You are on page 1of 198

102 IOSH102-S309

IOSH102-S309

Importing Machinery Safety Standard Design Stage


and Reduce the Risks Discussed Case Studies

GPN:1010300742
300

IOSH102-S309

Importing Machinery Safety Standard


Design Stage and Reduce the Risks
Discussed Case Studies

IOSH102-S309

Importing Machinery Safety Standard


Design Stage and Reduce the Risks
Discussed Case Studies

102 3 27 102 12 9

103 3

ISO/IEC Gide51
RBARisk Based Approach

Abstract
In order to secure the domestic safety of machineries and equipment, Ministry of Labor
regulates the Labor Safety and Health Act to Occupational Safety and Health Act. By
auditing the original design of machines and equipment before operation, and implementing
the risk assessment, machinery hazard and risk are expected to reduce.
This study correlates with ISO/IEC Gide51, EU Machinery Directive, and Guidelines
for comprehensive safety standards of machinery from Japan to regulate General safety
guidelines for machinery, which provides guidelines to designers and makers to fulfill the
concept of Risk Based Approach. By auditing machines based on occupational safety and
health management systems, machinery safety certificate system is completed. Meanwhile,
the evaluation of protective measure is completed.
In order to carry out the Occupational Safety and Health Act, this study completes
the Risk Assessment Manual for Machinery Safety Design as a guideline for makers to
follow and to avoid industrial injuries in working environment.
Keywords: machinery safety, risk assessment, type certification

II


...........................................................................................................................................I
Abstract ................................................................................................................................... II
........................................................................................................................................ III
.................................................................................................................................... IV
..................................................................................................................................... V
............................................................................................................................ 1
.................................................................................................... 1
................................................................................ 4
................................................................................ 5
.................................................................... 6
............................................................................................ 9
........................................................................................ 9
.................................................................. 10
...................................................................................... 11
.................................................................................................. 15
...................................................................................... 15
.............................................................................................. 16
.......................................................................................................... 36
.............................................................................................................. 38
.................................................................................................................. 38
.................................................................................................................. 38
................................................................................................................................ 40
........................................................................................................................................ 41
............................................................................................ 42
B ........................................................................... 61
.................................................................... 75
III

[2] .............................................................................. 1

2012 [2] ............................................................. 2

2012 [2] ............................................. 3

2012 [2] ......................................................... 3

................................................................................... 4

............................................................................................... 6

2009 .......................................................................................... 7

........................................................................... 7

..................................................................................... 11

IV

......................................................................................................... 12

............................................. 18

[1]

1 10

[2]
1

102 2012 6,320


1,631 26 1,238
20
2

2012 [2]

3 2012
6.5 4

2012 [2]

2012 [2]

(EN)(ISO/IEC)
ISO/IEC EN
EN ISO/IEC
ISO/IEC
ISO/IEC Safety aspects-Guidelines for their inclusion in
Standards ISO/IEC Guide 51[5]
(Freedom from unacceptable risk)

ISO/IEC Guide 51 A B
C 5
B

C NC
(group)
C B A
A B

(Korea Occupational Safety and Health


Agency)
S-Mark

2009 13
KCs Mark 2011 1
KCs Mark
28 CE B
C CE 2010
CE A
S-Mark
ABC
ISO 12100 3 2011
2013 KCs


2001 6

A ISO 12100
ISO/IEC

ISO 12100
2003 2004 JIS B9700ISO 12100 JIS
2006 4 1 2

[6] 2007 7 31

4
2000 2009 45,000 28,000
6

32% 26% 6

7
2009 2005
22
17 8[7]

2009


EUEN
ISO
Vinna Agreement EN
ISO/IEC

12
3

[4]
(EHSRs
Essential Health and Safety Requirements) 3
EN
ISO/IEC ISO/IEC
3
Safety aspects-Guidelines for their
inclusion in Standards
ISO/IEC Guide 51
Freedom from unacceptable risk

2Risk Assessment

3
4

ISO/IEC Guide 51
Risk Based ApproachRBA


[8]

ISO/IEC Gide51
RBARisk Based Approach

9
RBA

9
ABC

9 ABC

3 C
C B
A

10


RBA
5-1
B
ISO 12100 ISO 14121 A

B
EN
ISO/IEC
JIS
CNS B B1/B2

B 1 19
B

B1
B2B B2
1 19 B
11

B 156 ISO/IEC
143 B 167
JIS ISO/IEC 68 36
19 CNS B 55

ISO/IEC NO.

ISO 14118 : 2000

Safety of machinery -- Prevention of


unexpected start-up

B1

B2

ISO 14120 : 2002

IEC 60204-1 Ed
5.1 : 2009

ISO 13849-1:2006

B2

B1

B2

ISO 13849-2 : 2003

ISO 13855 : 2002

IEC 62046 : 2008

ISO 13856-1 : 2001

B2
12

Safety of machinery -- Guards -- General


requirements for the design and
construction of fixed and movable guards
Safety of machinery - Electrical
equipment of machines - Part 1:
General requirements
Safety of machinery -- Safety-related
parts of control systems -- Part 1: General
principles for design
Safety of machinery -- Safety-related
parts of control systems -- Part 2:
Validation
Safety of machinery -- Positioning of
protective equipment with respect to the
approach speeds of parts of the human
body
Safety of machinery Application of
protective equipment to detect the
presence of persons
Safety of machinery -- Pressure-sensitive
protective devices -- Part 1: General
principles for design and testing of
pressure-sensitive
mats
and

B1

ISO/IEC NO.

ISO 14123-2 : 1998

ISO 11201 : 1995

10

B1

ISO 11202 : 1995

11

12
13

B1

B1B

IEC 61310-2
{Ed.2.0} 2007-02
IEC 61310-3
{Ed.2.0} 2007-02

16

17

ISO 4414 : 1998


IEC 61310-1
{Ed.2.0} 2007-02

14

15

ISO 4413 : 1998

IEC 60204-11 Ed
1.0 : 2000

13

pressure-sensitive floors
Safety of machinery -- Reduction of risks
to health from hazardous substances
emitted by machinery -- Part 2:
Methodology leading to verification
procedures
Acoustics -- Noise emitted by machinery
and equipment -- Measurement of
emission sound pressure levels at a work
station and at other specified positions -Engineering method in an essentially free
field over a reflecting plane
Acoustics -- Noise emitted by machinery
and equipment -- Measurement of
emission sound pressure levels at a work
station and at other specified positions -Survey method in situ
Hydraulic fluid power -- General rules
relating to systems
Pneumatic fluid power -- General rules
relating to systems
Safety of machinery - Indication, marking
and actuation - Part 1: Requirements for
visual, acoustic and tactile signals
Safety of machinery - Indication, marking
and actuation - Part 2: Requirements for
marking
Safety of machinery - Indication, marking
and actuation - Part 3: Requirements for
the location and operation of actuators
Safety of machinery Electrical
equipment of machines Part 11:
Requirements for HV equipment for
voltages above 1 000V a.c. or 1 500 V d.c.
and not exceeding 36kV

ISO/IEC NO.

ISO 7250 l 1996

Basic human body measurements for


technological design

ISO 7243 : 1989

Hot environments Estimation of the heat


stress on working man, based on the
WBGT-index
(wet
bulb
globe
temperature)

18

19

14

RBA

""

RBA
9 100 A
BC
3
C C
A B C A
15

C
RBA

RBA

RBA


3
3 RBA


RBA
ABC

16

2
2 2

17

()

()

()
()

()
()
()
18

10

11

()

19

()

()

()

12

()

()

()

()

()
(emission)

13

20

()

(redundancy)
14

()
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

6.

7.

8.
21

()

9.

10.

11.
12.

()
1.
2.

3.

22

()

()

()
1.

(key switch)

2.

1
2
(enabling device)
(hold-to-run control device)

()
1.
2.

23

3.
(switch etc.)
15

()


()
1.

2.

3.
() 2

16

24

()

17

()

()

()

()

18

()

()
1.

25

()

()

2.

3.

26

()

()

()

()

()

()

27

()

()

19

()
1.
2.
3.

4.
()
1.
2.
(tunnel guard)

C () 2 (2)(3)

()
28

()

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.
()

20

29

()

()
()
()
()

21

22

() B 12. 13.

()
()

30

()

23

()

()

()

()
()
()
24

25

()
()
()

31

()

()

26

27

()

()

()

28

()
()
()
32

()
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.
()
1.
2.
3.
()
1.
2.
3.

33

()

4.

29

()
1.

2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
()
1.
2.
3.
1
34

()

2
3
4
5
()
1.
2.
3.
4.

35

()

36

[]
(1) ()
(2) ()
(3)
a.
b.
c. ()
d.
e.
f.
(4)
a. ()
b. ()
c.
(5) ()
a.
b.
c. (
)
d.
(6) ()
a.
b. ()()

(7)
a.

