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6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform: 6 1 / 12

Fourier Series as T
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

Fourier Series: u(t) =

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

n=

Un ei2nF t

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Fourier Series: u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

The harmonic frequencies are nF n and are spaced F = T1 apart.

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Fourier Series: u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

The harmonic frequencies are nF n and are spaced F = T1 apart.


As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.
e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Series: u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

The harmonic frequencies are nF n and are spaced F = T1 apart.


As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.
e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

T = 1 day F = 11.57 Hz

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Series: u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

The harmonic frequencies are nF n and are spaced F = T1 apart.


As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.
e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

T = 1 day F = 11.57 Hz
If T then the harmonic spacing becomes zero, the sum becomes an
integral and we get the Fourier Transform:

u(t) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

R +

i2f t
U
(f
)e
df
f =

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Series: u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

The harmonic frequencies are nF n and are spaced F = T1 apart.


As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.
e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

T = 1 day F = 11.57 Hz
If T then the harmonic spacing becomes zero, the sum becomes an
integral and we get the Fourier Transform:

u(t) =

R +

i2f t
U
(f
)e
df
f =

Here, U (f ), is the spectral density of u(t).

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Series: u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

The harmonic frequencies are nF n and are spaced F = T1 apart.


As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.
e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

T = 1 day F = 11.57 Hz
If T then the harmonic spacing becomes zero, the sum becomes an
integral and we get the Fourier Transform:

u(t) =

R +

i2f t
U
(f
)e
df
f =

Here, U (f ), is the spectral density of u(t).

U (f ) is a continuous function of f .

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Series: u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

The harmonic frequencies are nF n and are spaced F = T1 apart.


As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.
e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

T = 1 day F = 11.57 Hz
If T then the harmonic spacing becomes zero, the sum becomes an
integral and we get the Fourier Transform:

u(t) =

R +

i2f t
U
(f
)e
df
f =

Here, U (f ), is the spectral density of u(t).

U (f ) is a continuous function of f .
U (f ) is complex-valued.

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Series: u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

The harmonic frequencies are nF n and are spaced F = T1 apart.


As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.
e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

T = 1 day F = 11.57 Hz
If T then the harmonic spacing becomes zero, the sum becomes an
integral and we get the Fourier Transform:

u(t) =

R +

i2f t
U
(f
)e
df
f =

Here, U (f ), is the spectral density of u(t).

U (f ) is a continuous function of f .
U (f ) is complex-valued.
u(t) real U (f ) is conjugate symmetric U (f ) = U (f ) .

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Series: u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

The harmonic frequencies are nF n and are spaced F = T1 apart.


As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.
e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

T = 1 day F = 11.57 Hz
If T then the harmonic spacing becomes zero, the sum becomes an
integral and we get the Fourier Transform:

u(t) =

R +

i2f t
U
(f
)e
df
f =

Here, U (f ), is the spectral density of u(t).

U (f ) is a continuous function of f .
U (f ) is complex-valued.
u(t) real U (f ) is conjugate symmetric U (f ) = U (f ) .
Units: if u(t) is in volts, then U (f )df must also be in volts
U (f ) is in volts/Hz (hence spectral density).

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

Fourier Series:

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

Fourier Series:

u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

The summation is over a set of equally spaced frequencies


fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

The summation is over a set of equally spaced frequencies


fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

The summation is over a set of equally spaced frequencies


fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

The summation is over a set of equally spaced frequencies


fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Spectral Density: If u(t) has finite energy, Un 0 as f 0.

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

The summation is over a set of equally spaced frequencies


fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .
i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Spectral Density: If u(t) has finite energy, Un 0 as f 0. So we


Un
define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f
, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Un
f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

The summation is over a set of equally spaced frequencies


fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .
i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Spectral Density: If u(t) has finite energy, Un 0 as f 0. So we


Un
define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f
, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un
f

we can write

u(t) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt
[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

The summation is over a set of equally spaced frequencies


fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .
i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Spectral Density: If u(t) has finite energy, Un 0 as f 0. So we


Un
define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f
, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un
f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt
[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

Fourier Transform: Now if we take the limit as f 0, we get

u(t) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

i2f t
U
(f
)e
df

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

The summation is over a set of equally spaced frequencies


fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .
i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Spectral Density: If u(t) has finite energy, Un 0 as f 0. So we


Un
define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f
, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un
f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt
[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

Fourier Transform: Now if we take the limit as f 0, we get

i2f t
U
(f
)e
df

R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

u(t) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

The summation is over a set of equally spaced frequencies


fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .
i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Spectral Density: If u(t) has finite energy, Un 0 as f 0. So we


Un
define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f
, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un
f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt
[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

Fourier Transform: Now if we take the limit as f 0, we get

i2f t
U
(f
)e
df

R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

u(t) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

The summation is over a set of equally spaced frequencies


fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .
i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Spectral Density: If u(t) has finite energy, Un 0 as f 0. So we


Un
define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f
, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un
f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt
[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

Fourier Transform: Now if we take the limit as f 0, we get

i2f t
U
(f
)e
df

R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

u(t) =

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Un
For non-periodic signals Un 0 as f 0 and U (fn ) = f
remains
finite.

