps, temperature decay in the stand-by portion of piping (without warming
by-pass) shall be considered as per the following scheme:

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 7 of 18

Issue 02

Temperature of stand-by portion to be considered is 50% of operating temperature for insulated


line, and installation temperature for not insulated line.
The steam tracing temperature should be considered for the dead portion of the line (e.g. stand-by
pipe or discharge line of a safety valve) that is steam traced.
6.2.3

Equipment and machines reactions

The reactions on equipment and machines nozzles shall be calculated in operating condition, using
the design differential temperature T, where:
T = Tope - Tinst
6.2.4

Flanged couplings loads

The forces and moments acting on flange connection shall be calculated in design condition, using
the design differential temperature T, where:
T = Tope - Tinst
6.2.5

Spring supports sizing

The spring supports shall be set basing on load and travel in operating condition, using operating
differential temperature T, where:
T = Tope - Tinst
Vendor shall verify that the selected spring support allows the different travel occurring in the worst
scenario. For this purpose, spring travel in alternative thermal conditions shall be transmitted to
Vendor in springs data sheet.

6.3

Pressure

Calculations shall consider the design pressure as per plant Line List.

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

6.4

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 8 of 18

Issue 02

Displacement of Restraints (DIS)

Movement of restraints (equipment nozzles or others) due to thermal expansion or other causes
(e.g. settlement of large equipment foundations) shall be considered in the analysis of piping
systems.

6.5

Occasional Loads

Occasional loads which piping may be subject to shall be taken into account as static loads when
verifying longitudinal stresses. A proper multiplicative factor for the allowable stress shall be
considered, as per Code requirements.
Occasional loads may include:

wind loads;
earthquake loads;
loads caused by safety valves opening;
impulsive loads (e.g. slug flow or water hammer, if specified by Process Department).

Special attention has to be paid to the calculation of distributed forces due to wind and earthquake.
6.5.1

Wind

Wind load shall be considered in the design of this plant according to document &ZA-A-SB 0001
and to Code ASCE 7-05.
Wind load shall be applied as a static load, in the horizontal direction producing the worst conditions
in terms of loads for the piping system, its supports and equipment nozzles.
The shape factor considering the pipe surface properties shall be 0,7 for Caesar calculation.
The basic values to be considered in the application of ASCE code are the following:

6.5.2

basic wind speed


wind exposure
structural damping coefficent
structural classification
importance factor

= 33.5 m/sec
= 3 (exposure C; open terrain with scattered obstruction)
= 0.03 (standard value)
=3
= 1.15 (category III / IV)

Earthquake

The earthquake load shall be considered in the design of this plant: it shall be applied to piping
systems as an equivalent static load acting in each of the four horizontal directions North, South,
East and West (not simultaneously). The eartquake load is calculated according to paragraph
13.3.1 of Code ASCE 7-05. The coefficient of ground maximum acceleration, which is necessary for
the calculation of the seismic force, is determined according to relevant Venezuelan Code Covenin
3621:2000.
is calculated as a fraction of the weight
As per ASCE 7-05, the horizontal seismic design force
by the following formula:

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

LDPE Plant

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 9 of 18

Issue 02

is the piping element elevation with respect to grade, while is the structure roof elevation: in
is considered as 1.
order to guarantee a conservative approach, the ratio
The applicable component importance factor is 1.50, as per paragraph 13.1.3 of ASCE 7-05.
and
are determined from table 13.6-1:
The parameters

The spectral acceleration at short period


, at last, can be calculated by determining a value of
(Covenin 3621:2000) which is consistant with the definition of
itself
spectral acceleration
can be assumed as the maximum value of the
(see sections 11.4.1 to 11.4.5 of ASCE 7-05):
design response spectra defined in paragraph 7.3 of Code Covenin 3621:2000, i.e.

is the correction factor of the horizontal acceleration coefficient, depending on the soil
type

! is the spectral amplification factor (see equation 5), depending on ! (parameter of


spectral form) and " (damping factor of supporting structure):
!

% # & '#( )* "+

, is the coefficient of ground maximum acceleration, which can be calculated as the ratio
of the ground maximum horizontal acceleration to the gravity acceleration - (
-).

