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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMM.ENGG.


B.I.T., MESRA, RANCHI
EE5107

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

Module 1:
Introduction:
Discrete-Time Signals, Shanon's sampling theorem, Difference equation description, characteristics
of digital filters and time domain analysis, properties of discrete time system (linearity, time-variance,
convolution), BIBO stability, Z-transformation and their application in solving difference equations,
Relationship between Laplace and Z-transforms
(7)
Text Books:
1. Digital Signal Processing, Principles, Algorithms and Applications ,John G. Proakis, Dimitris G.
Mamalakis,
2. Digital Signal Processing, Alan V. Oppenheim Ronald W. Schafer, PHI, India.
Module 2:
Frequency domain analysis:
Discrete Time Fourier Transform (DTFT) and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Periodic convolution,
Direct evaluation of DFT, FFT algorithms- decimation in time and frequency, Relationship between
Fourier and Z-transforms
(8)
Text Books:
1. Digital Signal Processing, Principles, Algorithms and Applications ,John G. Proakis, Dimitris G.
Mamalakis,
2. Digital Signal Processing, Alan V. Oppenheim Ronald W. Schafer, PHI, India.
Module 3:
Digital Filter Structures:
Direct form I&II, cascade, parallel and ladder realizations.

(5)

Text Books:
1. Digital Signal Processing, Principles, Algorithms and Applications ,John G. Proakis, Dimitris G.
Mamalakis,
2. Digital Signal Processing, Alan V. Oppenheim Ronald W. Schafer, PHI, India.
Module 4:
Filter Function Approximations and Transformations.
Review of approximations of ideal analog filter response, Butterworth filter, Chebyshev Type I & II.
(6)

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Text Books:
1. Digital Signal Processing, Principles, Algorithms and Applications ,John G. Proakis, Dimitris G.
Mamalakis,
2. Digital Signal Processing, Alan V. Oppenheim Ronald W. Schafer, PHI, India.
Module -5 :
Frequency Transformations:
Frequency transformation in analog domain, frequency transformation in digital domain.
(4)
Text Books:
1. Digital Signal Processing, Principles, Algorithms and Applications ,John G. Proakis, Dimitris G.
Mamalakis,
2. Digital Signal Processing, Alan V. Oppenheim Ronald W. Schafer, PHI, India.
Module 6:
Design of IIR Filter.
Design based on analog filter approximations, Impulse invariance method, Matched Z-transformation,
Bilinear transformation.
(7)
Text Books:
1. Digital Signal Processing, Principles, Algorithms and Applications ,John G. Proakis, Dimitris G.
Mamalakis,
2. Digital Signal Processing, Alan V. Oppenheim Ronald W. Schafer, PHI, India.
Module -7:
Design of FIR filters.
Symmetric and antisymmetric FIR filters, design of linear phase FIR filters using windows and
frequency sampling methods, design of optimum equiripple linear phase FIR filters, comparison of
FIR and IIR filters.
(8)
Text Books:
1. Digital Signal Processing, Principles, Algorithms and Applications ,John G. Proakis, Dimitris G.
Mamalakis,
2. Digital Signal Processing, Alan V. Oppenheim Ronald W. Schafer, PHI, India.
Reference Book:
Digital Filter Design, Antonious, Mc-Graw-Hill International Editions.

EE5307:

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

Module I:
1. Define a signal. What do you understand by
(a) an analog,
(b) a discrete and
(c) a digital signal?
2. What is DSP? What are the advantages of DSP? Draw the general block diagram to show the
schematic representation of a DSP system. Also give some applications of DSP.
3. What are the various methods of representing discrete-time signals? Give examples. List the
mathematical operations performed on discrete-time signals.
4. How will you classify the discrete-time signals? Express the discrete-time signal x(n) as a
summation of impulses.
5. List the various types of discrete-time systems. Define the following systems, giving suitable
examples: (a) Static & Dynamic systems, (b) Time-invariant & Time-variant systems, (c) Linear
& Non-linear systems, (d) Causal & Non-causal systems, (e) BIBO- stable & unstable systems.
6. What is the importance of causality?
7. What are (a) FIR & IIR systems; (b) Recursive & Non-recursive systems?
8. Suppose the input to an amplifier is
X a t sin 2 f ot and the steady state output is:

Ya t 100sin 2 f o t 1 2sin 4 f ot 2 cos 6 f ot 3


a) Is the amplifier a linear system or a non-linear system?
b) What is the gain of the amplifier?
c) Find the average power of the output signal.