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

The summation is over a set of equally spaced frequencies


fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .
i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Spectral Density: If u(t) has finite energy, Un 0 as f 0. So we


Un
define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f
, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un
f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt
[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

Fourier Transform: Now if we take the limit as f 0, we get

i2f t
U
(f
)e
df

R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

u(t) =

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Un
For non-periodic signals Un 0 as f 0 and U (fn ) = f
remains
finite. However, if u(t) contains an exactly periodic component, then the
corresponding U (fn ) will become infinite as f 0.
E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

The summation is over a set of equally spaced frequencies


fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .
i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Spectral Density: If u(t) has finite energy, Un 0 as f 0. So we


Un
define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f
, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un
f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt
[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

Fourier Transform: Now if we take the limit as f 0, we get

i2f t
U
(f
)e
df

R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

u(t) =

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Un
For non-periodic signals Un 0 as f 0 and U (fn ) = f
remains
finite. However, if u(t) contains an exactly periodic component, then the
corresponding U (fn ) will become infinite as f 0. We will deal with it.
E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

Example(1:

u(t) =

eat t 0
0
t<0

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

Example(1:

u(t) =

eat t 0
0
t<0

1
u(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5
0

-5

0
Time (s)

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Example(1:

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

1
u(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5
0

-5

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Example(1:

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

1
u(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5
0

-5

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Example(1:

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

1
u(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5
0

-5

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Example(1:

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e
 (ai2f )t 
1
= a+i2f e
=
0

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

1
u(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5
0

-5

0
Time (s)

1
a+i2f

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e
 (ai2f )t 
1
= a+i2f e
=
0

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

1
u(t)

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Example(1:

a=2

0.5
0

|U(f)|

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-5

-5

0
Time (s)

0
Frequency (Hz)

1
a+i2f

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

u(t)

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e
 (ai2f )t 
1
= a+i2f e
=
0

a=2

0.5
0

|U(f)|

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Example(1:

<U(f) (rad/pi)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-5

-5

0
Time (s)

0
Frequency (Hz)

0
Frequence (Hz)

0.5
0
-0.5
-5

1
a+i2f

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t)

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e
 (ai2f )t 
1
= a+i2f e
=
0

a=2

0.5
0

|U(f)|

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Example(1:

<U(f) (rad/pi)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-5

-5

0
Time (s)

0
Frequency (Hz)

0
Frequence (Hz)

0.5
0
-0.5
-5

1
a+i2f

Example 2:

v(t) = ea|t|

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Example 2:

v(t) = ea|t|

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

u(t)

a=2

0.5
0

|U(f)|

Examples

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e
 (ai2f )t 
1
= a+i2f e
=
0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-5

0
Time (s)

0
Frequency (Hz)

0
Frequence (Hz)

0.5
0
-0.5
-5

1
a+i2f
1
v(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5
0

-5

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Example 2:

v(t) = ea|t|
R
V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

u(t)

a=2

0.5
0

|U(f)|

Examples

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e
 (ai2f )t 
1
= a+i2f e
=
0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-5

0
Time (s)

0
Frequency (Hz)

0
Frequence (Hz)

0.5
0
-0.5
-5

1
a+i2f
1
v(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5
0

-5

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Example 2:

-5

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-5

0
Time (s)

0
Frequency (Hz)

0
Frequence (Hz)

0.5
0
-0.5
-5

u(t)

1
a+i2f
1

a=2

0.5
0

v(t) = ea|t|
R
V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
R0
at i2f t
dt
dt + 0 e e
= e e

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

a=2

0.5
0

|U(f)|

Examples

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e
 (ai2f )t 
1
= a+i2f e
=
0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Example(1:

v(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

-5

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Example 2:

u(t)

a=2

0.5
0

|U(f)|

Examples

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e
 (ai2f )t 
1
= a+i2f e
=
0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-5

0
Time (s)

0
Frequency (Hz)

0
Frequence (Hz)

0.5
0
-0.5
-5

a=2

0.5
0

-5

Time (s)
v(t) = ea|t|
R
V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
R0
at i2f t
dt
dt + 0 e e
= e e
 (ai2f )t 0
 (ai2f )t 
1
1
+ a+i2f e
= ai2f e

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

1
a+i2f
v(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Example 2:

u(t)

a=2

0.5
0

|U(f)|

Examples

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e
 (ai2f )t 
1
= a+i2f e
=
0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-5