37


()
""""


RBA
Risk Based Approach


19 B

RBA

38


19

39


1 2013
2 2013
3 Council of the European Union. Machinery Directive 89/392/EEC.
4 Council of the European Union. Machinery Directive 98/37/EC.
5 ISO/IEC.SIO/IEC Guide 51 : Safety aspects-Guidelines for their inclusion in

Standards ; 1999.
6 2007
7

Vlo.45, No. 5, 2006, pp. 288-295


8 2012

40

()
()

41

42

(hazard)

()

43

() (harm / injury)
(hazard)
()

()

()
()

()

()
()
(teaching)

()

()

44

()
A
() ()

()
4

()

()
()

A
()
()
()
()
()
()

45

() B
() C D

() E

()
()
()

46

[]

47

[ A]










48

[ B]


49



(emission)

(redundancy)



1.
2.
3.
50

4.
5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.
12.


1.
2.

3.


51

1.

(key switch)
2.

(1)
(2)
(enabling device)(hold-to-run control device)

(3)


1.
2.

3.
(switch etc.)


1.

52

2.

3. () 2

53

[ C]


()

()

()

()

()

()
1.

2.

(1)

54

(2)

(3)

3.

()

()

()

()

()

()

()


()
1.
2.
3.

55

4.
()
1.
2.
(tunnel guard)
() 2 (2)(3)
()
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

6.
()


()
()
()
()

56


() B
()
()

57

[ D]

()
()

()
()
()

()
()
()

()



()

()
()

58

[ E]

()
()
()
()
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
()
1.
2.
3.
()
1.
2.
3.

4.

()
1.

59

2.
3.
4.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
()
1.
2.
3.

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
()
1.
2.
3.
4.

60

EN NO.
prEN ISO 13849-1

B2

EN ISO 18349-2 :
2003
EN 418 : 1992

ISO/IEC NO.
ISO 13849-1:2006
ISO 13849-2 : 2003
ISO 13850 : 2006

EN 574 : 1996

ISO 13851 : 2002

EN 349 : 1993

ISO 13854 : 1996

EN999 : 1998

ISO 13855 : 2002

B1

B2

Safety of machinery -- Safety-related parts of control systems -- Part


1: General principles for design
Safety of machinery -- Safety-related parts of control systems -- Part
2: Validation
Safety of machinery -- Emergency stop -- Principles for design
Safety of machinery -- Two-hand control devices -- Functional
aspects and design principles
Safety of machinery -- Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of
the human body
Safety of machinery -- Positioning of protective equipment with
respect to the approach speeds of parts of the human body

JIS NO.

*
JIS B 9703 : 2000

14804

JIS B 9712 : 2006

15522

JIS B 9711 : 2002

14807

JIS B 9715 : 2006

Safety of machinery Safety distances to prevent danger zones


being reached by the upper limbs and the lower limbs

JIS B 9707 : 2002


JIS B 9708 : 2002

IEC 62046 : 2008

Safety of machinery Application of protective equipment to detect


the presence of persons

TS B 62046:2006

EN 1760-1 : 1997

ISO 13856-1 : 2001

EN1760-2 : 2001

ISO 13856-2 : 2005

Safety of machinery -- Pressure-sensitive protective devices -- Part


1: General principles for design and testing of pressure-sensitive
mats and pressure-sensitive floors
Safety of machinery -- Pressure-sensitive protective devices -- Part
2: General principles for the design and testing of pressure-sensitive
edges and pressure-sensitive bars
61

CNS

JIS B 9705-1 : 2000

ISO 13857 : 2008

B2

15523

JIS B 9717-1 : 2011

15566-2

EN NO.

ISO/IEC NO.

EN1760-3

ISO 13856-3 : 2006

Safety
of
machineryPressure-sensitive
protective
devicesPart3:General principles for the design and testing of
pressure-sensitive bumpers, plates, wires and similar devices

EN 1037 : 1995

ISO 14118 : 2000

EN 1088 : 1995

ISO 14119 : 1998

EN953 : 1997

ISO 14120 : 2002

JIS NO.

CNS

Safety of machinery -- Prevention of unexpected start-up

JIS B 9714 : 2006

B1

B2

B1

EN ISO 14122-1 :
2001
EN ISO 14122-2 :
2001
EN ISO 14122-3 :
2001

ISO 14122-1 : 2001


ISO 14122-2 : 2001
ISO 14122-3 : 2001

prEN ISO 14122-4

ISO 14122-4 : 2004

EN 626-1 : 1995

ISO 14123-1 : 1998

EN 626-2 : 1996

ISO 14123-2 : 1998

EN ISO 14159 :
2004

ISO 14159 : 2002

B1

Safety of machinery -- Interlocking devices associated with guards -Principles for design and selection
Safety of machinery -- Guards -- General requirements for the design
and construction of fixed and movable guards
Safety of machinery -- Permanent means of access to machinery -Part 1: Choice of fixed means of access between two levels
Safety of machinery -- Permanent means of access to machinery -Part 2: Working platforms and walkways
Safety of machinery -- Permanent means of access to machinery -Part 3: Stairs, stepladders and guard-rails
Safety of machinery -- Permanent means of access to machinery -Part 4: Fixed ladders
Safety of machinery -- Reduction of risks to health from hazardous
substances emitted by machinery -- Part 1: Principles and
specifications for machinery manufacturers
Safety of machinery -- Reduction of risks to health from hazardous
substances emitted by machinery -- Part 2: Methodology leading to
verification procedures
Safety of machinery -- Hygiene requirements for the design of
machinery
62

JIS B 9710 : 2006

15344

JIS B 9716 : 2006


JIS B 9713-1 : 2004

15193-1

JIS B 9713-2 : 2004

15193-2

JIS B 9713-3 : 2004

15193-3

JIS B 9713-4 : 2004

15193-4

JIS B 9709-1 : 2001

15345-1

JIS B 9709-2 : 2001

15345-2

EN NO.

ISO/IEC NO.

EN 13478 : 2002

ISO 19353 : 2005

B1

EN 1093-1 : 1998
EN 1093-3 : 1996
EN 1093-4 : 1996
EN 1093-6 : 1998
EN 1093-7 : 1998
EN 1093-8 : 1998
EN 1093-9 : 1998
EN 1093-11 : 2001
EN 1127-1 : 1997
EN 13463-1 : 2001
EN 13821 : 2002
EN 12874 : 2001
EN 1837 : 1999
EN 12198-1 : 2000
EN 12198-2 : 2002
EN 12198-3 : 2002
EN ISO 11553-1 :
2005
EN 60825-1 : 1994

IEC 60825-1 Ed.


1.2 : 2001

EN 60825-2

IEC 60825-2 : 2000

EN 60825-4 : 1998

IEC 60825-4
{Ed.2.0}
2006-08

B1

ISO 11553-1 : 2005

JIS NO.

CNS

JIS C 6802 : 2005

15016-1

Safety of machinery -- Fire prevention and protection

Safety of machinery -- Laser processing machines -- Part 1: General


safety requirements
Safety of laser products - Part 1: Equipment classification,
requirements and user's guide
Safety of laser products - Part 2 : Safety of optical fibre
communication systems
Safety of laser products - Part 4: Laser guards
63

15016-2

EN NO.
EN ISO 3740 :
2001
EN ISO 3741 :
1999

B1

ISO/IEC NO.
ISO 3740 : 2000
ISO 3741 : 1999

EN ISO 3743-1 :
1995

ISO 3743-1 : 1994

EN ISO 3743-2 :
1996

ISO 3743-2 : 1994

EN ISO 3744 :
1995

ISO 3744 : 1994

EN ISO 3745 :
2003

ISO 3745 : 2003

EN ISO 3746 :
1995
EN ISO 3757 :
2000
EN ISO 4871 :
1997
EN ISO 9614-1 :
1995
EN ISO 9614-2 :

ISO 3756:1976
ISO 3747 : 2000
ISO 4871 : 1996
ISO 9614-1 : 1993
ISO 9614-2 : 1996


Acoustics -- Determination of sound power levels of noise sources -Guidelines for the use of basic standards
Acoustics -- Determination of sound power levels of noise sources
using sound pressure -- Precision methods for reverberation rooms
Acoustics -- Determination of sound power levels of noise sources -Engineering methods for small, movable sources in reverberant
fields -- Part 1: Comparison method for hard-walled test rooms
Acoustics -- Determination of sound power levels of noise sources
using sound pressure -- Engineering methods for small, movable
sources in reverberant fields -- Part 2: Methods for special
reverberation test rooms
Acoustics -- Determination of sound power levels of noise sources
using sound pressure -- Engineering method in an essentially free
field over a reflecting plane
Acoustics -- Determination of sound power levels of noise sources
using sound pressure -- Precision methods for anechoic and
hemi-anechoic rooms

JIS NO.