According to paragraph 7.2.1 of Covenin 3621:2000 (equation 2),


.& )*$ & /0 +120

can be calculated as follows:

where the parameters and 4 can be obtained from the Map of Seismic Hazard (see figures 1 and
2 of paragraph 7.1), and /0 is the annual probability of exceedance, given in Table 1 depending on
the degree of risk.
Basing on the location of the plant in the seismic risk charts, the following values can be considered
for and 4:
4
For a degree of risk B, /0 is equal to

29

56 7 8
#

, which leads to the following value for


( 56 7 8
-

and

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 10 of 18

Issue 02

According to the final report by Tivenca Soil study for detailed engineering project concerning site
preparation for the Ana Maria Campos Olefin III and Polyethilene Plant, the area associated with
the project presents a category S2 spectral form, which means !
according to table 3 of
Covenin 3621:2000. For a damping factor " #:, the following value can be calculated for ! :
!

#
can be assumed as follows:

According to the same report by Tivenca, the factor


;

Therefore, the spectral acceleration at short period is

Therefore, the total design lateral seismic force is


$

6.6

Test Condition Verification

An additional load case shall be foreseen when the Line List indicates that hydraulic test is required.
In this case the calculations shall be performed considering erection temperature, internal fluid
weight, test pressure, excluding insulation weight and corrosion.
Results of the analysis may require hydraulic test on the ground or the use of temporary supports,
in order to avoid overloads on equipment and structures.

6.7

Alternative condition

Additional load cases shall be foreseen when the Line List indicates design alternative conditions
(e.g. steam-out, regeneration etc.).
Steam-out conditions are defined in Equipment Process Data Sheets.

6.8

Displacements at Battery Limits

As a general rule, axial stops and guides will be provided on pipes near Battery Limits to reduce as
much as possible piping displacements on the Battery Limit points.

6.9

Load Combination Cases

The calculation of forces and moments acting on restrains and of the stress level of the piping
system shall be based on the following load combinations, according the prescriptions stated by the
code ASME B31.3 2002 Edition:

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

No.

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

LDPE Plant

Load Cases

L1
W+P1+T1+D1+H
L2
W+P1+T2+D2+H
L3
W+P1+T3+D3+H
L4 W+P1+T1+D1+H+WIND
L5
W+P1+T1+D1+H+U
L6
W+P1+T1+D1+H+F
L7
W+P1+H
L8
WW+HP
L9
L1-L7
L10
L2-L7
L11
L3-L7
L12
L4-L1
L13
L5-L1
L14
L6-L1
L15
L12+L7
L16
L13+L7
L17
L14+L7

Stress
Type
OPE
OPE
OPE
OPE
OPE
OPE
SUS
HYD
EXP
EXP
EXP
OCC
OCC
OCC
OCC
OCC
OCC

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 11 of 18

Issue 02

Normal Operating Condition


Design Condition
Alternative Operating Condition (if any)
Operating plus Wind
Operating plus Earthquake
Operating plus Occasional Loads
Sustained
Hydraulic Test
Displacement Stress Range
Displacement Stress Range
Displacement Stress Range
Wind net Deflection
Earthquake net Deflection
Occasional Loads net Deflection
Occasional Stress due to Wind
Occasional Stress due to Earthquake
Occasional Stress due to Occasional Loads

Comb.
Method
Algebraic
Algebraic
Algebraic
Algebraic
Algebraic
Algebraic
Algebraic
Algebraic
Algebraic
Algebraic
Algebraic
Algebraic
Algebraic
Algebraic
Scalar
Scalar
Scalar

Load Type

where:
W
= weight
WW
= water filled weight
T1, T2, T3 = temperature
P1
= pressure
HP
= hydrotest pressure
D1, D2, D3 = displacements
H
= concentrated permanent forces (such as spring forces)
F
= external forces
WIND
= wind loads
U
= uniform loads (earthquake)

(see par. 6.1)


(see par. 6.6)
(see par. 6.2)
(see par. 6.3)
(see par. 6.6)
(see par. 6.4)
(see par. 6.5)
(see par. 6.5.1)
(see par. 6.5.2)

The cyclic factor to be used is 1 (corresponding to 7000 operating cycles).

7.

PULSATION STUDY

All process lines connected to reciprocating compressors must be analyzed by the equipment
Vendor according to API 618.
The Vendor will perform acoustical and mechanical analysis, in order to prevent the occurrence of
any resonance phenomena by the optimization of piping routing and supports.
In order to provide the Vendor with all necessary information, TCM will collect and transmit the
following documents:

Reports of static stress calculations for all piping systems involved;


Piping isometric drawings;
Civil drawings of all structures used to provide piping supports.

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 12 of 18

Issue 02

After the analysis, the Vendor shall prepare a calculation report detailing all relevant comments.
TCM will then update piping routing and supports accordingly.

8.