0
Time (s)

0
Frequency (Hz)

0
Frequence (Hz)

0.5
0
-0.5
-5

a=2

0.5
0

-5

Time (s)
v(t) = ea|t|
R
V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
R0
at i2f t
dt
dt + 0 e e
= e e
 (ai2f )t 0
 (ai2f )t 
1
1
+ a+i2f e
= ai2f e

0
1
1
= ai2f + a+i2f

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

1
a+i2f
v(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Example 2:

u(t)

a=2

0.5
0

|U(f)|

Examples

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e
 (ai2f )t 
1
= a+i2f e
=
0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-5

0
Time (s)

0
Frequency (Hz)

0
Frequence (Hz)

0.5
0
-0.5
-5

a=2

0.5
0

-5

Time (s)
v(t) = ea|t|
R
V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
R0
at i2f t
dt
dt + 0 e e
= e e
 (ai2f )t 0
 (ai2f )t 
1
1
+ a+i2f e
= ai2f e

0
1
1
2a
= ai2f + a+i2f = a2 +42 f 2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

1
a+i2f
v(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Example 2:

u(t)

a=2

0.5
0

|U(f)|

Examples

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e
 (ai2f )t 
1
= a+i2f e
=
0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-5

0
Time (s)

0
Frequency (Hz)

0
Frequence (Hz)

0.5
0
-0.5
-5

1
a+i2f
1
v(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5
0

-5

|V(f)|

Time (s)
v(t) = ea|t|
1
R
0.5
V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt
0
-5
0
Frequency (Hz)
R at i2f t
R0
at i2f t
dt
dt + 0 e e
= e e
 (ai2f )t 0
 (ai2f )t 
1
1
+ a+i2f e
= ai2f e

0
1
1
2a
= ai2f + a+i2f = a2 +42 f 2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Fourier Transform Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Example 2:

u(t)

a=2

0.5
0

|U(f)|

Examples

eat t 0
u(t) =
0
t<0
R
U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt
R at i2f t
dt
= 0 e e
R (ai2f )t
dt
= 0 e
 (ai2f )t 
1
= a+i2f e
=
0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-5

0
Time (s)

0
Frequency (Hz)

0
Frequence (Hz)

0.5
0
-0.5
-5

1
a+i2f
1
v(t)

6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5
0

-5

|V(f)|

Time (s)
v(t) = ea|t|
1
R
0.5
V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt
0
-5
0
5
Frequency (Hz)
R at i2f t
R0
at i2f t
dt
dt + 0 e e
= e e
 (ai2f )t 0
 (ai2f )t 
1
1
+ a+i2f e
= ai2f e

0
1
1
2a
= ai2f + a+i2f = a2 +42 f 2
[v(t) real+symmetric
V (f ) real+symmetric]

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Dirac Delta Function


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

We define a unit area pulse of width w as

dw (x) =

1
w

0.5w x 0.5w
otherwise

4
2
3(x)

0
-3

-2

-1

0
x

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

Dirac Delta Function


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

We define a unit area pulse of width w as

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

1
w

0.5w x 0.5w
otherwise

4
2
3(x)

0
-3

-2

-1

0
x

This pulse has the property that its integral equals


1 for all values of w:

x=

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

dw (x)dx = 1

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

Dirac Delta Function


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

We define a unit area pulse of width w as

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

1
w

0.5w x 0.5w
otherwise

4
0.5(x)

3(x)

0
-3

-2

-1

0
x

This pulse has the property that its integral equals


1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

If we make w smaller, the pulse height increases to preserve unit area.

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

Dirac Delta Function


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

We define a unit area pulse of width w as

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

1
w

0.5w x 0.5w
otherwise

0.2(x)

0.5(x)

3(x)

0
-3

-2

-1

0
x

This pulse has the property that its integral equals


1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

If we make w smaller, the pulse height increases to preserve unit area.

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

Dirac Delta Function


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

We define a unit area pulse of width w as

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

1
w

0.5w x 0.5w
otherwise

0.2(x)

0.5(x)

3(x)

0
-3

-2

-1

0
x

This pulse has the property that its integral equals


1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

If we make w smaller, the pulse height increases to preserve unit area.


We define the Dirac delta function as (x) = limw0 dw (x)

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

Dirac Delta Function


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

We define a unit area pulse of width w as

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

1
w

0.5w x 0.5w
otherwise

0.2(x)

0.5(x)

3(x)

0
-3

-2

-1

0
x

This pulse has the property that its integral equals


1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

If we make w smaller, the pulse height increases to preserve unit area.


We define the Dirac delta function as (x) = limw0 dw (x)

(x) equals zero everywhere except at x = 0 where it is infinite.

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

Dirac Delta Function


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

We define a unit area pulse of width w as

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

1
w

0.5w x 0.5w
otherwise

0.2(x)

0.5(x)

3(x)

0
-3

-2

-1

0
x

This pulse has the property that its integral equals


1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

If we make w smaller, the pulse height increases to preserve unit area.