CNS
14653

JIS Z 8734 : 2000

14654

14655-1

14655-2

JIS Z 8733 : 2000

14656

14657

Oil of cubeb
Acoustics -- Determination of sound power levels of noise sources
using sound pressure -- Comparison method in situ
Acoustics -- Declaration and verification of noise emission values of
machinery and equipment
Acoustics -- Determination of sound power levels of noise sources
using sound intensity -- Part 1: Measurement at discrete points
Acoustics -- Determination of sound power levels of noise sources
64

14659

JIS Z 8736-1 : 1999

14660-1

JIS Z 8736-2 : 1999

14660-2

EN NO.

ISO/IEC NO.

1997
EN ISO 9614-3 :
2002

ISO 9614-3 : 2002

EN ISO 11200 :
1996

ISO 11200 : 1995

EN ISO 11201 :
1995

ISO 11201 : 1995

EN ISO 11202 :
1995

ISO 11202 : 1995

EN ISO 11203 :
1995

ISO 11203 : 1995

EN ISO 11204 :
1995

ISO 11204 : 1995

EN ISO 11205 :
3003

ISO 11205 : 2003


using sound intensity -- Part 2: Measurement by scanning
Acoustics -- Determination of sound power levels of noise sources
using sound intensity -- Part 3: Precision method for measurement by
scanning
Acoustics -- Noise emitted by machinery and equipment -Guidelines for the use of basic standards for the determination of
emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other
specified positions
Acoustics -- Noise emitted by machinery and equipment -Measurement of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and
at other specified positions -- Engineering method in an essentially
free field over a reflecting plane
Acoustics -- Noise emitted by machinery and equipment -Measurement of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and
at other specified positions -- Survey method in situ
Acoustics -- Noise emitted by machinery and equipment -Determination of emission sound pressure levels at a work station
and at other specified positions from the sound power level
Acoustics -- Noise emitted by machinery and equipment -Measurement of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and
at other specified positions -- Method requiring environmental
corrections
Acoustics -- Noise emitted by machinery and equipment -Engineering method for the determination of emission sound
pressure levels in situ at the work station and at other specified
positions using sound intensity
65

JIS NO.

JIS Z 8737-1 : 2000

JIS Z 8737-2 : 2000

CNS

EN NO.

ISO/IEC NO.

ISO/TR 11688-1 :
1995

Acoustics -- Recommended practice for the design of low-noise


machinery and equipment -- Part 1: Planning
Acoustics -- Procedure for the comparison of noise-emission data for
machinery and equipment
Acoustics -- Recommended practice for the design of low-noise
workplaces containing machinery -- Part 1: Noise control strategies
Acoustics -- Recommended practice for the design of low-noise
workplaces containing machinery -- Part 2: Noise control measures
Acoustics -- Noise emitted by machinery and equipment -- Rules for
the drafting and presentation of a noise test code

EN ISO 11688-1 :
1998
EN ISO 11689 :
1997
EN ISO 11690-1 :
1997
EN ISO 11690-2 :
1997
EN ISO 12001 :
1996
EN 1032 : 1996
EN 1033 : 1995
EN 1299 : 1997
EN 13490 : 2001
EN 982 : 1996

B1

EN 983 : 1996

B1

EN 61310-1 : 1995

EN 61310-2 : 1995

B
B1
EN 61310-3 : 1999
EN 61496-1 : 2004

ISO 11689 : 1996


ISO 11690-1 : 1996
ISO 11690-2 : 1996
ISO 12001 : 1996

JIS NO.

ISO 4413 : 1998

Hydraulic fluid power -- General rules relating to systems

JIS B 8361 : 2000

ISO 4414 : 1998

Pneumatic fluid power -- General rules relating to systems

JIS B8370 : 2000

IEC 61310-1
{Ed.2.0}
2007-02
IEC 61310-2
{Ed.2.0}
2007-02
IEC 61310-3
{Ed.2.0}
2007-02
IEC 61496-1

Safety of machinery - Indication, marking and actuation - Part 1:


Requirements for visual, acoustic and tactile signals

JIS B 9706-1 : 2009

Safety of machinery - Indication, marking and actuation - Part 2:


Requirements for marking

JIS B 9706-2 : 2009

Safety of machinery - Indication, marking and actuation - Part 3:


Requirements for the location and operation of actuators

JIS B 9706-3 : 2009

Safety of machinery - Electro-sensitive protective equipment - Part

JIS B 9704-1 : 2006

66

CNS

EN NO.

ISO/IEC NO.
{Ed.3.0}
2012-04
IEC 61496-2
Ed.1.0 : 1997

EN 61496-3 : 2001

IEC 61496-3 Ed
1.0 : 2001

EN 61496-4

IEC 61496-4 Ed
1.0 : 2007

EN 60204-1 : 1998

IEC 60204-1 Ed
5.1 : 2009

EN 60204-11 :
2000

IEC 60204-11 Ed
1.0 : 2000

EN 60204-31 :
1998
EN 60204-32 :
2008
EN 60204-33 :
2011

IEC 60204-31 Ed
3.0 : 2001
IEC 60204-32 Ed
2.0 : 2008
IEC 60204-33 Ed 1 :
2009
IEC 61131-1
{Ed.2.0}
2003-05
IEC 61131-2 Ed.

EN 61131-1 : 2003

B
EN61131-2 : :2003

JIS NO.

1: General requirements and tests


Safety of machinery - Electro-sensitive protective equipment - Part
2: Particular requirements for equipment using active opto-electronic
protective devices (AOPDs)
Safety of machinery - Electro-sensitive protective equipment - Part
3: Particular requirements for Active Opto-electronic Protective
Devices responsive to Diffuse Reflection (AOPDDR)

JIS B 9704-2 : 2008

JIS B 9704-3 : 2004

Safety of machinery Electro-sensitive protective equipmentPart


4: Particular requirements for equipment using vision based
protective devices (VBPDs)
Safety of machinery - Electrical equipment of machines - Part 1:
General requirements
Safety of machinery Electrical equipment of machines Part 11:
Requirements for HV equipment for voltages above 1 000V a.c. or 1
500 V d.c. and not exceeding 36kV
Safety of machinery Electrical equipment of machines Part 31:
Particular safety and EMC requirements for sewing
Safety of machinery Electrical equipment of machines Part 32:
Requirements for hoisting machines
Safety of machinery Electrical equipment of machines Part 33:
Particular requirements for semiconductor manufacturing equipment
Programmable controllers - Part 1: General information
Programmable controllers - Part 2: Equipment requirements and
67

TR B 0025 : 2010

JIS B 9960-1 : 2008

JIS B 9960-11 : 2004

JIS B 9960-31 : 2004


JIS B 9960-32 : 2011
JIS B 9960-33 : 2012

CNS

EN NO.

2.0 : 2003

testsProgrammable controllers - Part 3: Programming languages


Programmable controllers - Part 7: Fuzzy control programming
Programmable controllers - Part 8: Guidelines for the application and
implementation of programming languages

EN 61000-4-2 :
1995
EN 61000-4-3 :
2002

IEC 61000-4-3
Ed.3.0 : 2006

EN 61000-4-4 :
2004

IEC 61000-4-4 Ed.


2.0 : 2004

EN 61000-4-5 :
1995

IEC 61000-4-5 Ed.


2.0 : 2005

EN 61131-7 : 2001

) B

IEC 61131-3 Ed.


2.0 : 2003
IEC 61131-7 Ed.1.0 :
2000
IEC/TR61131-8
Ed.2.0 : 2003
IEC 62061 Ed.1.0 :
2005
IEC 61000-4-2 Ed.
1.2 : 2001

EN 61131-3 : 2003

EMC(

ISO/IEC NO.

IEC 661000-4-6
EN 61000-4-8 :

IEC 61000-4-8 Ed.

Safety of machinery Functional safety of safety related electrical,


electronic and programmable electronic control systems
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)- Part 4-2: Testing and
measurement techniques - Electrostatic discharge immunity test
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-3 : Testing and
measurement
techniques
Radiated,
radio-frequency,
electromagneticfield immunity test
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-4: Testing and
measurement techniques - Electrical fast transient/burst immunity
test
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-5: Testing and
measurement techniques - Surge immunity test
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Testing and measurement
techniques- Part 6 : Immunity to conducted disturbances,induced by
radio-frequency fields
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-8: Testing and
68

JIS NO.

CNS

JIS B 9961:2008
JIS C 61000-4-2 :
1999

14676-2

JIS C 61000-4-3 :
2005

14676-3

JIS C 61000-4-4 :
1999

14676-4

JIS C 61000-4-5 :
1999

14676-5

14676-6
JIS C 61000-4-8 :

14676-8

EN NO.

ISO/IEC NO.

JIS NO.

1994

1.1 : 2001

2003

EN 61000-4-11 :
2004

IEC 61000-4-11
Ed.2.0 : 2004

EN 61000-6-1 :
2001

IEC 61000-6-1 Ed.


2.0 : 2005

EN 61000-6-2 :
2001
EN 61000-6-3 :
2001
EN 61000-6-4 :
2001

IEC 61000-6-2 Ed.