9. Consider the following periodic signal:


X a t 1 cos 10 t
(a) Compute and sketch the magnitude spectrum of xa (t).
(b) Suppose xa (t) is sampled with a sampling frequency of fs = 8 Hz. Sketch the magnitude
spectrum of X a t .
(c) Does aliasing occur when xa (t) is sampled at the rate f s 8 Hz ?
10. Consider the following discrete-time signal:
x 8, 6, 4, 2, 0, 0,........
(a) Find the Z-transform X(z) and express it as a ratio of two polynomials is Z.
(b) What is the region of convergence of X(z)?
11. Consider the following signal
x (n) = 10, 0 A 4
2, 4 A
a) Write x(n) as a difference of two step signals

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b) Use the delay property to find X(z).
c) Find the ROC of X(z).
12. Consider the following Z-transform:
X

10 z 2

z 1
2
2
z 0.8 z 1 z 0.2
2

a) Find x(0) without inverting X(z).


b) Find x( ) without inverting X(z).
13. Consider the following Z-transform:
X z

z 4 2 z 3 3z 2 2 z 1
, z 0
z4

a) Rewrite X(z) in terms of negative powers of z;


b) Find x(n).
14. Construct the block-diagram and signal flow-graph of the discrete-time systems whose inputoutput relations are described by the following difference equations:
(a) y(n) = 0.5 x(n) + 0.5 x(n-1);
(b) y(n) = 0.5 y(n-1) + x(n) 2x(n-2);
(c) y(n) = 0.25 y(n-1) + 0.5 x(n) + 0.75 x(n-1).
15. Test the following systems w.r.t. linearity, time-variance, causality, stability, etc.
(a) y(n) = cos [ x(n)] ;
(b) y(n) = x( k );
(c) y(n) = x (-n + 2);
(d) y(n) = x(2n);
(e) y(n) = x(-n).
16. The discrete-time system
y(n) = n. y(n-1) + x(n); n 0
is at rest, i.e. y(-1) = 0. Check if the system is linear time invariant and

BIBO

stable

17. (a) Determine the zero-input response of the system described by the second-order
difference equation:
x(n) 3 y(n-1) 4 y(n-2) = 0.
(b) Determine the particular solution of the difference equation :
y(n) = 5/6 y(n-1) 1/6 y(n-2) + x(n).
18. Determine the impulse response and the unit-step response of the given systems:
(a) y(n) = 0.6 y(n-1) 0.08 y(n-2) + x(n);
(b) y(n) = 0.7 y(n-1) 0.1 y(n-2) + 2 x(n) x(n-2).
19. Determine the z- transforms and sketch the ROC of the following signals:
(a) x1(n) = (1/3)n ; n 0
(1/2) n ; n < 0
(b) x2 (n) = (1/3)n 2n ; n 0
0 ; otherwise.
(c) x3 (n) = x1(n+4)
(d) x4 (n) = x1(-n).
20. Determine the z- transforms of the following signals:

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(a) x(n) = n (-1)n u(n)
(b) x(n) = n2 u(n)
(c) x(n) = (-1)n u(n)
(d) x(n) = (-1)n (cos /3 n) u(n)
(e) x(n) = {1, 0, -1, 0, 1, -1, ..}
21. Determine the ROC of right-sided, left-sided and finite-duration two-sided
sequences.
22 (a) Express the z-transform of
n
y(n) = x(k).
k=-
(b) Determine z- transform for:
(i) x1(n) = x(n/2), if n even
0, if n odd.
(ii) x2(n) = x(2n)
23. (a) Determine x(n) using long- division method:
( 1 + 2 z-1 )
( 1 2z-1 + z-2 )
if x(n) is (i) causal, (ii) anticausal.
(b) Determine the signal x(n) with z- transform
X(z) =
3
1 (10/3)z-1 + z-2
X(z) =

24. Determine the causal signal x(n) having the z-transform:


X(z)

1
( 1-2z-1 ) ( 1-z-1)2
25. (a) Draw the pole-zero pattern for the signal
x(n) = ( rn sin 0n ) u(n);
0 < r < 1.
(b) Consider the system
1 2z-1 + 2z-2 - z-3
( 1-z-1)(1-0.5z-1)(1-0.2z-1)
26. Determine all possible signals that can have the following z-transforms:
H(z) =

(a) X (z) =

1
1 1.5z + 0.5z-2
-1

(b) X (z) =

1
1 (1/2)z-1 + (1/4)z-2

Module II:
27. What is meant by discrete convolution? Why is linear convolution important in DSP?
If y(n) = x(n) * h(n), how will you determine the starting and ending points of
y(n)? What will
be
the length of y(n)? Write the properties of linear convolution.
28. What is zero padding? Why is it needed? Why is circular convolution important in DSP?
29. List the differences between linear and circular convolution.