We define the Dirac delta function as (x) = limw0 dw (x)

(x) equals zero everywhere except at x = 0 where it is infinite.


R
However its area still equals 1 (x)dx = 1

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

Dirac Delta Function


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

We define a unit area pulse of width w as

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

1
w

0.5w x 0.5w
otherwise

This pulse has the property that its integral equals


1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

0.2(x)

0.5(x)

3(x)

0
-3

-2

-1

0
x

1
(x)

0.5
0
-3

-2

-1

0
x

If we make w smaller, the pulse height increases to preserve unit area.


We define the Dirac delta function as (x) = limw0 dw (x)

(x) equals zero everywhere except at x = 0 where it is infinite.


R
However its area still equals 1 (x)dx = 1
We plot the height of (x) as its area rather than its true height of .

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

Dirac Delta Function


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

We define a unit area pulse of width w as

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

1
w

0.5w x 0.5w
otherwise

This pulse has the property that its integral equals


1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

0.2(x)

0.5(x)

3(x)

0
-3

-2

-1

0
x

1
(x)

0.5
0
-3

-2

-1

0
x

If we make w smaller, the pulse height increases to preserve unit area.


We define the Dirac delta function as (x) = limw0 dw (x)

(x) equals zero everywhere except at x = 0 where it is infinite.


R
However its area still equals 1 (x)dx = 1
We plot the height of (x) as its area rather than its true height of .
(x) is not quite a proper function: it is called a generalized function.

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x)

1
0

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

-1
-3

-2

-1

0
x

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

-2

-1

0
x

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x) has an area of 1

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a
Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
(b(x)) dx

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

c > 0:

x=

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

(cx)dx

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

c > 0:

(cx)dx =
x=

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

dy
(y)
c
y=

[sub y = cx]

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

R
c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy
c
R

= 1c y= (y)dy
R

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[sub y = cx]

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

R
c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy
c
R

= 1c y= (y)dy =
R

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[sub y = cx]
1
c

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

R
c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy
c
R

= 1c y= (y)dy =
R
c < 0: x= (cx)dx
R

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[sub y = cx]
1
c

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

R
c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy
c
R

= 1c y= (y)dy =
R
R
c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy
c
R

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[sub y = cx]
1
c

[sub y = cx]

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

R
c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy
c
R

= 1c y= (y)dy =
R
R
c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy
c
R
+
(y)dy
= 1
c
y=
R

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[sub y = cx]
1
c

[sub y = cx]

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0
-1
-3

(x) has an area of 1

(x)

-2

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

R
c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy
c
R

= 1c y= (y)dy = 1c
R
R
c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy
c
R
+
1
(y)dy
=
= 1
c
c
y=
R

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[sub y = cx]

[sub y = cx]

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

0
-0.5(x+2)
-1
-3

-2

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x) has an area of 1

(x-2)

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

R
c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy
c
R

1
= 1c y= (y)dy = 1c = |c|
R
R
c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy
c
R
+
1
(y)dy
=
= 1
c
c =
y=
R

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[sub y = cx]

[sub y = cx]
1
|c|

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

0
-0.5(x+2)
-1
-3

-2

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x) has an area of 1

(x-2)

-1

0
x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

R
c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy
c
R

1
= 1c y= (y)dy = 1c = |c|
R
R
c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy
c
R
+
1
(y)dy
=
= 1
c
c =
y=
R

1
In general, (cx) = |c|
(x) for c 6= 0

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[sub y = cx]

[sub y = cx]
1
|c|

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

0
-0.5(x+2)
-1
-3

-2

-1

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x) has an area of 1

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

(x-2)

0
x

1
(4x) = 0.25 (x)

0
-1
-3

-2

-1

0
x

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

R
c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy
c
R

1
= 1c y= (y)dy = 1c = |c|
R
R
c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy
c
R
+
1
(y)dy
=
= 1
c
c =
y=
R

1
In general, (cx) = |c|
(x) for c 6= 0

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[sub y = cx]

[sub y = cx]
1
|c|

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Scaling and Translation


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0
(x a) is a pulse at x = a

0
-0.5(x+2)
-1
-3

-2

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x) has an area of 1

(x)dx = 1

b(x)
has an area of b since
R
R
(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

(x-2)

-1

0
x

1
(4x) = 0.25 (x)

-3(-4x-8) = -0.75(x+2)
-2
-1
0
1
2
x

-1
-3

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Time Scaling: (cx)

R
c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy
c
R

1
= 1c y= (y)dy = 1c = |c|
R
R
c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy
c
R
+
1
(y)dy
=
= 1
c
c =
y=
R

1
In general, (cx) = |c|
(x) for c 6= 0

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[sub y = cx]