2.0 : 2005

measurement techniques - Power frequency magnetic field immunity


test
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Testing and measurement
techniques - Part 9: Pulse magnetic field immunity test
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Testing and measurement
techniques - Part 10: Damped oscillatory magnetic field immunity
test
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-11: Testing and
measurement techniques - Voltage dips, short interruptions and
voltage variations immunity tests
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 6-1: Generic standards Immunity for residential, commercial and light-industrial
environments
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 6-2: Generic standards Immunity for industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-4
{Ed.2.0}2006-07

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 6-4: Generic standards Emission standard for industrial environments

IEC TR 62516
Ed.1.0 : 2008

Safety of machinery Guideline for use of communication systems


in safety related applications

IEC 61000-4-9 :
1993
IEC 61000-4-10 :
1993

EN ISO 10075-1 :
2000
EN ISO 10075-2 :
2000

ISO 10075 : 1991


ISO 10075-2 : 1996

Ergonomic principles related to mental work-load -- General terms


and definitions
Ergonomic principles related to mental workload -- Part 2: Design
principles
69

CNS

14676-9

14676-10

JIS C 61000-4-11 :
2003

TR B0030 : 2011

JIS Z 8502 : 1994

15626-1

JIS Z 8503 : 1998

15626-2

EN NO.
EN ISO 10075-3 :
2004
EN ISO 6385 :
2004
EN ISO 7250 :
1997

ISO/IEC NO.

ISO 10075-3 : 2004

Ergonomic principles related to mental workload -- Part 3: Principles


and requirements concerning methods for measuring and assessing
mental workload

ISO 6385 : 2004

Ergonomic principles in the design of work systems

ISO 7250 l 1996

Basic human body measurements for technological design

EN 547-1 : 1997

ISO 15534-1 : 2000

EN 547-2 : 1997

ISO 15534-2 : 2000

EN 547-3 : 1996

ISO 15534-3 : 2000

EN ISO 15535 :
2003

ISO 15535:2006

ISO 15536-1 : 2005


EN ISO 15537 :
2004
EN ISO 14738 :
2002
EN 1005-1 : 2001
EN 1005-2 : 2003

ISO 15537 : 2004


ISO 14738 : 2002

ISO 11228-1 : 2003

Ergonomic design for the safety of machinery Part 1: Principles for


determining the dimensions required for openings for whole-body
access into machinery
Ergonomic design for the safety of machinery Part 2: Principles for
determining the dimensions required for access openings
(available in English only)
Ergonomic design for the safety of machinery Part 3:
Anthropometric data
(available in English only)
General requirements for establishing anthropometric databases
Ergonomics Computer manikins and body templates Part 1:
General requirements
Principles for selecting and using test persons for testing
anthropometric aspects of industrial products and designs
Safety of machinery Anthropometric requirements for the design of
workstations at machinery
Ergonomics Manual handling Part 1: Lifting and carrying
70

JIS NO.

CNS
15626-3

JIS Z 8501
JIS Z 8500 : 2002

15565-1

15565-2

EN NO.

ISO/IEC NO.

JIS NO.

EN 1005-3 : 2002

EN ISO 13407 :
1999
EN ISO 14915-1 :
2002
EN ISO 14915-3 :
2002

ISO 11226 : 2000

Ergonomics Evaluation of static working postures

ISO 13407 : 1999

Human-centred design processes for interactive systems

ISO 14915 : 2002


ISO 14915-1 : 2002

EN 457 : 1992

ISO 7731 : 2003

EN 27243 : 1994

ISO 7243 : 1989

EN 981 : 1997

ISO 11429 : 1996

EN ISO 7726 :
2001

ISO 7726 : 1998

EN ISO 7730 :
1995

ISO 7730 : 2005

EN ISO 8996 :
2004
EN ISO 9886 :
2004
EN ISO 9920 :
2003
EN ISO 9921 :

ISO 8996 : 2004


ISO 9886 : 2004
ISO 9920 : 1995
ISO 9921 : 2003

Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces Part 1: Design


principles and framework
Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces - Part 3: Media
selection and combination
Ergonomics Danger signals for public and work areas Auditory
danger signals
Hot environments Estimation of the heat stress on working man,
based on the WBGT-index (wet bulb globe temperature)
Ergonomics System of auditory and visual danger and information
signals
Ergonomics of the thermal environment Instruments for measuring
physical quantities
Ergonomics of the thermal environment Analytical determination
and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV
and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria
Ergonomics of the thermal environment Determination of
metabolic rate
Ergonomics Evaluation of thermal strain by physiological
measurements
Ergonomics of the thermal environment Estimation of the thermal
insulation and evaporative resistance of a clothing ensemble
Ergonomics Assessment of speech communication
71

JIS Z 8530 : 2000

JIS Z 8504 : 1999

CNS

EN NO.

ISO/IEC NO.

JIS NO.

2003
EN ISO 10551 :
2001

ISO 10551 : 1995

EN ISO 11399 :
2001

ISO 11399 : 1995

EN 563 : 1994

ISO 13732-1:2006

Ergonomics of the thermal environment Assessment of the


influence of the thermal environment using subjective judgement
scales
Ergonomics of the thermal environment Principles and application
of relevant International Standards
Ergonomics of the thermal environment Methods for the
assessment of human responses to contact with surfaces Part 1: Hot
surfaces

EN 614-1 : 1995
EN 842 : 1996
EN ISO 12894 :
2001
EN ISO 13731 :
2002

ISO 11428 : 1996


ISO 12894 : 2001
ISO 13731 : 2001

EN 894-1 : 1997

ISO 9355-1 : 1999

EN 894-2 : 1997

ISO 9355-2 : 1999

EN 894-3
PrEN 894-4
EN ISO 9241-1 :
1997
EN 29241-2 : 1993

ISO/DIS 9355-3
ISO/DIS 9355-4
ISO 9241-1 : 1997
ISO 9241-2 : 1992

Ergonomics Visual danger signals General requirements, design


and testing
Ergonomics of the thermal environment Medical supervision of
individuals exposed to extreme hot or cold environments
Ergonomics of the thermal environment Vocabulary and symbols
Ergonomic requirements for the design of displays and control
actuators Part 1: Human interactions with displays and control
actuators
Ergonomic requirements for the design of displays and control
actuators Part 2: Displays

Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display


terminals (VDTs) Part 1: General introduction
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display
72

JIS Z 8511 :1999


JIS Z 8512 : 1995

CNS

EN NO.

ISO/IEC NO.

EN 29241-3 : 1993

ISO 9241-3 : 1992

EN ISO 9241-4 :
1998

ISO 9241-4 : 1998

EN ISO 9241-5 :
1999

ISO 9241-5 : 1998

EN ISO 9241-6 :
2000
EN ISO 9241-7 :
1998
EN ISO 9241-8 :
1998
EN ISO 9241-9 :
2000
EN ISO 9241-10
EN ISO 9241-11 :
1998
EN ISO 9241-12 :
1999
EN ISO 9241-13 :
1999
EN ISO 9241-14 :
2000

ISO 9241-6 : 1999


ISO 9241-7 : 1998
ISO 9241-8 : 1997

ISO 8241-9 : 2000

JIS NO.


terminals (VDTs) Part 2: Guidance on task requirements
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display
terminals (VDTs) Part 3: Visual display requirements
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display
terminals (VDTs) Part 4: Keyboard requirements
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display
terminals (VDTs) Part 5: Workstation layout and postural
requirements
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display
terminals (VDTs) Part 6: Guidance on the work environment
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display
terminals (VDTs) Part 7: Requirements for display with reflections
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display
terminals (VDTs) Part 8: Requirements for displayed colours
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display
terminals (VDTs) Part 9: Requirements for non-keyboard input
devices

ISO 9241-10 : 1996


ISO 9241-11 : 1998
ISO 9241-12 : 1998
ISO 9241-13 : 1998
ISO 9241-14 : 1997

JIS Z 8513 : 1994


JIS Z 8514 : 2000

JIS Z 8515 : 2002

JIS Z 8517 : 1999


JIS Z 8518 : 1998

JIS Z8520 : 1999


Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual
terminals (VDTs) Part 11: Guidance on usability
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual
terminals (VDTs) Part 12: Presentation of information
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual
terminals (VDTs) Part 13: User guidance
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual
terminals (VDTs) Part 14: Menu dialogues
73

display

JIS Z 8521 : 1999

display
display
display

JIS Z 8524 : 1999

CNS

EN NO.
EN ISO 9241-15 :
1998
EN ISO 9241-16 :
1999
EN ISO 9241-17 :
1998
EN ISO 11064-1 :
2001
EN ISO 11064-2 :
2001
EN ISO 11064-3 :
2000
ENV ISO 11079 :
1999
EN ISO 13406-1 :
1999
EN ISO 13406-2 :
2002

ISO/IEC NO.
ISO 9241-15 : 1997
ISO 9241-16 : 1999
ISO 9241-17 : 1998
ISO 11064-1 : 2000
ISO 11064-2 : 2000
ISO 11064-3 : 1999
ISO/TR 11079 :
1993
ISO 13406-1 : 1999
ISO 13406-2 : 2001
ISO 11161 Ed.2.0 :
2007

JIS NO.


Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual
terminals (VDTs) Part 15: Command dialogues
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual
terminals (VDTs) Part 16: Direct manipulation dialogues
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual
terminals (VDTs) -- Part 17: Form filling dialogues
Ergonomic design of control centres -- Part 1: Principles
design of control centres
Ergonomic design of control centres -- Part 2: Principles
arrangement of control suites

display

JIS Z 8525 : 2000

display
display
for the
for the

JIS Z 8527 : 2002


JIS Z 8503-1 : 2002
JIS Z 8503-2

Ergonomic design of control centres -- Part 3: Control room layout

JIS Z 8503-3 : 1999

Evaluation of cold environments -- Determination of required


clothing insulation (IREQ)
Ergonomic requirements for work with visual displays based on flat
panels -- Part 1: Introduction
Ergonomic requirements for work with visual displays based on flat
panels -- Part 2: Ergonomic requirements for flat panel displays

JIS Z 8528-1 : 2002

Safety of machineryIntegrated manufacturing systems Basic


requirements

74

CNS


........................................................................................................................................ 76
.................................................................................................................................... 77
.................................................................................................................................... 78
................................................................................................................................ 80
.................................................................................................................... 81
........................................................................................................................ 83
[1~7] ............................................................................................................... 87
4.1

................................................................................................... 87

4.2

....................................................................................................... 88

4.3

1 ............................................................................ 89

4.4

2 ............................................................................................ 95

4.5

3 .......................................................................................... 120

4.6

4 .......................................................................................... 140

4.7

......................................................................................................... 144

.................................................................................................................. 146
5.1

................................................................................................. 146

5.2

..................................................................................... 146

.............................................................................................................. 149
.............................................................................................................. 159
.............................................................................................. 165
.................................................................................................. 178

76


2-1

.................................................................................. 82

4-1

...................................................................................................... 88

4-2

(Oka Triangle) .................................................................................. 90

4-3

.................................................................................. 96

4-4

...................................................................................................... 97

4-5

............................................................................ 106

4-6

............................................ 126

4-7

(SRP/CS) .......................................... 129

4-8

PLr() ...................................... 130

4-9

DCavg MTTFd PL ............................... 133

4-10

.............................................................................. 137

4-11

S .............................................................................................. 138

4-12

.................................................. 139

4-13

.................................................................................. 141

5-1

.................................................... 147

77


4-1

...................................................................................... 92

4-2

...................................................................... 92

4-3

...................................................................................... 93

4-4

.............................................. 93

4-5

.......................................................................................................... 97

4-6

...................................................................................................................... 98

4-7

............................ 108

4-8

................................................................................................ 113

4-9

................................................................................................ 116

4-10

.................................................................. 120

4-11

.................................................................................................. 122

4-12

.................................................................. 123

4-13

(S) ................................................................................................. 123

4-14

.............................................................. 123

4-15

(K) ........................................................................................ 124

4-16

(~) ............................................................. 124

4-17

.......................................................................................... 124

4-18

3 (~) .................................................... 125

4-19

.............................................................................................. 125

4-20

...................................................................................... 126

4-21

.............................................................................................................. 126

4-22

(S) ................................................................................................. 127

4-23

(F) ......................................................................................... 127

4-24

(Q) ........................................................................................ 127

4-25

...................................................................... 128

4-26

PLr/PL(/) ...................................................................... 131

78

4-27

.................................................................................. 132

4-28

.......................................................................................... 134

4-29

.................................................................................................. 135

4-30

(MTTFd) ............................................................................... 136

4-31

(DC) ..................................................................................................... 136

4-32

.................................................................................................. 138

4-33

.................................................................................................. 141

4-34

...................................................................................................... 142

4-35

.................................................................................................. 143

5-1

........................................................................ 150

5-2

() ......................................................................... 150

5-3

........................................................................ 159

5-4

() ......................................................................... 160

5-5 ........................................................................ 165


5-6 ................................................................................ 166
5-7 .................................................................... 169
5-8 ............................................................................................ 179
5-9 ................................................................................................ 180

79

80

2-1

ISO 141211999 ISO


13849-12006

81

( ISO 14121 )

5-1

5-2

5-3

5-4

2-1

82


1.

2. (harm / injury)
(hazard)
3.
4.

4-3
5.
6. (RA: Risk assessment)
7.
8.
9.

10. (tolerable risk)


11.
12. (unacceptable risk)
13.

14.

15.

83

16.

17.

18.
19.

20.

21.
22. (Safety-Related Part of a Control System)

1(
)(
)
2 SRP/CS
23. PDCA(Plan-Do-Check-Action)

24. PL (Performance Level)

25. PLr (Required Performance Level)

26. (MTTFdMean Times to Dangerous Failure)

27. (Diagnostic Coverage)(


)()
28.

84

29. (fault resistance)


()

30.

2ISO 13849-1
31.
1
2
3
32. SRP/CS

channe architecture

33. (Common Cause Failure)

34.

1
2
3

85

35.
36.

(
)

86

[1~7]
4.1

[7]
safetysafesafetysafe
secrus
sine cura
without worry

87


()

4.2

4-1

4-1

88

4.3

(
)(
)

4.3.1

1
(
)

()

1 ( 4-1)

()(
)

2 ( 4-2 )
( 4-3 )

89


()

A.
B.
C.

A.
B.

4-2

(Oka Triangle)

90

()

1 (
)

2 (
)

(
)

91

3 (
)
4-1

(
)

4-2

()

()

(
)

()

92


(
)
4-3
1

()

()

()

()

()

4.3.2

4-4

4-4

93

()

z
(

)
z (

4-1)

94

(
)

4.4

4.4.1

(
) ISO 12100-1 4-5 4-6
ISO 14121

1
2 ()

JIS B 9700-12004

()

95

4-3 4-4

( 0 1)
( 2)

()

4-3

96

(
)
()

4-4
4-5

(a)
(1)(2)(3)(4)
(5)(6)
(
(b)

(1)(2)

/
(3)
)
(4)
(5)(6)

97

(c)
(1)/(2)
(3)
(4)
(1)(2)
(3)

(4)(5)
(1)
(2)
(3)

(4)
(5)
(IEC 60204-1)

4-6

()
()
98

(
)
(
)

(
)

()

()

99

()()

(
)

()
75N150N(N)
/10 ~50 16 ()
65N~146N 13N~46N
133N~245N
ISO 10218()
250mm/s()
IEC 60204-1

1
10 1 10 8

65 55 51 48 43

51 48 43

80 66 56 48 43

85 71 60 48 43

110 89 60 48 43
*15
/ 4
80dB (07:00~20:00)70dB(20:00~23:00)65dB(23:00~07:00)
4

100

(1)

90dB
85dB~90dB
85dB
4-6

()

()
(2)

()
A
90dB
B
85dB 90dB
C
80dB
D
80dB

A
B
C
D

8 4

2.5

1 1

2.5

101

()
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

80dB (EU /)
ISO 1999
LAeg24h=70dB(A)(
)
140 dB ()120 dB ()
* LAegTA T

65 dB (8 ~20 )60 dB (20 )


()

//

0<f<30kHz

30kHz<f<300GHz

1mm>>780nm

780nm>>380nm

380nm>>100nm

X
<100nmW>12 eV

W>12eV

102

()
F==W=/

0 24

1 24 (

)
1 8



(

)

2

1

MSDS

(1) 3kg

20mm~40mm125mm

2m

600mm x 500mm()

(2) 25kg
250mm

Guide

103

()

(1)

(2)

)
()()

104

()
20
()
(1)

()
()

EN 547-1 EN547-3

(2)

500~1,700mm

JIS B 9713-1 1 2
JIS B 9713-2 2
JIS B 9713-3 3 ()
JIS B 9713-4 4
4-5

4.4.2

1
()

105

Prccess hazard

Hardware hazard

Control hazard

Human hazard

identification

identification

identification

Identification

HAZOP

FMEA

CHAZOP

Task analysis

What it

FMECA

SADT

HTA

FTA

MOp

Structured methods

Action error analysis

PHA

Maintenance

Human rellability

Analysis

analysis

4-5

HAZOPHazard and operability study


FTAFault tree analysis
PHAPreliminary hazard analysis
FMEAFailure mode and effect analysis
FMECAFailure modes,effects,and criticality analysis
MopMaintenance and operability study
CHAZOPComputer hazard and operability study
SADTStructured analysis and design techniques
HTAHierarchical task analysis
4-7 JIS B 97022000 A
No.1
No.9 No.20

106

4-7
()

JIS B 9702
2000 ISO 141211999

(KY)

()

2
4-7
NO1~19 ISO12100
NO20~37 NO1~19
NO20~26 NO27~29
NO30~33 NO34~37

107

4-7

No.