LEAKAGE ANALYSIS FOR FLANGES

To avoid leakage in flanges, bending moments and forces on flanges with rating 300#, diameter
DN 12 and T 250 C, shall be limited according to Equivalent Pressure Method: the
equivalent pressure shall be limited to 1.5 times the rating allowable pressure. If this analysis gives
negative result, detailed investigation shall be done according to criteria mentioned in Appendix S,
ASME Section VIII Division 1.
T will be evaluated as per paragraph 6.2.4.

9.

COEFFICIENT OF STATIC FRICTION

Friction coefficient must be considered to calculate the horizontal reactions due to the vertical force
on each resting point; the values to be considered shall be those reported in the table below:
Surfaces
Steel on steel
Steel on Teflon or graphite

10.

Coefficient of static friction


0.3
0.1

SPRING SUPPORT

Spring supports shall be used to support dead weight only. Load variation shall be in accordance
with the following limits:

Lines connected to rotary machines: variation 8 - 12%


Lines connected to static equipment:
Pipe operating temperature
T = 80 230C
T = 231 400C
T > 400C

Variation
15 - 20%
10 - 15%
8 - 12%

In all other cases, load variation shall be limited within the maximum value of 25%.
All the spring supports defined for the plant shall be listed in data sheets showing all the functional
data.

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

11.

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 13 of 18

Issue 02

EXPANSION JOINTS

Line flexibility requirements shall be as far as possible satisfied by changes of direction, loops etc.
The use of expansion joints shall be limited to those cases in which routing modifications are
difficult or impossible for the following reasons:

excessive pressure drops;


insufficient space available;
excessive loads on structures or terminal equipments.

In any case such solution shall be preventively submitted to approval by Process Department.
All the expansion joints defined for the plant shall be listed in data sheets showing all the functional
data.
The design of the metallic expansion joints shall comply with the requirements stated by EJEMA
Standard.

12.

VERIFICATION OF EQUIPMENT AND MACHINES REACTIONS

Equipment reactions shall be calculated considering the piping thermal expansion in operating
condition, other external forces acting on the piping (weight, friction) and the displacements
imposed to the piping by connected equipment.
The allowable forces and moments on equipment nozzles shall comply with the following applicable
standards, when manufacturers data are not available. In any case the manufacturers specified
values shall govern.
Loads on nozzles eventually exceeding allowable loads defined in the following paragraphs shall be
transmitted to equipment Vendor for verification and approval.
a) Pumps designed with API 610
(1) The nozzle loads on centrifugal pumps with suction nozzles of NPS 16 nominal diameter or
less shall comply with the load criteria of API 610.
(2) For nozzle diameters greater than NPS 16, the allowable load values shall be obtained from
the manufacturer.
b) Compressors designed with API 617
Nozzle loads shall comply with the load criteria of API 617.
c) Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
Allowable loads on nozzles of pressure and non-pressure equipment shall be in accordance
with TM 300.1 (see appendix 2 for quick reference).

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

13.

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 14 of 18

Issue 02

LOADS TRANSMISSION TO CIVIL DEPARTMENT

Once all critical systems to be supported by one structure have been analyzed, piping loads on this
structure have to be transmitted to Civil Department for check and approval. For this purpose, a
new document shall be issued, basing on the structure one-line drawing (document 3507-AI-DUxxx). Stress Engineer shall comment this document with all significant piping loads due to critical
systems, by means of the following tables, to be filled in for each support.

VL
VL (test)
HL N-S
HL E-W
HL N-S (W)
HL E-W (W)
HL N-S (E)
HL E-W (E)
VL (SF)
HL N-S (SF)
HL E-W (SF)
VL (OD)
HL N-S (OD)
HL E-W (SF)

= maximum operating vertical load


= hydro-test load
= thermal horizontal load in South to North direction
= thermal horizontal load in West to East direction
= wind horizontal load in South to North direction
= wind horizontal load in West to East direction
= earthquake horizontal load in South to North direction
= earthquake horizontal load in West to East direction
= vertical shaking force
= shaking force in North South direction
= shaking force in East West direction
= occasional dynamic load in vertical direction
= occasional dynamic load in South to North direction
= occasional dynamic load in West to East direction

Wind and earthquake loads have to be considered as net, i.e. not including weight of pipe /
insulation / fluid content nor the effect of thermal expansion.
The Civil document, so commented with piping loads, shall be issued by Stress Engineer as a new
document, whose number will be 3507-XX-DF-xxx.
If a preliminary issue of this XX-DF document is needed, including only some of the critical lines to
be supported by the structure, then this document must include a note clearly detailing which lines
have been taken into consideration.

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

14.