[sub y = cx]
1
|c|

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Products and Integrals


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

y = x2 (x 2)

y=x2

4
2

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

0
-1

x
6

y=(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

0
x

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Products and Integrals


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)
The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

y=x2

4
2
0
-1

x
6

y=(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

0
x

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Products and Integrals


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)
The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.
So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by
x2 at x = 2:
 2
2
x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

y=x2

4
2
0
-1

x
6

y=(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

0
x

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Products and Integrals


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)
The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.
So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by
x2 at x = 2:
 2
2
x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

= 4 (x 2)

y=x2

4
2
0
-1

x
6

y=(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

0
x

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Products and Integrals


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)
The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.
So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by
x2 at x = 2:
 2
2
x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

= 4 (x 2)

y=x2

4
2
0
-1

x
6

y=(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

0
x

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Products and Integrals


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)
The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.
So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by
x2 at x = 2:
 2
2
x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

= 4 (x 2)

y=x2

4
2
0
-1

x
6

y=(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

0
x

In general for any function, f (x), that is


continuous at x = a,

f (x)(x a) = f (a)(x a)

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Products and Integrals


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)
The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.
So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by
x2 at x = 2:
 2
2
x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

y=x2

4
2
0
-1

x
6

y=(x-2)

4
2

= 4 (x 2)

0
-1

0
x

In general for any function, f (x), that is


continuous at x = a,

6
4
2

f (x)(x a) = f (a)(x a)

0
-1

Integrals:

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

f (x)(x a)dx =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

f (a)(x a)dx
[if f (x) continuous at a]

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Products and Integrals


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)
The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.
So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by
x2 at x = 2:
 2
2
x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

= 4 (x 2)

y=x2

4
2
0
-1

x
6

y=(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

0
x

In general for any function, f (x), that is


continuous at x = a,

f (x)(x a) = f (a)(x a)

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

Integrals:

f (x)(x a)dx = f (a)(x a)dx


R
= f (a) (x a)dx
[if f (x) continuous at a]

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Products and Integrals


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)
The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.
So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by
x2 at x = 2:
 2
2
x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

= 4 (x 2)

y=x2

4
2
0
-1

x
6

y=(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

0
x

In general for any function, f (x), that is


continuous at x = a,

f (x)(x a) = f (a)(x a)

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

Integrals:

f (x)(x a)dx = f (a)(x a)dx


R
= f (a) (x a)dx
= f (a)
[if f (x) continuous at a]

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

Dirac Delta Function: Products and Integrals


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)
The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.
So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by
x2 at x = 2:
 2
2
x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

= 4 (x 2)

y=x2

4
2
0
-1

x
6

y=(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

0
x

In general for any function, f (x), that is


continuous at x = a,

f (x)(x a) = f (a)(x a)

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

4
2
0
-1

Integrals:

f (x)(x a)dx = f (a)(x a)dx


R
= f (a) (x a)dx
= f (a)
[if f (x) continuous at a]

 2

R
2
Example: 3x 2x (x 2)dx = 3x 2x x=2 = 8

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1
0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

u(t) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

U (f )ei2f t df

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1
0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

R
u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df
R
+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1
0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

R
u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df
R
+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df
 i2f t 
 i2f t 
+ 1.5 e
= 1.5 e
f =+2
f =2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1
0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

R
u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df
R
+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df
 i2f t 
 i2f t 
+ 1.5 e
= 1.5 e
f =+2
f =2 
= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1
0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

R
u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df
R
+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df
 i2f t 
 i2f t 
+ 1.5 e
= 1.5 e
f =+2
f =2 
= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1
0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

R
u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df
R
+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df
 i2f t 
 i2f t 
+ 1.5 e
= 1.5 e
f =+2
f =2 
= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1
0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)
2
0
-2
0

2
3
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

R
u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df
R
+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df
 i2f t 
 i2f t 
+ 1.5 e
= 1.5 e
f =+2
f =2 
= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1
0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)
2
0
-2
0

2
3
Time (s)

If u(t) is periodic then U (f ) is a sum of Dirac delta functions:

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

R
u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df
R
+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df
 i2f t 
 i2f t 
+ 1.5 e
= 1.5 e
f =+2
f =2 
= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)
2
0
-2
0

2
3
Time (s)

If u(t) is periodic then U (f ) is a sum of Dirac delta functions:

u(t) =

n=

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

i2nF t

Un e

U (f ) =

n=

Un (f nF )

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

R
u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df
R
+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df
 i2f t 
 i2f t 
+ 1.5 e
= 1.5 e
f =+2
f =2 
= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)
2
0
-2
0

2
3
Time (s)

If u(t) is periodic then U (f ) is a sum of Dirac delta functions:

u(t) =

n=

i2nF t

Un e
R

U (f ) =

Proof: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

n=

Un (f nF )

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

R
u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df
R
+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df
 i2f t 
 i2f t 
+ 1.5 e
= 1.5 e
f =+2
f =2 
= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)
2
0
-2
0

2
3
Time (s)

If u(t) is periodic then U (f ) is a sum of Dirac delta functions:

u(t) =

i2nF t

n=

Un e
R

U (f ) =

Proof: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

n=

Un (f nF )