(1)
a)
b)
c)()
d)()
e)
(2)
f)
g)
h)

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.1

()

2.2

()

2.3

2.4

2.5

3.1

3.2

108

No.

4.1

()()

4.2

5.1

5.2

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

()

7.1

7.2

7.3

()()

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.7

8.8

10

/ (
)

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

()

10.5

10.6

()

109

No.

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

()

20

20.1

20.2

20.3

20.4

20.5

20.6

21

()

21.1

21.2

21.3

()

21.4

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)()

21.5

21.6

21.7

21.8

21.9

21.10

22

110

No.

22.1

22.2

23

24

24.1

24.2

24.3

25

25.1

25.2

25.3

26

27
27.1

27.1.1
27.1.2
27.1.3
27.1.4 /
27.1.5 /
27.1.6 1
27.2

27.3

27.4

27.5

27.6

27.7

27.8

///

27.9

()

28
28.1
29
29.1

111

No.

30

30.1

30.2

30.3

31

32

33

34

34.1

34.2

34.3

()

34.4

35

36

37

JIS B 97022000- A
(89/392/EEC)(NIIS-SD-No.14)

112

4.4.3

4-8
4-8
No.

4-7

No.2

() 4-3

No.1

No.1

113

No.

No.2

114

No.

2 3

No.7 2

4-7

No.1 No.3

(
1 No.4
)
No.6

1 1

4-9

4-9
2

115

4-9
No.
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

2.5

3.1

Mechanical hazards due to machine part or work piece.

Crushing /Squeezing
Shearing
Cutting
severing
Entanglement
Drawing-in
Trapping
Impact
Stabbing
puncture
Friction
abrasion

High pressure fluid injection


Electrical hazards

or

or

or
or

()
Electrical contact: direct

() Electrical contact: indirect

Approach to live part under high


pressure
Electrostatic phenomena

(Thermal radiation or other phenomena


such as projection of molten particles
and
chemical
effects
from
short-circuits, overloads etc.)
Thermal hazards

Burns and scalds, by a possible contact


of persons by flames or explosions and
also by radiation of heat sources
116

No.

3.2

4.1

4.2
5

5.1

5.2
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
7
7.1

Health-damaging effects by hot or cold


work
environment
Hazards generated by noise
()
()
Hearing losses (deafness), other
physiological disorders (e.g. loss of
balance, loss of awareness

Interference
with
speech
communication, acoustic signals etc.
Hazards generated by vibration

Use of hand-held machines resulting in


a variety of neurological and vascular
disorder

Whole body vibration, particular when


combined with poor postures
Hazards generated by radiation

Low / high frequency, radio frequency


radiation, microwaves

Infrared, visible and ultraviolet light


X X and gamma rays

Alpha, beta rays, electron or ion beams,
neutrons
Lasers
()
Hazards generated by materials and substances processed, used or exhausted
by machinery

117

No.

7.2

7.3

8.1

8.2

8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6

8.7

8.8
9
10

Hazards resulting
from contact with or inhalation of
harmful fluids, gases, mists, fumes and
dusts
Fire and
explosion
()(
)
Biological and micro-biologic al (viral
or bacterial)

Hazards generated by neglecting ergonomic principles in machine design


(mismatch of machinery with human characteristics and abilities)

Unhealthy posture or excessive efforts




Inadequate with hand-arm or foot-leg
anatomy

Neglected use of personal protection


equipment
Inadequate local
lighting

Mental overload or underload, stress


etc.
Human errors, human
behavior

Inadequate
design,
location
or
identification of manual controls

Inadequate design or location of visual


display units
() Combination of hazards
/ (
)
118

No.

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4
10.5

10.6

11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18

19

Unexpected start-up, unexpected overrun /over-speed


/
Failure/disorder of control system
(unexpected
start-up,
unexpected
overrun)

Restoration of energy supply after an


interruption.

External influence on electrical


equipment
()
Other external influences ( gravity,
wind, etc.)
Errors in the software
(
)Errors made by the
operator (due to mismatch of machinery
with human characteristic and abilities,
see 8.6)

Impossibility of stopping the machine


in the best possible condition

Variations in the rotational speed of


tools
Failure of the power
supply
Failure of the control
circuit
Errors of fitting
Break-up during
operation

Falling or ejected objects or fluids

Loss of stability / overturning of


machinery
()
Slip, trip and fall of persons (related to
machine)

119

4.5

()(
)

4-10

1)

3)

4-10

2)

z ()
z ()
z ()

z
(1 z
z

z
z
z
z
(2
z
z
z
z
(3
z
z
z

120

4.5.1

1
2
3
4 ISO 13849-1

P-D-C-A
()

z ()
z
z

~
4-11
4-12 4-18
()
//

JIS B 9705-1 DIN V 19250 ( 4-6)


()

121


( 4-19 4-20)
4-11

No.

( 60 )

(S) 4-13
S1~S4 4

4-13

S1~S4

4 S2

4-15
K1~K4 4
K1

(S2)(K1)
3

4-16

(K)

z
z
(K) 4-15
K1~K4 4
4-15

No.1 (S) No.2 (K)

122

4-11 No.1 (S) 4-12 N


4-12 No.2 (K) 4-14 P
4-12

()

4-13
(S)

()
()

(S)
(

S1

()

S2

()

S3

( 8~14 )

S4

( 1~7 3
)
4-14

123

4-15

(K)

(K)

K1

( 1 1 )

K2

(1 1 )

K3

(2 1 )

K4

(1 1 )

4-16

(~)
( 5 )

(K1)

(K2)

(K3)

(K4)

(S1)

(S2)

(S3)

(S4)

4-17

(R)

124

(R)

( 4-18)
4-18

3 (~)

F1 ()

F1 ()

P1 ()

P2 ()

P1 ()

P2 ()

(S1)

(S2)

(S3)

(S4)

4
4-19

(catastrophic)

SS100

(serious)

99SS90

(moderate)

89SS30

(minor)

29SS0

125

4-6

4-20

(very likely)

(likely or certain to

occur)
(likely can occur) (but not probable)
(unlikely)

(not likely to occur)

PS100
99PS70
69PS30
29PS0

(remote)
(very likely)
(likely)
(unlikely)

(remote)
4-21
4-21

159

(high)

160

(medium)

120

119

(low)

90

89

(negligible)

126

()
3

(S) 4-22
4-12 (F) 4-23
(Q) 4-24
4-22

(S)

10

( 1~7 )

( 8~14 )

()

()

4-23

(F)

(F)

(1 1 1 )

(1 1 )

( 1 1 )
4-24

(Q)

(Q)

(/)

()

(/)

(/)

127


(Q)

4-25
(R)

= (S) + (F) +

(Q)
4-25

(R)

(S+F+Q)

12~20

8~11

5~7

3~4

() ISO 13849-1

ISO 13849-12006
=
=
ISO 13849-12006 IEC
620612005 ISO 13849-12006 ISO 13849-1
2006 4-7
z

1 ( 4-7)

128

SRP/CSs
1

PLr

PL

MTTFd
DC
CCF

PL

4-7

(SRP/CS)

129

2 ( 4-7)
PLr()PLr/PL

4-26
4-8 ISO 13849-12006 A
PL()PLr/PL a e PL

P1
F1

P2

S1

P1

P2
P1

F2

F1
P2
S2

P1

F2

P2

d
e
H

S=
S1=

S2=

F=
F1=
F2=
P=
P1= P2=
4-8

PLr()
130

4-26
PLr/PL

PLr/PL(/)

PLr/PL
1/h

10-5 PDF < 10-4

3 x 10-6 PDF < 10-5

10-6 PDF < 3 x 10-6

10-7 PDF < 10-6

10-8 PDF < 10-7

S1
F() P()
PLa/PLra

10-4 10-5
S1
F1=
F2=

10-5 3 x 10-6
S1 S2 S1
F2=

S2 F1=

3 x 10-6 10-6
S2F1=
F2=

10-6 10-7

F2=

10-7 10-8

*PDF=Probability of dangerous failure.