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30. (a) How will you perform linear convolution via circular convolution?
(b) What is sectioned convolution? Why is sectioned convolution performed?
What are the two methods of sectioned convolution?
31. Determine the response of the system whose input and impulse response are given
By: x (n) = { 1,2,3,1 } and h(n) = { 1,2,1,-1 }.
32. Determine the output y(n) of a relaxed LTI system with impulse response
h(n) = an . u(n) ; where a < 1 and x(n) = u(n).
33. Determine the impulse response for the cascade of two LTI systems having
impulse responses h1(n) = ( )n u(n) and h2(n) = ( 1/4 )n u(n).
34. Perform circular convolution of the two sequences:
x1(n) = { 2,1,2,1 } and x2(n) = { 1,2,3,4 } using ( I ) graphical method,
( II ) tabular array, ( III ) matrices.
35. Perform circular convolution of the two sequences where
x1(n) = { 0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8,1.0,1.2,1.4,1.6 } and
x2(n) = { 0.1,0.3,0.5,0.7,0.9,1.1,1.3,1.5 }.
36. Find the linear and circular convolution of the sequences x(n) = { 1,0.5 } and
h(n) = { 0.5,1 }.
37. The input and impulse response h(n) of a LTI system are given by:
x(n) = { -1,1,2,-2 } and h(n) = { 0.5,1,-1,2,0.75 }. Determine the response of the system using
Linear and circular convolution.
38. Let x(n), N1 n N2 and h(n), M1 n M2 be two finite-duration signals.
Determine the range L1 n L2 of their convolution in terms of N1, N2, M1 and
M2. Illustrate the validity of your result by computing the convolution of two sequences:
x(n) = 1, -2 < n< 4;
0, elsewhere.
h(n) = 2, -1 < n< 2;
0,elsewhere.
39. Compute and sketch x(n) and yI(n) in the following cases:
x(n) = { 1,4,2,3,5,3,3,4,5,7,6,9 }
h1(n) = { 1,1 }; h2(n) = { 1,2,1 }; h3(n) = { 0.5,0.5 }; h4(n) = { ,1/2,1/4 }.
40. Determine the response y(n), n 0, of the system described by the second-order Difference
equation:
y(n) 3 y(n-1) 4y(n-2) = x(n) + 2x(n-1)
To the input, x(n) = 4n u(n).
41. Consider the signal
a.
b.
c.

x 1, 2,1, 0

Find X i DFT x k
Compute and sketch the magnitude spectrum A(i)
Compute and sketch the phase spectrum i

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42. Consider the digital filter where a ,
1
1 az 1
a) Find the impulse response h(k).
b) Find the frequency response H(f).
Using the definition of linear convolution show that
H z

43.

h k * k h k .

44. Suppose h(k) and x(k) are defined as follows :


h 2, 1, 0, 4

x 5, 3, 7, 6
find the circular convolution.
T

45. Suppose h(k) and x(k) are the following signals of length L and M respectively.

h 3, 6, 1

; x 2, 0, 4, 5

find the linear convolution

y k h k * x k for 0 K N .
46. Consider the following pair of signals

h 1, 2, 4, 8,16, 8, 4, 2,1
x

2, 1, 4, 4, 1, 2

Verify that linear convolution can be achieved by zero padding also.


Determine:
a) The linear convolution y k h k * x k
b) The zero-padded circular convolution y zc

hz

0 xz

k.

47. Consider the following two polynomials.


A z z 4 4 z3 2z 2 z 3
B z z 3 3z 2 4 z 1
Find the coefficient vector of C(z) = A(z) B(z) by direct multiplication.
Module III:
Obtain the Direct Form I, Form II, cascade and parallel structures for the following systems:
48. y(n) = 0.75 y(n-1) 0.125 y(n-2) + x(n) + (1/3) x(n-1).
49.

y(n) = -0.1y(n-1) + 0.72y(n-2) + 0.7x(n) 0.252x(n-2)

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50.

Consider a causal IIR system with system function


1 + 2z-1 + 3z-2 + 2z-3
1 + 0.9z-1 0.8z-2 + 0.5z-3
Determine the equivalent ladder structure. Also check if the system is stable.
H (z)

51.