R P

i2f t
U

(f

nF
)
e
df
n
n=

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

R
u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df
R
+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df
 i2f t 
 i2f t 
+ 1.5 e
= 1.5 e
f =+2
f =2 
= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)
2
0
-2
0

2
3
Time (s)

If u(t) is periodic then U (f ) is a sum of Dirac delta functions:

u(t) =

i2nF t

n=

Un e
R

U (f ) =

Proof: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

n=

Un (f nF )

R P

i2f t
U

(f

nF
)
e
df
n
n=

R
P
= n= Un (f nF ) ei2f t df

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]
1.5

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

R
u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df
R
+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df
 i2f t 
 i2f t 
+ 1.5 e
= 1.5 e
f =+2
f =2 
= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

0.5
0
-3

-2

-1
0
1
Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)
2
0
-2
0

2
3
Time (s)

If u(t) is periodic then U (f ) is a sum of Dirac delta functions:

u(t) =

i2nF t

n=

Un e
R

U (f ) =

Proof: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

n=

Un (f nF )

R P

i2f t
U

(f

nF
)
e
df
n
n=

R
P
= n= Un (f nF ) ei2f t df
P
= n= Un ei2nF t

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Duality
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:
Suppose v(t) = U (t)

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:
Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

V (f ) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

i2f t
v(t)e
d
t=

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:
Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R
V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d
R
V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

[substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:
Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R
V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d
R
V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]
R
= f = U (f )ei2gf df
[substitute t = f ]

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:
Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R
V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d
R
V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]
R
= f = U (f )ei2gf df
[substitute t = f ]
= u(g)

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:
Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R
V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d
R
V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]
R
= f = U (f )ei2gf df
[substitute t = f ]

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

So:

= u(g)
v(t) = U (t) V (f ) = u(f )

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:
Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R
V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d
R
V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]
R
= f = U (f )ei2gf df
[substitute t = f ]

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

So:

= u(g)
v(t) = U (t) V (f ) = u(f )

Example:

u(t) = e|t|

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:
Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R
V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d
R
V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]
R
= f = U (f )ei2gf df
[substitute t = f ]

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

So:

= u(g)
v(t) = U (t) V (f ) = u(f )

Example:

u(t) = e|t|

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

U (f ) =

2
1+4 2 f 2

[from earlier]

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:
Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R
V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d
R
V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]
R
= f = U (f )ei2gf df
[substitute t = f ]

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

So:

= u(g)
v(t) = U (t) V (f ) = u(f )

Example:

u(t) = e|t|
v(t) =

U (f ) =

2
1+4 2 f 2

[from earlier]

2
1+4 2 t2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:
Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R
V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d
R
V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]
R
= f = U (f )ei2gf df
[substitute t = f ]

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

So:

= u(g)
v(t) = U (t) V (f ) = u(f )

Example:

u(t) = e|t|
v(t) =

2
1+4 2 t2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

2
1+4 2 f 2

U (f ) =

V (f ) = e|f |

[from earlier]

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:
Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R
V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d
R
V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]
R
= f = U (f )ei2gf df
[substitute t = f ]

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

So:

= u(g)
v(t) = U (t) V (f ) = u(f )

Example:

u(t) = e|t|
v(t) =

2
1+4 2 t2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

2
1+4 2 f 2

U (f ) =

V (f ) = e|f | = e|f |

[from earlier]

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Time Shifting and Scaling


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

Time Shifting and Scaling


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Time Shifting and Scaling:

Suppose v(t) = u(at + b)

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

Time Shifting and Scaling


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Time Shifting and Scaling:

Suppose v(t) = u(at + b), then

V (f ) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

t=

u(at + b)ei2f t dt

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

Time Shifting and Scaling


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Time Shifting and Scaling:

Suppose v(t) = u(at + b), then

V (f ) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

t=

u(at + b)ei2f t dt

[now sub = at + b]

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

Time Shifting and Scaling


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Time Shifting and Scaling:

Suppose v(t) = u(at + b), then

[now sub = at + b]
u(at + b)ei2f t dt
R
i2f ( b
a ) 1 d
= sgn(a) = u( )e
a

V (f ) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

t=

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

Time Shifting and Scaling


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Time Shifting and Scaling:

Suppose v(t) = u(at + b), then

[now sub = at + b]
u(at + b)ei2f t dt
R
i2f ( b
a ) 1 d
= sgn(a) = u( )e
a
(
1
a>0
note that limits swap if a < 0 hence sgn(a) =
1 a < 0

V (f ) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

t=

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

Time Shifting and Scaling


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Time Shifting and Scaling:

Suppose v(t) = u(at + b), then

[now sub = at + b]
u(at + b)ei2f t dt
R
i2f ( b
a ) 1 d
= sgn(a) = u( )e
a
(
1
a>0
note that limits swap if a < 0 hence sgn(a) =
1 a < 0
b R
1 i 2f
i2 fa
a
u(
)e
= |a| e
d
=