131

3 ( 4-9)

2 PLr(
)
z

4 ( 4-9)

PL()
(PLa PLe 4-26)PL

( 4-27 4-28 4-29)

MTTFd () ( 4-13)

DC () ( 4-14)

CCF ()

PL
4-27

B1234

MTTFd

3 10
10 30

30 100
DC

0% 60%
60% 90%
90% 99%
99%

2%
1oo1

1oo2D

132

/
PL

1
DCavg

2
DCavg

2
DCavg

3
DCavg

3
DCavg

4
DCavg

PL
1. MTTFd=
2. MTTFd=
3. MTTFd=
4-9

DCavg MTTFd PL

PL SISTEMA
(1) SISTEMA
http://www.dguv.de/bgia/en/pra/softwa/sistema/index.jsp
(2) Safety Evaluation toolhttp://auromation.siemens.com
(3) PL Evaluator lite
http://www.fa.omron.co.jp/product/specia/4/safety_support/contract.html
(4) PAScalhttp://www.pilz.com/index.jsp

133

4-28 4-29
4-28

SRP/CS
()

134

MTTFd

DCavg

CCF

( DC)

4-29

1oo1
(1 out of 1)

(

)

ISO
13849-1
B

1 2
1oo1D
(1 out of 1

diagnostic)
3
1o2D
(1 out of 2 4

diagnostic)

135

(MTTFd)

4-30
4-30

(MTTFd)

MTTFd
3 MTTFd<10
10 MTTFd< 30
30 MTTFd<100

(DC)

4-31

4-31

(DC)
DC
DC <60%
60% DC < 90%
90% DC < 99%
99% DC

(CCF)

234 B 1
z

5 ( 4-7)

PL PL PLr (PLPLr) PLr(


) PL
z

6 ( 4-7)

7 ( 4-7)

ISO 14121 ISO 13849-1 4-10

136

(PLr/PL)

4-11
4
PLr PL 4.4
ISO13849-12006

* 1
*RI 1 6

ISO 14121 / ISO 13849-1

O1

O2

S1

F1
F2

S2

F1
F2

* 1)

PLr

O3

PL

A1

A2

A1

A2

A1

A2

A1

A2
R1=

5 6

3 4

4-10
ISO 13849-1
S

S2

ISO
13849-1

1 2
3

ISO / TR 14121-2
A.19 S

137

ISO 13849-1
S

ISO / TR 14121-2
A.19 S

A1
4-11

4-32
S

S1

()

S2

()

(MST)

F1

() 2 15

F2

() 2 15

A1

0.25m/s

()

A2

O1

( ISO 13849-2
2003)

O2

6
()
10 ()

O3

(6 )
6
()
10 ()

138

4-10

4-8
S2
F2F2

( 4-32 A1) 0.25m/s


A1
4-8 O1O2O3
( 4-32)

4-12

139


O1 O1
(RI) O1 32
PLr PL d
( 4-12)
4.5.2

()
z

z
(
)
z

a. ()
b. ()
c.
d.
e. ()

4.6

4
(~)

140

( 4-13)
4-33~ 4-35

4-13

4-33



(kw)
()


()
(1)
(2)

141

()
(1)
(2)

()
(1)
(2)
(3)

(1)/
(2)
(3)

()

4-34

(DC24V)

()
()

(dB )

142

RA

()

9
10

( cm )
( kg )

VDT

11

4-35

No.

RA

1
2
3

143

4.7
1.

1 6

2.

[]
(1) ()
(2) ()
(3)
g.
h.
i. ()

144

j.
k.
l.
(4)
e. ()
f. ()
g.
(5) ()
a.
b.
c. (
)
d.
(6) ()
a.
b. ()()

(7)
a.

145


4
2-1 5-1~5-4

5.1

5.2

5-1

5-1

146

5-1

147

2011
2
2012 3
3

2008
4

2012 3
5

2012 3

6
2008 3
7 2012 3

148

5-1
4-9

4-9 NO1~19

5-2

ISO13849-1

149

5-1


(kw)
()




()
(
)
(1)
(2)
()
(1)
(2)
()
(1)
(2)
(3)

(/)

()

5-2

CW001
10
1
0.18~200 kW
Online / offline /
100 L
12r/min
W 1,400 mm x L 950 mm x H 1,350 mm
110 kg
(10~45)(10~80%)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)()

()

()

()
/

No.

(Mechanical hazards due to machine part or work piece.)

1.1

1.

150

No.

(Crushing /Squeezing)

1.2
1.3

1.4

1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8


2.

3.

(Shearing)

(Cutting or severing)

1.

2.

3.

(Entanglement)
4.

5.

(Drawing-in
or
Trapping)

(Impact)

(Stabbing or puncture)

(Friction or abrasion)

151

No.

1.9
2

(High pressure fluid


injection)
(Electrical hazards)

()
(Electrical
contact:
direct)

2.2

)(
Electrical
contact: indirect)

2.3

(Approach to live part


under high pressure)

2.1

2.4

2.5

(Electrostatic
phenomena)

(Thermal radiation or
other phenomena such
as
projection
of
molten particles and
chemical effects from
short-circuits,
overloads etc.)
(Thermal hazards)
152

No.

3.1

3.2

4.1

4.2

(Burns and scalds, by


a possible contact of
persons by flames or
explosions and also
by radiation of heat
sources)

(Health-damaging
effects by hot or cold
work environment)
(Hazards generated by noise)
()

)
(Hearing
losses
(deafness),
other
physiological
disorders (e.g. loss of
balance,
loss
of
awareness)

(Interference
with

speech

communication,

acoustic signals etc.)



(Hazards generated by

vibration)

153

No.

5.1

5.2

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5
7

7.1

(Use of hand-held
machines resulting in
a
variety
of
neurological
and
vascular disorder)

(Whole
body
vibration, particular
when combined with
poor postures)
(Hazards generated by radiation)

(Low
/
high
frequency,
radio
frequency radiation,
microwaves)

(Infrared, visible and


ultraviolet light)
X (X and

gamma rays)

(Alpha, beta rays,


electron or ion beams,
neutrons)

(Lasers)
()
(Hazards generated by materials and substances processed, used or
exhausted by machinery)

154

No.

(Hazards
resulting
from contact with or
inhalation of harmful
fluids, gases, mists,
fumes and dusts)

7.2

7.3

8.1

8.2

8.3

(Fire and explosion)

()

(
)
[Biological
and
micro-biologic
al
(viral or bacterial) ]

[Hazards generated by neglecting ergonomic principles in machine design


(mismatch of machinery with human characteristics and abilities)]

(Unhealthy posture or
excessive efforts)

(Inadequate
with
hand-arm or foot-leg
anatomy)

(Neglected use of
personal
protection
equipment)

155

No.

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.7

8.8

9
10

(Inadequate
local
lighting)

(Mental overload or
underload, stress etc.)

(Human
errors,
human behavior)

(Inadequate design,
location
or
identification
of
manual controls)

(Inadequate design or
location of visual
display units)
()
( Combination of hazards)
/ (
)

/ (

10.1
)
(Unexpected
start-up, unexpected
overrun /over-speed)
/
[Failure/disorder of
10.2 control
system
(unexpected start-up,
unexpected overrun) ]
10.3

156

No.

(Restoration of energy
supply
after
an
interruption.)

10.4
(External influence on
electrical equipment)
(
)
10.5 [
Other
external
influences ( gravity,
wind, etc.) ]

10.6 (Errors
in
the
software)
(

)[Errors
made by the operator
11
(due to mismatch of
machinery
with
human characteristic
and abilities, see
8.6) ]

(Impossibility
of
12
stopping the machine
in the best possible
condition)

(Variations in the
13
rotational speed of
tools)

14
(Failure of the power
supply)

15
(Failure of the control
circuit)

157

No.

16

(Errors

of fitting)

(Break-up
during
operation)

(Falling or ejected
objects or fluids)

(Loss of stability /
overturning
of
machinery)

17

18

19

158

5-3
4-9

5-4

ISO 13849-1

5-3

T-1
15
1
8"xd 3/4"xt 3/4"
50 HZ
1/2HP
1/6HP
90 m/s
W510 mm x L460 mm x H1000 mm
159

()

110 Kg
(5~50)(10~70%)
1.

2.
3.

()
(1)
(2)
()

1.

(1)

2.

(2)
()
(1)
(2)
(3)

(/)

()

5-4
No.

1.
2.
3.

()

()
/

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

160

No.

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.1


(
)

2.2




()

2.3

2.4

2.5

3.1

3.2

161

No.

4.1

()
(

4.2

5.1

5.2

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

()

7.1

7.2

7.3

()
()

162

No.

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.7

8.8

10

/ (
)

10.1 /
10.2

10.3
(
10.4
)

10.5
(
10.6
)

11

163

No.

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19


()

164

5-5

5-6
5-7

ISO13849-1

5-6
5-5

(kw)

()

(AGV)
AGV 10
10
1
0.56 kW x 2 0.1 Kw x 2
0.16 kW
Online / offline /
1,000 kg
60 m/min
W 1,130 mm x L 1,630 mm x H 550 mm
165

(AGV)
650 kg
(0~40)(10~90%)
()
(
)
(1)
(
(2)
)
(3)
(1)

(2)
(4)
()

(1)

(1)

(2)

(2)
()
(1)
(2)
(3)

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)(
)

()

()
()

(AGV )

5-6

(AGV)

RA

2.3.12.15.16.17.