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 15 of 18

Issue 02

STRESS ANALYSIS REPORT

The report of each calculation shall have the following composition:


COVER
CHECKLIST
STRESS SKETCHES
INPUT:
Title
Plot
Element
Unit
OUTPUT:
Restrain summary
Code Compliance
Spring Report

(SUS), (OPE), (OCC)


(SUS), (EXP), (OCC)
(if any)

Input and output files shall be in MM units. All the output report shall be in 132 columns type.

15.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NUMERICAL MODEL AND FOR


CALCULATION
Equipment shall be modeled either by defining a displacements vector at each nozzle
connected to analyzed piping system, or by considering the equipment itself as a rigid
system, with proper temperatures, dimensions and materials.
For all vertical vessels the shell temperature between two adjacent outlet nozzles shall be
calculated as the average of the temperatures of those two nozzles (as per Line or Stream
List).
Tanks nozzles shall be modeled according to API 620 / 650, so that nozzles rotation
produced by hydrostatic pressure is taken into account.
Vessels shell flexibility may be modeled according to WRC 297. This will be subject to
written authorization by TCM, to be demanded case by case.
The opening reaction on lines connected to pressure safety valves shall be multiplied by the
Dynamic Load Factor, as per ASME B31.1.
As a general requirement, rotational restraints on pipes should be avoided. Exceptions may
be allowed in some particular cases where this kind of support is necessary to reduce loads
on nozzles (e.g. on compressors discharge lines and on high pressure XV valves). In any
case, any support providing a rotational restraint shall be designed as a special support and
submitted to TCM for approval.
No resting support shall lift up because of system thermal expansion. If in some particular
cases lifting up cannot be avoided, hot sustained stress shall be checked.
Wind and earthquake loads shall be considered as acting in each of the four cardinal
directions, each one deserving a separate load case.
For all traced lines an additional condition shall be considered, when the tracing system is
working and the line is inactive.

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 16 of 18

APPENDIX 1: CATEGORIES OF LINES

24"
22"

20"

Nominal Pipe Size [NPS]

18"

16"
14"
12"
10"
8"
6"

4"

2"
1"
-46

100

200

300

T [C]
category I

category II

T = Tdes Tinst

category III

400

Issue 02

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

LDPE Plant

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Page 17 of 18

Issue 02

A line may be considered as critical (category 3) if:


Line Diameter
2
8
16

T
-46C or 250 C
200 C
150 C

Lines connected to pumps, reciprocating compressors, centrifugal compressors and turbines


requires formal analytical calculations (category 3) if the couple of values (NPS, T) stands above
the lines show in the diagram.

This is equivalent to the following condition:

1200 40 NPS
9

with:
NPS 3
All other lines connected to these machines belong to category 2.

SPECIFICATION FOR PIPING


STRESS ANALYSIS

TCM IDENTIFICATION CODE

3507-XH-SG-002
PROJECT DOCUMENT NUMBER

&TCM-L-SE-000002.200
Plant:

LDPE Plant

Location: El Tablazo Estado Zulia Venezuela

Client : POLIOLEFINAS
INTERNACIONALES C.A.

Page 18 of 18

Issue 02

APPENDIX 2: TABLE FOR ALLOWABLE EQUIPMENT NOZZLE LOADS


For both pressure and non-pressure vessels with formed heads (excluding fixed or floating roof
tanks, gas holders, silos, bins etc.), Stress Engineer shall check that loads on equipment nozzles
are within the allowable loads shown in the following table.
NOZZLE
DIAMETER

DIRECT LOAD [N]

MOMENTS [Nm]

NPS

DN

TL

TC

ML

MC

MT

3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24

80
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600

1500
2100
4600
6000
7600
9200
10800
14600
18500
22300
30000

1500
2100
4600
6000
7600
9200
10800
14600
18500
22300
30000

1500
2100
4600
6000
7600
9200
10800
14600
18500
22300
30000

600
1100
3400
5700
6900
8000
9200
11300
13500
15600
20000

600
1100
3400
5700
6900
8000
9200
11300
13500
15600
20000

600
1100
3400
5700
6900
8000
9200
11300
13500
15600
20000

The loads on this table are valid for equipment having a corroded medium radius R = 1000 mm and
a shell thickness t = 10 mm, net of corrosion allowance and material mill tolerance.
For equipment with different radius and thickness, the above loads shall be multiplied by the
following factor:
=
<0 =
For equipment in stainless steel or in special materials (Ni, Cu, Al, Ti alloys etc.), table values shall
be decreased by 25%.
For nozzles smaller than 3 no check shall be made, because relevant loads have to be considered
as negligible.
For nozzles whose size is not listed in above table and in all cases where loads exceed reported
values, evaluation by the Equipment Engineer is required.
For high pressure vessels the allowable nozzle loads shall be obtained from the manufacturer.