V (f ) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

t=

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

Time Shifting and Scaling


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Time Shifting and Scaling:

Suppose v(t) = u(at + b), then

[now sub = at + b]
u(at + b)ei2f t dt
R
i2f ( b
a ) 1 d
= sgn(a) = u( )e
a
(
1
a>0
note that limits swap if a < 0 hence sgn(a) =
1 a < 0
b R
1 i 2f
i2 fa
a
u(
)e
= |a| e
d
=
 
b
1 i 2f
= |a| e a U fa

V (f ) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

t=

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

Time Shifting and Scaling


6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

R
Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]
[Fourier Analysis]

Time Shifting and Scaling:

Suppose v(t) = u(at + b), then

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

[now sub = at + b]
u(at + b)ei2f t dt
R
i2f ( b
a ) 1 d
= sgn(a) = u( )e
a
(
1
a>0
note that limits swap if a < 0 hence sgn(a) =
1 a < 0
b R
1 i 2f
i2 fa
a
u(
)e
= |a| e
d
=
 
b
1 i 2f
= |a| e a U fa

V (f ) =

So:

t=

v(t) = u(at + b)

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

V (f ) =

b
1 i 2f
a U
e
|a|

 
f
a

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t)

0.4

=1

0.2

0
-4

-2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

This is a Normal (or Gaussian) probability distribution, so u(t)dt = 1.

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t)

0.4

=1

0.2

0
-4

-2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

This is a Normal (or Gaussian) probability distribution, so u(t)dt = 1.

U (f ) =

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

i2f t
u(t)e
dt

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t)

0.4

=1

0.2

0
-4

-2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

This is a Normal (or Gaussian) probability distribution, so u(t)dt = 1.

U (f ) =

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

i2f t

u(t)e

dt =

1
2 2

t
2
2 i2f t

dt

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t)

0.4

=1

0.2

0
-4

-2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

This is a Normal (or Gaussian) probability distribution, so u(t)dt = 1.

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t)e
R

1
2 2

0.4
u(t)

R t i2f t
1

dt = 22 e 22 e
dt
21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

dt

=1

0.2

0
-4

-2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

This is a Normal (or Gaussian) probability distribution, so u(t)dt = 1.

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t)e
R

1
2 2
1
2 2

0.4
u(t)

R t i2f t
1

dt = 22 e 22 e
dt
21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

dt



2
2
2
2
2
2
1
22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

dt

=1

0.2

0
-4

-2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

This is a Normal (or Gaussian) probability distribution, so u(t)dt = 1.

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

=
=

u(t)e
R

1
2 2

dt



2
2
2
2
2
2
1
22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

R
1
e
2 2
2
2
1
i2
f
(
)
1
e 22
2 2

0.4
u(t)

R t i2f t
1

dt = 22 e 22 e
dt
21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

21 2 (t+i2 2 f )

dt

dt

=1

0.2

0
-4

-2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

This is a Normal (or Gaussian) probability distribution, so u(t)dt = 1.

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t)e
R

1
2 2

dt



2
2
2
2
2
2
1
22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

R
1

= 22 e
2
2
1
i2
f
(
)
1
= e 22
2 2
2
2
1
(i)
i2
f
(
)
2
2
=e

0.4
u(t)

R t i2f t
1

dt = 22 e 22 e
dt
21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

21 2 (t+i2 2 f )

dt

dt

=1

0.2

0
-4

-2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

This is a Normal (or Gaussian) probability distribution, so u(t)dt = 1.

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t)e
R

1
2 2

dt



2
2
2
2
2
2
1
22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

R
1

= 22 e
2
2
1
i2
f
(
)
1
= e 22
2 2
2
2
1
(i)
i2
f
(
)
2
2

u(t)

21 2 (t+i2 2 f )

dt

dt

=e
[(i) uses a result from complex analysis theory that:
R 1 (t+i22 f )2
R 1 t2
1
1
2

e 2
e 22 dt = 1]
dt =
2 2

0.4

R t i2f t
1

dt = 22 e 22 e
dt
21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

2 2

=1

0.2

0
-4

-2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

This is a Normal (or Gaussian) probability distribution, so u(t)dt = 1.

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t)e
R

1
2 2

R t i2f t
1

dt = 22 e 22 e
dt
21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

dt



2
2
2
2
2
2
1
22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

R
1

= 22 e
2
R 1 (t+i22 f )2
2
1
i2
f
1
(
)

e 22
dt
= e 22
2 2
2
2
1
(i)
i2
f
(
)
12 (2f )2
2
2

=e
=e
[(i) uses a result from complex analysis theory that:
R 1 (t+i22 f )2
R 1 t2
1
1
2

e 2
e 22 dt = 1]
dt =
2 2

u(t)

0.4

dt

2 2

=1

0.2

0
-4

-2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

0
Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

This is a Normal (or Gaussian) probability distribution, so u(t)dt = 1.