18.24.26.29.33.41

166

(AGV)

4
5
6

(DC24V)

()

()

(dB )

(
)

( cm )

( kg )

VDT

RA

20.22.25.30.32.36
46.47

27

7.44.50

10

11

167

37
8.13.23.
34.35.38.
39.40.42.
43.45
28.31

(AGV)

RA

RA 5-7 NO.

168

5-7

AGV
(AGV)

No. /
/ 0

AGV / AGV

AGV AGV

/
/

AGV / AGV

/
/ AGV

/ AGV
/

/
AGV
AGV /

/ /
169

AGV

AGV


AGV
(AGV)

No. /

AGV

AGV /

10

AGV
/

11

12

AGV /

170

AGV /

AGV

AGV

AGV
AGV
/
/

AGV
/
/


AGV
(AGV)

No. /
/
AGV
13
/
AGV
/

/
AGV /
14
/
AGV

15

16

17

18
19

AGV
AGV
/ AGV /
/ AGV

AGV
AGV
/ AGV /
/ AGV

/
AGV AGV
/ AGV
/ AGV

/ AGV
AGV
/ AGV
/ AGV


/ AGV AGV AGV
171


AGV
(AGV)

No. /

/ / AGV

20

21

22
23
24
25

AGV
/ AGV
/ / AGV

AGV
/ AGV
/ AGV

AGV
/ AGV
/ / AGV

AGV
/ AGV
/ /AGV

AGV AGV AGV


/
/ /

AGV AGV/ AGV


/
/

172

(
)
AGV

/
AGV

/
AGV

AGV

AGV


AGV
(AGV)

No. /

26

2
/ AGV
AGV / / AGV

27

AGV
/ AGV
/ /AGV

28

AGV
/ AGV /
/AGV

29

AGV
/ AGV /
/AGV

30
31

/
/ AGV

/ AGV /
173

AGV
/AGV

AGV

AGV

AGV

AGV

AGV
AGV

AGV

AGV


AGV
(AGV)

No. /

/AGV

/ AGV
/ AGV
32
/AGV AGV

AGV
AGV
/ AGV
AGV
33
/ /AGV

/
AGV AGV
/ AGV
34
/AGV

/
AGV
/ AGV
AGV /
35

AGV
AGV
/ AGV /

36
/AGV

174


AGV
(AGV)

No. /
37

/
AGV

38

/
AGV

39

AGV
/

40

/ AGV

41

42

AGV

43

AGV

AGV

AGV
/ AGV /

AGV/ AGV

/
AGV AGV

/AGV

/ AGV
/AGV AGV

/
/ AGV AGV

AGV /

AGV

AGV AGV / AGV


175


AGV
(AGV)

No. /

AGV /
44
/

AGV AGV /

45

46

/ AGV
/ AGV
/AGV

47

48

/ AGV
/ AGV
/AGV

/
AGV /

176

AGV

AGV
AGV
AGV

AGV


AGV
(AGV)

No. /

49

50

AGV
/
/

AGV
/

177

5-8 5-9

178

5-8

LM-3200F
15
1
170 mm
21000 cm3
19200 gram
190 HP
123 kw
3800 L
L15900 mm x W5000 mm x H3800 mm
220
1

179

()
(1)
(2)

()
(1)
(2)

()
(1)
(2)
(3)

()

1
2

1
2

()

()

5-9
No.

(Mechanical hazards due to machine part or work piece.)


1.1

1.2
1.

2.
(Crushing

/Squeezing)
1.3

1.4

1.1

180

1.1.1.
1.1.2.

1.1.3.

No.

2.1

1.2

1.3

(Shearing)

1.
(Cutting
or
severing)

1.4

1.
(Entanglement)

1.5

(Drawing-in or
Trapping)

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.

2.
(Impact)

1.

(Stabbing
or

puncture)

(Friction
or
abrasion)
181

1.1
1.1.1.

1.1

1.2

1.1.1.
1.1.2.

1.1.3.

1.1.

2.1

1.1.1.

1.1.2.

1.1.3.

1.1.

1.1.1.

1.1.2.

No.

1.9

1.
(High
pressure
fluid injection)

2.1

2.2

2.3

(Electrical hazards)
1.
()
(Electrical
contact: direct)

1.
(
)( Electrical
contact: indirect)

1.1.1.
1.1.
1.1.2.

1.1.3.

/
1.1.
/
1.1.1.

1. /

/
(Approach to live
/
part under high

pressure)

2.4

1.
(Electrostatic

phenomena)

2.5

1.

(Thermal
radiation or other

182

1.1.
1.1.1.

1.1.

1.2.

1.1.

1.1.1.

1.2.1.
(
)

1.1.1.

1.1.2.

1.1.1.
1.1.

1.1.2.

No.

3.1

3.2

4.1

phenomena such
as projection of
molten particles
and
chemical
effects
from
short-circuits,
overloads etc.)

(Thermal hazards)

1.

(Burns
and 2.
scalds,
by
a
possible contact
of persons by
flames
or
explosions
and
also by radiation
of heat sources)

(Health-damaging
effects by hot or
cold
work
environment)

(Hazards generated by noise)


(
)
(
) 1.
(Hearing losses
(deafness), other
physiological
disorders
(e.g.

183

1.1.

1.2.

1.3.
()

1.4.
()

1.1.1.

1.1.2. .

1.1.1.

1.1.

1.1.2. .

No.

4.2

5.1

5.2

6.1

6.2

loss of balance,
loss
of
awareness))

(Interference with

speech
communication,
acoustic signals
etc.)

(Hazards generated by vibration)

(Use of hand-held

machines
resulting in a
variety
of
neurological and
vascular disorder)

(Whole
body

vibration,
particular when
combined
with
poor postures)

(Hazards generated by radiation)

(Low
/
high 1. /

frequency, radio

frequency
radiation,
microwaves)

(Infrared, visible
and
ultraviolet
light)
184

1.1.

1.1.1.

1.1.2.

No.
6.3

6.4

6.5
7

7.1

7.2

7.3

X (X

and gamma rays)


(Alpha, beta rays,


electron or ion
beams, neutrons)
(Lasers)

()
(Hazards generated by materials and substances processed, used or
exhausted by machinery)

1.1.

(Hazards

1.1.1.
()
resulting
from 1.
1.1.2.
2.

contact with or

1.2. ( )
inhalation
of

harmful
fluids,

gases,
mists,

fumes and dusts)


1.1. ( )
1.1.1.


3.

(Fire
and
1.1.2.
explosion)

()
(

[Biological and
micro-biologic al
(viral
or
bacterial) ]

[Hazards generated by neglecting ergonomic principles in machine design


185

No.

8.1

8.2

8.3

(mismatch of machinery with human characteristics and abilities)]


1.1.

1.

(Unhealthy

posture
or
excessive efforts)

(Inadequate with
hand-arm
or
foot-leg anatomy)

1.1.

(Neglected use of 1.

personal
protection

equipment)

1.1.1.
1.1.2.

1.1.1.
1.1.2.

1.1.3.

1.1.1.

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.7

1.
(Inadequate local
lighting)

(Mental overload
or
underload,
stress etc.)
1.

2.
(Human errors,

human behavior)

1.

(Inadequate

1.1.
1.1.2.

1.1.3.

1.1.

1.1.1.

1.1.2.

186

1.1. 1.1.1.

1.1.2.

No.

design, location
or identification
of
manual controls)

1.1.

8.8

9.
10

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

1.

(Inadequate

design or location
of visual display

units)

1.2.

1.1.1.

1.2.1.

() ( Combination of hazards)
/ (
)
(Unexpected start-up, unexpected overrun /over-speed)

1.2.
/

[Failure/disorder
1.1.1.

of control system 1.
1.1.2.

(unexpected

start-up,

unexpected
overrun) ]

(Restoration of

energy
supply
after
an
interruption.)

(External

influence
on
electrical
equipment)
1. 1.1. 1.1.1.
1.1.2.
()

187

No.

[ Other external
influences
( gravity, wind,
etc.) ]

1.

10.5 (Errors in the

software)

)
[Errors made by
10.6 the operator (due 1.
to mismatch of
machinery with
human
characteristic and
abilities,
see 8.6) ]

(Impossibility of
11
stopping
the
machine in the
best
possible
condition)

12
(Variations in the
rotational speed
of tools)
1.

13
(Failure of the
power supply)
14

(Failure of the

1.1.

1.1.1.

1.1.


1.1.1.

1.1.2.

(
)

188

1.1.1.


1.1.2.

1.1.

No.

control circuit)
1.1.

15

16

17

(Errors of fitting)

1.

1.

(Break-up during
operation)

1.

(Falling
or

ejected objects or
fluids)

1.1.

1.1.

1.2.

1.1.1.
/

18

(Loss of stability
/ overturning of
machinery)

19

)
1.
[Slip, trip and fall

of
persons
(related
to
machine)]

189

1.1.2.

1.1.1.
/
1.1.2.

1.1.1.
/
1.1.2.

1.1.

1.1.1.

1.1.2.