Sketch the ladder structure for the system:


H(z) =

1 0.8z-1 + 0.5z-2
1 + 0.1z-1 0.72z-2

52.
Obtain the direct form-I, form-II, cascade and parallel realizations of the LTI system
Governed by the eqn.,
y(n) = -(3/8) y(n-1) + (3/32) y(n-2) + (1/64) y(n-3) + x(n) + 3x(n-1) + 2x(n-2).
53. Find the direct form I and II realizations of a discrete time system represented by the
Transfer function
h(z) =

8z-3 4z-2 + 11z -2


(z-1/4) (z2 z + )

54. Find the digital network in direct and transposed form for the system described by
The difference eqn.,
y(n) = x(n) + 0.5 x(n-1) + 0.4 x(n-2) 0.6 y(n-1) 0.7 y(n-2).
55. Realize the digital network described by H(z) in two ways:
H(z) =
1 rcos oz-1
1 2 rcos oz-1 + r2z-2
56.

Realize the given system in cascade and parallel forms:


H(z) =

1 + ()z-1
(1-z-1+1/4z-2) (1-z-1+1/2z-2)

57. Given
H(z) =
58.

(1 + z-1)3
1/4z-1) (1-z-1 + 1/2z-2)

What is a recursive and nonrecursive system? Give example.

59.
What are the factors that influence the choice of structure of structure for realization of an LTI
system? Mention the advantage of direct form-I as compared to direct form-II structure?
60.
61.

What are the difficulties in cascade realization?


What is the advantage in cascade and parallel realization of IIR systems?

62.

List the different types of structures for realizing FIR systems. What is the advantage in linear
phase realization of FIR systems?

63.

Consider the causal linear shift-invariant filter with system function

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1 + 0.875z-1
(1 + 0.2z-1 + 0.9z-2)(1-0.7z-1)
Draw a signal flow-graph using direct form-I, form-II, a cascade of first and
Second order systems realized in direct form-II, a cascade of first and second order systems in
transposed direct form-II.
H(z) =

64.
Consider the filter structure shown in fig. (1). Find the system function and the unit
response of this system.
65.
66.

Sample

Find a direct form-II realization for the network given in fig. (2).
Find a transposed direct form-II realization for the system described by the difference eqn.,
y(n) = y(n-1) y(n-2) + x(n) 1/3 x(n-1)

67.
Find the system function and the unit sample response for the following network (fig. 3) and
draw an equivalent direct form-II structure.
68.
Find the system function for the network (fig. 4) and determine the conditions on the
Coefficients a(1), a(2), a(3) and a(4) that will ensure the stability of the system.
69.
Consider the network of fig. (5). Redraw the flow graph as a cascade of second-order
sections in transposed direct form-II.
70.

Implement the system


4 + (9/4)z-1 - (1/4)z-2
1 + (1/4)z-1 (1/8)z-2
as a parallel network of first-order direct form structures.
H(z)

71.

Given the system function,

( 1 + z-1)4
( 1-z-1+7/8z-2)(1+2z-1+3/4z-2)
draw a signal flow graph of this system using a cascade of second-order systems in
form-II and write down the set of difference eqns.that corresponds to this implementation.
H(z) =

72.

73.

Sketch a filter implementation of the FIR filter


H(z) = 8 + 4z-1 +2z-2 + z-3 .
Without factoring any polynomials, determine whether or not the following
Causal filter is stable:
H(z) =

1 + 2z-1 + 2z-2 + z-3


1+1.58z +1.638z-2+1.556z-3+0.4z-4
-1

74.

Implement the all pass filter


Hap(z) =
- 0.512 + 0.64z-1 0.8z-2 + z-3
1 0.8z-1 + 0.64z-2 0.512z-3

direct

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x (n)

y (n)

x (n)
z

b (2)

b (1)

b (0)
z-1

z-1

y (n)

-1

a (1)

0.2

a (2)

Fig 2 for Q. (65)

Fig 1 for Q. (64)


2

x (n)

y (n)

x (n)

y (n)

z-1
a (1)
2

z-1

a (3)

-1/2
z-1

z-1

a (4)

a (2)
-1/2

Fig 3 for Q. (67)

Fig 4 for Q. (68)

y (n)

x (n)
Fig.3(Q.61)

z-1

z-1

- 0.2

0.2

z-1

z-1
- 0.8

- 0.8
Fig 5 for Q. (69)

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