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t)e
R

1
2 2

R t i2f t
1

dt = 22 e 22 e
dt
21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

dt



2
2
2
2
2
2
1
22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

R
1

= 22 e
2
R 1 (t+i22 f )2
2
1
i2
f
1
(
)

e 22
dt
= e 22
2 2
2
2
1
(i)
i2
f
(
)
12 (2f )2
2
2

=e
=e
[(i) uses a result from complex analysis theory that:
R 1 (t+i22 f )2
R 1 t2
1
1
2

e 2
e 22 dt = 1]
dt =
2 2

2 2

=1

0.2

0
-4

-2

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

0
Time (s)

1/(2)=0.159

|U(f)|

u(t)

0.4

dt

0.5

0
-0.6

-0.4

-0.2
0
0.2
Frequency (Hz)

0.4

0.6

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Gaussian Pulse: u(t) =

t
2
2
1
e
2
2

This is a Normal (or Gaussian) probability distribution, so u(t)dt = 1.

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

u(t)e
R

1
2 2

R t i2f t
1

dt = 22 e 22 e
dt
21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

dt



2
2
2
2
2
2
1
22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

R
1

= 22 e
2
R 1 (t+i22 f )2
2
1
i2
f
1
(
)

e 22
dt
= e 22
2 2
2
2
1
(i)
i2
f
(
)
12 (2f )2
2
2

=e
=e
[(i) uses a result from complex analysis theory that:
R 1 (t+i22 f )2
R 1 t2
1
1
2

e 2
e 22 dt = 1]
dt =
2 2

2 2

=1

0.2

0
-4

-2

0
Time (s)

1/(2)=0.159

|U(f)|

u(t)

0.4

dt

0.5

0
-0.6

-0.4

-0.2
0
0.2
Frequency (Hz)

0.4

0.6

Uniquely, the Fourier Transform of a Gaussian pulse is a Gaussian pulse.


E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Summary
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:

Fourier Transform:
R
Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

Scaling and Translation


Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Fourier Transform:
R
Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Fourier Transform:
R
Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Transform:
R
Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)
Dirac Delta Function:
R
(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Transform:
R
Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)
Dirac Delta Function:
R
(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1
R
Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Transform:
R
Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)
Dirac Delta Function:
R
(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1
R
Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)
Scaling: (ct) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

1
|c| (t)

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Transform:
R
Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)
Dirac Delta Function:
R
(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1
R
Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)
1
|c| (t)
P
u(t) = n=

Scaling: (ct) =

Periodic Signals:

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Un ei2nF t
P
U (f ) = n= Un (f nF )

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Transform:
R
Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)
Dirac Delta Function:
R
(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1
R
Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)
1
|c| (t)
P
u(t) = n=

Scaling: (ct) =

Periodic Signals:

Un ei2nF t
P
U (f ) = n= Un (f nF )

Fourier Transform Properties:


v(t) = U (t)
V (f ) = u(f )

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Transform:
R
Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)
Dirac Delta Function:
R
(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1
R
Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)
1
|c| (t)
P
u(t) = n=

Scaling: (ct) =

Periodic Signals:

Un ei2nF t
P
U (f ) = n= Un (f nF )

Fourier Transform Properties:


v(t) = U (t)
V (f ) = u(f )
 
b
1 i 2f
v(t) = u(at + b)
V (f ) = |a| e a U fa

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Transform:
R
Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)
Dirac Delta Function:
R
(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1
R
Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)
1
|c| (t)
P
u(t) = n=

Scaling: (ct) =

Periodic Signals:

Un ei2nF t
P
U (f ) = n= Un (f nF )

Fourier Transform Properties:


v(t) = U (t)
V (f ) = u(f )
 
b
1 i 2f
v(t) = u(at + b)
V (f ) = |a| e a U fa
v(t) =

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

21 ( t )
1
e
2 2

V (f ) = e 2 (2f )

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary
6: Fourier Transform
Fourier Series as

T
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform
Examples

Dirac Delta Function


Dirac Delta Function:
Scaling and Translation
Dirac Delta Function:
Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals
Duality
Time Shifting and Scaling
Gaussian Pulse
Summary

Fourier Transform:
R
Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df
R
Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt
U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)
Dirac Delta Function:
R
(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1
R
Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)
1
|c| (t)
P
u(t) = n=

Scaling: (ct) =

Periodic Signals:

Un ei2nF t
P
U (f ) = n= Un (f nF )

Fourier Transform Properties:


v(t) = U (t)
V (f ) = u(f )
 
b
1 i 2f
v(t) = u(at + b)
V (f ) = |a| e a U fa
v(t) =

21 ( t )
1
e
2 2

V (f ) = e 2 (2f )

For further details see RHB Chapter 13.1 (uses instead of f )


E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12